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# Mathematisches Institut der Universit¨at M¨

unchen
Prof. Laszlo Erdos, PhD

18.12.2007

Solution to midterm exam
in functional analysis
Problem 1. Let A be a non-empty subset of a metric space (M, d). Prove that the function
f (x) = dist (x, A) := inf d(x, y)
y∈A

on M is continuous.
Solution. For any x, z ∈ M we have
dist (x, A) = inf d(x, y) ≤ inf (d(x, z) + d(z, y)) = d(x, z) + dist (z, A).
y∈A

y∈A

It follows that |f (x) − f (z)| ≤ d(x, z), i.e. f is Lipschitz continuous.
Problem 2. Let K(x, y) be a continuous non-negative function on [0, 1] × [0, 1]. Define the
linear operator T by
Z 1
T f (x) =
K(x, y)f (y)dy.
0

L1 [0, 1],

a) Prove that if f ∈
then T f ∈ C[0, 1].
b) Consider T as a linear operator T : L1 [0, 1] → (C[0, 1], k · k∞ ). Prove that its norm
kT k = max K(x, y).
x,y∈[0,1]

Solution.
a) The functon K is uniformly continuous since it is continuous on a compact set. Then

Z 1 .

x→x .

.

|T f (x) − T f (x0 )| = .

y) − K(x0 . y))f (y)dy . (K(x.

1] K(x. y∈[0. kT f k∞ 1 .y∈[0. ≤ kf k1 max |K(x. y) − K(x0 .1] 0 b) Let M = maxx. y)| −→0 0. On the one hand. y).

Z .

= sup .

1] 0 . x∈[0.

.

K(x. y)f (y)dy .

y) ≥ M −  for y ∈ (y0 − . Problem 3. y0 ) = M. 1].y0 +] k = 6 0. For a given  > 0. Define the function g on [0. choose δ > 0 such that K(x0 . ≤ M kf k1 . Let f be a function on [0. y0 ) be the point such that K(x0 . Prove that if f ∈ L3 [0. Letting  → 0. To prove that kT k ≥ M . y0 + ) (this is possible since K is continuous).y0 +] )(x0 )| = 0 1 K(x0 . it follows that kT k ≥ M − . which proves kT k ≤ M . 1]. y)χ[y0 −. we conclude that kT k = M . 1]. Then Z kT χ[y0 −.y0 +] (y)dy ≥ (M −)kχ[y0 −. 1] by g(x) = f (x2 ).y0 +] k1 . . let (x0 . Since kχ[y0 −.y0 +] k∞ ≥ |(T χ[y0 −. then g ∈ L1 [0.

It follows that if y = −ek (where ek is the standard basis vector). Suppose that there exists a sequence x = (x1 . P 1 1 b) Let xk = √k . x2 .) : a) Prove that l2 ⊂ l3 . Then in particular the sequence 3 ≤M 2 3 is bounded: M = supk |xk |P < ∞. in particular for sufficiently large k we have xk < . . x2 . But any sequence in l2 is convergent. The interior Ao is empty. 3/4 2 0 0 y Z kgk1 = 1 p 1 2 Z 1 Problem 4. Since for any integer n 6= 0 we have n2 ≥ 1. . 0 06=n∈Z Problem 6. Solution. i. x2 . .) ∈ l . . Let A be the subset of the real Hilbert space l2 which consists of all sequences (x1 . . . x2 . Recall that lp = {(x1 .) belong to l2P . Since 0 f (x)dx = 2πhe0 . i.) ∈ / l2 . Contradiction.e.) belonging to Ao . By a change of variable and subsequent application of H¨older inequality with and 1q = 23 (so that p = 3 and q = 32 ). x2 . . b) Prove that l3 \ l2 6= ∅. f i. 0 06=n∈Z p n |xn | P < ∞}. .e. . . (x1 . But then |x | k k k |xk | < ∞. . P a) Let a sequence (x1 . . i.Solution. Solution. that Let f : [0. x2 .e. 2π] → C be a periodic C 1 -function such that Z 2π Z 2 2π |f (x)| dx ≤ 0 R 2π 0 f (x)dx = 0. Find the interior of A.) ∈ l2 . Problem 5. Then there exists  > 0 such that for any y ∈ l2 with kyk ≤  we have x+y ∈ A. P P 1 On the other hand. 0 [Hint: Fourier series. x2 . k |xk |3 = k k3/2 < ∞. . Prove |f 0 (x)|2 dx. k |xk |2 P < ∞.e. . ≤ = 1 3 Z 1 1 |f (y)| √ |f (x )|dx = |f (y)|d y = √ dy 2 0 y 0 0 Z 1 1Z 1 2    √ dy 3 1 3 3 |f (y)|3 dy = 2kf k3 . . (x1 . . Let n∈Z cn en be the Fourier series for f . .) such that xk ≥ 0 for all k. Then n∈Z incn en is the Fourier series √ R 2π R 2π for f 0 . the condition 0 f (x)dx = 0 means that c0 = 0. . . then (x + y)k < 0 and hence x+y ∈ / A. it follows that Z 2π Z 2π X X |f (x)|2 dx = |cn |2 ≤ n2 |cn |2 = |f 0 (x)|2 dx. . . . (x1 . i. Then k |xk |2 = k k = ∞.] P P Solution.