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# VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

SUBJECT CODE

: CE6405

YEAR : II

SUBJECT NAME

: SOIL MECHANICS

SEM : IV

QUESTION BANK
(As per Anna University 2013 regulation)

UNIT 1- SOIL CLASSIFICATION AND COMPACTION
Nature of soil – phase relationships – Soil description and classification for engineering purposes, their
significance – Index properties of soils - BIS Classification system – Soil compaction – Theory,
comparison of laboratory and field compaction methods – Factors influencing compaction behaviour of
soils.
PART-A (2 marks)
1
2
3

Define degree of saturation and shrinkage ratio
What are the Atterberg limits? List its types.
If the volume of voids is equal to the volume of solids in a given soil sample, find
Void ratio and porosity.
4 Define Porosity.
5 Define compaction.
6 Define plasticity index and flow index.
7. Distinguish between Relative density and relative compaction.
8. Discuss about water content of a soil mass
9 Differentiate between plasticity and consistency.
10 What do understand from grain size distribution?
11 A compacted sample of soil with a bulk unit weight of 19.62kN/m3 has a water

BT - 1- 1
BT - 1-2
BT - 1- 3

content of 15 percent. Calculate its dry density, degree of saturation and air content?
Assume G = 2.65.
What is a zero air voids line? Draw a compaction curve and show the zero air
voids line.
Using phase diagram, derive the relationship between void ratio and porosity.
Write any two engineering classification system of soil.
Mention the classification of soil system
Explain the term optimum moisture content of soil.
Compose a relation for γsat with G, γw and e.
A dry clay has a mass of 30g and volume of 15cc, What will be the shrinkage
limit if the specific gravity of solids is 2.65
Draw the phase diagram for completely dry and fully saturated soil mass.

BT– 3 - 1

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

BT- 1 – 4
BT- 1- 5
BT – 1 - 6
BT - 2 -1
BT- 2 – 2
BT- 2 – 3
BT- 2 -4

BT- 3 – 2
BT- 3 – 3
BT- 4- 1
BT- 4- 2
BT – 4 -3
BT- 5 -1
BT – 5 - 2
BT- 6- 1

Prepared by
T. R. Banu chander A.P. / Civil
R. Thenmozhi A.P. / Civil
T. Sakthi Subramani A.P. / Civil

8kN/m3. How many cubic meter of compacted fill could be constructed of 3500m3 of sand excavated from the borrow 7 8 9 pit. ii) sedimentation analysis Sandy soil in a borrow pit has unit weight of solids as 25. if the required value of porosity in the compacted fill is 30%. / Civil T. Banu chander A.P.4 BT – 4 BT.4kN/m3. / Civil . find the void BT – 1 ratio and degree of saturation of the compacted embankment. Summarize with neat sketches of compaction methods Discuss about the grain size distribution of soil by i) sieve analysis.6 Prepared by T. Thenmozhi A. By three phase soil system. Explain the factors affecting the compaction of soil. Explain the soil classification system.6. water content BT – 1 BT – 2 BT – 2 BT -3 equal to11% and bulk unit weight equal to 16. show that the degree of saturation S (as ratio) in terms of mass unit weight(γ). air content and percentage air voids at the maximum dry unit weight.92g/cm3. PART-B (16marks) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Describe the procedure for determining water content and specific gravity of a given soil in the laboratory by using a pycnometer. S. If the specific gravity of the sand is 2. Index Soil A Soil B 1 Plastic limit 16% 19% 2 Liquid limit 30% 52% 3 Flow index 11 06 4 Natural water content 32% 40% BT.5 BT. Also calculate the change in degree of saturation.specific gravity of soil grains(G) and unit weight of water (γ w) is given by the expression: BT – 1 An earth embankment is compacted at a water content of 18% to a bulk density of 1. R.2 Which of the clays A or B would experience larger settlement under identical loads? Conclude with your comments.P. A laboratory compaction test on soil having specific gravity equal to 2. What would be theoretical maximum dry unit weight corresponding to zero air voids at the optimum water content? 10 The following data on consistency limits are available for two soils A and B.8 kN/m3 and a water content of 15%. Sakthi Subramani A. / Civil R. voidratio (e).P.7.20 Two clay samples A and B have the following properties: Atterberg limits Clay A Clay B Liquid limit 44% 55% Plastic limit 29% 35% Natural water content 30% 50% BT.No. Determine the degree of saturation.67 gave a maximum dry unit weight of 17.

