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COURSE STURUCTURE

B.Tech. III - I Semester

S.NoCourse code Subject

Theory

Tu / Lab

Credits

1.13A02402

Control Systems Engineering

3

1

-

3

2.13A05401

Computer Organization &

3

1

-

3

Architecture
3.13A04501

Antennas & Wave Propagation

3

1

-

3

4.13A04502

Digital Communication

3

1

-

3

Systems
5.13A04503

Linear IC Applications

3

1

-

3

6.13A04504

Digital IC Applications

3

1

-

3

7.13A04505

IC Applications Lab

-

-

3

2

8.13A04506

Analog Communication

-

-

3

2

Systems Lab
Total Credits

22

ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION
(13A04501)

Course Objective
1. To introduce the fundamental principles of antenna theory and various types of antennas.
2. Applying the principles of antennas to the analysis, design, and measurements of antennas.
3. To know the applications of some basic and practical configurations such as dipoles, loops,
and broadband, aperture type and horn antennas.

COURSE OUTCOMES
SUB: ANTENNAS & WAVE PROPAGATION (13A04501)
YEAR:2016-2017

ACADEMIC

1

Comprehend the basic parameters like patterns, gain, beam area, and radiation intensity of
an antenna

2

Use the basic Maxwell’s equations for evaluating the field components, power radiated
and radiation resistance of a dipole and loop antennas.

3

Combine the individual patterns of point sources to devise an array of antennas for
increasing the radiation characteristics.

4

Differentiate the geometries of helical, reflector and lens antennas to relate how they are
used in VHF and UHF communications.

5

Estimate the impact of different parameters of microstrip antennas like thickness,
dielectric substrate, and width on its characteristics

6

Summarize the wave Characteristics in different frequency ranges.

Beam Area. & Circular polarizations.Introduction. Retarded potential-HelmholtzTheorem. Radiation Resistance.I: Loop Antennas . Radiated power. loops. To know the applications of some basic and practical configurations such as dipoles. UNIT I Antenna Basics & Dipole antennas: Introduction. Comparisonof far fields of small loop and short dipole. Beam width. g. III .Yagi . Field Components.SYLLABUS COPY JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR B. Design some practical antennas such as dipole. Radiation – Basic Maxwell’s equations.Fermat’s Principle.Radiation Intensity. Beam Efficiency. Radiation from Small Electric Dipole. Helix modes. and measurements of antennas. Folded Dipoles &their characteristics. and out-of-class assignments. Basic antenna parameters. Become proficient with analytical skills for understanding practical antennas. Design considerations of Pyramidal Horns. Directivity-Gain-Resolution. Horn Antennas. Antenna Apertures. Front–to-backratio. Determine the radiation patterns (in principal planes) of antennas through measurement setups. 2. UNIT II VHF. Acquire team-work skills for working effectively in groups. IllustrativeProblems. design. Quarter wave Monopole and Half wave Dipole –Current Distributions. 3.uda.Uda Arrays. Antenna impedance. Optimum Horns. Field Zones. Arrays with Parasitic Elements . Helical Antennas-Helical Geometry. Yagi . aperture type and horn antennas. Learning Outcome: Through lecture.patterns. Understand the basic principles of all types of antennas and b. far fields and patterns of Thin Linear Center-fed Antennas of different lengths. Analyze different types of antennas designed for various frequency ranges. Antenna theorems. Fields from oscillating dipole.I Sem.Types. e. Radiation Resistances and Directives of small and largeloops (Qualitative Treatment). Illustrative problems. f. Shape-Impedance considerations. students are provided learning experiences that enable them to: a.Tech. and horn antennas. Effectiveheight. Applying the principles of antennas to the analysis. Develop technical & writing skills important for effective communication. . Polarization –Linear. Small Loop. Naturalcurrent distributions. Elliptical. c. And broadband. Th Tu C 3 1 3 (13A04501) ANTENNAS & WAVE PROPAGATION Course Objective: 1. UHF and Microwave Antennas . Antenna temperature. d. Practical Designconsiderations for Monofilar Helical Antenna in Axial and Normal Modes. To introduce the fundamental principles of antenna theory and various types of antennas.

pattern characteristics. F. Reference Books: 1. C. Space and surface waves. “Antennas and Wave Propagation..E. LUF. John D. 4.R. 1988. Balanis. Terman. Ground wave propagation (Qualitative treatment) -Introduction. features.Definition.D. 4th Ed. 2.tropospheric propagation. John D.Introduction. Lens Antennas .General considerations andBionomial Arrays.Geometry of Non-metallic Dielectric Lenses. K.Reciprocity. “Transmission and Propagation . Ray/Mode concepts. Flatsheet and corner reflectors. 2nd Edn. Summary of Wave Characteristics indifferent frequency ranges. field strength variation with distance and height. “Antenna Theory.” Tech.A. Gain Measurements (by comparison.L. differentmodes of wave propagation. Super refraction. Patterns. arrays of 2 Isotropicsources. M-curves and duct propagation.” McGraw-Hill (International Edition). Marhefka and Ahmad S. Standard Publishers Distributors. Glazier and H. E. 1955. 2000.Different cases.Khan.. refraction and reflection of sky waves by Ionosphere. sources of errors. Rectangular patch antennas. “Electronic and Radio Engineering. “Antennas. Lamont. MUF.Analysis and Design.G.” vol.geometry. Ray path. Applications. absorption. Sky wave propagation . New Delhi. Balmain. 3. BSAa with Non-uniform Amplitude Distributions . Characterizations and general classifications.. 2001. fading and path loss calculations.” TMH.” John Wiley & Sons. Patterns to be Measured.structure of Ionosphere.Related Features. Illustrative Problems. Jordan and K. India Publications. Illustrative problems.The Services Text Book of Radio. UHF and Microwave Antennas . Criticalfrequency.Zoning . Tolerances.” McGraw-Hill. 4th edition.Space wave propagation . Uniform Linear Arrays – BroadsideArrays.UNIT III VHF.Reflector Types . Definitions. Prasad. . Absolute and 3Antenna Methods). 2001.Geometry and parameters. Virtual height and Skip distance. 2. DirectivityMeasurement . scattering phenomena. Text Books: 1. Kraus.II: Micro strip Antennas.V. Feed Methods. Relation between MUF and Skipdistance. 2nd Edn. UNIT V Wave Propagation: Introduction.C. OF. Endfire Arrays. EFA with Increased Directivity. Illustrative problems. (special Indian Edition).Introduction. advantagesand limitations. Principle of Pattern Multiplication.D. 2010. Antenna Measurements: Introduction. “Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems. wave tilt. effect ofearth’s curvature. E. Pattern Measurement Arrangement. characteristics of Micro stripantennas. Kraus and Ronald J. Impact of different parameters on characteristics. Concepts. “Antennas and wave propagation. Energy loss in Ionosphere. Coordinationsystem. 5. New Delhi. parabola reflectors. Multi-HOP propagation. Near and Far Fields. SatyaPrakashan.” PHI. 2nd Edn. UNIT IV Antenna Arrays & Measurements: Point sources . 5.Introduction. reflector antennas . Derivation of their characteristics andcomparison. curved earth reflections. Plane earth reflections.Introduction. Delhi.

To introduce the fundamental principles of antenna theory and various types of antennas. 3. g) Design some practical antennas such as dipole. and measurements of antennas. c) Analyze different types of antennas designed for various frequency ranges.uda.LESSON PLAN Course objective: 1. d) Develop technical & writing skills important for effective communication. Yagi . loops. LECTURE PLAN: . Course outcomes: Upon completion of the course . aperture type and horn antennas. and broadband. e) Become proficient with analytical skills for understanding practical antennas. Applying the principles of antennas to the analysis. f) Acquire team-work skills for working effectively in groups. and horn antennas. design. To know the applications of some basic and practical configurations such as dipoles. 2.students should be able to: a) Understand the basic principles of all types of antennas b) Determine the radiation patterns (in principal planes) of antennas through measurement setups.

1 Shape-Impedance considerations.Lect No. Beam Area. Elliptical. Beam Efficiency. 1 Fields from oscillating dipole. 1 Antenna Apertures.patterns. 1 Directivity-Gain-Resolution. Expected Date Particulars of Lecture NO. Effective height. 1 Polarization – Linear. 1 Radiation Intensity. 1 30/6/16 3 2/7/16 4 6/7/16 5 8/7/16 6 11/7/16 7 12/7/16 Complete d Date Remark s . Field Zones. Basic antenna parameters. OF CLASS ES UNIT I: ANTENNA BASICS & DIPOLE ANTENNAS: 1 27/6/16 2 Introduction. & Circular polarizations.

