SEMINAR REPORT

On

SUN TREACKING SOLAR SYSTEM
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the
Degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Submitted To:-

Submitted By:-

Mr. Nittin Saluja

Hariom

A.P. (Mech. Deptt.)

1212477
ME-B1 (4th yr.)

SETH JAI PARKASH MUKAND LAL INSTITUTE OF
ENGG. AND TECHNOLOGY (JMIT)
RADAUR (YAMUNANAGAR)

0

I would like to express a deep sense of gratitude and thanks profusely to Mr. Radaur for providing this opportunity to present this Seminar. Radaur for providing all the possible assistance and co-operation during the course of experimentation. JMIT Radaur. for having given me an opportunity to do work in the area of “SUN TRACKING SOLAR SYSTEM” and for inspiring guidance given by my Professors.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am highly grateful to the authorities of Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering and Technology. Harsh Harit (HOD) : Department Of Mechanical Engineering. Radaur) 1 . Hariom 1212477 (Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering &Technology. Grateful thanks are due to faculty and staff of Department of Mechanical Engineering at JMIT.

Solar tracking allows more energy to be produced because the solar array is able to remain aligned to the sun. A working system will ultimately be demonstrated to validate the design. Problems and possible improvements will also be presented. Our project will include the design and construction of a microcontroller-based solar panel tracking system.ABSTRACT Solar energy is rapidly gaining notoriety as an important means of expanding renewable energy resources. 2 . This system builds upon topics learned in this course. it is vital that those in engineering fields understand the technologies associated with this area. As such.

TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS ABBREVIATIONS 2 3 4 6 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW SOLAR POWER IN INDIA LITERATURE REVIEW AIM OF THE PROJECT 7 7 9 11 13 CHAPTER 2 SOLAR RADIATION & PHOTOVOLTAIC CONCEPTS ON SOLAR RADIATION INSOLATION PROJECTION EFFECT WORKING OF PHOTOVOLTAICS 14 14 CHAPTER 3 SOLAR TRACKER INTRODUCTION NEED FOR SOLAR TRACKER TYPES OF SOLAR TRACKERS 17 17 18 20 20 20 3 .

: SIEMENS 4 . the fact remains that night-vision technology is on the cusp of availability and very well could be the next must-have gadget for your car.Taking your eyes off the road while you're driving is never a good idea -.especially at night. While no system seems to be perfect.

Both are used regularly and both have their own advantages and drawbacks. The difference between the three types of infrared light comes down to wavelengths. For instance. So. The peak rhodopsin build-up time for optimal night vision in humans is 30 minutes. but it is especially effective for picking up heat signatures. but other than that. is quite different. also known as thermal-infrared. formally we can say that “A night vision system is a system to increase a person's perception and seeing distance in darkness or poor weather by increasing ability of seeing in Infrared Spectrum” 1.1 WHAT IS NIGHT VISION ??? The human eye can see images which reflect light from violet to red in the electromagnetic color spectrum.smaller than 1. Far-IR. Perhaps you've seen an example of imaging enhancement night vision on a news broadcast or military show.1. but can be broken down into subcategories.and is closest to what we as humans can see as visible light. the visual is clear as day. Unfortunately. a soldier looking through a set of thermal imaging night-vision goggles would be able to spot an enemy that is hiding behind a bush or another object that gives off a colder signal. Infrared light actually falls into three classifications: near-infrared (near-IR or NIR). Thermal imaging isn't quite as clear. In other words. Near-IR. Thermal infrared wavelengths can be up to 30 microns and FIR is emitted from an object rather than reflected. Image enhancing takes protons from ambient light and converts them into electrons. FIR gives off thermal signatures while the other two types of infrared radiation do not. Thermal imaging simply isn't clear enough to show that kind of detail. Beyond the visible spectrum for humans is the light known as short-wave infrared.  Biological Night Vision: In biological night vision.5 microns -. the bright image could also be a friendly troop. Rhodopsin in the human rods is insensitive to the longer red wavelengths of light.2 Types of Night Vision There are two type night vision viz. Short-wave infrared light is a term that actually encompasses all infrared light. The two main methods of night vision are thermal imaging and photon detection or image enhancing. Oftentimes the picture is green. molecules of rhodopsin in the rods of the eye undergo a change in shape as light is absorbed by them. or NIR. Image enhancement on the other hand is very clear. so many people use red light to preserve night vision as it will not deplete the eyes rhodopsin stores in the rods 5 . light. but most of the adaptation occurs within the first five or ten minutes in the dark. INTRODUCTION 1. The human eye is unable to see that light. or FIR. midinfrared (mid-IR or MIR) and far-infrared (far-IR or FIR). These electrons are then chemically and electrically converted into images that appear to be similar to watching an old black-and-white movie. has the shortest wavelength -.