6 BT .4. (Sheet pile and weir).P. / Civil . (iv) More plastic Classify the soil as per IS classification system. PART-A (2 marks) 1 2 3 4 5 6 List out the methods of drawing flow net. What will be its coefficient of permeability? BT – 1.5 BT – 1 .1 13 14 15 16 17 BT. R. 8.2 – 2 BT. neutral stress and effective stress and give its relationship.SOILWATERAND WATER FLOW Soil water – static pressure in water . What is meant by capillary rise in soil and how it affects the stress level in soils? Say true or false and justify your answer: In fine-grained soils the capillary rise is less compared to coarse grained soils. State the assumptions in construction of flow net. Write down the methods available for determination of permeability in the laboratory? 7. State and explain Darcy’s law. What is meant by total stress. Number of flow channels =4 Calculate the discharge per metre length of the dam if the co-efficient of permeability of the dam material is3 x 10-5m/sec.indicate which soil is (i) Better foundation material on remoulding.1.Effective stress concepts in soils – capillary stress – Permeability measurement in the laboratory and field pumping in pumping out tests – factors influencing permeability of soils – Seepage – introduction to flow nets – Simple problems.P.3 BT. 9 What are the factors affectin g permeability? 10 What is quicksand? How would you calculate the hydraulic gradient required to create Quick sand conditions in a sample of sand? 11 Show that effective stress in soil mass is independent of variation in water table above the ground surface 12 For a homogeneous earth dam 52m high and 2m freeboard. 18 The coefficient of permeability of soil is found to be 1 x 10-5 m/s at a voidratio of 0. (iii) Better shear strength at plastic limit.2 BT – 4 -3 Write down the uses of Flow net.3 – 3 BT.2 Prepared by T. / Civil T.5 -1 BT – 5 .1 BT.1 BT. List the methods of finding field-permeability. Thenmozhi A. Differentiate seepage velocity from discharge velocity. a flow net was constructed and following results were obtained: Number of potential drops= 25. What are the different types of soil water? Define capillary rise and surface tension Define Capillarity and permeability. BT . Sakthi Subramani A.4 and the other factors remaining same.2 -4 BT– 3 .3 – 2 BT. If the void ratio is 0.2 – 3 BT. (ii) Better shear strength as function of water content. Do those soils have organic matter? UNIT 2.2 -1 BT.4. Banu chander A.1 – 4 BT. / Civil R.P.1.6.