14 30/7/16 Radiated power. Radiation Resistance. 9 18/7/16 Antenna theorems 1 10 20/7/16 Radiation – Basic Maxwell’s equations 1 11 23/7/16 1 Retarded potential-Helmholtz Theorem 12 26/7/16 Radiation from Small Electric Dipole. 1 Front–to-back ratio. Antenna impedance. Natural current distributions. 1 Total no. Field Components. 1 16 4/8/16 far fields and patterns of Thin Linear Center-fed antennas of different lengths 1 18 6/8/16 Illustrative problems. 2 13 27/7/16 Quarter wave Monopole and Half wave Dipole – 2 Current Distributions.8 15/7/16 Antenna temperature. 1 16 3/8/16 Beam width.of classes:20 20 .

UNIT II: VHF.I: 19 8/8/16 Loop Antennas . 1 27 19/8/16 Horn Antennas.Uda Arrays.Types.Introduction. 1 29 22/8/16 Illustrative Problems. 2 20 9/8/16 Comparison of far fields of small loop and short dipole. Fermat’s Principle. UHF and Microwave Antennas . 1 24 13/8/16 Helical Antennas-Helical Geometry. Small Loop.Yagi . 1 22 11/8/16 Arrays with Parasitic Elements . 1 25 16/8/16 Practical Design considerations for Monofilar 1 26 17/8/16 Helical Antenna in Axial and Normal Modes. 1 28 20/8/16 Design considerations of Pyramidal Horns. 1 23 12/8/16 Folded Dipoles & their characteristics. Optimum Horns. 2 21 10/8/16 Radiation Resistances and Directives of small and large loops (Qualitative Treatment). Helix modes. 1 .

1 33 06/9/16 reflector antennas . 1 37 10/9/16 Feed Methods.Introduction. 1 35 08/9/16 parabola reflectors. UHF and Microwave Antennas .Related Features. features.Geometry and parameters. 1 36 09/9/16 pattern characteristics. 1 38 12/9/16 Reflector Types .geometry. Flat sheet 1 34 07/9/16 and corner reflectors.Total no.Introduction. 1 31 26/8/16 characteristics of Micro strip antennas. 1 32 27/8/16 Impact of different parameters on characteristics. 1 30 24/8/16 Rectangular patch antennas. 1 . advantages and limitations.of classes:13 UNIT III : VHF.II: 23/8/16 Micro strip Antennas.

Different cases.. 1 42 17/9/16 Applications.Definition. 1 48 24/9/16 EFA with Increased Directivity.39 14/9/16 Lens Antennas . Zoning . Patterns. 1 44 20/9/16 arrays of 2 Isotropic sources. Illustrative Problems. 1 47 23/9/16 Endfire Arrays. 1 41 16/9/16 Tolerances. 1 45 21/9/16 Principle of Pattern Multiplication.of classes:14 UNIT IV : Antenna Arrays & Measurements: 43 19/9/16 Point sources . 1 Total no. 1 46 22/9/16 Uniform Linear Arrays – Broadside Arrays. .Geometry of Non-metallic 1 40 15/9/16 Dielectric Lenses. 1 49 28/9/16 Derivation of their characteristics and 1 comparison.

1 54 30/9/16 sources of errors. Coordination system. 1 60 06/10/16 different modes of wave propagation. 1 Concepts. Definitions.of classes:16 UNIT V: Wave Propagation: 59 5/10/16 Introduction.General considerations 1 51 27/9/16 Bionomial Arrays. 1 Directivity Measurement . 1 Total no. Ray/Mode 1 . Illustrative problems. Characterizations and general classifications. 1 52 28/9/16 Antenna Measurements: Introduction. 1 56 3/10/16 Pattern Measurement Arrangement. Absolute and 3-Antenna Methods).50 26/9/16 BSAa with Non-uniform Amplitude Distributions . 53 29/9/16 Near and Far Fields. 57 4/10/16 Gain Measurements (by comparison. 1 55 1/10/16 Patterns to be Measured.Reciprocity.

concepts. 1 64 13/10/16 curved earth reflections. 1 68 18/10/16 M-curves and duct propagation. 1 63 10/10/16 wave tilt. Plane earth reflections. field strength variation with distance and height. 62 8/10/16 Space and surface waves. 1 . 1 65 14/10/16 Space wave propagation – 1 Introduction. 66 15/10/16 effect of earth’s curvature. 65 14/10/16 Space wave propagation – 1 Introduction. absorption. 61 7/10/16 Ground wave propagation (Qualitative treatment) - 1 Introduction. field strength variation with distance and height. 1 67 17/10/16 Super refraction.

OF. 1 74 25/10/16 LUF. structure of Ionosphere. 1 72 22/10/16 Ray path. Critical frequency. Virtual height 1 75 26/10/16 Skip distance. 1 fading and path loss calculations. Energy loss in Ionosphere. 70 20/10/16 Sky wave propagation – 1 Introduction. Summary of Wave Characteristics in different Frequency ranges.69 19/10/16 scattering phenomena. 71 21/10/16 refraction and reflection of sky waves by Ionosphere. 1 Total no. Relation between MUF and Skip distance.of classes:20 TOTAL LECTURES :83 REFERENCE BOOKS: . troposphere propagation. 1 77 1/11/16 Illustrative problems. 1 73 24/10/16 MUF. 1 76 29/10/16 Multi-HOP propagation.

Balanis. Kraus and Ronald J.” TMH.D. 3. New Delhi. Satya Prakashan. 2nd Edn. 2010. “Antennas and wave propagation.G. New Delhi. (special Indian Edition).. . What is the Lorentz gauge condition? Explain. Prasad. 4. “Antenna Theory. 2. Marhefka and Ahmad S. 4th Ed.. Balmain.” John Wiley & Sons. “Antennas and Wave Propagation. John D. C. E. 2. “Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems.” PHI.1. 2001 Signature of staff HOD PRINCIPAL UNITWISE QUESTIONS UNIT: 1 Antenna Basics and Dipole Antennas ESSAY QUESTIONS: 1. 2001. K. Jordan and K.C. State and prove reciprocity theorem for antennas. India Publications.Khan. 2nd Edn. 2000.Analysis and Design.A.” Tech.

i) Radiation pattern ii) Radian and Steradian iii) Radiation power density iv) Radiation intensity 4. 15.25λ dipole. Draw the radiation pattern of a dipole antenna and explain all its characteristics? .Fine the effective length of a half-wave (λ/2) dipole 11. i) Beam width ii) Bandwidth iii) Polarization iv) Power gain 6. Define the term directivity. Find the radiation resistance of a current element. Define and explain about following antenna parameters. find out its radiation resistance. 8. Explain the method of beam width measurement with neat sketch.Define the effective aperture and calculate the effective aperture of 0. A jωμε ´ .J ωA = is magnetic vector potential? 3. 13. As related to antenna. 9. 12. Assuming the expression of radiation fields for alternating current element. define and explain the following terms. Define and explain about following antenna parameters. Derive expressions for the electric and magnetic fields radiated by a halfwave length dipole antenna. Write a note on antenna bandwidth. 14. Explain the Significance of the term Rr. Determine the directivity of λ/2 antenna 10. i) Gain ii) Antenna efficiency iii) half-power beam width iv) Beam efficiency 5. Jωμε A´ ´ ∇∇.Explain the Lorentz gauge condition and show that 1 ( ∇ × ∇ × A´ ) Where. 7. What is the effective length of an antenna? Determine the effective length of a half-wave dipole antenna. Define antenna beam width.

Mention the frequency ranges of operation and application of loop antenna. Short Questions: 1. Derive expression for radiation resistance of a loop antenna. Derive an expression for the impedance of the folded dipole? 8. Write a short note on folded dipole? 7.Give the expression for the effective aperture of a Half wave Dipole 11. What is meant by Beam Area. What is folded dipole? Why the folded dipole is preferable as compared with other dipoles and explains? 2. What is meant by radiation pattern? 6.What is the principle of equality of path length? How it is applicable to horn antenna? . Write a short note on helical antenna? 10. Define Beam efficiency? 7. Explain the characteristic of folded dipole? 6. 3. What is radiation resistance ? 9. Define retardation time 5. UHF and Microwave Antennas-I ESSAY QUESTIONS : 1. 9.What do you understand by retarded current? UNIT-2 VHF. Define different types of aperture? 8. Define Radiation Resistance 4. 4. 11. Sketch and explain the constructional features of a helical antenna.16. Derive the expression for radiation field of a small loop antenna of radius ‘a’ at the center of the co-ordinate system 5. What is a Short Dipole? 2. Show the radiation resistance of a half wave dipole is 73Ω.? 10. What do you understand by retarded current? 3. Sketch the current distribution of folded dipole and find out input impedance when two legs have unequal diameters.