Another term is "night optical/observation device" or NOD 6 . but are available to civilian users. and some type of mounting system. Night vision devices were first used in World War II. only 10% of the light that enters the eye falls on photosensitive parts of the retina. They are most often used by the military and law enforcement agencies. dogs. and came into wide use during the Vietnam War. including an image intensifier tube. Many NVDs also include sacrificial lenses. The technology has evolved greatly since their introduction. In this technology various types of instruments are used. Their ability to see in low light levels may be similar to what humans see when using first or perhaps second generation image intensifiers. such as cats. have a structure called tape tumlucidum in the back of the eye that reflects light back towards the retina.3 WHAT IS A NIGHT VISION DEVICE??? A night vision device (NVD) is an optical instrument that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness. The term usually refers to a complete unit.  Technical Night Vision: A night vision device (NVD) is an optical instrument that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness. They are most often used by military and laws enforce agencies but are available to civilian users. a protective and generally water-resistant housing.Some animals. and telescopic lenses. In humans. and deer.and instead is viewed by the cones.. IR illuminators. increasing the amount of light it captures. leading to several "generations" of night vision equipment with performance increasing and price decreasing. Figure 1 A Night Vision Device 1.

including remote controls.300 billionths of a meter. Of visible light. where it appears as various colors depending on the intensity of the infrared emission. Night vision can work in two very different ways. Spectrum of light Infrared light can be split into three categories: Near-infrared (near-IR) Closest to visible light. This information is obtained from several thousand points in the field of view of the detector array. a circuit board with a dedicated chip that translates the information from the elements into data for the display. it is important to understand something about light. The impulses are sent to a signal-processing unit. The focused light is scanned by a phased array of infrared-detector elements. These the of system can see more than 1000 ft (300m). or 700 billionths to 1. depending on the technology used.HOW IT WORKS? Night vision can works in two very different ways depending on the technology used. Mid-infrared (mid-IR) has wavelengths ranging from 1. This lens focuses available light (photons) on the photocathode of an image intensifier tube. Infrared light is emitted by an object because of what is happening at the atomic level. Cooled Infrared Detector More expensive and susceptible to damage from rugged used. The signal-processing unit sends the information to the display.3 microns. The amount of energy in a light wave is related to its wavelength: Shorter wavelengths have higher energy. These electrons enter holes in a micro channel plate 7 . A conventional lens capture the ambient light. The detector elements create a very detailed temperature pattern called a thermo gram. The key difference between thermal-IR and the other two is that thermal-IR is emitted by an object instead of reflected off it. The thermo gram created by the detector elements is translated into electric impulses. This type of system is completely quit and activate immediately and the battery built right in. The basic of thermal imaging system it only takes about one-thirtieth of a second for the detector array to obtain the temperature information to make the thermo gram. and red has the least. Thermal imaging a special lens focuses the infrared light emitted by all of the objects in view. near-IR has wavelengths that range from 0.3 to 3 microns. Light Basics In order to understand thermal imaging.7 to 1. Image intensifier process The light energy causes electrons to be released from the cathode which are accelerated by an electric field to increase their speed (energy level). Before discussing about the types of night vision technology first known basic things of light. Uncooled Detector This the most common type of thermal imaging detector. Image Intensifier: This method of night vision amplifies the available light to achieve better vision Diagram. Just next to the visible light spectrum is the infrared spectrum. violet has the most energy. It is quite easy to see at day time But at night you can see very little Thermal imaging lets you see again Different view There are two type of thermal imaging detector. thermal-IR has wavelengths ranging from 3 microns to over 30 microns. Thermal-infrared (thermal-IR) Occupying the largest part of the infrared spectrum. The infrared elements are contained in a unit that operates a room temperature. The combination of all the impulses from all of the elements creates the image. these system has cooled inside a container that cool them below zero c. Both near-IR and midIR are used by a variety of electronic devices.

