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Becca Huling


Unit 17 Id's

Brain Trusts- Small group of reform minded intellectuals, mainly young college professors. Considered
much of the New Deal legislation and worked as a kitchen cabinet for Franklin Roosevelt.

New Deal- After Franklin Roosevelt was inaugurated in 1933, he decided the U.S. must improve
economically to recover from the Great Depression. His policy, the New Deal, focused on relief,
recovery, and reform. Short term goals were relief and immediate recovery. Permanent recovery and
reform were done by long-range goals. Programs were established to improve unemployment, regulate
minimum wage, and reform many other social issues.

Three R's- Roosevelt's New Deal programs aimed at the three R's- relief, recovery, and reform.
Roosevelt's plan was announced on March 4, 1933 to lift the burden of the Great Depression.

Hundred Day's- accomplished great number of relief, recovery, and reform efforts. Sought practical
solutions through experimentation.

Emergency Banking Relief Act- four day banking holiday to create controlled inflation, followed by
reopening of sound banks, and reorganization of unsound banks.

Glass Seagull Banking Reform Act- In 1933, this act allowed the banks to reopen and it gave the
president the power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange.

Civilian Conservation Corps- The CCC was created by the Unemployment Relief Act of 1933. It
provided employment in government camps for 3 million uniformed single, young men during the
Great Depression. The work they were involved in included reforestation, fire fighting, flood control,
and swamp drainage.

Harry L. Hopkins- The head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). A friend and
advisor to President FDR. He was very involved in reforms in the Great Depression and in the 30's and
40's in such issues as unemployment and mortgages.

Home Owner's Loan Corporation (HOLC)- designed to refinance mortgages on nonfarm homes, it
ultimately assisted about a million badly pinched households.

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)- The AAA paid farmers to reduce production. The payment for this
came from taxes gotten from the makers of expensive farm equipment.

Civil Works Administration- (1933) FDR established this himself after being harassed by the many
unemployed as a branch of FERA. Designed to provide purely temporary jobs during the cruel winter
emergency, it served as a useful purpose.

Father Charles Coughlin- Anti-New Deal Catholic Priest; began broadcasting in 1930; called the
"microphone messiah"; slogan was "Social Justice"; silenced in 1942 when his broadcasts became too
Senator Huey Long- Nickname "Kingfish"; Senator of Louisiana. He pushed his "Share Our Wealth"
program, which would make "Every Man a King". Long planned to run against FDR in the 1936
elections, but he was assassinated.

Dr. Francis Townsend- Townshend was a retired physician who developed a plan in which the
government would give monetary resources to senior citizens ages sixty and over. This plan was a type
of pension for older Americans. He had a lot of followers. This people thought FDR wasn't doing

Works Progress Administration- Congress created this in 1935 as an agency that gave jobs to people
who needed them. They worked on bridges, roads, and buildings. They spent 11 billion dollars and
gave almost 9 million people jobs. It was one of the New Deal Agencies

National Recovery Act- During the Great Depression, this act was created in 1933 as a helping hand for
industry, labor, and the unemployed. It granted labor additional benefits and guaranteed the right to
organize through representatives of their own choosing. It was a part of Franklin D. Roosevelt's new
plan, but was later declared unconstitutional. Symbol was the "Blue Eagle"

Schechter Case- Justices unanimously held that Congress could not “delegate legislative powers” to the
executive .

Mary McLeud Bethune- daughter of ex-slaves and founder of a college in Florida. Organized the
“Black Cabinet”

Francis Perkins- First woman appointed to a cabinet position. Appointed by FDR, she became
Secretary of Labor. She received a lot of undeserved criticism from male politicians and businessmen.

Public Works Administration (PWA)- dealt with industrial recovery and unemployment relief by
creating jobs (over thirty-four thousand project jobs for workers)

Harold L. Ickes- "Honest Harold"; Secretary of the interior; became head of the Public Works
Administration (PWA); dealt with industrial recovery and unemployment relief by creating jobs (over
thirty-four thousand project jobs for workers). His determination to prevent waste prevented maximum

Second Agricultural Adjustment Act-(1938) was a more comprehensive substitute that continued
conservation payments but was accepted by the Supreme Court.