What is the Special feature of folded dipole antennas? UNIT:3 VHF. What is yagi uda antenna? 2. Explain the characteristics of the microstrip antennas and what is the impact of different parameters on its characteristics? 3. 15. What is the principle of equality of path length? How is it applicable to horn antenna Short Questions: 1. What do you meant by pyramidal horn? 9. What is the purpose of using more directors in yagi uda antenna? 3.What are the Advantages of folded dipole? 14. Briefly explain about microstip antennas and mention its silent feature? 2. What is parasitic element? Explain when the parasitic element acts as a reflective and director with the help of proper diagram. Explain why the folded dipole has a greater bandwidth than the straight dipole.What are Electrically Small loop antennas? 12. Explain about various feed methods of microstrip antennas? .12. 13.What is Application of folded dipole? 13. UHF and Microwave Antennas-II ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. What are the parameters to be considered for the design of an helical antenna? 5. Why folded dipole antenna is used in yagi antenna? 4.List out the uses of loop antenna 11. How to increase the radiation resistance of a loop antenna 10. What are the types of radiation modes of operation for an helical antenna 7. List the applications of helical antenna 6.Explain the sectorial E-plane horn and sectorial horn and list out the applications of horn antenna. 14. What do you meant by sectoral horn? 8.

Explain the principle of operation of dielectric lens antenna. What is Corner Reflector? 6.Write short notes on Zoning and Tolerances of Lens Antennas. Write about tolerance on lens antennas briefly? 15. Explain the characteristics of an active square corner reflector with the help of image principle? 11. Explain briefly about artificial dielectric lens antennas? 14. Write short notes on: a) short-focus lens b)long -focus lens c) zoned lens 16. 14. What is back lobe radiation? 2. 12. 15. the feed methods for parabolic reflectors? 8.Compare Parabolic and Corner Reflector Antennas. What is Flat Reflector? 5.What are the advantages of Cassegrain feed. What is a dielectric lens antenna? 10. What are secondary antennas? Give examples? 3.Write Four main advantages of Micro Strip Antennas. Explain in brief about reflector types? 10. 7. Discuss the application of the image antennas concept to the 90 0 corner reflector? 6. How is equality of path applicable? Short Questions: 1. What are the applications of corner reflector? 4.4. Explain the patterns of large circular apertures with uniform illumination. What are the drawbacks of lens antenna? 9.Give Applications of Micro Strip Antennas. Briefly explain about flat sheet reflector? 5. Explain briefly with related diagrams . . What are the different types of lens antenna? 8. Explain about e-plane metal plate lens antennas? 13.What are the advantages of lens antenna? 11. 16. 13. Describe the cassegrain feed mechanism of a parabolic reflectors? 9.Mention the uses of lens antenna? 12. Uses of Corner Reflector? 7. Give a brief discussion about non-metallic dielectric lens antennas.

10. 6. What is an array factor? Find the array factor of two element array.Derive the field components and draw the field pattern for two point source with spacing of λ/2 and fed with Currents of equal magnitude but out of phase by . 11. 2. What are the various differences between binomial and linear arrays? 8. Find the radiation pattern of 4 isotropic elements fed in phase . Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of linear arrays. What is uniform linear array? Discuss the application of linear array? 5. . What is broad side array? Compare it with end-fire array? 7. Derive the conditions for the linear array of N isotropic elements to radiate in end fire and broad side mode? 3. What are antenna arrays? Explain about different types of arrays? 9.spaced λ/2 apart by using pattern multiplication? 4.What is end fire array? Derive expressions for the radiation pattern for an end fire array of ‘N’ identical elements. Derive the field components and draw the field pattern for two point source with spacing of λ/2 and fed with Currents of equal magnitude and phase.UNIT:4 Antenna Arrays and Measurements ESSAY QUESTIONS 1.

Explain the coordinate system used for antenna measurement. 13.Define beam width of major lobe UNIT-5 WAVE PROPAGATION ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. 14. 3.Describe about the general considerations in linear broadside arrays with non-uniform amplitude distribution. support you answer with a neat diagram. Write short notes on Binomial Arrays. Write short notes on antenna pattern measurements? 18. What Are The Types Of Propagation And Give The Typical Frequency Range Of Each Propagation? 2. What is the Basic concept in Antenna measurements 5. What is meant by uniform linear array 2. What is the advantage of pattern multiplication 8. What are the several advantages of Far field measurement 6. With The Help Of Neat Diagram Derive The Expression For The Electric Field Strength At The Receiving Point Due To The Space Wave Propagation? . What is the principle of the pattern multiplication 10.Derive Hansen-woodyard condition for N element end fire array for enhancing its directivity.Differentiate broad side and End fire array 11.Write a detail note on near-field and far-field of an antenna? 15. What are the different sources of errors in antenna measurement 7. Draw the neat setup for measuring gain of an antenna? 19.Differentiate broad side and End fire array 12. 16. Discuss in details about the sources of errors in antenna measurements? 17. What is Antenna Array and Write the Principle of Multiplication of patterns. What are the advantages of binomial array 9.12. Write a note on gain measurement by direct comparison method? Short Questions: 1. Briefly Explain About The Plane Earth Reflection In Ground Wave? 3. 4.

Define Virtual Height and Skip distance 4.Define LUHF 11.Briefly describe the following terms connected with sky-wave propagation: virtual height. Explain the terms and their significance with related diagrams: a) LUF b) OF. 12. Define LUF and UF 3. Define gyro frequency 8. maximum usable frequency. 15.What are the types of Ground wave 12.Name the possible modes of propagation 13. Describe the mechanism of reflection and refraction in sky-wave propagation? 10. 14. 5. critical frequency. 6.4. Define secant law 10.What is inverse and multi path fading . State And Explain Sommerfield Equation For Ground Wave Propagation? Write A Short Notes On Duct Propagation? Derive The Expression For The Los Range Of Space Wave Propagation? What Is Angle Of Tilt? How Does It Effect The Field Strength At A Distance From The Transmitter? 8.Establish the effects of D-layer in sky-wave propagation? 11. What are the factors that affect the propagation of radio waves 7. Discuss the silent features of sky wave propagation? 9. Short Questions: 1.Derive an expression for the refractive index of ionosphere by making suitable assumptions. What is Tropospheric Scatter 9.Explain how ionosphere reflects low frequency and high frequency waves? 13. Derive the relation between MUF and skip distance. skip distance and fading. Define Critical frequency and MUF 2. What are the different types of wave propagations that can exist 6. Obtain the relation between MUF and Skip distance 5. 7.

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SET- Sign of the Invigilator DATE: 11/09/2015 TIME: 90 MIN Max. Kurnool – 518 004 Year & Semester: Name of the Subject: MID – I SUBJECTIVE PAPER R13 III B.RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN Nandikotkur Road.Tech. I SEM ECE ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION Regd. Marks: 30M .No.

(b) compare the loop antenna with short dipole? ( OR) 3. Kurnool – 518 004 2M 2M 2M 2M 2M 6M 4M 6M 4M 6M 4M 6M 4M SET- Sign of the Invigilator .PART – A (Compulsory Questions) 5 ×2=10 1.(a)Explain about rectangular patch antenna briefly with a neat diagrams? (b)Write a short note on helical antenna? ( OR) 5.(a)Describe briefly about contacting feed methods in microstrip antenna? (b)Mention some limitations of microstrip patch antenna? RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN Nandikotkur Road. 4.Answer the following : Marks) ¿ (a) Define antenna beam efficiency and stray factor? (b)Explain about retarded current and retarded time? (c) Define loop antenna ? Mension different shapes of loop antenna? (d )Explain pitch angle? What happens when α= 0 and α=90? (e)what do you mean by microstrip antenna? PART –B Note: Answer: TWO Questions .(a)Explain the concept of”array with parasistic elements” and give its Radiation patterns? (b)Show the radiation resistance of a halfwave dipole is 73 ohms. Either 2nd or 3rd Question & Either 4th or 5th Question (2 ×10=20 Marks) 2. (a) What is Lorentz gauge condition? Explain.

