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Bernoulli's principle

In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed
of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's
potential energy.[1][2] Bernoulli's principle is named after the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli
who published his principle in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738.[3]
Bernoulli's principle can be applied to various types of fluid flow, resulting in what is loosely
denoted as Bernoulli's equation. In fact, there are different forms of the Bernoulli equation for
different types of flow. The simple form of Bernoulli's principle is valid for incompressible flows
(e.g. most liquid flows) and also for compressible flows (e.g. gases) moving at low Mach
numbers (usually less than 0.3). More advanced forms may in some cases be applied to
compressible flows at higher Mach numbers (see the derivations of the Bernoulli equation).
Bernoulli's principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. This states
that, in a steady flow, the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline is
the same at all points on that streamline. This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and
potential energy remain constant. Thus an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs
proportionately with an increase in both its dynamic pressure and kinetic energy, and a
decrease in its static pressure and potential energy. If the fluid is flowing out of a reservoir, the
sum of all forms of energy is the same on all streamlines because in a reservoir the energy per
unit volume (the sum of pressure and gravitational potential g h) is the same everywhere.[4]
Bernoulli's principle can also be derived directly from Newton's 2nd law. If a small volume of
fluid is flowing horizontally from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure, then
there is more pressure behind than in front. This gives a net force on the volume, accelerating
it along the streamline.[5][6][7]
Fluid particles are subject only to pressure and their own weight. If a fluid is flowing horizontally
and along a section of a streamline, where the speed increases it can only be because the
fluid on that section has moved from a region of higher pressure to a region of lower pressure;
and if its speed decreases, it can only be because it has moved from a region of lower
pressure to a region of higher pressure. Consequently, within a fluid flowing horizontally, the
highest speed occurs where the pressure is lowest, and the lowest speed occurs where the
pressure is highest.
Incompressible flow equation
In most flows of liquids, and of gases at low Mach number, the density of a fluid parcel can be
considered to be constant, regardless of pressure variations in the flow. Therefore, the fluid
can be considered to be incompressible and these flows are called incompressible flow.
Bernoulli performed his experiments on liquids, so his equation in its original form is valid only
for incompressible flow. A common form of Bernoulli's equation, valid at any arbitrary point
along a streamline, is:

is the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline,
is the acceleration due to gravity,
is the elevation of the point above a reference plane, with the positive z-direction
pointing upward so in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration,
is the pressure at the chosen point, and
is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid.
For conservative force fields, Bernoulli's equation can be generalized as:[8]

where is the force potential at the point considered on the streamline. E.g. for the Earth's
gravity = gz.
The following two assumptions must be met for this Bernoulli equation to apply: [8]
the flow must be incompressible even though pressure varies, the density must
remain constant along a streamline;
friction by viscous forces has to be negligible.
By multiplying with the fluid density , equation (A) can be rewritten as:


is dynamic pressure,

is the piezometric head or hydraulic head (the sum of the elevation z and the
pressure head)[9][10] and

is the total pressure (the sum of the static pressure p and dynamic pressure q).

The constant in the Bernoulli equation can be normalised. A common approach is in terms of
total head or energy head H:

The above equations suggest there is a flow speed at which pressure is zero, and at even
higher speeds the pressure is negative. Most often, gases and liquids are not capable of
negative absolute pressure, or even zero pressure, so clearly Bernoulli's equation ceases to be
valid before zero pressure is reached. In liquids when the pressure becomes too low
cavitation occurs. The above equations use a linear relationship between flow speed squared
and pressure. At higher flow speeds in gases, or for sound waves in liquid, the changes in
mass density become significant so that the assumption of constant density is invalid.
Bernoulli equation for incompressible fluids
The Bernoulli equation for incompressible fluids can be
derived by integrating Newton's Second Law of Motion,
or applying the law of conservation of energy in two
sections along a streamline, ignoring viscosity,
compressibility, and thermal effects.
The simplest derivation is to first ignore gravity and
consider constrictions and expansions in pipes that are
otherwise straight, as seen in Venturi effect. Let the x
axis be directed down the axis of the pipe.
Define a parcel of fluid moving through a pipe with
cross-sectional area "A", the length of the parcel is "dx",
and the volume of the parcel A dx. If mass density is ,
the mass of the parcel is density multiplied by its volume
m = A dx. The change in pressure over distance dx is
"dp" and flow velocity v = dx / dt.
Apply Newton's Second Law of Motion (Force
=massacceleration) and recognizing that the effective
force on the parcel of fluid is -A dp. If the pressure
decreases along the length of the pipe, dp is negative
but the force resulting in flow is positive along the x axis.

