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Ergonomics

ISSN: 0014-0139 (Print) 1366-5847 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/terg20

Biomechanical and metabolic effects of varying
backpack loading on simulated marching
Peter M. Quesada , Larry J. Mengelkoch , Robert C. Hale & Sheldon R. Simon
To cite this article: Peter M. Quesada , Larry J. Mengelkoch , Robert C. Hale & Sheldon R.
Simon (2000) Biomechanical and metabolic effects of varying backpack loading on simulated
marching, Ergonomics, 43:3, 293-309, DOI: 10.1080/001401300184413
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/001401300184413

Published online: 10 Nov 2010.

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tandf . HR and VE throughout the marches. Ohio State University. Marching. Q U ESADA ² * . L A RRY J .BW and 30% -BW load ). .05 ) were observed between each load for . 15% . Columbus. Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained. Pre-march and post-march peaks in hip extension and ankle plantar ¯ exion moments were similar with all loads. Columbus.BW load. due to 15% . * Author for correspondence. knee extension and ankle plantar ¯ exion moments increased with increasing backpack load . R OBERT C . under three load carriage conditions: 0% .co . OH 43210. heart rate ( HR ) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE ) were collected continuously during marching . USA §Systems Analysis and Engineering Department.E RGO N OM ICS . cant diŒerences ( p< 0.BW load.BW loads. OH 43210. M E N GELKOC H ³ . RPE responses during marching signi® cantly diŒered for only the 30% . Pre-march joint loading data suggests that the knee may be eŒecting substantial compensations during backpack loaded marching. 43. Twelve healthy. male Army recruits performed three. KY 40292. Relative to 0% -BW load. 40-min treadmill marches at 6 km /h. 293± 309 Biomechanical and metabolic eŒects of varying backpa ck loading on simulated marching P ETER M . Battelle Memorial Institute.uk / journals / tf / 00140139 . University of Louisville. During load carriage trials prior to treadmill marches (pre-march ). 36 and 41% VO 2 max. respiratory exchange ratio ( RER )).mail: pmques01 @ starbase . 15% . were substantially larger than the percentage increases for hip extension and plantar ¯ exion moments.spd. relative energy costs for . Louisville. At 40 min. at 15% . H A LE § and S H ELDO N R .body weight (BW ) backpack load. hip extension.BW and 30% . perhaps to attenuate shock or reduce load elsewhere. pre-march . ( VO 2 ). indicates that such knee mechanics were not sustained and suggests that excessive knee extensor fatigue may occur prior to march end. USA ³ Division of Physical Therapy. percentage increases in knee moments.0139 print /ISSN 1366-5847 online Ó 2000 T aylor & Francis Ltd http:// ww w .BW load and were greater than responses at 0% . immediately before and after each treadmill march. while notable premarch to post. e. Room 200 Sackett Hall. USA ¶ Division of Orthopaedics. 410 West Ninth Avenue. Biomechanics. NO . 0% -BW . Signi®. pre-march. OH 43201. Columbus. expired ventilation (VE ).louisville . respectively . 1583 Perry Street. Metabolic data (oxygen uptake . peaks in internal.BW load and 30% . S IM ON ¶ Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 ² Department of Mechanical Engineering. however. remained within generally recommended limits to prevent fatigue during prolonged work. even though overall metabolic responses. Post-march kinetic data ( particularly at 15% . Backpack loading. Ohio State University. USA Keywords: Overuse injury.BW and 30% -BW loads were 30. 505 King Avenue.edu E rgonomics ISSN 0014.BW and 15% -BW loads. at 15% BW and 30% .htm l . for computing ankle.BW and 30% -BW load . 3. VOL . 2000. energy expenditure .march declines were observed for knee extension moment peaks. knee and hip joint rotations and moments . VO 2 .