Answer the following : Marks) ¿ (a) Compare electric scalar and magnetic vector potentials? (b)define antenna efficiency and FBR? (c) Why folded dipole antenna is used in yagi-uda antenna? (d )classify different types of horn antennas? (e)List some of the applications of microstrip patch antenna? Marks 2M 2M 2M 2M 2M PART –B Note: Answer: TWO Questions . Kurnool – 518 004 6M 4M 6M 4M 6M 4M SET- .(a)Explain an impact of different paramenters on characteristics of patch ? (b)What is the principle of equality of path length ? how it is applicable to horn Antenna? ( OR) 5.No.contacting feed methods in microstrip antenna? (a)List out some advantages of microstrip patch antenna? RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN Nandikotkur Road.5? 4.Year & Semester: Name of the Subject: MID – I SUBJECTIVE PAPER R13 III B. Marks: 30M Regd. (a) Derive the expression for effective length of Half Wave Dipole ? (b) Derive an expression for the impedance of the folded dipole? 6M 4M ( OR) 3. PART – A (Compulsory Questions) 5 ×2=10 1.(a)List out the types of horn antenna and explain what optimum horn is? (b)Show that the directivity of short dipole is 1. Either 2nd or 3rd Question & Either 4th or 5th Question (2 ×10=20 Marks) 2.Tech. I SEM ECE ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION DATE: 11/09/2015 TIME: 90 MIN Max.(a)Describe briefly about non.

Sign of the Invigilator Year & Semester: Name of the Subject: MID – I SUBJECTIVE PAPER III B.(a)Explain about the monofilar axial mode of operation with following design Considerations? 6M (b)explain about the monopole antenna design? 4M 4. Marks: 30M Regd. PART – A (Compulsory Questions) 5 ×2=10 1. I SEM ECE R13 ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION DATE: 11/09/2015 TIME: 90 MIN Max.(a)Explain about various characteristic of patch antenna ? (b)Explain the characteristic of folded dipole antenna? ( OR) 5.Answer the following : Marks) ¿ a) Mention different types of radiation patterns? (b)Explain Induction field (or near field ) and radiation field? (c)list out applications and advantages of helical antenna? d )Mention some applications of loop antenna? (e)List some of the advantages of microstrip patch antenna? PART –B Note: Answer: TWO Questions .No. Either 2nd or 3rd Question & Either 4th or 5th Question (2 ×10=20 Marks) 2. (a) Define the term input impedance of an antenna and prove the equality 6M Of impedance in receiving and transmitting modes (b) Derive the expression for radiation resistance of a small loop antenna? ( OR) 3.Tech.(a)what are different feed methods present in microstrip antenna? 6M (a)derive cutoff frequency for rectangular patch antenna? Marks 2M 2M 2M 2M 2M 4M 6M 4M 4M .

No.Tech. (a) Derive an expression for the magnetic field radiated by a halfwave dipole antenna? (b) Explain why the folded dipole has a greater bandwidth than the straight dipole? ( OR ) 3.Answer the following : Marks) ¿ (a) Compare HPBW and BWBF? (b)State antenna gain? (c) Explain Axial ratio of a helical antenna? (d )List out some applications of loop antenna? (e)Mention some of the advantages of microstrip patch antenna? Marks 2M 2M 2M 2M 2M PART –B Note: Answer: TWO Questions . Either 2nd or 3rd Question & Either 4th or 5th Question (2 ×10=20 Marks) 2.(a)Derive an expression for the electric field radiated by a small loop antenna? 6M (b)state and prove reciprocity theorem for antennas? 4M 4. PART – A (Compulsory Questions) 5 ×2=10 1.RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN Nandikotkur Road.(a)State some salient features of microstrip patch antenna? 6M (b)Derive the expression for dipole with parasitic element? ( OR) 5. Marks: 30M Regd. Kurnool – 518 004 Year & Semester: Name of the Subject: MID – I SUBJECTIVE PAPER III B.(a)Explain about the contacting feed schemes applied in microstrip patch antenna? 6M (a)List out some limitations for microstrip patch antenna? 6M 4M 4M 4M . I SEM ECE R13 ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION SET- Sign of the Invigilator DATE: 11/09/2015 TIME: 90 MIN Max.

I SEM ECE ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION SET- Sign of the Invigilator DATE: 11/09/2015 TIME: 90 MIN Max.No. (a) Briefly Explain About The Plane Earth Reflection In Ground Wave? 6M (b) Find the radiation pattern of 4 isotropic elements fed in phase . Marks: 30M Regd. Kurnool – 518 004 Year & Semester: Name of the Subject: MID – II SUBJECTIVE PAPER R13 III B.spaced λ/2 apart by using pattern multiplication? 4M ( OR) 3.Tech.(a) With The Help Of Neat Diagram Derive The Expression For The Electric Field Strength At The Receiving Point Due To The Space Wave Propagation? (b)Briefly explain the impedance measurement of a horn antenna by using slotted line method. ( e) What is wave tilt? PART –B Note: Answer: TWO Questions .RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN Nandikotkur Road. (b) What is field pattern? (c) Explain method for directivity measurement? (d) Explain the salient features of ground wave propagation. linear array of n elements.(a) Briefly explain about flat sheet reflector? (b) Describe the cassegrain feed mechanism of a parabolic reflectors? 4M 6M 6M . PART – A (Compulsory Questions) 5 ×2=10 1. 6M (b) State And Explain Sommerfield Equation For Ground Wave Propagation? 4M 4.(a) Determine the fields at any far point P for uniform.listing the necessary relations? 4M ( OR) 5.Answer the following : Marks) ¿ (a) Explain the features of paraboloidal reflector. Either 2nd or 3rd Question & Either 4th or 5th Question (2 ×10=20 Marks) Marks 2M 2M 2M 2M 2M 2.

2M PART –B Note: Answer: TWO Questions . 2M (e) Mention the effects of earth’s curvature on space wave propagation.RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN Nandikotkur Road. 2M (b) Mention the applications of linear arrays. (a) Describe the mechanism of reflection and refraction in sky-wave propagation? 6M (b) Determine the expression for total far field for the two point sources with currents of unequal magnitudes and With same phase 4M (OR) 3. Either 2nd or 3rd Question & Either 4th or 5th Question (2 ×10=20 Marks) 2.4M ( OR) . 6M (b) Write A Short Notes On Duct Propagation? 4M 4. Kurnool – 518 004 Year & Semester: Name of the Subject: MID – II SUBJECTIVE PAPER R13 III B. Marks: 30M PART – A (Compulsory Questions) 1. 6M (b) Derive Hansen-woodyard condition for N element end fire array for enhancing its directivity.No. (a) Derive expressions for the radiation pattern for an end fire array of ‘N’ identical elements. I SEM ECE ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION Regd.Tech. SETSign of the Invigilator DATE: 11/09/2015 TIME: 90 MIN Max.Answer the following : 5 ×2=10 Marks) ¿ Marks (a) Discuss the features of the corner reflector. 2M (c) Draw the neat setup for measuring gain of an antenna? 2M (d ) Explain the reduction factor in ground wave propagation.(a) Derive the relation between MUF and skip distance.

6M (b) Write about tolerance on lens antennas briefly? 4M RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN Nandikotkur Road.No. 2M (d ) State the sommerfield equation for ground wave propagation. (a) Explain the concept of wave propagation through the different layers of atmosphere.(a) Explain the principle of operation of dielectric lens antenna. PART – A (Compulsory Questions) 1. 2M PART –B Note: Answer: TWO Questions . Either 2nd or 3rd Question & Either 4th or 5th Question (2 ×10=20 Marks) 2.(a) Derive the field components and draw the field pattern for two point source with spacing of λ/2 and fed with Currents of equal magnitude but out of phase by . 2M (b) List some advantages of pattern multiplication. 6M (b) Briefly describe the following terms : virtual height. critical frequency 4M 4. 2M (e) Discuss the atmospheric effects in space wave propagation. 6M 4M ( OR) 3.(a) Is Angle Of Tilt? How Does It Effect The Field Strength At A Distance From The Transmitter? 6M (b) Describe about the general considerations in linear broadside arrays with non-uniform . (b) Derive Compare broadside array and end-fire array. I SEM ECE TIME: 90 MIN Max. Marks: 30M ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION Regd.Tech.Answer the following : 5 ×2=10 Marks) ¿ Marks (a) Define zoning of lenses. 2M (c) State the source of errors in antenna measurement.5. Kurnool – 518 004 Year & Semester: Name of the Subject: SET- Sign of the Invigilator MID – II SUBJECTIVE PAPER R13 DATE: 11/09/2015 III B.