BT – 1 2 (i) The falling head permeability test was conducted on a soil sample of 4cm diameter and 18cm length. In a constant head permeameter test. h2 and h3 thick. Also draw total stress diagram up to 10. the sand is saturated with capillary water. 20 Explain the terms: seepage pressure and flow net. the field determination of permeability BT – 1 The water table in a deposit of sand 8m thick is at a depth of 3m below the ground surface. neutral pressure and effective pressure over the depth of 8m.P.65. Assuming an average hydraulic gradient of 0. determine the coefficient of permeability. Above water table there is capillary rise up to ground surface. 4m. Hence plot the variation of total pressure. Distance between piezometer tappings = 15cm. what is its equivalent permeability in the horizontal and vertical directions? Derive the formulae used.1.40m in 20 minutes. The head fell from 1. / Civil R. / Civil . If the cross-sectional area of the stand pipe was 1cm2.P. Along with the coefficient of permeability of the individual strata.1 BT. k2 and k3 are the permeability’s of layers h1.00 m. the following observations were taken. 6m. effective and pore pressure at a depth of 20m below the bottom of a lake 6 m deep.6.62kN/m3. Also draw total stress diagram upto 10m. (4) (ii) Find the value of the effective stress at 2m. R. Describe in detail with neat sketches. Find (i) Discharge value and discharge velocities in each layer for horizontal flow and (ii) Hydraulic gradient and loss in head in each layer for vertical flow. 8m and 10m is a soil mass having s γ =21 KN/m3.19 If k1. Above water table there is capillary rise upto ground surface.2 PART-B (16marks) 1 Water table is 2m below ground surface.6. The bottom of lake consists of soft clay with a thickness of more than 20m. Banu chander A. (i) Write a short note on quick sand conditions in soil.P. BT. (ii) Compute the total. Above the water table. A stratified soil deposit is shown in Fig.3 in both horizontal and vertical seepage. Thenmozhi A. The average water content of the clay is 35% and specific gravity of the soil may be assumed to be 2. 3m and 8m BT -3 3 4 5 6 7 below the ground surface. Sakthi Subramani A. / Civil T.0m to 0. The bulk density of sand is 19. Determine the ratio of KH and KV. the laboratory determination of permeability using constant head method and falling head method.3 Prepared by T. BT – 1 BT – 2 BT – 2 BT. (12) Describe in detail with neat sketches. Water table is 2m below ground surface. Calculate the effective pressure at 1m.

8 9 10 difference of water levels in piezometers = 40cm. Explain briefly about the applications of flow net and (8) ii. / Civil .8m.66.Use of Newmarks influence chart –Components of settlement –– immediate and consolidation settlement – Terzaghi‟s one dimensional consolidation theory – computation of rate of settlement.4m.√t and log t methods– e-log p relationship . Calculate seepage velocity of water during the test.65. Assuming the top fine sand to be saturated by capillary water.6m thick.What will be the change in effective pressure at depth 3.The unit weight of clay may be assumed as 19.P.0m below the ground surface. 3. State the application of influence chart in soil? A Consolidating stratum takes two years for 50% consolidation. (8) The sub soil strata at a site consist of fine sand 1. What will be the ratio of average permeability in horizontal direction to that in the vertical direction for a soil deposit consisting of three horizontal layers.8and for coarse sand G=2. The water table is 1.P. Under the clay stratum lies a deposit of coarse sand extending to a considerable depth.3 Prepared by T.Factors influencing compression behaviour of soils PART–A (2 marks) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Define isobar.6 UNIT 3 – STRESS DISTRIBUTION AND SETTLEMENT Stress distribution . Write the Westergaard’s equation for the vertical stress for a point load. quantity of water collected = 500ml. BT – 4 BT. R. if the thickness and permeability of second layer are twice of those of the first and those of the third layer twice those of second? Derive the equation. Define primary and secondary consolidation. calculate the effective pressures at ground surface and at depths of 1. Assume for fine sand G=2. . Explain any four methods of obtaining flow nets.4 m and5. i. If the dry mass of the 15cm long sample is 486g and specific gravity of the solids is 2.P.32kN/m3.soil media – Boussinesq theory . if no capillary water is assumed to be present in the fine sand and its bulk unit weight is assumed to be16. Banu chander A.65. diameter of the test sample = 5cm.5m below the ground surface. / Civil T.8m thick overlying a stratum of clay1.5 BT. Thenmozhi A. e=0. List out the component of settlement in soil. Sakthi Subramani A. Find the time taken by the stratum for 90% consolidation and 100 % consolidation respectively BT-1-1 BT-2-1 BT.68kN/m3. / Civil R. Define the terms compression index and coefficient of compressibility. Discuss about the assumptions made in Terzaghi’s one dimensional consolidation theory? When a soil mass is said to be homogenous? What do you understand by the terms immediate settlement and compression. Name the two theories explaining the stress distribution on soil? Differentiate between coefficient of consolidation and degree of consolidation. duration of the test = 900sec.e=0. Determine the coefficient of permeability of the soil.5.