and often in briefer form ats . Average EM G values have also been noted to increase with walking speed ( Han et al . Bobet and Norm an 1984 ) . These issues include the biomechanical eŒects and the physiologic / metabolic costs of m arching with loaded backpacks. as well ( Bobet and Norman 1984 . even when pace has . 1994 ) . been adjusted to equalize % VO 2 max between load conditions ( M yles and Saunders 1979 ) . Holewijn 1990 . Kinem atic data obtained before and after lengthy marches have also indicated possible fatiguing eŒects tending to reduce midstance sagittal hip and knee angles ( Frykm an et al . Previous eŒorts to investigate biomechanical aspects of backpack loaded marching have often considered temporal and / or kinematic variables (Pierrynowski et al . 1981. Reported data have also associated higher loads (40 kg ) with increased energy costs and relative work intensity over time ( Epstein et al . decreases in shoulder girdle EM G magnitudes have been linked to backpack load. marching with heavier backpack loads has also been described as being `harder’ than marching with lighter loads. however. average and per unit mass energy cost. Ghori and Luckenbill 1985 . Reported kinematic ® ndings for the lower extremities have varied am ong previous investigators . Physiologic measurements of individuals wearing loaded backpacks have included heart rate. Harman et al . Pierrynowsi et al . as well as increased heart rate and pulmonary ventilation resulted with increased backpack load ( Borgh ols et al . Ghori and Luckenbill ( 1985 ) and Pierrynowski et al . pulmonary ventilation. G oslin and Rorke 1986 . 1992 ) . The potential for overuse type of injuries associated with backpack loaded marching is also a concern . of prolonged load carriage ( 1 ± 2 h ) while walking ( 5 ± 6 km / h ) have . Based upon subjective perceived exertion measures. M artin and Nelson 1986 ). M yles an d Saunders 1979 . 1 . been reported in the range of 30 to 45% VO 2 m ax for conditioned subjects (Legg and M ahanty 1988. typically associated with physically demanding activities . as well as the relationship between the two . Patton et al . 1991 ) . Ghori and Luckenbill 1985 . M etabolic costs. ( 1981 ) did not detect alterations in ga it patterns to accommodate heavier backpack loads. 1992 ). In general increased oxygen uptake. Such ® ndings. Haisman 1988 . however. Quesada et al . 1978 . Epstein et al . Bobet and Norman 1984 . Such marching frequently includes carrying backpacks loaded with military gear that often am ounts to a considerable percentage of an individual’ s body mass . in terms of oxygen uptake. Lower extrem ity joint kinetic data have generally been reported less frequently than joint kinematic data. 1991 ) . . 1993. as well as relative work intensity ( Borghols et al . knee and ankle moments increase with backpack loading and with increasing speed ( Han et al . For exam ple. Harm an et al . however. 1993 ) . 1978 . Introduction Strenuous marching is a substantial component of training for military personnel . military personnel must often maintain marching paces in excess of casual walking speeds . M . electromyography (EM G ). indicate that peak sagittal hip. oxygen uptake. In addition to carrying substantial loads. Various EM G activity durations an d average magnitudes have been found to increase with backpack load. Patton et al .Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 294 P . Kinoshita ( 1985 ) reported that knee joint angles increased with increasing backpack load . ( 1981 ) also reported that subjects were less mechanically e cient with increases in load . The particularly strenuous nature of military marching raises several issues. Ghori and Luckenbill 1985 . 1988 ). G oslin and Rorke 1986 . Haisman 1988. Legg and M ahanty 1985. 1988.