and bounce off the internal specially-coated walls which generate more electrons as the electrons bounce through. The final stage of the image intensifier involves electrons hitting a phosphor screen. the original electrons collide with the side of the channel. A green phosphor is used in these applications. This creates a denser “cloud” of electrons representing an intensified version of the original image. they cause thousands of other electrons to be released in each. These new electrons also collide with other atoms. The energy of the electrons makes the phosphor glow.channels. Basically. channel using a process called cascaded secondary emissions electrons pass through the micro. Figure 2 A Modren NVD used by Milltary Personnel 8 . creating a chain reaction that results in thousands of electrons. exciting atoms and causing other electrons to be released. The visual light shows the desired view to the user or to an attached photographic camera or video device.

and even now the automaker continues to offer an in-dash system in some Lexus models. In a nutshell. the quality simply won't be there. the BMW's system picks up the heat of the animal or pedestrian and displays it as a bright image. The Lexus system has its fans. As you can imagine. the Mercedes system uses NIR technology and produces an even. the two auto moguls get from point A to point B in entirely separate ways. BMW's passive system. uses far-IR or FIR technology in its onboard night-vision systems. but if it's so effective. anyway. the Mercedes' 9 . General Motors offered a thermal night-vision system in its Cadillac line of vehicles. As you might imagine. While that works well for deciphering between animals and people. By utilizing a series of projection bulbs and cameras.1 HISTORY OF AUTOMOMOTIVE NIGHT VISION In 2000. the two automakers.2. Like the military-issued night-vision goggles. Not yet. the NIR system in the Mercedes illuminates everything as if it were in the high beams of the vehicle. It has a range of around 980 feet (299 meters) and can pan in the direction the vehicle is heading. BMW's infrared system uses complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensors on the front of the car that pick up heat from objects and processes the thermal signature to display images on a quarter video graphics array (QVGA) display (320x240-pixel resolution) mounted on the dash in the center of the vehicle's console. The FIR night vision system illuminates what's directly in front of the vehicle reasonably well. offer systems on complete opposite ends of the proverbial spectrum. but it was also expensive and didn't produce very clear images. but doesn't offer the clarity found in the Mercedes system. the brighter the image displays. These two auto manufacturers have been offering night-vision systems in vehicles since 2006. This system is similar to night-vision goggles soldiers use. night-vision technology is expensive and if you use inexpensive components.” 2. Each system accomplishes its goal and each has its benefits and costs. Two of Germany's automotive stalwarts. In contrast. much like optics found in military-issue night-vision goggles. clear picture in the dark. The system was innovative. Mercedes-Benz uses an active system or near-IR system that illuminates the night with projected infrared light. BMW's system registers images based on body heat and produces images that resemble a photo negative. Fittingly. on the other hand. Toyota also gave night vision a shot. The warmer the target. Unlike night-vision optics used for military applications. it doesn't do much for revealing a dead animal in the middle of the road or perhaps a large rock or a fallen tree. which have been competing against each other in the luxury market for the better part of 50 years. have taken a damn-the-torpedoes approach to in-dash night-vision systems. BMW and MercedesBenz. then why hasn't this technology spread to every vehicle on the road? One theory is that it seems as if the technology just isn't fully ready for automotive applications. NIGHT VISION IN AUTOMOBILES “An automotive night vision system is a system to increase a vehicle driver's perception and seeing distance in darkness or poor weather beyond the reach of the vehicle's headlights.