amplitude distribution. 2M (b) Write the advantages and disadvantages of binomial array.? 4M ( OR) 3. Marks: 30M PART – A (Compulsory Questions) 1.(a) What are antenna arrays? Explain about different types of arrays? (b) Derive The Expression For The Los Range Of Space Wave Propagation? 6M 4M . I SEM ECE Name of the Subject: SETR13 ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION Regd.No.Answer the following : 5 ×2=10 Marks) ¿ Marks (a) Write the merits and demerits of dielectric lens antenna. 2M (c) Write short notes on antenna pattern measurements? 2M (d ) Write the expression for field strength ‘E’ in ground wave propagation. Either 2nd or 3rd Question & Either 4th or 5th Question (2 ×10=20 Marks) 2. the feed methods for parabolic reflectors? 6M (b) Describe the performance of paraboloids with respect to aperture blocking? 4M RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN Nandikotkur Road.Tech. 2M (e) Write short notes on M-curves 2M PART –B Note: Answer: TWO Questions . Kurnool – 518 004 Year & Semester: MID – II SUBJECTIVE PAPER III B. (a) Briefly describe the following terms maximum usable frequency.(a) Explain briefly with related diagrams . skip distance and fading? 6M (b) Determine the expression for total far field for the two point sources with currents of unequal magnitudes and With same phase. 4M ( OR) 5. Sign of the Invigilator DATE: 11/09/2015 TIME: 90 MIN Max.

A chain of hertzian dipole is a _________________ .Tech . Kurnool – 518 004 Year & Semester: Name of the Subject: MID – I OBJECTIVE PAPER III B. Radiation resistance dissipates an amount of power that is equal to _____________________ 2. 4M ( OR) 5. The half wave dipole contains two legs each of length___________ 8. The ability of an antenna to extract energy from an EM wave is termed as _________________ 6.determine array length and width of the major lobe. Max.I SEM Branch:ECE R13 DATE:11-09-2015 TIME: 20 minutes ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION Regd. . An isotropic radiator has the directivity of _____________________________ 5.No. 9. (b) An end-fire array with elements spaced at λ/2 and with axes of elements at right angles to the line of array is required to have directivity of 36. Effective of an antenna in terms of directive gain and power gain is _____________ 3.4. 7.(a) Explain about e-plane metal plate lens antennas? 6M (b) Explain the about an active square corner reflector with the help of image principle? 4M SET- RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN Nandikotkur Road. The dipole are fed at __________ . The ___________ method is used to calculate the power radiated by half-wave dipole antenna. Marks: 10M 1.(a) Explain the terms and their significance with related diagrams: a) LUF 6M b) OF. The beam efficiency of an antenna can be defined as the ratio of ________________ to ________ 4.

A λ/2 parasitic element acts as _________ when its length is greater than its 13. The efficiency of an antenna in terms of radiated antenna and ohmic losses is [ ] ωr a) ω r +ω l b) ωl ω r +ω l c) 2 ωr ω r +ω l d) 2 ωl ω r +ω l 17. The relation between antenna’s size and frequency is. [ ] a)directly proportional frequency b)inversely proportional d) inversely proportional to the square of the frequency ] c)independent of [ . If the field radiated by the helical antenna is maximum in the plane along the axis. then it is operating in_______ mode. IN ____________ elements. The ___________ antenna with three elements including one reflector.10. The variation of radiated power with an elevation angle is called ______ [ ] a) electric field pattern d) none. b) magnetic field pattern c) power pattern 18. 12. one driven element and one director is Commonly called beam antenna. 15. The impedance of folded dipole in yagi-uda antenna is _________ resistive. If ‘l’ is the actual length of a linear antenna then its effective length ‘le’ when the current distribution is in linear fashion is given ___________________ 11. 16. currents are induced due to the field in other elements. 14.

What is relation between the effective aperture and directivity __________________ SET- RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN Nandikotkur Road. 3.I SEM Branch:ECE R13 ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION Regd.No.19. Friis transmission formula is. front-to-back ratio is power radiated in ___________________ direction to the power radiated in _________ direction. pR = __________________________________ 5. A loop consists of more than one turn is called _________. . ___________ antennas are used to find the direction of radiation. 7. Kurnool – 518 004 Year & Semester: Name of the Subject: MID – I OBJECTIVE PAPER III B. an electrical length of the parasitic element can be adjusted. DATE:11-09-2015 TIME: 20 minutes Max. if the _____________ and _______________ of the field are known at a point then any Vector can be defined uniquely. The noise temperature of an antenna is equal to its __________________________ temperature. 6. 4. According to the Helmholtz theorem.then the relation between effective length and actual length [ ] a) Leff < L b) Leff > L c) Leff = L d) Leff = 3 L 20. With the help of ________________ method.Tech . Marks: 10M 1. 2. If ‘Leff’ is an effective length and ‘L’ is the actual length of antenna.

The radiation resistance of half-wave dipole is [ ] a)71Ω b)73Ω c)80Ω d)85Ω . The far fields of small loop and short loop dipoles are in ___________quadrature. An antenna having a large number of very short conductors connected in series is [ ] a) linear antenna the above. 10. Microstrip antennas are used for frequencies above _______ 13. 14.beam width is increased (Yes/No). If reactive component is added in microstrip antenna. The radiation resistance of small loop antenna is ________________ 9.then its directivity is _________.. 15.8. 11.beam width increases(Yes/No). When the directivity of an antenna increases then its beam width [ ] a) increases no effect b) decreased c) increases by 2 times d) 17. 16.beam width can be increased by_________ the thickness of the strip. b)non-linear antenna c)dipole antenna d) none of 18. If the diameter of a circular loop is 1. Microstrip antennas are used because of small ______________________________ 12. If ϵr of substrate is high in microstrip antenna. In microstrip antennas.5 λ.

The characteristics Impedance Zo of microstrip antenna is_______________ .I SEM Branch:ECE Name of the Subject: R13 ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION Regd. b)2times c)half d)none of 20. Kurnool – 518 004 Year & Semester: MID – I OBJECTIVE PAPER III B. The band width of microstrip antenna is ______________ 4 . The radiation resistance of a small loop antenna is ] 2 a)20 π C λ 2 b) 30 π C λ [ 2 c) 40 π C λ d) 60 π 2Cλ SET- RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN Nandikotkur Road. The radiation beam of microstrip antenna is ________________ 5. [ ] a)3times the above. DATE:11-09-2015 TIME: 20 minutes Max.19.Tech . Marks: 10M 1.maxwell’s equation is ______________________________ 2. If reactive component is added in microstrip antennas voltage standing wave ratio is increased (Yes/No).No. 3. Due to non-existence of monopole . The radiation resistance of a quarter wave monopole antenna is______________ of the resistance of a dipole.

15. Directors in yagi-uda antenna are ________________________ ] a) 1 b) 2 3)3 17. Patch antenna are ____________________ 8. 9.the shape of the patch antenna is___________ 14. 13.(Yes/No). Parasitic element is capacitive in nature when. 11. The __________ is obtained when tapering in done is the direction of electric field vector. For producing circular polarized waves. 7. ] a)its length is less than resonant length. The optimum pitch angle for the axial mode of helical antenna is at ____________ 12. Patch is made up of dielectric material. The desired polarization can be obtained by different ___________of the microstrip antenna. The pyramidal horn can be obtained by taperring both the walls of ___________ wave guide in both the electric and magnetic field vectors 10.6. Method of moments is useful to solve ________________________. Helical antenna provided _______________ polarization ] [ d)one or more [ . The tappering in a gradual exponential manner ___________ the reflections of guided waves. length c) its length is twice the resonant length [ b) its length is greater than resonant d)none 16.

a)circular
these

b)rectangular

c) elliptical

d)none of

18. Induction field is indicated by the presence of ______ term
19. Radiated resistance of the quarter wave monopole is _______
20. Expression for the relationship between effective area and directivity is
__________

SET-

RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN
Nandikotkur Road, Kurnool – 518 004
Year & Semester:
Name of the Subject:

MID – I OBJECTIVE PAPER
III B.Tech ,I SEM
Branch:ECE

R13

DATE:11-09-2015
TIME: 20 minutes

ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION
Regd.No.