Dust Bowl- After the drought of 1933, furious winds whipped up dust into the air, turning parts of
Missouri, Texas, Kansas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma into the Dust Bowl and forcing many farmers to
migrate west to California

Fazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act- passed in 1934, made possible a suspension of mortgage
foreclosure for five years, but it was voided in 1935 by the Supreme Court.
Resettlement Administration- In 1935, FDR set up the resettlement administration, charged with the
task of removing near-farmless farmers to better land.

Reorganization Act- of 1934 (the Indian “New Deal”), which encouraged tribes to preserve their culture
and traditions.

Federal Securities Act- (“Truth in Securities Act”) required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn
information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds.

Securities and Exchange Commission- was designed as a watchdog administrative agency, and stock
markets henceforth were to operate more as trading marts than as casinos.

Tennessee Valley Authority- (1933) First Government owned corporation. Started to create jobs and
build dams in the Tennessee River Valley to supply electricity to poorer areas after the depression.

George W. Norris- He was a Senator from Nebraska, whose steadfast vision and zeal helped an act
creating the Tennessee Valley Authority to be passed in 1933

John L. Lewis- was the leader of the United Mine Workers. He also formed the CIO (Committee for
Industrial Organization). He led a "sit-down" strike on General Motors at Flint, Michigan in 1936.
Unionists from the Republic Steel Co. wanted to join the CIO, and a fight broke out in 1937

Social Security Act- It created a federal insurance program based on the automatic collection of taxes
from employees and employers throughout people's working careers. They would receive this money in
a monthly pension when they reached the age of 65. The unemployed, disabled, and mothers with
dependent children would also receive this money.

Wagner Act- Same as the National Labor Relations Act (1935) and set up the National Labor Relations
Board and reasserted the right of labor to engage in self-organization and to bargain collectively.

Committee for Industrial Organization- Also known as the CIO, this labor union formed in the ranks of
the AFL. It consisted of unskilled workers. The AFL got scared of their influence on workers and
suspended all members of the CIO. In 1938 it broke with the AF of L. By 1940 it had 4 million

Twentieth and Twenty-First Ammendments- The Twentieth Amendment changed the calendar of
Congressional sessions and the date of the presidential inauguration (January 20th). In short, it
shortened the length of lame duck periods for the presidency. The Twenty-first Amendment to the
Constitution ended prohibition and allowed the distribution and drinking of alcoholic beverages to
commence once again.

Court-Packing Scheme- Roosevelt tried to put an extra justice on the Supreme Court for every justice
over 70 years old who wouldn't retire. These justices would be supporters of Roosevelt and there would
be a maximum of 15 judges. The plan failed. Congress would not accept.

Hatch Act- of 1939 barred federal administrative officials, except the highest policy-making officers
from active political campaigning and soliciting.
Becca Huling

