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MACLEOD OF .THE HOUSEKEEPER'S HANDBOOK CLEANING SARAH J.

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CLEANING. in CONDIT. PRATT AND Assistant A. in Instructor SCIENCE HOUSEHOLD WHY. Institute. Arts. School HANDBOOK SARAH JESSIE Institute. COOK TO HOW LORD ELY and 16mo. THE Instructor QUINN.HOME HARPER'S ECONOMICS EDITED BY ISABEL DIRECTOR OF THE SCHOOL AND and Science By School J. J. of MARY Household Volume BROTHERS. Household Each HARPER HOME. Care Pratt Cloth NEW YORK of House. in Supervisor LONG. HOUSEKEEPER'S THE Pratt Design. ELIZABETH By Household FURNISHING AND PLANNING INSTITUTE Cookery. Institute. . Pratt Arts. and Science. OF Science " By of in Instructor MACLEOD. OF ARTS.

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I. culture Agri23.CLEANING-CLOSET Reproduced through from Cornell the courtesy Reading Courses of the for New the York Farm State Home. No. of College Vol. .

INSTRUCTOR SCHOOL OF IN OF CARE SCIENCE HOUSEHOLD PRATT LEOD MAC HOUSE AND ARTS INSTITUTE ILLUSTRATED HARPER " NEW BROTHERS YORK PUBLISHERS AND LONDON .HOUSEKEEPER'S THE CLEANING OF HANDBOOK BY SARAH J.

COPYRIGHT. F-P BROTHERS OF 1913 AMERICA .PRINTED BY 1915. IN THE HARPER a STATES UNITED PUBLISHED JUNE.

CEILINGS AND 34 .. . FLOORS AND COVERINGS FLOOR 39 .no MOVING HOUSE. 7 KITCHEN 15 WALLS.. AND DUST ROOM A 71 77 SPACES AND CARE 84 CARE OF REPAIR AND AND . VIII. How IX. THE LAUNDRY: EQUIPMENT XVII. VI. V. THE LAUNDRY: THE A .. 92 . ORNAMENTS. II. CLEAN. THE LAUNDRY XVI. FURNITURE OF INSECTS HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS 125 130 REAGENTS MAKING 138 AND USE OF 152 36936? . XIII.. CHINA AND BOOKS. STORAGE XI. 46 JEWELRY AND 65 .. PESTS . LINEN-CLOSET X. . CLOSING XV. XIV. THE IV. GLASS.VENTILATION III. ix IMPORTANCE COST AND CLEANLINESS OF i . WOODWORK.CONTENTS CHAP. . METALS. TO vSwEEp. . PAGE PREFACE I. CHOICE XII. .103 . VII...

COL- CUFFS SILK 213 AND WOOL . THE GENERAL . DRY-CLEANING XXV. THE LAUNDRY: WHITE MATERIALS .CONTENTS vi CHAP. THE LAUNDRY: EMBROIDERIES LAUNDRY: SHIRTS.198 . CLEANING-CLOSETS APPENDIX INDEX . MATERIALS . XXVI. XIX. LARS. 229 CARE OF CLOTHING . XXI.219 . 205 . PAGE THE LAUNDRY: REMOVAL OF STAINS . AND XXIII.187 . THE LAUNDRY: COLORED . 240 247 249 .236 . XVIII.173 . THE XXII. XXIV. XX. THE LAUNDRY: LACES AND SHIRT-WAISTS.

OVERHEAD VACUUM FOLDING FOLDING DRIER WASHING-MACHINE OF OF 16 50 SILVER OF 16 p. ARRANGEMENT KITCHEN-SINK CASE Facing HOUSE-LINEN . " 142 " 142 " 190 BODY-LINEN " 194 .ILLUSTRATIONS CLEANING-CLOSET Frontispiece ARRANGEMENT KITCHEN-TABLE HAND " CLEANER VACUUM ROOM READY ROOM AFTER " 50 " SWEEPING FOR 72 " SWEEPING CIRCULATION OF AIR 72 IN " REFRIGERATOR 94 .

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is another the adopted and method newspapers question.PREFACE absorb the and energy. How series. as. and in the aid and a cleaning third know method but example. As is . one another many result of aspect some that and asked questions times this offers and Questions that know magazines who aid volume present housewives for columns with of offers Why. which Answers majority answers recommendation make methods a various the large a the in appear method. is of furnished another methods. and its and the prefers person method. the together her of part " the contents. first An house the of for wearing-apparel the including food of clean her time. provision keeping family. the follow who Those and the and volume second. good one. all of for income her that tasks two greater household her has housekeeper THE those all the Many one bad ice. One But that and so few really best. produces to on of tried covering second a have important of the deal method. the in earlier and Cook to problem.