especially when you consider the benefit of being able to see through the darkness. MERCEDES BENZ In late-2005. and the image quality is also crisper on the NIR system.2 Active Systems Active systems use an infrared light source built into the car to illuminate the road ahead with light that is invisible to humans. shorter range of 150200 meters or 500-650 feet. It was the first system to use the instrument cluster's LCD as a display. directly in the driver's line of sight to the road. Researchers from the two companies are also in the process of perfecting warning indicators on the night-vision systems. While that may sound like a significant amount of money. superior picture of inanimate objects. the E-class uses 10 .  Active System  Passive System 2. The goal is for the systems to be able to set off an alarm when a pedestrian or animal is close enough to the road to be hazardous. In 2009.active night-vision system picks up the faintest traces of light and transforms it into a clear picture. But unlike the BMW's system.000 to $2.500. Viz.000. Cons: does not work as well in fog or rain. so sensitivity to light should not be a problem for most drivers. it somehow seems a bit more reasonable -. Both systems can be turned on or off by the driver with controls found near the high-beam lever and neither system is affected by oncoming bright lights. Both are easy on the eyes too. Pros: higher resolution image. The challenge is to be able to decipher what's a hazard and what's merely a heat signature. smaller sensor can be mounted to rearview mirror. the Mercedes monitor is located behind the steering wheel. The drawback to the Mercedes system is its range: The system has a maximum effective range of less than 600 feet (183 meters). while the BMW's FIR system can see through the dense conditions. dead animals or non-living objects. The gated system uses a pulsed light source and a synchronized camera that enable long ranges (250m) and high performance in rain and snow. Mercedes added a pedestrian detection function calling the revised system Night View Assist Plus and offered it on the redesigned E-class and refreshed S-class. when you look at the price tag of a 7-Series BMW or S-Class Mercedes. The advantage is that the Mercedes system can see warmer living things just as clear as it can spot colder. Another drawback is the Mercedes' NIR system doesn't handle fog well. So we concluded there are two types of systems for automotive night vision. works better in warmer conditions. two vehicles that can easily top $100. lower contrast for animals. There are two kinds of active systems: gated and non-gated. however. Both systems cost an extra $2. Mercedes-Benz introduced their Night View Assist system on the redesigned Sclass.

using a thermo graphic camera.3 Passive System Passive systems do not use an infrared light source. More importantly. Toyota introduced the first production automotive active night vision system or Night View on the Lexus LX 470 and Land cruiser Cygnus. this was the first pedestrian detection feature for an active system. Figure 3 NVD Display in Toyota Lexus TOYOTA In 2002. works poorly in warmer weather conditions. 2. In 2008 Toyota added a feature to the Crown Hybrid which highlights pedestrians and presents them in a box on an LCD display in front of the driver. instead they capture thermal radiation already emitted by the objects. the computer can determine if the person on the road moves in a way that could lead to a collision with the car. It uses a thermal imaging camera behind the four rings at the front of the car which can "see" 300 meters (984 ft) ahead. 11 . In that case the pedestrian is being marked in red color and the driver of the car receives an audible warning. Cons: grainy. The display in the instrument cluster highlights humans with yellow markings. the Night View Assist PLUS system is coupled to the car’s spotlight function which is able to focus a beam of light onto the pedestrian or animal while flashing them repeatedly. For model year 2014. lower resolution image.the navigation screen's display. To give further warning. Pros: greater range of about 300 meters or 1. this signal is then processed by computer which produces a black-and-white image which is projected on the lower section of the windshield. S-class with Night Vision Assist Plus will also have animal detection. larger sensor AUDI The Night Vision Assistant was introduced in 2010 on the Audi A8.000 feet. Night Vision Assist is no longer available for the new E-class. higher contrast for living objects. This system uses the headlight projectors emitting near infrared light aimed like the car's high beam headlights and a CCD camera then captures that reflected radiation.