the purpose of this study was to quantify the physiological and biomechanical responses to prolonged load carriage conditions commonly encountered by soldiers during military marching . Factors commonly implicated in marching injuries include load.BW load using the Army’ s ALICE ( All. and respiratory exchange ratio ( RER = VCO 2 / VO 2 ) were determined by breath. Paul. a successful physical exam ination within the previous 6 m onths.related injuries is as high as 60 ± 70% . 1963 ) was performed within 2 ± 10 days of load carriage testing . St . M ethods 2 . The order of load conditions was balanced and randomly assigned. M aximal treadmill exercise testing ( Bruce protocol. Knowledge of interactive eŒects could aid identi® cation of potential factors that contribute to overuse injuries. To the au thors’ knowledge few eŒorts have been made to assess simultaneously the physiological and biom echanical eŒects of systematic load increases for prolonged marching . . ventilation ( VE ). but which cannot be determined from isolated studies . Treadmill testing. or cardiopulmonary pathology. stress fractures ( most commonly in the tibia and metatarsals ).BW ). terrain. Subjects Tw elve male Army Reserve O cer Training Corps ( ROTC ) cadets. From epidem iological reports common types of injuries include: blisters. Ross ( 1993a ) reviewed overuse injuries during basic military training and found that. Ross 1993 a ) . Oxygen consumption ( VO 2 ).Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 Effects of backpack loadi ng on marchi ng 295 Overuse injuries associated with strenuous marching are a primary medical problem for recruits during basic training and for soldiers in infantry units . . Such knowledge could be valuab le in the development of training equipment and protocols that might reduce overuse injury risk . 2 . at each of three load carriage conditions: no external load ( 0% .Purpose Lightwight Carrying Equipment ) backpack system and 30% -BW load in the ALICE backpack . carbon dioxide production ( VCO 2 ). 1989 . expired . . am ong recruits participating in 8 weeks of basic training. anterior compartment syndrome. the reported incidence of marching. aged 18 ± 26 years.breath gas exchange analysis using a metabolic cart system ( M edical Graphics [ CP X M ax. impair function and subsequently impede performance or temporarily disable the soldier from participating in strenuous activities ( Volpin et al . shin splints. chondromalacia patellae and low. 15% . All subjects provided informed consent to participate in this investigation . Achilles tendonitis. 1989 . Knapik et al . excessive fatigue. All subjects met the following criteria: no history of signi® cant musculoskeletal. completion of ROTC advanced training camp. metaboli c and percei ved exertion measurements All subjects performed 40 min ( 4 km ) treadmill marches at 6 km / h and 0% grade. Knapik et al .2 . a successful Army physical ® tness test during the previous 6 m onths. For the . M N ) .1 . Knapik et al . and each march was separated by approximately 60 min .by.back strain . and training experience wearing the ALICE backpack system with approximately 25% BW loading for distances of approximately 8 km . ( 1992 ) found that 24% ( 79 of 335 ) of infantry soldiers who participated in one road m arch while carrying heavy external loads suŒered an overuse injury . Therefore. M arching overuse injuries can cause substantial pain. 2 . . Bruce et al . Ross 1993 a ) .. were recruited for this study . plantar fasciitis. 1992 . footwear and am ount of hiking (Volpin et al . M edical Graphics Corp . 1992 .

3 . Raw video data were processed initially with the AM ASS software package ( ADTECH. the subject was directed to speed up or slow down. each cadet was directed to march at a 6 km / h pace to correspond to the treadmill marching pace . and spanned from initial right foot contact with the ® rst force platform to the succeeding right foot contact .15. ( approximately 10 m long ) .dimensional joint moments based upon inverse dynam ic techniques .and post. during representative trials in which the right foot struck the ® rst force platform encountered . pelvic and lower extremity motion and ground reaction force data were acquired for several ( generally between four and eight ) simulated marching trials . missing early cycle data were replaced with data that succeeded the right foot striking the second force platform . based upon the measured locations of the re¯ ective markers . CA ) to obtain the lower extremity joint motions and moments . Heart rate ( HR ) was determ ined continuously by a 12.e . Quesada et al . had some missing marker data during early portions of the gait cycle . 6 km / h ) . For each cadet motion data were obtained with a 6. W atertown. M D ) to determ ine the marker coordinates. plateau of HR with increase in workload . Santa Fe Springs.lead electrocardiographic ( ECG ) recording . relative to the laboratory coordinate system. Re¯ ective markers were placed on the subject at the second metatarsal head areas. Eleven of the 72 representative trials. M . by a stopwatch measurement of the time to traverse the speci® ed walkway section . RER > 1 .e . for the ensuing trial . located near the centre of the laboratory walkway. and directed posteriorly at the sacrum . as well as three. The actual walking speed of each trial was determ ined by dividing the length of a m arked portion of the walkway. 2 . CA ). knee and ankle joint centres. The AM ASS output ® les were further processed using the VICON Clinical M anager software package (Vicon M otion Systems. with video data sampled at 50 Hz. and force plate data sampled at 500 Hz . The software then computed three. For all motion data trials. pre.camera VICON motion an alysis system ( Vicon M otion Systems. For all but tw o of these trials. and on the ends of wands directed laterally at the lower and upper legs. The assumption made in this process was . accordingly. Santa Fe Springs. heels. during trials in which the left foot struck the initial force platform . lateral ankles.link segment model with embedded joint coordinate system axes. Representative trials were selected for each of the six conditions ( i . while ground reaction data were recorded from AM TI force plates ( AM TI. A given trial was then retained if the measured walking speed was within 6 10% of the desired speed ( i . Rating of perceived exertion ( RPE ) measurements were recorded during each minute of testing using the Borg scale ( 0 ± 10 scale ) ( Borg . lateral knees and anterior superior iliac spines. Ki nematic and kinetic data collection Imm ediately before and after each treadmill march. 1982 ) . This software package estimated the locations of hip. from am ong six subjects. in the vicinity of the force plates. If a trial speed fell outside the acceptable range.dimensional joint rotations based upon a multi. plateau of VO 2 with increase in workload. The criteria for VO 2 max were demonstration of at least two of the following: .marching at each of the three backpack loads ). Kinem atic and kinetic data were sampled synchronously.296 P . M A ). Adelphi. Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 marching trials the metabolic data were averaged over the ® nal 20 s of each time interval .