Max. Marks: 10M

1. If the axial ratio of a helix is ‘0’ then ________ polarization
becomes____________ polarization.
2. The pitch angle of helical antenna is given by
−1 S
a)α= tan πD

−1 πD
b)α= tan S

[
−1 S
c)α= tan π

()

d)none
3. If the flare angle Ψ is small, then the area of the wave front is
approximately___ aperture
[
]

]

a)less than

b)greater than

c) equal to

d)none

4. The size of the closed loop antenna and its radiation efficiency are
a)directly proportional to each other
each other
c)independent to each other

[

]

b)inversely proportional to
d)none of the above

5. The typical value of beam area for patch antenna is ______________
6______________________________technology is used to manufacture patch
antenna.
7. The patch antenna acts as a ________________________________________
8. The thickness of the patch is ______________________

9. Helical antenna produces circular polarization. (yes /no)
10. The radiation pattern of vertical and horizontal dipoles are identical ( yes/no)
11. Expression for the relationship between effective area and directivity is
__________.
12. The patterns of half-wave dipole and quarter wave dipole monopole are
identical
(yes /no).
1

13 The half power beam width in terms of null-to-null beam width is HPBW= 2
BWFN
(yes /no).
14. Desired power of side lobes is waste power in undesired direction. (yes /no)

15. The directivity gain is increases as the antenna length increases. (Yes /no)
16. The radiated fields of z-directed half wave dipole consists of

,

Er

,

terms
(yes /no).
17. Standing waves are produced in non resonant antennas (yes/ no)
18. Travelling waves are produced in resonant antennas (yes/ no)
19. The effective height of the patch antenna is______________
20. The effective aperture of the patch antenna is_____________________

RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF
SETENGINEERING FOR WOMEN
Sign of the Invigilator
Nandikotkur Road, Kurnool –
518 004
MID – II OBJECTIVE PAPER
R13
DATE:
13/11/2015
Year &
Semester:
Name of
the
Subject:

III B.Tech, I SEM

ECE A & B TIME: 20 MIN

ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION (13A04501)

Max. Marks:
10M

Regd.No
.

1) The reflector antenna when excited with other antenna such as dipole then reflector antenna is said to
be

13) The reyleigh criterion. 16) The power gain of the paraboloid reflector is given by ____________________ 17) The hyperboloid reflector.-----------------------------------.whose foci coincides with the focus of the paraboloid reflector is called _____________________________________ . 12) The ______________________ of electromagnetic wave is due to the transverse nature of the wave. 2) -------------------------------is the simplest form of reflector antenna. R= 4 πσ sin φ λ in the reflection of radio waves from plane surface of earth. 7) The progressive phase shift of an end-fire array is ________________ 8) directivity of a broad side array of 5λ length is _______________________ 9) An end fire array has the null-to-null beam width of _____________________ 10) The directivity of an end fire array with increased directivity is ______________________ 11) An electromagnectic wave is incident normally on a dielectric boundary will partly _____________ and ___________.’φ’ represents ________________________________________ 14) Vertical polarization is employed for the ground wave propagation because attenuation offered by it will be _____________________________ 15) The field strength of the ground wave can be divided into ___________________ and ______________________. 6) An array of elements for which the radiation is maximum in the direction of normal to the array axis is called _______________________ array. 3) The angle at which the two plane reflectors are joined is called ____________________ 4) The design equation for the corner reflector is given By____________________ 5) The paraboloid which produces sharp major lobes and smaller minor lobes is called as_____________.

[ ] a)smaller than twice b)larger than thrice c) smaller than thrice d)larger than twice. 19) The open end of the parabolic reflector is called ______ ] a)aperture b) hollow c) a) and b) [ d) none.to get smaller included angles. the 2) Reflector is called primary antenna (yes/no) antenna is illuminated . Marks: 10M Regd. I SEM ECE A & B ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION (13A04501) TIME: 20 MIN Max. 20) The half-power beamwidth for large circular aperture is given by HPBW= ____ [ A) 115 λ degree L b)115λ degree c) 58 λ degree d ] d) none RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING SETFOR WOMEN Sign of the Invigilator Nandikotkur Road.No. by__________________.18) The sides of the corner reflector are made ________ the feed to vertex spacing. 1) In all antenna measurements. Kurnool – 518 004 MID – II OBJECTIVE PAPER R13 DATE: 13/11/2015 Year & Semester: Name of the Subject: III B.Tech.

the excitation of_____________ elements is very strong 10) All the tchebyscheff polynomials oscillate between the values ______________ 11) An excitation value of the broad-side array is [ ] a) 0 b)1 c)2 d)3 12) The change of orientation of vertically polarized ground wave at the surface of the earth is called_______________ 13) VLF waves are used for some type of services because they are _______________ 14) ________________is defined as the lowest natural frequency at which charged particles spiral in a fixed magnetic field. 6) The binomial array has_______________ side lobe level 7) The product of the pattern of the individual antenna with its array pattern is called ____________________________________________ 8) The null-to-null beam width of an antenna ______________ with the increase in its array length. 5) Lens antenna are made of _______________________ material. 15) The distance covered by a direct space wave from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna is__________________________ . 9) binomial array.3) The power gain of the paraboloid is given by _____________ 4) _________________ feed is best suited for low noise rECE A & B iver applications.

17.The wave propagation through VHF band is .The frequency range 10.Tech.No .The frequency band of letter ‘w’ in GHz ranges from.Ground wave propagation is useful for a)medium-wave communication communication c)short wave propagation d)75-110 [ ] b) microwave d)none 20.30 KHz is categorized under. [ a)8-12 b) 8-18 c)40-75 19. a) sky-wave propagation propagation c)ground wave propagation propagation. [ ] a)VLF b) LF C)MF 18. I SEM B ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION (13A04501) TIME: 20 MIN Max. Kurnool – d)HF ] [ ] b)space wave d) tropospheric SETSign of the Invigilator 518 004 MID – II OBJECTIVE PAPER R13 DATE: 13/11/2015 Year & Semester : Name of the Subject: ECE A & III B. RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN Nandikotkur Road. 1) A three element binomial array has excitation level as. [ ] . Marks: 10M Regd.16) In _________________________the ray parallel to earths surface and travels round the earth with a series of hops with successive reflections from the earth.

2. 8) Ground wave is effective when the transmitting and receiving antennas are: [ ] a)vertically polarized b)horizontally polarized c) elliptically polarized d) circularly polarized 9) The reflection coefficient of incidence EM wave on the earth depends on the angle of incidence (yes/no) 10) For standard atmosphere. the ratio of equivalent radius and actual radius of the earth is ____________ 11) The duct propagation take place when dµ dh is _________________ 12) The reflection coefficient of incident wave on the earth depends on polarization of the wave.3. (yes /no ) 4) Beam shaping can be done by Fourier transform method.3.1 2) Radiation pattern can be controlled by amplitude distribution only . (yes /no ) 3) Radiation pattern can be controlled by phase control only.4.a)1. (yes /no ) 6) A linear array with certain spacing between the elements can be represented by a polynomial. (yes /no ) 5) In an array pattern. (yes /no ) 7) The frequency band of troposhperic a)UHF scatter is b)VHF [ ] c)LF d)HF.2 c)1.1 b)2. 15) The____________________________ is applicable to antenna parameters. .(yes/no) 13) A linear array with certain spacing between the elements can be represented by a polynomial.1 d)1. (yes /no ) 14) ________________________and ____________________________are common analytical methods in antenna measurements. the number of nulls can be influenced by the number of elements in an array.

16) _______________________of an antenna measurement is better than the bridge method. RAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN Nandikotkur Road. 1) The refractive index of ionized index of a ionized layer is √ 81 f 2 μ= 1+ a. 19) In all antenna measurements. Marks: 10M Regd. I SEM ECE A & B TIME: 20 MIN ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION (13A04501) Max.Tech. the antenna is illuminated by ____________________________________ 20) Critical frequency fc is determined from ________________________________. 17) The region next to the reactive near-field region is called as ___________________________ 18) The two types of amplitude errors are ___________________________and____________________________________.No . Kurnool – SETSign of the Invigilator 518 004 MID – II OBJECTIVE PAPER R13 DATE: 13/11/2015 Year & Semester: Name of the Subject: III B. a) N √ μ= 1− F2 81 N √ 81 N b) μ= 1− f 2 [ √ 81 N c) μ= 1+ F2 ] D) .

b)reflect EM energy c)refract EM energy [ d)diffract .the materials fixed to the walls.ceiling floor.2) MUF is given by a) f ccos θ b) f c secθ [ fc c) sec θ ] d) none of the above 3) E-layer of ionosphere is the lowest layer ( yes/no) 4)Maximum wavelength at which duct propagation is possible is__________________ 5) The critical frequency of the ionospheric layer is fc=______________________ 6) The height at which the wave bends towards the earth surface is called ____________________________ 7) The relation between MUF and the skip distance is given by d skip = ________________________ 8) Short wave radio broadcasting for long distance communication uses a) ground wave b)ionosphere wave of the above 9) The range of D-layer approximately extends from ] a)50 to 90 km b) 20 to 50 km upto 50 km 10) During day. 12) The antenna whose gain is accurately known and can be used for the gain measurement of other antennas is called _____________________________________. 13) In anechoic chambers.which layer does not exists a)d-layer b) F2 layer [ c)direct wave ] d)none [ c) 90 to 110 km d) [ ] c) F layer d)E- layer 11) _______________________________ is product of path difference and wave number. ] a)absorb EM energy EM energy.