In steady flow the velocity field is constant with respect

to time, v = v(x) = v(x(t)), so v itself is not directly a
function of time t. It is only when the parcel moves
through x that the cross sectional area changes: v
depends on t only through the cross-sectional position

With density constant, the equation of motion can be

written as

by integrating with respect to x

where C is a constant, sometimes referred to as the

Bernoulli constant. It is not a universal constant, but
rather a constant of a particular fluid system. The
deduction is: where the speed is large, pressure is low
and vice versa.
In the above derivation, no external work-energy
principle is invoked. Rather, Bernoulli's principle was
inherently derived by a simple manipulation of the
momentum equation.

A streamtube of fluid moving to the right. Indicated are

pressure, elevation, flow speed, distance (s), and crosssectional area. Note that in this figure elevation is
denoted as h, contrary to the text where it is given by z.
Another way to derive Bernoulli's principle for an
incompressible flow is by applying conservation of
energy.[21] In the form of the work-energy theorem,
stating that[22]
the change in the kinetic energy Ekin of the system
equals the net work W done on the system;

the work done by the forces in the fluid = increase in
kinetic energy.
The system consists of the volume of fluid, initially
between the cross-sections A1 and A2. In the time
interval t fluid elements initially at the inflow crosssection A1 move over a distance s1 = v1 t, while at the
outflow cross-section the fluid moves away from crosssection A2 over a distance s2 = v2 t. The displaced fluid
volumes at the inflow and outflow are respectively A1 s1
and A2 s2. The associated displaced fluid masses are
when is the fluid's mass density equal to density
times volume, so A1 s1 and A2 s2. By mass
conservation, these two masses displaced in the time

interval t have to be equal, and this displaced mass is

denoted by m:

The work done by the forces consists of two parts:

The work done by the pressure acting on the
areas A1 and A2

The work done by gravity: the gravitational

potential energy in the volume A1 s1 is lost, and at
the outflow in the volume A2 s2 is gained. So, the
change in gravitational potential energy Epot,gravity
in the time interval t is

Now, the work by the force of gravity is opposite to the

change in potential energy, Wgravity = Epot,gravity: while
the force of gravity is in the negative z-direction, the
workgravity force times change in elevationwill be
negative for a positive elevation change z = z2 z1,
while the corresponding potential energy change is
positive.[23] So:

And the total work done in this time interval


The increase in kinetic energy is

Putting these together, the work-kinetic energy theorem

W = Ekin gives:[21]


After dividing by the mass m = A1 v1 t = A2 v2 t

the result is:[21]

or, as stated in the first paragraph:

(Eqn. 1), Which is also Equation

Further division by g produces the following equation.
Note that each term can be described in the length
dimension (such as meters). This is the head equation
derived from Bernoulli's principle:

(Eqn. 2a)
The middle term, z, represents the potential energy of
the fluid due to its elevation with respect to a reference
plane. Now, z is called the elevation head and given the
designation zelevation.
A free falling mass from an elevation z > 0 (in a vacuum)
will reach a speed
when arriving at elevation z = 0. Or when
we rearrange it as a head:
The term v2 / (2 g) is called the velocity head, expressed
as a length measurement. It represents the internal
energy of the fluid due to its motion.
The hydrostatic pressure p is defined as
, with p0 some reference pressure, or

when we rearrange it as a head:

The term p / (g) is also called the pressure head,
expressed as a length measurement. It represents the
internal energy of the fluid due to the pressure exerted
on the container.
When we combine the head due to the flow speed and
the head due to static pressure with the elevation above
a reference plane, we obtain a simple relationship useful
for incompressible fluids using the velocity head,
elevation head, and pressure head.
(Eqn. 2b)
If we were to multiply Eqn. 1 by the density of the fluid,
we would get an equation with three pressure terms:

(Eqn. 3)
We note that the pressure of the system is constant in
this form of the Bernoulli Equation. If the static pressure
of the system (the far right term) increases, and if the
pressure due to elevation (the middle term) is constant,
then we know that the dynamic pressure (the left term)
must have decreased. In other words, if the speed of a
fluid decreases and it is not due to an elevation
difference, we know it must be due to an increase in the
static pressure that is resisting the flow.
All three equations are merely simplified versions of an
energy balance on a system.