and late Figure 1 . swing phase knee ¯ exion. early stance knee extension moments. peak sagittal plane motions for each condition were extracted for late stance hip extension. Graphical description of variables selected from joint angle and moment data. late swing hip ¯ exion. .Effects of backpack loadi ng on marchi ng 297 Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 that early stance kinematics and kinetics of the right limb were similar regardless of whether it struck the ® rst or second force plate . and late stance ankle plantar ¯ exion ( ® gure 1 ) . sagittal plane peaks were obtained for late stance hip extension moments. To examine joint kinem atics. early stance knee ¯ exion. For joint kinetics. mid.stance ankle dorsi¯ exion.

05 ). Subjects were young and healthy . . the eŒect of load on energy substrate metabolism appears to involve relatively similar aerobic processes. During treadm ill marching signi® cant . Results Table 1 shows mean ( 6 SD ) values of the subjects’ physical characteristics and maximal exercise data . At each load . 20.05 ) occurred in % VO 2 max. respectively ) .05 ) ( ® gure 6 ).BW load were signi® cantly greater than the 0% . the range of responses at any load was narrow and indicates similar aerobic metabolism processes . based upon two.BW and 15% .factor ( load. but a signi® cant diŒerence was observed for time ( ® gure 5 ) .BW loads were similar while RPE responses during the 30% .m arch. ordinal interaction patterns between load and time were observed for % VO 2 max. values for 0% . M ean VO 2 . M .factor ANOVAs ( ® gure 7a ) . and 41% VO 2 m ax. HR. 20. Under these test conditions.05 .BW post-m arch ) minus corresponding unloaded measurements ( i . and VE between each load condition at minutes 1. and 30% . as the range of responses was narrow.BW and 15% . stance ankle plantar ¯ exion moments ( ® gure 1 ) .e . For all statistical processing.unloaded residuals for kinem atic variables.unloaded residuals for peak ankle . signi® cance was accepted as p < 0 . 30 and 40 ( p < 0 . Ratings of perceived exertion during marching at 0% . 15% -BW premarch.unloaded residuals were obtained as values measured with backpack load (i . RER and RPE measurements during marching trials were com pared by 2. At the onset of treadm ill . the indicated variables were selected to quantify overall joint motions and joint loadings associated with substantial energy dissipation and generation . HR and VE responses reached an approxim ately steady state within 5 to 10 min .induced changes were associated with either the level of load.BW pre-m arch and 0% -BW post. 30% .unloaded residuals to determ ine whether any loading. .Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 298 P . 3 and 4 ) . HR and VE . It was observed that increases ( p < 0 .march. Tw o. For the extracted variables load ed-unloaded residuals were computed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic eŒects after completing treadm ill marches and the eŒects of placing external load on the subjects . HR . 30 and 40 . HR and VE were similar between load conditions ( ® gu res 2. time ) repeated measures AN OVA and contrast analyses . 36. Am ong the loaded. .BW pre.march. 3 . four sets of residuals were determ ined for each variable between loaded and unloaded conditions . Loaded.factor ( load. . with the greatest ¯ ux in substrate utilization occurring during the ® rst 10 min of marching . . Quesada et al . VE.e . The loaded. but values at onset were similar to minutes 10. At minute 40 of marching the relative energy cost for 0% -BW . 5. 10. 20. relative energy expenditure ( % VO 2 max ). As seen in ® gure 5.BW loads were 30. . Given that the subjects in this study dem onstrated joint m otion and moment patterns that were indicative of normal gait. prepost ) AN OVAs were performed on loaded. 15% . 5. or whether a m arch had been performed . The mean time value was lowest at minute 5 and peaked at minute 10 ( p < 0 . only residuals for peak knee ¯ exion during stance were signi® cantly aŒected by load magnitude. 30 and 40 . condition % VO 2 max. 15% .BW post. 10. These residuals tended to be greater for 30% BW load than for 15% -BW load .BW and 30% . 2 . marching. N o signi® cant diŒerences were found between load conditions for the mean RER values. Statistical analysis .BW loads at m inutes 1. Consequently. respectively .4 .