Unit 18 ID's

◦ London Economic Conference- (summer of 1933) was composed of 66 nations that came
together to try to make a worldwide solution to the Great Depression
◦ Reciprocal Trade Agreements- (1934) The Act was designed to raise American exports and
was aimed at both relief and recovery. Led by Cordell Hull, it helped reverse the high-tariff
◦ Good Neighbor Policy- This was established by Herbert Hoover to create good relations
with Latin America. It took much of the American military out of these countries. It also
nullified the Roosevelt Corollary.
◦ Joseph Stalin- Harsh and strict Communist dictator of Russia. One of the three big powers
during WWII along with Roosevelt from the US and Churchill from Great Britain.
Constantly asked for a western front to be established to relieve USSR during WWII.
◦ Benito Mussolini-The Facist dictator of Italy. He sought to create a new empire, much like
the Roman one. He became an ally with Adolf Hitler in the Rome-Berlin Axis, and led his
forces against the Allied powers in WWII. He was overthrown and beheaded in 1943, after
the fall of Sicily during the war.
◦ Adolf Hitler- A very crude leader that took advantage of a disillusioned and depression-
stricken nation. After the Treaty of Versailles blamed Germany for WWI, Hitler lead the
nation into WWII under the "big lie." He was a manipulative and feared dictator that vented
his anger on the Jewish Nation.
◦ Johnson Debt Default Act- 1934 Johnson Debt Default Act forbade any countries that still
owed the U.S. money from borrowing any more cash
◦ Neutrality Acts- Congress made an effort to legislate the nation out of war. The Neutrality
Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of
a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could
legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or
make loans to a belligerent.
◦ Storm-cellar neutrality-
◦ Quarantine Speech- 1937, FDR encouraged democracies to quarantine their opponents
(economic embargoes) criticized by isolationists
◦ Panay- In December 1937, the Japanese bombed and sank the American gunboat, the
Panay, but then made the necessary apologies, “saving” America from entering into war
against it. To vent their frustration, the Japanese resorted to humiliating White civilians in
China through slappings and strippings.
◦ Munich Conference- at the September 9138 Munich Conference, the Allies agreed to let
Hitler have Sudetenland of neighboring Czechoslovakia, but six months later, in 1939,
Hitler pulled the last straw and took over all of Czechoslovakia
◦ Phony war- During World War II Hitler removed his forces from Poland to focus his efforts
in France and Britain. All of Europe fell rather silent at the shock of Hitler's move. This
silence and period of inactivity in Europe came to an end when Hitler again moved his
forces, and attacked the weaker Norway and Denmark. The period of silence in Europe was
known as the phony war.
◦ Destroyer Deal- Britain was in dire need for destroyers, and on September 2, 1940, FDR
boldly moved to transfer 50 old-model, four-funnel destroyers left over from WWI, and in
return, the British promised to give the U.S. eight valuable defensive base sites stretching
from Newfoundland to South America.
◦ Lend-Lease Act- A law passed in March of 1941 by sweeping majorities in both houses of
Congress. This law said that the U.S. would lend or lease weapons to overseas countries and
victims of aggression who would in turn finish the job of the fighting, and keep the war
overseas from the U.S.
◦ Atlantic Charter- This was created by Winston Churchill and President Franklin D.
Roosevelt in a secret conference. It outlined the hopes of the democracies and their
intentions for improvements after World War II.
◦ Neutrality Act of 1939- allowed sale of weaponry to democracies on “cash and carry” basis,
avoided full blown war. Danger zones proclaimed; solved american unemployment crisis.
◦ Pearl Harbor- Japanese bombing of ships in harbor; resulted in FDR's request for war
against Japan. Germany and Italy responded with declarations of war

