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BIBLE

-The English word "Bible" comes from bíblia in Latin
and bíblos in Greek. The term means book, or books, and may
have originated from the ancient Egyptian port of Byblos (in
modern-day Lebanon), where papyrus used for making books
and scrolls was exported to Greece.
Other terms for the Bible are the Holy Scriptures, Holy Writ,
Scripture, or the Scriptures, which mean sacred writings.
-The Bible is a compilation of 66 books and letters written by
more than 40 authors during a period of approximately 1,500
years. Its original text was communicated in just three
languages. The Old Testament was written for the most part in
Hebrew, with a small percentage in Aramaic. The New
Testament was written in Koine Greek.
-The central theme of the Bible is God's plan of salvation--his
way of providing deliverance from sinand spiritual death
through repentance and faith. In the Old Testament, the concept
of salvation is rooted in Israel's deliverance from Egypt in
the book of Exodus.
-The New Testament reveals the source of salvation: Jesus
Christ. By faith in Jesus, believers are saved from God's
judgment of sin and its consequence, which is eternal death.

QURAN

- literally meaning "the recitation";
also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious
text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation
from God. It is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature
in the Arabic language. Quranic chapters are called suras and
verses, ayahs.
- Muslims believe the Quran was verbally revealed by God
to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel. Muslims regard the
Quran as the most important miracle of Muhammad, a proof of
his prophethood, and the culmination of a series of divine
messages that started with the messages revealed to Adam and
ended with Muhammad.
- According to the traditional narrative, several companions of
Muhammad served as scribes and were responsible for writing
down the revelations. Shortly after Muhammad's death, the
Quran was compiled by his companions who wrote down and
memorized parts of it.
MAHABHARATA
- The Mahabharata is an epic narrative of the Kurukshetra
War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pandava princes. It
also containsphilosophical and devotional material, such as a
discussion of the four "goals of life". Among the principal
works and stories in the Mahabharata are the Bhagavad Gita,
the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the
Ramayana, and the Rishyasringa, often considered as works in
their own right.
- Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahabharata is attributed
to Vyasa. The title may be translated as "the great tale of the
Bhārata dynasty".

Published in 1852." The quote is apocryphal. according to Will Kaufman .W. such insight leads to a variety of discussions and disagreements among people in the 14th century. is an antislavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. .Uncle Tom's Cabin. J. The sentimental novel depicts the reality of slavery while also asserting that Christian love can overcome something as destructive as enslavement of fellow human beings. "So this is the little lady who started this Great War. Greek drama. . a Connecticut-born teacher at the Hartford Female Seminary and an active abolitionist. three years later. UNCLE TOM’S CABIN THE CANTERBURY TALES . they still offer a variety of insights into the customs and practices of the time. to affirm the role of literature as an agent of social change. In 1386. Chaucer became Controller of Customs and Justice of Peace and. . . reinforced by a story that when Abraham Lincoln met Stowe at the start of the Civil War. and particularly of the Church. the novel "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War". and it has been argued that "The long-term durability of Lincoln's greeting as an anecdote in literary studies and Stowe scholarship can perhaps be explained in part by the desire among many contemporary intellectuals ..000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer.. Chaucer's use of such a wide range of classes and types of people was without precedent in English. The tales (mostly written in verse.(Middle English: Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17. The prize for this contest is a free meal at the Tabard Inn at Southwark on their return. or.. a long-suffering black slave around whom the stories of other characters revolve. although some are in prose) are presented as part of a storytelling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from London to Canterbury in order to visit the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. Although the characters are fictional.He uses the tales and the descriptions of its characters to paint an ironic and critical portrait of English society at the time. featured the character of Uncle Tom. The Canterbury Tales.Stowe. Johnson has compared the importance of the Mahabharata in the context of world civilization to that of the Bible. the works of Homer. Clerk of the King's work in 1389. or the Qur'an. Often. Lincoln declared. it did not appear in print until 1896. Life Among the Lowly.The impact attributed to the book is great. It was during these years that Chaucer began working on his most famous text. the works of Shakespeare.