14) For far-field antenna measurement .(yes/no) 20) The material of lens antenna is ____________________________ ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS UNIT I Antenna Basics and Dipole Antennas Formulas .R must be: ] 2 D a2 λ a) ≥ 2 Da λ b) [ 2 D a2 ≥ λ c) = λ 2 D a2 d) 2 ( ) 15) The efficiency of antenna aperture is. (yes/no) 19) The refractive index of lens material is different from unity. ] A em A a) b) [ D C) A eff A D d) gp gd 16) The disadvantage of lens antenna at low frequencies is____________________________ 17) Lens are preferred over parabolic reflectors at _______________________________________________ 18) Lens are used to correct the curved wave front.

s) at 480 khz having effective length of 60. i) Radiation resistance ii) Power radiated . 2. Radiation efficiency: P¿ power delivered ¿ 5. Radiation resistance of loop antenna: Rr = 31.2 Gλ 1. Radiation resistance of hertzian dipole: dl λ 2 ( ) Ω P rad e = rad 4. take loss resistance of the antenna =5Ω. Power radiated by antenna: 10. antenna effective area: A e = 4 π 2. i) An isotropic sources ii) Sources with bidirectional cos θ power pattern. Effective aperture: A e =¿ the load ( PR ) radiation power density ( W ) VA 6. m . Radiated power : 2 Rr =I Rr Ω Rr =80 π 2 3.96 meters.171 NA λ2 2 ( ) Ω Problems 1. Band width of antenna: ( BW )Broadband = f l D max = 8. Evaluate the directive of. Directivity: U max U avg U max = 4π Prad π Prad = 9. Calculate the following for an antenna carrying 50A (r. Effective length: Le = E (in meters or in terms of wavelength) fv 7. Radiation intensity :U = 2π ∫ ∫ U sin θdθdφ θ=0 φ=0 r 2 W rad 11.

10. Fine out effective length of a λ/2 antenna.s current of 50amps at a wave length of 625 mts. induction and electrostatic fields at a distance of 2λ from a short current element having a uniform current of 1mA along its length. directive gain and directivity of an antenna. 4. Directivity of loop antenna :D = 4. Maximum directivity is 22dB. 12.5 6. Calculate the radiation efficiency of an antenna if the input power is 2kW. when its pattern is unidirectional UNIT II VHF. For a source with radiation intensity u = 6 Cosθ.where C √ La 3 4.4 mts and takes ar.UHFand Microwave Antennas-I Formulas 1. . Define gain. directive gain and power gain of an antenna.iii) Antenna efficiency iv) Directivity and power gain v) HPBW and BWFN.(Ae)maz=0. Show that the directivity of short dipole is 1.find radiation resistance.and the radiated power density at a distance of 10km in the direction of the maximum directivity is0.25 ( aλ ) = 31. 11. Radiation resistance of loop antenna: Rr 2. Calculate the power gain of a half-wave dipole whose ohmic losses and directive gain are 7. Define radiation intensity. 5.M.0 ohms and 1. BWFN of the helical antenna : ϕ0 = 115 λ 2 C √ La √ LA =NS. 3. HPBW of helical antenna: ϕ = 52 λ2 . power gain. Calculate the electric field (E R. Given that Rr=73Ω.m. Prove that the Directivity of a λ /2 dipole is 2. radiated power and antenna efficiency if the antenna loss resistance is 5Ω. A transmitting antenna has an effective height of 61. find the directivity and HPBW.15 dB.171 NA λ2 2 ( ) Ω 3 3. Obtain the relative amplitude of radiation.64 ohms respectively. 7.S)) due to an isotropic radiator radiating 3 kwpower at a distance of 2km from it.13λ2 and η=120 9. 8.2mW/m2. Calculate the effective length of λ/2 antenna.

Power gain of horn antenna: 8. Pitch angle and overall length of the helix. Direcitiviy of helical antenna :D= 7. ϕH = 67 λ W Problems 1.power Gain . Design the pyramidal horn antenna with following details. 11. Directivity of horn antenna: d = 7. half-power width. beam width between the nulls and the axial ratio.5 λ . 7. Find the radiation resistance of a loop antenna of diameter 0. A pyramidal horn antenna having the mouth height (h) 10λ . Design a helical antenna operating in the axial mode that gives a directivity of 14 dB at 2.2λ. Determine the circumference. Calculate the mouth height and θE of a sectorial E-plane horn antenna having the length 45λ and frequency is 12GHz AssumeδE= 0. . What is an electromagnetic horn antenna? What are its applications? The length of an E-plane sectorial horn is 15 cms.it is desired to have Circular polarization. For this helical antenna. Design 3 element Yagi-Udaarray to operate at the frequency of 64 MHz. A circular loop antenna has a diameter of 1.find out directivity . 9. 10. Design a five turn helical antenna which is operated at 300 MHz in the axial mode and possesses circular polarization in the Major lobe. from the focus to the aperture in the principal planes) equal to 6λ and the flared lengths in E-plane and H-plane are 5.5.75λ respectively. A five turn helical antenna is operated at 400 MHz in the normal mode.frequency of operation=5ghz 12. 8.5m operating at 1MHz.5 Wd λ2 6.00 GHz frequency and the attenuation inserted was found to be 9. Calculate the gain of the horn. 13. 4.2λ 3. 2. HPBW of horn antenna: ϕE 15 NS C2 λ3 gp = = 56 4. design the horn dimensions such that it is optimum at 10 GHz. The spacing between the turns is λ/50.5λ and 2. Calculate the mouth height and θE of a sectorial E-plane horn antenna having the length 45λ and frequency is 12 GHz .4 GHz. length of the single turn LO.8λ. calculate the input impedance.HPBW in θE and θH directions.e. Mouth aperture = 10λ x10λ . Assume δE =0. 6. mouth width (w) = 13. A pyramidal horn has axial distance (i. 5. find its directivity and radiation resistance. While measuring gain of a horn antenna the gain oscillator was set for 9. Also find half power beam Width and maximum directivity. Find its directivity.8 DB. Determine circumference CA spacing between each turn for near optimum pitch angle.5 Wd 2 λ λ d . The distance between the two horns was 35 cm.

A six feet parabolic reflector is to be used at 6GHz. Evaluate the power gain directing and the required diameter of a paraboloid having a null beam width of 100 at 3GHz. Beam width. 2. Directivity. G= 140 D 2. BWFN=  70 D 3.UNIT III VHF. Calculate the beam width between first nulls and gain of the antenna in dB. For a 2element array. and the illumination efficiency is 65%. of operation is 10GH 4. Gain of the parabolic reflector antenna. beam width and effective area of a parabolic antenna for which the reflector diameter is 6 m. For what mouth diameter and capture area of a paraboloid reflector is a BWFN of 120 obtained when it is operated at 2.5 GHz. the freq.UHFand Microwave Antennas-II Formulas   D    2 10 log10 k  1. beam width between nulls of a 2 m paraboloid reflector at 8 GHz? UNIT IV Antenna Arrays and Measurements Formulas 1. Find the directivity. 5. Effective area. Aem  4. D= D 2 4 4 Aem 2 Problems 1. 3. Phase angle= 2 d cos   . Beam width between first nulls. Calculate the gain.