respiratory exchange ratio.6 6 11 . VO 2 max. Age Height Weight 15% .9 .BW 30% -BW V O 2 max HR (yr ) (cm ) ( kg ) (ml kg 1 min 1 ) (bpm ) load ( kg ) load (kg ) 6 SD ).3 179. body weight ( BW ) loads and maximal exercise values (mean 6 . ( V O 2 / V CO 2 ) RPE (0 ± 10 ) 158 . 6 Table 1.8 11 .1 6 8 .0 78 .8 23 .3 Ð 198 6 7 Subjects’ physical characteristics.12 n 22. rating of perceived exertion.3 5. .6 6 Ð 58. .8 11 . VE max.8 6 . RER.6 6 3 .8 6 1 . Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 Effects of backpack loadi ng on marchi ng 299 . RPE.20 7. RER .1 1 . maximal oxygen uptake. V E max ( 1/ min ) . maximal expiratory ventilation.4 2.02 6 1.

peak ankle plantar ¯ exion during stance. did signi® cantly diŒer before and after treadmill marching. peak knee ¯ exion during stance. Heart rate ( HR ) responses during marching with 0% -BW backpack load. % V O 2 max 300 . with residuals tending to drop after marching ( ® gures 7 an d 8 ) . Quesada et al . Relative energy cost ( % VO 2 max ) of marching with 0% . Two.unloaded. Figure 3 .unloaded joint moment residuals at the hip and ankle did .BW and 30% -BW loads. Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 . Loaded.P . and with 15% -BW and 30% -BW loads . M .BW load than for 15% -BW load ( ® gures 9 ± 11 ) . however. joint m oment residuals indicated that the residuals were generally greater for 30% . Figure 2.body weight (BW ) backpack load. and with 15% . dorsi¯ exion during stance. and peak knee ¯ exion during swing.factor ANOVAs for loaded.

Expiratory ventilation (VE ) responses during marching with 0% -BW backpack load. . and with 15% -BW and 30% -BW loads . –1 V E (l min ) Effects of backpack loadi ng on marchi ng Figure 5. however. not change signi® cantly from before to after marching. Respiratory exchange ratio ( RER ) responses during marching with 0% -BW backpack load.unloaded residuals as percentages of the corresponding joint moment with 0% .BW loads . and with 15% -BW and 30% . The loadedunload ed knee joint moment residuals were markedly lower following 40 min of treadm ill marching than they were prior to marching . 4 . Values indicated at the top of each bar in ® gures 9 ± 11 represent mean loaded. V CO 2/V O 2 Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 . Figure 4 . . Discussion The results clearly demonstrated signi® cant diŒerences in most physiologic responses between load conditions and indicate that each 15% body weight load increment resulted in a proportional metabolic cost increase of approxim ately 5 to 6% .301 . A number of investigators have recommended that to prevent fatigue during prolonged .BW load . the residuals at the knee were signi® cantly lower after marching than before marching .