The Moors called him El Cid. or the disordered or excessive love of good things. the Sun. it represents. or dutiful. DIVINE COMEDY . At this deeper level. It is written. or simply Rodrigo. but at a deeper level. the negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have. the "pickaninny" stereotype of black children. which . Dante draws on medieval Christian theology and philosophy. published in 1555 by Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari.The Divine Comedy is an epic poem by Dante Alighieri. as well as moral issues in politics and in the Church. a year before his death in 1321. 3.The book and the plays it inspired helped popularize a number of stereotypes about black people. It is widely considered the preeminent work of Italian literature and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature. with the Inferno describing the recognition and rejection of sin. it is the "realm. Saturn. PURGATORIO . who symbolises theology. Hell is depicted as nine circles of suffering located within the Earth. or by perverting their human intellect to fraud or malice against their fellowmen. It is divided into three parts: Inferno. Purgatory. In the poem. examples of vice and virtue.. the Primum Mobile and finally.On the surface. and Paradiso. the Divine Comedy represents the journey of the soul toward God. Venus. and in describing the climb Dante discusses the nature of sin. guided by Beatrice. The poem represents the soul's ascent to God. In recent years.It is an allegory telling of Dante's journey through Heaven. as the standardized Italian language. the poem describes Dante's travels through Hell. The poem outlines a theory that all sins arise from love – either perverted love directed towards others' harm. Purgatorio. Paradise is depicted as a series of concentric spheres surrounding the Earth. 1.The work was originally simply titled Comedìa and the word Divina was added by Giovanni Boccaccio. the poem represents the Christian life. and finally the Earthly Paradise at the top. seven levels of suffering and spiritual growth (associated with the seven deadly sins). overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool. The poem's imaginative vision of the afterlife is representative of the medieval worldview as it had developed in the Western Church by the 14th century. EL CID CAMPEADOR .of those who have rejected spiritual values by yielding to bestial appetites or violence. and the "Uncle Tom". or deficient love. was a Castilian nobleman and military leader inmedieval Spain.. the soul's journey towards God. INFERNO In the poem. These include the affectionate. Allegorically. Jupiter.Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar better known as El Cid.In the poem. The first printed edition to add the word divina to the title was that of the Venetian humanist Lodovico Dolce. As an allegory. allegorically. Purgatory is depicted as a mountain in the Southern Hemisphere.. 2. and Paradise or Heaven. long-suffering servant faithful to his white master or mistress. dark-skinned "mammy". to an extent. . Mars. the Fixed Stars. PARADISO . Mercury. consisting of the Moon. . consisting of a bottom section (Ante-Purgatory).

Biography. while others. Curiosities and Literature. It is supposed that his excessive labor in connection with this book hastened his death. especially the frame story. which rendered the title as The Arabian Nights' Entertainment. and the Christians. which testify to its enormous and enduring popularity in the 12th to 14th centuries. he became Castile's celebrated national hero and the protagonist of the most significant medieval Spanish epic poem. not papyrus.The Book of the Dead was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlier Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts. used from the beginning of the New Kingdom. and perhaps his most elaborate. Indian. Its full title is The Book of Days: A Miscellany of Popular Antiquities in connection with the Calendar: including Anecdote. Persian. Other spells were composed later in Egyptian history. from the first English language edition (1706). which were painted onto objects. A number of the spells which made up the Book continued to be inscribed on tomb walls and sarcophagi. as had always been the spells THE BOOK OF DAYS ONE THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS a collection of Middle Eastern and South Asian stories and folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age. . It is the oldest surviving major work of French literature and exists in various manuscript versions.The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text. After his death. . transliterated rw nw prt m hrw is translated as Book of Coming Forth by Day. are most probably drawn from the Pahlavi Persian work Hazār Afsān (A Thousand Tales) which in turn relied partly on Indian elements. "Book" is the closest term to describe the loose collection of texts consisting of a number of magic spells intended to assist a dead person's journey through the Duat. and into the afterlife and written by many priests over a period of about 1000 years. and Oddities of Human Life and Character. In particular. El Campeador. It was a huge collection of short largely factual pieces which today would generally be bracketed as "trivia" but very interesting trivia. and Egyptian folklore and literature. The Book of the Dead was placed in the coffin or burial chamber of the deceased. He was born in Vivar. dating to the Third Intermediate Period (11th to 7th centuries BCE). a town near the city of Burgos. many tales were originally folk stories from the Caliphate era. The tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic. It is well-indexed adding much to its value as a reference tool. during the reign of Charlemagne. or underworld.meant the Lord. & History. It is often known in English as the Arabian Nights. . Mesopotamian. El Cantar de Mio Cid. Another translation would be Book of emerging forth into the Light. from which they originated. which stood for Outstanding Warrior.(French: La Chanson de Roland) is an epic poem based on the Battle of Roncevaux in 778. BOOK OF THE DEAD . The original Egyptian name for the text. THE SONG OF ROLAND The Book of Days was Robert Chambers' last publication. The formula has been much repeated.

some are framed within other tales. although some are longer.What is common throughout all the editions of the Nights is the initial frame story of the ruler Shahryār and his wife Scheherazade and the framing device incorporated throughout the tales themselves. The stories proceed from this original tale. . while others begin and end of their own accord. Most of the poems are single couplets or quatrains. The bulk of the text is in prose. although verse is occasionally used for songs and riddles and to express heightened emotion.