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LITERATURE REVIEW

Mud properties

EXPERIMENT NO. 1: MUD WEIGHT, MARSH FUNNEL VISCOCITY AND pH

1.1 TEST PROCEDURE AND SETUP:


1.1.1

PART ONE: PREPARATION OF THE BASE MUD

1. 25g of bentonite were measured on a mass balance and added to 350 ml of distilled water,
the mixture was then stirred. 2g of duolvis was added to the mixture. The mixture was
stirred and labeled as Mud 1. Observation was made on its physical properties.
2. 25g of bentonite were measured on a mass balance and added to 350 ml of distilled water,
the mixture was then stirred. 1g of duolvis was added to the mixture. The mixture was
stirred and labeled as Mud 2. Observation was made on its physical properties.
3. 25g of bentonite were measured on a mass balance and added to 350 ml of distilled
water, the mixture was then stirred. The mixture was stirred and labeled as Mud 3.
Observation was made on its physical properties.
4. 20g of bentonite were measured on a mass balance and added to 350 ml of distilled water,
the mixture was then stirred. The mixture was stirred and labeled as Mud 4. Observation
was made on its physical properties.
5. After preparation of four mud samples then were poured into the blender.
6. 400 ml of distilled water was added into the blender.
7. The mixture was blended for 5 minutes, in 1 minute interval with 20 seconds breaks.

1.1.2

PART TWO: MEASUREMENT/TEST

A: MUD WEIGHT MEASUREMENT USING MUD BALANCE


1. The lid was removed from the cup and the cup was filled with the base mud to be tested.
2. The lid was replaced and rotated until it firmly seated on the cup, with some mud being
expelled through the hole in the lid.
3. The cup was wiped outside to remove the expelled Cud.
4. The balance arm was placed on the base with the knife-edge resting on the fulcrum.
5. The rider was moved until the graduated arm was level, as indicated by the level vial on
the beam.

6. At the left hand edge of the rider, the density was read at desired units without disturbing
the rider.
7. The temperature was recorded for the corresponding density.
B: VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT USING MARSH FUNNEL
1. Base mud sample was poured through a screen into the funnel held in upright position
and its orifice covered with a finger until the level reached the bottom of the screen
(1500ml).
2. The finger was immediately removed from the outlet and the time required for the mud to
fill the receiving vessel to 1-quartz (946 ml) was measured.
3. The result was recorded to the nearest second at the given temperature of measurement in
degree centigrade.
C: pH MEASUREMENT
USING pH PAPER
1. The pH paper strips were dipped into the base mud sample for 1 minute and then
removed.
2. The color on the pH paper strips were compared with the color displayed in given pH
ranges.
3. The results were recorded at the given temperatures of measurements.
USING pH METER
1. The glass electrodes of the pH meter were dipped into the base mud sample for 2
minutes.
2. The pH meter readings were recorded at the given temperatures of measurements.

1.2 RESULTS
Table 1: Mud properties measurements results
SAMPLE NO.

Mud Weight

Marsh
Funnel

pH
(Hydrogen Ion Conc.)

Viscosity
ppg

g/cm3

Sec/quar
t

1.

8.6

1.03

Room temperature = 27.4C Time 10:30 a.m.


Base mud sample temperature = 32.4C

1.3 DISCUSSION

pH

pH meter

paper

62

9.19

EXPERIMENT NO. 2: CONTROL OF MUD WEIGHT


2.1 TEST PROCEDURE AND SETUP:
2.1.1 PART A: EFFECT OF ADDING BENTONITE ON MUD PROPERTIES FOR
FRESH WATER AND SALT WATER BASE MUD.
1. A batch of 5, 10. 15 and 20 grams of bentonite were added in 400 cc of fresh water base
mud and stirred for 10 minutes.
2. The density, viscosity and pH for each batch was measured and recorded.
3. 20.6 ml of 10% by weight salt water was added to each batch and stirred for 5 minutes.
4. The density, viscosity and pH for each were recorded. The results (density, viscosity and
pH) for each batch were reported in a table and plotted versus the amount of bentonite in
grams in two plots, one of fresh water and the other for salt water.