Consistent kinematic patterns should not be surprising. Signi® cant pre /post eŒect on a greater number of kinematic residuals. joint kinetic patterns would be aŒected . respectively ) were approximately the same as recommended workload lim its . work. regardless of backpack loading condition . but values were not disproportionate to the metabolic costs as earlier studies involving civilian subjects have reported (G ordon et al . The observation of several statistically signi® cant eŒects on each of the joint moment residuals that were considered would seem consistent with such expectations . .BW and 30% . In this study carrying the moderate load ( 15% . Quesada et al . The tendency for kinematic residuals. 1983 . the intensity of the activity should not exceed approximately 33 to 40% . Goslin and Rorke 1986 ) . other than for peak stance knee ¯ exion. Various studies have shown that during exercise and load carriage. not to be signi® cantly aŒected by load suggests that military marchers were generally attempting to replicate their kinematic patterns. These data suggest several possibilities: ( a ) that there m ay be a load threshold below which subjects may not discern diŒerences in the sensation of eŒort. although some investigators . indicates that performance of extended sim ulated marches impaired subjects’ abilities to maintain kinematic patterns . Saha et al . and with 15% -BW and 30% -BW loads .BW ). a load and pace that . Astrand 1967. In the present study the energy costs of marching at the 15% . however. W hen carrying the heavy load (30% -BW ) subjects perceived the work to be harder. Levine et al . the evidence would tend to support that during prolonged load carriage. individuals will self. M . Figure 6 .pace at a work rate . VO 2 m ax (Bink 1962 . 1986 ). given the military’ s penchant for uniformity during marching .Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 302 P . elicited an intensity in the range of 35 to 40% VO 2 m ax would be desirable . or (b ) the military subjects m ight have possibly underestimated their ratings of eŒort if they though t that these responses re¯ ected their m ental/ physical prowess . Thus.BW loads ( 36 . between 30 to 40% VO 2 max (Astrand 1967 .BW ) was not perceived as being harder work than carrying no external load ( 0% . although the metabolic cost was clearly greater . It would seem likely that under altered external loading conditions. 1979 ). have suggested values as high as 50% VO 2 max ( Astrand 1956 ) . and 41% VO 2 max. Ratings of perceived exertion ( RPE ) during marching with 0% -BW backpack load. though.

Loaded / unloaded peak knee angle residuals by load and marching status for (a ) peak stance knee ¯ exion. * indicates statistically signi® cant diŒerence. p < 0 . NS indicates no statistically signi® cant diŒerence.303 Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 Effects of backpack loadi ng on marchi ng Figure 7 . .05. and (b ) peak swing knee ¯ exion .

P . M . . p < 0 . Quesada et al . * indicates statistically signi® cant diŒerence. NS indicates no statistically signi® cant diŒerence . Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 304 Figure 8 . and ( b ) peak stance ankle plantar ¯ exion.05. Loaded /unloaded peak ankle angle residuals by load and marching status for ( a ) peak stance ankle dorsi¯ exion.

Values indicated at the top of each bar represent mean loaded. Values indicated at the top of each bar represent mean loadedunloaded residuals as percentages of the corresponding joint moment with 0% -BW load . corresponded alm ost directly with the applied load as a percentage of body weight . p < 0 . Loaded / unloaded peak knee moment residuals by load and marching status. Loaded /unloaded peak hip moment residuals by load and marching status. It would seem that the ankle .unloaded residuals as percentages of the corresponding joint moment with 0% -BW load . * indicates statistically signi® cant diŒerence.unloaded ankle moment residuals. NS indicates no statistically signi® cant diŒerence.Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 Effects of backpack loadi ng on marchi ng 305 Figure 9 . when expressed as percentages of the unload ed conditions.05. It was of interest that the load ed. Figure 10 . p < 0 .05. * indicates statistically signi® cant diŒerence.