5 m. Calculate the directivity in dB for the broadside as well as end fire array consisting 8 isotropic elements separated by λ/2 distance. FRIIS transmission La = 10 log 2 4 πd 1 λ GT G R ( ) Problems 1. A uniform linear array consisting of isotropic radiators spaced half wavelength apart has 10 elements. 3.  d cos   2   2 E0 cos  Total field E= 2. Calculate the width of principle beam and maximum power radiated if operated as. Array factor for binomial array. A six element receiving aerial array consists of a horizontal line of vertical dipoles equally spaced by 2. i) Broadside array ii) End fire array . each element carries 0. An end-fire array with elements spaced at λ/2 and with axes of elements at right angles to the line of array is required to have directivity of 36.5 Amperes. 5.6 4L  2 L/ BWFN=  1 e  j N 1 4. = 2L  2 nd BWFN= 3. Find the phasing required to steer a bema zenith to . What are the significant properties of the pattern? Describe the directional characteristics of this array at 400 Mhz and 40 Mhz.for a 5-element array with 0. 4. Endfire array directivity= 114. the outputs of which are added in phase. AF= 5.4 λ inter element spacing. Broadside array directivity. Determine array length and width of the major lobe. 2. Minimum distance required between transmitting and receiving antenna in pattern measurement= 2D 2  6.

d km =√ 17 ht (m) + 5.125λ and z2=0. kept at z1=-0. provide a ground wave having a strength of 0. The field strength due to ground wave is E = AEO d 3. The maximum wavelength of the duct propagation is 10. . UNIT-5 WAVE PROPAGATION FORMULAS: 4 πht hr 1.5 hd √ Δ M ×10−6 2h tanθ c . Skip distance . d miles = √ 2h f (feet ) 4.5mv/m at a distance of 16km. 9. The field strength due to space wave is E= λd 2 2. 10. The pattern is to be optimum with a Side lobe level 26dB down the main lobe maximum. 64 isotropic elements are to be arranged in a binomial array form.6. Radio horizon. The critical frequency of the layer is 6. Show that the rms value of the electric field Erms produced at a distance of‘r’ km in free space by an antenna gain G and radiating a power of P kw isgiven by Erms=173 pPG/r mv/m.125λ and carrying currents I1=ejΠ/4 and I2= e-jΠ/4 respectively 7. The received voltage due to the ground wave is V = 8. Calculate the directions of the maxima and the nulls of the array factor of an array of two infinitesimal dipoles oriented along the z-direction. Refractive index n of ionosphere layer is given by √ 9. Design an 8 element broadside array of isotropic sources of λ/2 spacing between elements. MUF = + volt/m √ 2h r(feet ) √ 17 hr (m ) f c = 9 √ N max f c sec θi η 0 h t hr I λd 7. 8. Two aircrafts are flying at altitudes of 3000m and 5000m respectively. ds= 1− volts 81 N max f2 λmax = 2. What is minimum possible distance along the surface of the earth over which they can have effective point to point microwave communication? Radius of earth is 6. Calculate the minimum distance required to measure the field pattern of an antenna of diameter2m at a frequency of 3GHz. 2. Derive the necessary equation. Obtain the array factor of a binomial array of 6 isotropic radiators. Questions: 1.37 × 106 meters. Determine the current ratios and fine polar plot of the array. Radio horizon .

37 × 106 meters 7. Show that the rms value of the electric field Erms produced at a distance of‘r’ km in free space by an antenna gain G and radiating a power of P kw is given by Erms=173 pPG/r mv/m. The antenna is connected to a pre-amplifier that has a noise figure of 2 dB and an available gain of 40 dB over an effective bandwidth of 12 MHz.5 K and Pao = 3.85×10-10 W (D) Te = 160.An antenna pointing in a certain direction has a noise temperature of 50 K.frequency of 3operation is100MHz. Whatis minimum 6. The transmitter antenna.36 K and Pao = 3. having an efficiency of 50% produces a radiating field proportional of cosθ.99%. 12. A communication link is to be established between the two stations using half wavelength antenna for maximum directive gain . frequency f=1. 13. The antenna of a TV transmitter is located at a height of 500ftcalculate and plot as function ofdistance to the transmitter. respectively.62 K and Pao = 4. What is the highest frequency that will be returned to earth 1000km from the transmitter by the E layer? 11.8 K and Pao = 4. and distance between transmitter and receiver is 100Km.Transmitter power is 1KW.whatis the maximum power received by the receiver. Derive the formulas used.6×10-10 W . Calculatethe maximum LOS range. Determine the height of the transmitting antenna to obtain a maximum dis-tance of transmission up to 38km from a 24meter high receiving antenna? 9. A television transmitting antenna mounted at a height of 120m radiates 15kw power equally in all directions in azimuth at a frequency of 50MHz. The ground wave has σ= 5 × 10−5 mho/cm and εr= 15.3. the distance at which the field strength reduces to 1mv/m.73×10-10 W (B) Te = 170. thefieldstrength at a receiving antenna mounted at a height of 16m at a distance of 12km. 4.8GHz smooth terrain. are (A) Te = 169. the height that the receiving antenna must have in order to be abovethe radio horizon? PREVIOUS GATE PAPER SOLUTIONS GATE :2016 1. Two aircrafts are flying at altitudes of 3000m and 5000m respectively. 8. 5. possible distance along the surface of the earth over which theycan have effective point to point microwave communication? Radius of earthis 6. Calculate the power transmitted. humid climate and reliably objective 99. Determine the fade margin for the following conditions: distance between sites D=40Km.56×10-10 W (C) Te = 182. The effective input noise temperature T e for the amplifier and the noise power Pao at the output of the preamplifier. Explain and derive the formulas 10. Determine the maximum usable frequency for a critical frequency of 20MHz and an angle of incidence of 350. The ambient temperature is 290 K.

256C0 .5C0 . A radar operating at 5 GHz uses a common antenna for transmission and reception. The amplitude reflection coefficients at the terminals of the transmitting and receiving antennas are 0. 12dB (B) 1. The antenna has a gain of 150 and is aligned for maximum directional radiation and reception to a target 1 km away having radar cross-section of 3 m2. Assuming that the input power in the lossless transmission line connected to the antenna is 2 W. The power radiated by the antenna (in watts) and the maximum directivity of the antenna. The maximum directivities of the transmitting and receiving antennas (over the isotropic antenna) are 18 dB and 22 dB.Answer:Option A 2. the power ( in mW) delivered to the load at the receiver is 3mW 3. are (A) 1.5C0 . 10dB 1. then the received power (in µW) is .15 and 0. If it transmits 100 kW. 10dB (C) 1. respectively. The far-zone power density radiated by a helical antenna is approximated as: ⃗ ´ rad W average ≈ W = a^ C0 1 r2 cos 4 θ The radiated power density is symmetrical with respect to φ and exists only in the upper hemisphere: �0 is a constant. 12dB (D) Answer:Option C 4.256C0 . respectively. respectively.18. Two lossless X-band horn antennas are separated by a distance of 200λ. and that the antennas are perfectly aligned and polarization matched.

For an antenna radiating in free space. Column A 1. the magnitude of average power density due to this antenna at a distance of 2 km from the antenna (in nW/m2 ) is ____.012 GATE:2015 1. Point electromagnetic source Column B P. as a larger number of elements (A) improves the radiation efficiency (B) increases the effective area of the antenna (C) results in a better impedance matching (D) allows more power to be transmitted by the antenna Answer:Option B GATE:2014 1. Yagi-Uda antenna R. Correct Ans :: 47. Match column A with column B.The directivity of an antenna array can be increased by adding more antenna elements.6 to 47. Isotropic . End fire 3. Dish antenna Q. the electric field at a distance of 1 km is found to be 12 mV/m. Highly directional 2. Given that intrinsic impedance of the free space is 120πΩ.0.8 2.

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A most antenna consisting of a 50 meter long vertical conductor operates over a perfectly conducting ground plane.Correct Ans :: (B) GATE:2008 1. the total power radiated by the horn antenna into the free space is (A) 5W (B)8W (C)10W (D)15W Answer: Option C 2. the gain of a parabolic dish antenna of 1 meter diameter and 70% efficiency is (A) 15Db (B) 25dB (C) 35dB (D) 45Db ANS:D 2.A transmission line is feeding 1 watt of power to a horn antenna having a gain of 10db. π2 (b) 5 4 π2 (c) 5 (d) 20 π 2 .the antenna is matched to the transmission line. For a Hertz dipole antenna.The radiation resistance of the antenna in ohms is 2 π2 (a) 5 Answer :Option C.it is base-fed at a frequency of 600Khz. the half power beam width (HPBW) in the E-plane is (A) 360º (B) 180º (C) 90º D) 45º Answer: Option B GATE:2006 1. At 20GHz.

GATE:2004 1.if 1mw of power is fed to it the total power radiated by the antenna will be. (a)4mw Answer : (A) (b)1mw (c)7mw (d)1/4mw .consider a lossless antenna with a directive gain of +6 db.