2.1.2 PART B: EFFECT OF ADDING WEIGHT MATERIAL (BARITE)


1. The amount of barite required to increase the density of a 8.6 ppg base mud to 9,10,11
and 12 ppg was calculated and listed using the equation bellow;
Wt B=

4.3( f o )
B o

.... Eqn.1

2. 400 cc of original base mud with a density of 8.6 ppg was prepared.
3. The calculated amount of barite required for each batch was added to their respective
original base muds ad was stirred for 2 minutes.
4. The viscosity for each batch was measured and recorded.
5. Step 3 was repeated for salt water based mud.
6. The results were tabulated and plots of density and viscosity versus the amount of barite
added were plotted for fresh water based mud and salt water based mud.

2.1.3 PART C: WATER-BACK (ADDING WATER TO A CHEMICALLY TREATED


MUD)
1. 350 cc of water based mud of 13.5 ppg and 9.5 pH was prepared with aid of barite and
salt.

2. Water was added incrementally and the mud weight was measured every time to reach
10.5 ppg and the same 9.5 pH.
3. Viscosity was measured to check any changes.
4. The results were tabulated.

2.2 RESULTS
2.2.1 FRESH WATER
Table 2: Results on effect of adding bentonite on mud properties for fresh water base mud
SAMPLE

Mud Weight

pH

Marsh Funnel

(density)
No.

Bentonite
(g)

g/cm3

pH paper

pH
meter

Viscosity

Temperature

Sec/quart

1.

1.01

8.

8.08

26

32.6

2.

10

1.02

8.16

29.06

36.2

3.

15

1.03

8.5

8.33

32.85

37.1

4.

20

1.03

8.5

8.42

38

37.5

2.2.2 SALT WATER


Table 3: Results on effect of adding bentonite on mud properties for salt water base mud.
SAMPLE
No.

Mud Weight

Bentonite

pH

g/cm3

pH strip

Marsh Funnel Viscosity


pH

Sec/quart

meter

(g)
1.

1.01

26

2.

10

1.02

8.5

8.5

28

3.

15

1.03

8.5

8.5

32

4.

20

1.03

8.5

8.5

36

2.2.3 WEIGHT MATERIAL (BARITE)


Table 4: Results on effect of adding weight material (barite) on fresh water and salt water
base mud
SAMPLE

MUD WEIGHT

BARITE ADDED

Fresh water

NO.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

VISCOSITY

(ppg)
8.6
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0

(g)
0
25.65
93.26
166.32
245.50

Salt water

Sec
38.00
37.50
39.41
38.76
39.00

36.26
43.46
44.82
46.57
43.83

2.2.4 WATER BACK


Table 5: Results on water back (adding water to a chemically treated mud)
TAPE WATER ADDED
(cc)

2.3 DISCUSSION

MUD WEIGHT
(lb/gal)

13.50

50

12.65

100

12.10

150

11.70

200

11.30

250

10.70

300

10.45

EXPERIMENT NO. 3: DRILLING FLUID CONTAMINATION TEST

3.1 TEST PROCEDURE AND SETUP:


3.1.1 SALT CONTAMINATION
PART A: Salt Water
1. 20g of bentonite was measured on a mass balance and added to 400 ml of distilled water,
the mixture was then stirred with a blander.
2. Observation was made on its physical properties by measuring weight ppg, viscosity cp
and pH.
3. 27 ml of 10% by wt salt water (NaCl) was prepared and added to the base mud sample
(400ml) and stirred for 2 minutes. The mixture was aged for about 15 minutes and stirred
again for 2 minutes. The viscosity, density and pH of the mixture were determined.
4. 1/2 cc increments were added to the contaminated sample until the original viscosity was
restored.
5. 1/2 cc increments of (SAPP) were added in until the original viscosity was restored.