Bernoulli equation for compressible fluids

The derivation for compressible fluids is similar. Again,
the derivation depends upon (1) conservation of mass,
and (2) conservation of energy. Conservation of mass
implies that in the above figure, in the interval of time t,
the amount of mass passing through the boundary

defined by the area A1 is equal to the amount of mass

passing outwards through the boundary defined by the
area A2:
Conservation of energy is applied in a similar manner: It
is assumed that the change in energy of the volume of
the streamtube bounded by A1 and A2 is due entirely to
energy entering or leaving through one or the other of
these two boundaries. Clearly, in a more complicated
situation such as a fluid flow coupled with radiation, such
conditions are not met. Nevertheless, assuming this to
be the case and assuming the flow is steady so that the
net change in the energy is zero,

where E1 and E2 are the energy entering through A1

and leaving through A2, respectively.
The energy entering through A1 is the sum of the kinetic
energy entering, the energy entering in the form of
potential gravitational energy of the fluid, the fluid
thermodynamic energy entering, and the energy
entering in the form of mechanical p dV work:

where = gz is a force potential due to the Earth's

gravity, g is acceleration due to gravity, and z is
elevation above a reference plane.
A similar expression for
So now setting

which can be rewritten as:

may easily be constructed.


Now, using the previously-obtained result from

conservation of mass, this may be simplified to obtain

which is the Bernoulli equation for compressible flow.

Torricelli's equation
In physics, Torricelli's equation is an equation created by Evangelista Torricelli to find the
final velocity of an object moving with a constant acceleration without having a known time
The equation itself is:

Begin with the equation for velocity:

Square both sides to get:

The term

appears in the equation for displacement, and can be isolated:

Substituting this back into our original equation yields:

Torricelli's law
Torricelli's law, also known as Torricelli's theorem, is a theorem in fluid dynamics relating
the speed of fluid flowing out of an opening to the height of fluid above the opening.

Torricelli's law states that the speed of efflux, v, of a fluid through a sharp-edged hole at the
bottom of a tank filled to a depth h is the same as the speed that a body (in this case a drop of
water) would acquire in falling freely from a height h,

, where g is the acceleration due to gravity (9.81 N/kg).

This last expression comes from equating the kinetic energy gained,
with the potential energy lost, mgh , and solving for v.

The law was discovered (though not in this form) by the Italian scientist Evangelista Torricelli,
in 1643. It was later shown to be a particular case of Bernoulli's principle.

Bernoulli's principle states that:

where v is fluid speed, g is the gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s^2), z is the fluid's height
above a reference point, p is pressure, and is density. Define the opening to be at z=. At
the top of the tank, p is equal to the atmospheric pressure. v can be considered 0 because the
fluid surface drops in height extremely slowly compared to the speed at which fluid exits the
tank. At the opening, z= and p is again atmospheric pressure. Eliminating the constant and
solving gives:

z is equivalent to the h in the first paragraph of this article, so:

Archimedes Principle
Archimedes' principle (or Archimedes's principle) is a law of physics stating that the
upward buoyant force exerted on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid
the body displaces. In other words, an immersed object is buoyed up by a force equal to the
weight of the fluid it actually displaces.
Archimedes' principle is an important and underlying concept in the field of fluid mechanics.
This principle is named after its discoverer, Archimedes of Syracuse. [1]

Archimedes' two-part treatise on hydrostatics, called On Floating Bodies, states that:
Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight
of the fluid displaced by the object.
Archimedes of Syracuse
with the clarifications that for a sunken object the volume of displaced fluid is the volume of the
object. Thus, in short, buoyancy = weight of displaced fluid. Archimedes' principle is true of
liquids and gases, both of which are fluids. If an immersed object displaces 1 kilogram of fluid,

the buoyant force acting on it is equal to the weight of 1 kilogram (as a kilogram is unit of mass
and not of force, the buoyant force is the weight of 1 kg, which is approximately 9.8 Newtons.)
It is important to note that the term immersed refers to an object that is either completely or
partially submerged. If a sealed 1-liter container is immersed halfway into the water, it will
displace a half-liter of water and be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of a half-liter of
water, no matter what is in the container.
If such an object is completely submerged, it will be buoyed up by a force equivalent to the
weight of a full liter of water (1 kilogram of force). If the container is completely submerged and
does not compress, the buoyant force will equal the weight of 1 kilogram of water at any depth,
since the volume of the container does not change, resulting in a constant displacement
regardless of depth. The weight of the displaced water, and not the weight of the submerged
object, is equal to the buoyant force.
Objects weigh more in air than they do in water. If a 30-kilogram object displaces 20 kilograms
of fluid when it is immersed, its apparent weight will be equal to the weight of 10 kilograms (98
newtons). Similarly, when submerged, a 3-kilogram block may have an apparent weight of 1
kilogram. The "missing weight" is equal to the weight of the water displaced, the weight of 2
kilograms (19.6 newtons), which is the buoyant force. The apparent weight of a submerged
object is its weight under standard conditions minus the buoyant force.
Since the density of water is 1 g/cm 3 (or 1 kg/L), an object that has displaced 20 kg of water,
must have a volume of 20 litres. Archimedes Principle can therefore be used to measure the
volume of any solid, regardless of its shape. If the 30 kg object appears to weigh an equivalent
of 10 kg when immersed in water, it must have displaced 20 kg of water, or in other words 20L
of water.
Volume of Object (in Litres) = Weight of Object in Air (in kilograms) Weight of Object in Water
(in kilograms)
Volume of Object (in millilitres or cubic centimetres) = Weight of Object in Air (in grams)
Weight of Object in Water (in grams)
(This equation assumes that the object is completely submerged, and has a density of at least
1 kg/L)
Consider a completely submerged cube. The fluid exerts pressure on all six faces, but as long
as the cube is not tilted, the forces on the four vertical faces balance each other out. The
pressure difference between the bottom and the top face is directly proportional to the height
(difference in depth). Multiplying the pressure difference with the area of a face gives the net
force on the cube - the buoyancy, or the weight of the fluid displaced. It makes no difference
how deep the cube is placed because, although the pressures are greater with increasing