12 . while cooler objects appear black.BMW In fall 2005. road lights and similar intense light sources. Infrared radiation is picked up by the sensor. This system detected far infrared radiation and was also the first system to offer pedestrian detection. Information is displayed as a black and white image with warmer objects in white. allows for a range of 300 meters or nearly 1. Honda In the fall of 2004. This system processes far infrared radiation. which minimizes non-essential information placing a greater emphasis on pedestrians and animals. The pedestrian detection feature alerted the driver with an audio warning and visually enclosed the pedestrian in a box on the display which was presented via head-up display. BMW added a pedestrian detection system which flashes a caution symbol on the navigation/information screen and head-up-display when it detects pedestrians. In the event of an acute risk. however it was discontinued in 2004.This system was developed with Raytheon and worked by using an infrared sensing camera mounted behind the vehicle's grille. In the fall of 2008. processed by computer and then displayed on the windshield using a head-up display. the system directs two separately controlled Dynamic Light Spots at them without creating an unpleasant glare. BMW 5-series will also have these new features. For the model year 2014. Because this system outputs a standard NTSC composite video signal and the used parts are somewhat easy and inexpensive to find. As soon as the remote infrared detects pedestrians or larger animals on course for collision in the dark. For model year 2013. General Motors introduced Night Vision on the Cadillac Deville which became the first vehicle sold with such a system.000 feet. on the redesigned 7-series. BMW introduced BMW Night Vision on the 7-series. it has become a popular choice for fitting thermal night vision to other vehicles. Honda introduced the redesigned Legend with an optional Intelligent Night Vision system. General Motors In 2000. an acoustic warning signal is also sounded and the brakes are set to maximum standby. BMW Night Vision added animal detection with Dynamic Light Spot feature for the 7-series. and avoids "dazzle" from headlights.

4 PEDESTRIAN DETECTION Pedestrian detection is an essential and significant task in any intelligent video surveillance system.Figure 4 Screen shot showing names and models of automobiles using night vision (courtesy: Wikipedia. PEDESTRIAN DETECTION is a very wide topic to discuss but I m here providing only the basic information just for its application regarding night vision.org) 2. 13 . It has an obvious extension to automotive applications due to the potential for improving safety systems. as it provides the fundamental information for semantic understanding of the video footages. Pedestrian detection at night is very difficult but with the advancement in night vision technology future is near that it may be possible to detect pedestrians in dark eerie of night too.

or even alongside the road while driving after sundown? The individual brain-trusts at BMW. In recent years. all the while escaping detection under a blanket of darkness? All of these images stem from the concept of night vision. SCOPE OF AUTOMOTIVE NIGHT VISION How many cool movies have you seen where a secret agent drives an exotic car through the mountains without any headlights? Or a low-flying AH-64 Apache pilot who moves in for a kill in pitch blackness? What about the urban legend of the 200-mile per hour (322 kilometers per hour) Lamborghini used from making covert drug runs at night. In this article. then you know just how poor night visibility can be. We won't be busting the case on the mythical Lamborghini. rifle vision for soldiers and even driver vision are all cutting-edge applications for night vision technologies. Mercedes. If you've ever driven on a desolate road outside of the city and seen a deer or other type of nocturnal animal flash across your headlights. Soldiers like the one flying the Apache rely on night vision goggles as much as they rely on weapons and training.       In Military Vehicles Night vision assisted drive and navigation Night automatic park Pedestrian Detection Safety from accidents Driverless vehicle at night 14 . too. Pilot vision. Perhaps the most common application for night vision is military. Toyota and General Motors think that would be a good idea. we'll look at night vision systems found in production cars. In short. Wouldn't it be nice if you could see what's up ahead. but you will understand how two of the leading manufacturers in the auto industry are taking back the night in attempt to make driving in the dark safer. multiple studies have been conducted in the United States as well as Europe and they all seem to paint the same general picture: The majority of driving is done with the aid of daylight. That's why each has taken a crack at developing night vision systems. yet a high volume of fatal accidents occur at night.3. night vision brings daylight to darkness.

(Dec. (Dec.PDF 4) http://en.com/gadgets/automotive/in-dash-night-visionsystem.wikipedia. BMW Night Vision vs. 2008) http://www.canadiandriver.htm 15 . James.htm 2) http://en. 2006. Jan." Middle East Technical University.BIBLIOGRAPHY/ REFERENCES 1) http://electronics. 6. 2008) http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automotive_night_vision 5) Bergeron.metu." Car Talk Canada. Mercedes Night View Assist. 2004.tr/~tayfuna/BookChapter/CMOS-MEMS_Ch10.eee.org/wiki/Night_vision#Active_infrared 3) Akin. T.edu. 21.howstuffworks. 19.com/ctc/blog/general/bmw-night-vision-availablein-5-6-7-series. 20. Dec. "CMOS-based Thermal Sensors.