6. The results were plotted on a curve showing the viscosity and pH as a function of (SAPP)
concentration.
PART B: Sodium Chloride Salt (NaCl)
1. 20g of bentonite was measured on a mass balance and added to 400 ml of distilled water,
the mixture was then stirred with a blander.
2. Observation was made on its physical properties by measuring weight ppg, viscosity cp
and pH.
3. To a 400 ml base mud, 0.75, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5.0 grams NaCl were added and stirred and
step (2) after each addition was repeated.

3.1.2 GYPSUM CONTAMINATION


PART A: Hydrated Gypsum (CaSO4 -2H2O)
1. 20g of bentonite was measured on a mass balance and added to 400 ml of distilled water,
the mixture was then stirred with a blander.
2. Observation was made on its physical properties by measuring weight ppg, viscosity cp
and pH.
3. To a 400 ml base mud, 0.75, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5.0 grams of Gypsum (CaSO4 - 2H2O) were
added and stirred and step (2) after each addition was repeated.
PART B: Anhydrous Gypsum (CaSO4)
1. 20g of bentonite was measured on a mass balance and added to 400 ml of distilled water,
the mixture was then stirred with a blander.
2. Observation was made on its physical properties by measuring weight ppg, viscosity cp
and pH.
3. To a 400 ml base mud, 0.75, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 5.0 grams of Gypsum (CaSO4) were added
and stirred and step (2) after each addition was repeated.

3.1.3 CEMENT CONTAMINATION


1. 20g of bentonite was measured on a mass balance and added to 400 ml of distilled water,
the mixture was then stirred with a blander.
2. The base mud (400 ml) was contaminated with 1.0 PPB and stirred for two minutes. The
mixture was aged for 15 minutes. Again was Stirred and tested.
3. The contaminated sample was added with 1/2 cc (SAPP).
4. SAPP of 1/2 cc increments were added until the original viscosity was restored. After
each increment measurement of pH, viscosity and mud weight were made.
5. The results were plotted on a curve showing the viscosity and pH as function of (SAPP)
concentration.
6. 0.3 g (SAPP) and 0.762 g Sodium Bicarbonate were added to the base mud and stirred
for 10 minutes.
7. 0.762 gr of cement were added while mixing the sample after aging and the mixture was
tested. All results were tableted.

3.2 RESULTS
Table 6: Salt Water contamination results
SAMPLE

NaCl

Mud Weight

pH

Viscosity

Bentonite (g)

ml

lb/gal

pH strip

Sec/quart

1.

30

8.7

8.5

40

2.

30

27

8.7

8.5

65

No.

Table 7: Results on the effect of SAPP in salt contaminated drilling fluid


SAMPLE
No.

Bentonite

NaCl

SAPP

pH

Viscosity

Ml

pH strip

Sec/quart

(g)
1.

30

27

0.2

7.5

33.68

2.

30

27

0.4

7.5

33.80

3.

30

27

0.6

7.5

34.00

4.

30

27

0.8

7.5

33.40

5.

30

27

1.0

7.5

34.00

Table 8: Mud contamination with Sodium Chloride salt results


SAMPLE

NaCl

pH

Viscosity

Mud Weight

Bentonite (g)

gr

pH strip

Sec/quart

ppg

1.

20

0.00

8.80

30.75

8.60

2.

20

0.75

7.58

37.50

8.60

3.

20

1.50

8.23

40.71

8.60

4.

20

2.50

8.20

43.00

8.60

5.

20

3.50

8.22

52.57

8.60

6.

20

5.00

8.27

53.57

8.60

No.

Table 9: Mud contamination with hydrated Gypsum (CaSO4 -2H2O) results


SAMPLE
No.

Bentonite (g)

CaSO4 -2H2O

pH

Viscosity

Mud Weight

Gr

pH

Sec/quart

ppg

strip
1.

20

0.00

8.80

30.75

8.60

2.