Additionally.unloaded ankle mom ent residuals suggests that the marching activities did not overly fatigue ankle joint musculature . Values indicated at the top of each bar represent mean loadedunloaded residuals as percentages of the corresponding joint moment with 0% -BW load .Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 306 P . hip joint musculature did not appear to fatigue excessively during marching . p < 0 . at the hip. NS indicates no statistically signi® cant diŒerence . necessitated modi® cation of knee moment patterns at some point during marching . when expressed as percentages of the corresponding unloaded conditions. than the body weight percentages of the external loads . This observation suggested that the quadriceps muscle group. Loaded /unloaded peak ankle moment residuals by load and marching status . into the overall gait cycle energy. . M .unloaded hip moment residuals were also not aŒected by 40 m in of treadm ill marching . were a dramatically larger percentage of unloaded values than the corresponding external load percentage of body weight. perhaps to compensate for energy lost elsewhere . Loaded. possibly excessive fatiguing of the quadriceps m uscle group. * indicates statistically signi® cant diŒerence. Joint moment behaviour at the hip was quite similar to that at the ankle in that loaded. It was observed that loaded. Consequently. responsible for the knee moment peaks. Quesada et al . however.unloaded knee moment residuals suggested that some aspect of marching with external load. Rather. These small variances may indicate increased energy contribution.05. K nee joint moment residuals appeared quite diŒerent from those at the ankle and hip . was generating greater activation ( thereby expending more metabolic energy ) than m ight be expected if all relative aspects of loading remained unchanged while magnitude of body weight varied . Figure 11. prior to marching. ankle moment increases with external load as though subjects’ actual weights were increased by the body weight percentages of the external loads . joint musculature’ s response to external load did not bring about any basic chan ge in joint loading pattern .unloaded hip m oment residuals. the lack of eŒect of marching on load ed.unloaded knee mom ent residuals. were somewhat greater. The signi® cant eŒect of marching on loaded.

Given the regimented nature of military marching. better supported by consideration of knee loading in conjunction with knee motion . Schwellnus et al . 1994 ) . Potential for such links however. should warrant that future investigation of these issues would be worthwhile . chondromalacia. The data obtained in the present study provide some potential insights into the physiological and biomechanical responses to prolonged load carriage . that should be considered is the possibility that higher. This potential mechanism is. shock absorption have been impaired .march decrements (Frykman et al . hence. marching pace. The dominant. Enhanced early march shock absorption may mitigate potential for some overuse injuries that have been associated with excessive shock ( Voloshin and W osk.march loading pattern. Previous ® ndings of joint kinematic decrements (although not accompanied by joint kinetic data ) following lengthy marching have led to similar speculation that fatigue may be responsible for post.BW indicated an inability to maintain the pre. consequently. and plantar fasciitis ) has not been conclusively substantiated by the results of this study . marching duration. and mechanisms of overuse injuries ( such as stress fractures. 1985 . additional eŒorts are warranted to identify factors ( e . knee muscle strength and / or endurance training. Existing recomm ended workload limits based upon metabolic variables. contributing factor for higher loaded. etc . perhaps. shin splints.unloaded knee moment residuals. loaded. would generally classify the subjects’ overall m etabolic energy expenditure to be within acceptable limits for preventing fatigue during prolonged activity . . type and slope of terrain. An alternative explanation for early march loading. W osk and Voloshin. fatigue of knee extensors. However. at early m arch. may be di cult to identify conclusively at this tim e . early march. be necessary to adapt such recomm ended workload limits for activities in which loading is disproportionately focused on speci® c body segments and joints. seems consistent with the notion that fatigue of knee extensors. by march end. Shock absorption in many engineering applications is often quanti® ed as an energy dissipation.Downloaded by [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati] at 01:12 15 May 2016 Effects of backpack loadi ng on marchi ng 307 Given identi® cation of shock absorption as a prim ary. discounting of this possibility might be prem ature . rather than more uniformly dispersed throughout the body .e . early march knee loading demonstrated in this study m ay well represent an attempt to dissipate shock .march decrement in both early stance knee moment an d knee ¯ exion is a strong indication that energy dissipation and. m ay have contributed to changes in knee moment and other joint motions . however. however. Perry 1992 ).unloaded knee moment residuals represented an eŒort to maintain kinematic marching patterns that were similar to those of the lower load conditions . Regarding further study. Consequently. A de® nitive link between changes in latter m arch knee moments. 1990 ) . M ilgrom et al . It m ay. very possibly due to excessive quadriceps muscle group fatigue . Reduction of the pre-march knee moments that were induced following treadmill marching with 30% . Future work should also investigate whether early march knee loading may represent m echanisms to help to prevent injuries typically attributed to overuse . ) that might aŒect an individual’ s ability to maintain early march knee loading patterns . early stance knee function ( Ghori and Luckenbill 1985 . which is a combined measure of load and motion ( i . 1985 . simultaneous post.g . Impairment of shock absorption with higher load may subsequently compromise a potential injury prevention m echanism . an integration of load and diŒerential motion ) . 1982 . decrease in these residuals. footwear diŒerences. and possibly other muscle groups.

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