" on food. deals that cleaning with the within come housekeeper of sort and laboratory as energy against 1915. as book both in we been proved. ELY LORD. established the that problems that have well pretty by experiments household tests many offset is confessed frankly to been bill the Refrigerators.PREFACE explained in gain reduced a It be must laboratories of learned This in do of but this for her forth little to in the all But things are have more volume her save daily of home. contains housekeeper's the in even the ought and laboratory numerous loss probabilities. must problems. such been testing. January. to many the and aspects her the applications are made. immediate ISABEL PRATT the not know. some results range. goes . own in made. testing. It Each for is time battle her a INSTITUTE. where science has ice of preservation " chapter the in guide she dirt.

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on is matter. should dirt from unconcealed usually air. and the is such of influence the which of rest of inorganic and and cannot port sup- harmful. When. cleanliness obvious from is CLEANLINESS housekeepers inexperienced many OP define of state CLEANING OF HANDBOOK dust and is stirred nose up and and perhaps is . tables.HOUSEKEEPER'S THE COST AND IMPORTANCE T~"vICTIONARIES L/ free being freedom means dirt which is gaze dust usually settles furniture our dead life. necessarily that helpful and public the to chiefly it To dust but decried. it is breathed composed not however. light. into the mouth from Freedom dust chairs. and also open dryness. and be not filth. Because The sunshine. cleanliness open the to the as and dirt.

how in be nature strong health these put into The a must be. darkness. "d's" These three ness dampdust. in The fact that a few people seem to thrive dirty houses and neighborhoods is no argument The fact that the against the need of cleanliness. it may thus of the abrasions linings of these organs. environment people are live in dirty.filthysurroundings shows lack some important factor in their Their to lack of standard ignorance. be may may they do we fact that very if be people might clean much How be due due to thought. and ever " " form a terrible which triumvirate may really dangerous dirt. to possible. an possibly make opening for the lodgment of vital lower harmful thus organisms. people dust their drawing-rooms and neglect their The invisible dust cellars! usually is concealed in darkness.it of expensive.and in such as by the a method use of is for concealed dirt and should dust remove that that dusters. the as soon its prevents dampened dust as flying. Mrs. content not to that they make-up. and some farther the into It is well resistance. But it housekeeper and Far too many always lie in wait. sheer laziness Cleanliness worse or. people do survive under these conditions helps to cause show better could know. and is lack of cleanliness still. and too often dampness is also present. wherever there is warmth enough. Rich- .HANDBOOK 2 CLEANING OF cause respiratory organs. Ellen H. because they offer the best condition for bacterial growth.

neverthe- of great economic are service that is value money her services Is there There does who family income the to housewife a have she whom good price for good work The consumed should result. and social keeps her . says The valuable little book the diphtheria level" that to keep "just above is paid for rent. mind. the pioneer in this country of the application in her of science to the problems of the home. energy.CLEANLINESS OF IMPORTANCE 3 ards. and the to value any than the service her should be a definite although do we of own kept value not should which to often be tributed at- less of the housewife. strength.and To with a little apparent so real of time amount enormous do cleanliness obtain that for any one and she should work fact adds that employs to also be willing to pay done by an employee. does her own cleaning knows housekeeper who only too well the hours and the labor which have If she for the possession of cleanliness. of the for that a income. or as much 12^2 per cent. cleaning materials. clearly in every one's think of service. The These are cleaning utensils. labor. Cost of Cleanness. she sympathy the work be can of greater economic the woman who importance. and all costly. gone knows from actual experience the difficulties encountered also the in acquiring cleanliness. and takes one-quarter as much as really sanitary cleanliness there will be equal to nearly or quite one-half required "a sum as is paid for rent." whole requires the use of time.

Is it possible to think its existence boarded floors annoyance too one and cupboard Cracks cleaning. can ceiling. dirt. an amateur can too a to finds between often for this except This up. and that is have fewer places for dirt to lodge. or Another saved crevices harbor with time would of these removal be material Another useless and opening under stairs. as to construction: it is appalling of the number of useless moldings to think is Cleanliness houses. and the money out actually there are taken expended for the made in the in up and floors putty that so there of any Unless other the boards base- and These use but if that is can board with a surface one is clean.HANDBOOK 4 home in such condition a that her the has a high the housewife value.but there is one thing that we can do. between will be but common which space in be soon easily be filled in crack-filler (always a good quality). the unclean a built-in a as dust-catcher? justifiedit should be be done can by a carpenter. is the- converted . often such as beaver unsightly space This can be board. when "hired In her assigned cleaning. expensive method. of these can be in many Most at a small cost. Mrs. money drops of out value the to service quickly found her place and for hers. money family is kept greatest efficiency? And to up CLEANING OF a costly and every effort should be it less expensive. course spent in time such is as help" has to be substituted Richards of reckoning. Dirt always acmade to make companies life. In the first place.

