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# Homework 1 Solutions

BME/EE/BIO131: Spring 2016
Due: 9 February 2016
1) An ultrasonic wave of 5MHz with an intensity of 8mW/cm2 is incident on a flat
boundary normally between two media with acoustic impedance Z1 and Z2. Assume
that the attenuation in the two media can be neglected. The reflected power received
by an ultrasonic transducer with an aperture area of 0.2cm2 is 0.16mW.
a) What is the transmitted intensity? (15 PTS)
Reflected intensity:

Ir =

Powerr 0.16 mW
mW
=
=0.8
2
A
0.2 cm
c m2

I i =I t + I r → I t =I i−I r=8

Transmitted intensity:

mW
mW
mW
−0.8
=7.2
2
2
cm
cm
c m2

b) Could pt (the transmitted overpressure) possibly be greater than pi (the incident
overpressure)? Why or why not? (15 PTS)
Yes, pt may be greater than pi
The conservation of energy at the boundary requires that
2

It ≤ I i →

It ≤ I i

2

pt
p
Z
≤ i → p2t ≤ p2i 2
2 Z2 2 Z1
Z1

If Z2 > Z1, pt may exceed pi without violating the conservation of energy law
c) If Z1 is assumed to be 1.8 x 106 kg/m2-sec, find Z2. (15 PTS)

mW
0.8
2
I r ( Z2 −Z 1 )
c m2 1
=
=
=
I i ( Z 2+Z 1 )2
mW
10
8
2
cm
→ ( Z 2 +Z 1 )2=10 ( Z 2−Z1 )2
2

2

2

2

Z 2 +Z 1 +2 Z 1 Z 2=10(Z 2 + Z 1 −2 Z 1 Z 2)
2

2

9 Z 2 −22 Z 1 Z 2 +9 Z1 =0

45 x 106 2 2 1 kg kg . water (pressure attenuation coefficient=0. 0.0533 cm 2 x5α 2 → water=2.00217 cm dB →liver tissue=0.3 ln10 cm dB → water=0.8 x 106 kg ) m2 −s 18 ) 2) Calculate the distance at which the intensity of a 1-MHz and a 5-MHz ultrasound beam will be reduced by half when traveling through: bone (pressure attenuation coefficient=1. (30 PTS) I =I 0 e−μz =I 0 e−2 αz μ=intensity attenuation coefficient α = pressure attenuationcoefficient At 1MHz: I 1 −2 α z 1 −2 αz =e → =e → ln =−2 α z 1 /2 I0 2 2 1/2 ln 2 →bone=0.9 m →liver tissue=3.935 x 106 2 2 m −s m −s (22 ± √ 16 0)(1.11 np/cm @ 1 MHz). one can use the dB attenuation coefficient: 20 dB α → bone=11. liver tissue (pressure attenuation coefficient=0.630 cm z 1= Alternatively.00025 np/cm @ 1 MHz).15 cm z 1= At 5MHz.955 cm ' α= At 1MHz: .267 cm 2α 2 → water=13.22 Z 1 ± √ 22 Z 1 −4 x 9 x 9 Z (22 ± √ 16 0)Z 1 = = 2 x9 18 2 Z 2= ( Z 2= 3.77 m →liver tissue=0. α increases by a factor of 5: ln 2 → bone=0.3 np/cm @ 1 MHz).

0531cm → water=2.628 cm .266 cm 2 α' 2 → water=13.1 3 dB → z 1= → bone=0.8 m →liver tissue=3.14 cm 3 dB At 5MHz: → bone=0.76 m →liver tissue=0.

67 μs 8 0.424 μs 1.67 μs Δf OR τ 1 =0. Approximately how many periods of ultrasonic pressure wave will be emitted by the transducer? (30 PTS) Bandwidth: Δf= f 0 3 MHz = =375 kHz Q 8 Pulse duration: τ 1 =2.333 μs .333 μs 3 MHz N 2.3) A 3-MHz transducer with a Q factor of 8 [defined as f0/Δf ] is excited by a very short (~10ns) voltage pulse.424 μs Δ f ∗2 π Number of periods of ultrasound pressure wave: N τ Τ Where T is the period of the ultrasound wave: Τ= 1 =0.333 μs OR N 0.27 0.