depths, the difference between the pressure up against the bottom of the cube and the
pressure down against the top of the cube is the same at any depth. Whatever the shape of
the submerged body, the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.
The weight of the displaced fluid is directly proportional to the volume of the displaced fluid (if
the surrounding fluid is of uniform density) the weight of the object in water is less than the
weight of object in air, because of the force acting on it which is called as upthrust. In simple
terms, the principle states that the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid
displaced by the object, or the density of the fluid multiplied by the submerged volume times
the gravitational constant, g. Thus, among completely submerged objects with equal masses,
objects with greater volume have greater buoyancy.
Suppose a rock's weight is measured as 10 newtons when suspended by a string in a vacuum
with gravity acting upon it. Suppose that when the rock is lowered into water, it displaces water
of weight 3 newtons. The force it then exerts on the string from which it hangs would be 10
newtons minus the 3 newtons of buoyant force: 10 3 = 7 newtons. Buoyancy reduces the
apparent weight of objects that have sunk completely to the sea floor. It is generally easier to
lift an object up through the water than it is to pull it out of the water.
Assuming Archimedes' principle to be reformulated as follows,

then inserted into the quotient of weights, which has been expanded by the mutual volume

yields the formula below. The density of the immersed object relative to the density of the fluid
can easily be calculated without measuring any volumes:

(This formula is used for example in describing the measuring principle of a dasymeter and of
hydrostatic weighing.)
Example: If you drop wood into water, buoyancy will keep it afloat.
Example: A helium balloon in a moving car. In increasing speed or driving a curve, the air
moves in the opposite direction of the car's acceleration. The balloon however, is pushed due

to buoyancy "out of the way" by the air, and will actually drift in the same direction as the car's
acceleration. When an object is immersed in a liquid the liquid exerts an upward force which is
known as buoyant force and it is proportional to the weight of displaced liquid. The sum force
acting on the object, then, is proportional to the difference between the weight of the object
('down' force) and the weight of displaced liquid ('up' force), hence equilibrium buoyancy is
achieved when these two weights (and thus forces) are equal.
Principle of flotation
Archimedes' principle relates buoyant force and displacement of fluid. However, the concept of
Archimedes' principle can be applied when considering why objects float. Proposition 5 of
Archimedes' treatise On Floating Bodies states that:
Any floating object displaces its own weight of fluid.
Archimedes of Syracuse[3]
In other words, for a floating object on a liquid, the weight of the displaced liquid is the weight
of the object. Thus, only in the special case of floating does the buoyant force acting on an
object equal the objects weight. Consider a 1-ton block of solid iron. As iron is nearly eight
times denser than water, it displaces only 1/8 ton of water when submerged, which is not
enough to keep it afloat. Suppose the same iron block is reshaped into a bowl. It still weighs 1
ton, but when it is put in water, it displaces a greater volume of water than when it was a block.
The deeper the iron bowl is immersed, the more water it displaces, and the greater the
buoyant force acting on it. When the buoyant force equals 1 ton, it will sink no farther.
When any boat displaces a weight of water equal to its own weight, it floats. This is often called
the "principle of flotation": A floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight.
Every ship, submarine, and dirigible must be designed to displace a weight of fluid equal to its
own weight. A 10,000-ton ship must be built wide enough to displace 10,000 tons of water
before it sinks too deep in the water. The same is true for vessels in air (as air is a fluid): a
dirigible that weighs 100 tons displaces at least 100 tons of air. If it displaces more, it rises; if it
displaces less, it falls. If the dirigible displaces exactly its weight, it hovers at a constant
It is important to realize that, while they are related to it, the principle of flotation and the
concept that a submerged object displaces a volume of fluid equal to its own volume are not
Archimedes' principle. Archimedes' principle, as stated above, equates the buoyant force to the
weight of the fluid displaced.