• Internment camps- The relocation and internment of approx. 110,000 Japanese-Americans and
Japanese on the pacific coast, 1942. FDR authorized the internment with Executive Order 9066
on February 19, 1942, which allowed local military commanders to designate "military areas"
as "exclusion zones," from which "any or all persons may be excluded." This power was used to
declare that all people of Japanese ancestry were excluded from the entire Pacific coast
• Korematsu v. U.S.- The 1944 case of Korematsu vs. U.S. affirmed the constitutionality of this
terrible act. It took more than 40 years later before the U.S. admitted fault and began to make
$20,000 reparations to camp survivors
• War Production Board- halted manufacture of nonessential items such as passenger cars, and
when the Japanese seized vital rubber supplies in British Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, the
U.S. imposed a national speed limit and gasoline rationing to save tires.
• Office of Price Administration- FDR created this in order to prevent inflation in the economy
during WWII.
• Bracero program- Because of the national draft that plucked men (and women) from their
homes and into the military, there weren’t enough workers, so the Bracero program brought
Mexican workers to America to work.
• “Rosie the Riveter”- symbol of women workers during the war.
• Sunbelt- F.D.R. used the war as an excuse to pump lots of money into the stagnant South to
revitalize it, helping to start the blossoming of the Sunbelt.
• A. Phillip Randolph- leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, threatened a “Negro
March to Washington” in 1941 to get better rights and treatment.
• Fair Employment Practices Commission- The president also established the Fair Employment
Practices Commission to discourage racism and oppression in the workplace, and while Blacks
in the army still suffered degrading discrimination, they still used the war as a rallying cry
against dictators abroad and racism at home; overall gaining power and strength.
• “Zoot-suit” riots- racism riots aganst Mexican laborers (imported for jobs)
• General Douglas MacArthur- When the Japanese took over the Philippines, U.S. General
Douglas MacArthur had to sneak out of the place, but he vowed to return to liberate the islands;
he went to Australia
• Bataan Death March- After the fighters in the Philippines surrendered, they were forced to
make the infamous 85-mile Bataan death march.
• Battle at Midway- Japanese onrush was finally checked in the Coral Sea, where American and
Australian forces check them, and when the Japanese tried to seize Midway Island, they were
forced back by U.S. Admiral Chester W. Nimitz during fierce fighting from June 3-6, 1942.
Admiral Raymond A. Spruance also helped maneuver the fleet around to win, and this victory
marked the turning point in the war in the Pacific.
• Island hopping- No longer would the Japanese take any more land, as the U.S. began a process
called island hopping, where the Allies would bypass heavily fortified islands, take over
neighboring islands, and starve the resistant forces to death with lack of supplies and constant
bombing saturation, to push back the Japanese.
• Guam- The Japanese overran the lands that they descended upon, winning more land with less
losses than ever before and conquering Guam, Wake, the Philippines, Hong Kong, British
• Marshall Rommel- The Germans, led by the “Desert Fox” Marshall Edwin Rommel, were
driven to Egypt, dangerously close to the Suez Canal, but late in October 1942, British General
Bernard Montgomery defeated him at El Alamein, west of Cairo.
• Dwight D. Eisenhower- He was the U. S. general who led the attack in North Africa in Nov. of
1942.He was the master organizer of the D-Day invasion in Europe (June 6, 1944). He ran for
the Republican ticket in the 1952 and the1956 elections and won. He was very well liked by the
• Casablanca Conference- At the Casablanca Conference, Franklin Roosevelt and Winston
Churchill met and agreed on the term of “unconditional surrender.”
• Teheran Conference- At the Tehran Conference, the Big Three (Wilson, Churchill, and Josef
Stalin, leader of Russia) met and agreed that the Soviets and Allies would launch simultaneous
• D-Day- D-day was the first day of the Normandy landings which started the invasion of western
Europe and liberated France from the Germans.
• George S. Patton- "Blood 'n' Guts"; commanded lunges across France by American armored
tank division; commander during WWII
• Election of 1944- Republican nominee was Thomas E. Dewey. FDR was the Democratic lock,
but because of his age, the vice presidential candidate was carefully chosen to be Harry S.
Truman. FDR won because the war was going well, and people wanted to stick with him.
• Battle of the Bulge- On the run and losing, Hitler concentrated his forces and threw them in the
Ardennes forest on December 16, 1944, starting the Battle of “the Bulge” and nearly succeeding
in his gamble, but the ten-day penetration was finally stopped by the 101st Airborne Division
that had stood firm at the vital bastion of Bastogne, which was commanded by Brigadier
General A.C. McAuliffe.
• Battle at Leyte Gulf- The last great naval battle at Leyte Gulf was lost by Japan, terminating its
sea power status
• Iwo Jima/Okinawa- In March 1945, Iwo Jima was captured; this 25-day assault left over 4000
Americans dead. Okinawa was won after fighting from April to June of 1945, and was captured
at the cost of 50,000 American lives.
• “kamikaze” pilots- Japanese “kamikaze” pilots, for the sake of their god-emperor, sank many
• Potsdam Conference- Held near Berlin in 1945 with Truman, Stalin and Clement Atlee (Allies)
who issued an ultimatum to Japan to surrender or be destroyed. This is where Truman learned
about the Atomic Bomb.
• Manhattan Project- codename for a project conducted during World War II to develop the first
atomic bomb. Conducted by the U.S.
• Alamogordo- The first atomic bomb had been tested on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New
Mexico, and when Japan refused to surrender, Americans dropped A-bombs onto Hiroshima (on
August 6, 1945), killing 180,000 and Nagasaki (on August 9, 1945), killing 80,000.
• VE Day- Victory in Europe Day. The German government surrendered unconditionally during
WWII on May 7, 1945
• VJ Day- Victory in Japan Day was celebrated on August 15, 1945 after the dropping of the
atomic bombs on Japan. The celebrations continued through the official end of World War II on
September 2, 1945 when Japan officially surrendered.