20

0.75

7.58

32.94

8.60

3.

20

1.50

8.23

31.00

8.60

4.

20

2.50

8.20

29.67

8.60

5.

20

3.50

8.22

29.00

8.60

6.

20

5.00

8.27

28.16

8.60

Table 10: Mud contamination with anhydrous Gypsum (CaSO4) results


SAMPLE
No.

CaSO4

pH

Viscosity

Mud Weight

Gr

pH

Sec/quart

ppg

Bentonite (g)

strip
1.

20

0.00

8.80

30.75

8.60

2.

20

0.75

8.63

34.00

8.60

3.

20

1.50

8.50

38.33

8.60

4.

20

2.50

8.42

38.93

8.60

5.

20

3.50

8.38

38.27

8.60

6.

20

5.00

8.30

34.45

8.60

Table 11: Mud contamination with cement


SAMPLE

Cement

Mud Weight

pH

Viscosity

Bentonite (g)

lb/gal

pH strip

Sec/quart

1.

20

8.6

8.5

29.48

2.

20

1.35

8.6

8.5

81.80

No.

Table 12: Treatment of mud with Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate (SAPP) results
SAMPLE

Cement

SAPP

pH

Viscosity

Bentonite (g)

pH strip

Sec/quart

ppg

1.

20

1.35

0.1

11.0

73.00

8.60

2.

20

1.35

0.2

11.0

50.21

8.60

3.

20

1.35

0.3

11.5

41.80

8.60

4.

20

1.35

0.4

11.0

37.00

8.60

5.

20

1.35

0.5

11.0

38.00

8.60

6.

20

1.35

0.6

11.5

38.00

8.60

7.

20

1.35

1.0

10.5

48.22

No.

Mud Weig

8.60

Table 13: Treatment test of base mud


SAMPLE

Cement

Treatment Samples
SAPP

Sodium

Properties
Mud Weight

pH

Viscosity

lb/gal

pH

Sec/quar

strip

Bicarbonat
e
No.

Bentonit

e (g)
1.

20

8.6

8.5

30.78

2.

20

0.762

0.3

0.762

8.6

8.5

30.00

EXPERIMENT NO. 4: SOLID & LIQUID CONTENT AND EMULSION


CHARACTERISTICS OF DRILLING FLUID
4.1 TEST PROCEDURE AND SETUP:
4.1.1 SAND CONTENT DETERMINATION
1. Prepared mud was poured into a Baroid Sand Content Tube until it filled up to the mark
labeled "Mud to Here". Then water was added to the mark labeled "Water to Here".
Mouth of the tube was covered with thumb and shaken vigorously.
2. The mixture was poured through the screen and through the same screen carefully
everything was washed out of the tube with clear water. Sand retained on screen was
washed with a stream of water to remove all mud and shale particles.
3. The funnel was fitted down over top of a screen and inverted slowly turning tip of funnel
into mouth of tube, and sand was washed back into a tube with a fine spray of clear water
on the back side of the screen. Again the sand was allowed to settle.
4. The quantity of sand settled was observed in the calibrated tube as the sand content of the
mud.
5. The sand content of the mud in percent by volume (% by volume) was reported.

4.2 RESULTS
Table 14: Mud contamination, treatment and resulted properties
Base Mud

Contaminants

Bentoni Wate Bari


te

te

Treatment

Properties

Nac

ceme

CaS

CaSO4

SAP

NaHC

Poly

Mud

nt

O4

-2H2O

O3

mer

Weig

pH

Viscosi
ty

ht
(g)

ml

(g)

(g)

(g)

(g)

(g)

(g)

(g)

(g)

lb/gal

pH

Sec/qu

stri

art

p
60

1600

00

8.5

60

1600

50.7

2.0

1.0

1.5

1.0

2.0

1.0

1.0

8.7

8.0

33.46

4
Weight of added sand = 11.9g
Sand content of the mud = 0.95%

4.3 DISCUSSION