Wherever so can that we the everything that place for dust be there eliminate cannot eliminate this method enters man to collect and the cost is dirt and dust.and the right conditions but its importance to the family happiness is per- can . It does not seem possible that any woman can of ornaments a mass get enough pleasure from cleanliness and is bric-a-brac to caring for them. in In made the furniture get that to keep it free from with the for the compensate Surely itself every which entails no sacrifice other effort the tailed en- ber mem- should be least work to dust. in many we a By homes greatly reduced. in dusting these articles is a sad waste. problem. and best ture fortunately the furnilines usually has few dust- collecting crevices.IMPORTANCE into CLEANLINESS OF 5 ing reallyuseful cupboard for rubbers by boardit and making a door in the paneling. of the family does. It can especially the excess be restful to sit in a room with a profusion of never detracts from the bric-a-brac. each piece of which other. simply because one beauty of every no And the time consumed piece has proper background. disease. but simply affords has of cleanliness no beauty. The importance of cleanliness to the health of the family is generally recognized in these days of of carrying greater knowledge of the methods of good living. furnishby abolishing some of ornaments. a Another in which way cut to down the of cost of our ing.

by house told the clean. or who a are greater clean that sense he room find not spotlessly look to in knows is there Yet do that home a been has who beings human CLEANING conceded. house. generally so pleasure it OF is parted im- shining ure pleasrect di- impression the of life the of the wife house- . the and care (unless home in pleasure of the That the The grace.HANDBOOK 6 haps not few in made process) than novelist of cleanness reader keener is the from is family in in thus keeping a when given a lacks that well the to unlike that one those or room enriched the of is the get house.

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air inclosed carefully tucked cleansing agents and similar To to is to consider the meaning clean nature's word wind. very in the air is conceded other thrown matter off impurities human from settle out as dust and ganic or- fires and from the products of combustion lights in the house. the presence is a gas of other foreign matter The important. with lungs of the oxygen the carbon of the carbonaceous waste products of Carbon the blood. matter removing gaseous is such a problem.however. ventila- Latin ventus. but only in small quantities. primary meaning natural of as proper nearly as is derived Thus from the to fulfil the of tion. the rain it from prevents is ventilation The in thus these the aim air in the becoming house. This great impurity in bad recently the considered was CLEANING OF to be the of amount carbon formed by the union in the of the air breathed in. however. wind. purities solid im- can be moved re- and therefore by mechanical they means. of carbon besides the excess dioxide. process from the air. similar in to be drainage. To-day. which with always has mixed and The sometimes dangerous germs. air are bodies. dioxide is normally present in the air. meaning of the . it germs. from away the a washes a way possible.HANDBOOK 8 Until air very dioxide. The out-of-door air is cleaned by nature by the action air of rain and and the wind The stagnant. The of not a are problem of ventilation. possible gases from and dust.

have must 9 from the These house. If a with case window a a is single opening is large opening and at and the No enter heated at the air will be what by matter is ventilated. there must called a draught of air. (2) two (3) window top and and door door. but a a or produced by the moving less motion or of articles wind. (6) a window or a fireventilate (7) there window a not are openings.VENTILATION word we have more and currents are prevent the of air We of air. inside air part of the upper because difference parts of the hung draperies . The of its own of the accord. casement the enough. open windows. the ventilation simply air does not changing the air. very door or the room as is the but half will air top. place. of the forced out a if the out-of-door bottom means when or often screened. two window. (5) a window a or door and and a transom. they are becoming enough not to To stagnant. be obtained This draught may by having two such as (i) one window openings into a room. (4) two doors. but the movement consists move air in is caused by the between the outside and cold comes into the air air to room the Ventilation cold Any room in one who the and out room than ever heated of the heated air. as the it forces air is heavier of the temperature that " depends largely upon in temperature room. be both an inlet and an truly there must is commonly be what outlet for air. register. the differences air of various has is. bottom. current in persons help.

and all for the meant ventilation that the a cool takes a its house chance reason to the certain the house. whether room its heated walls enter well as themselves.HANDBOOK io the that knows than warmer air that other heated room and nearer out which air is other room than are around in and lighter than air. If it finds no exit it will pass eventually by the same opening through found the Why fact is room of gases. as it becomes Therefore ume a given vol- cooler. basement For is . every that air entered. expands. a the tendency is to push up the heated air of the room force it out through an opening the ceiling. the on the so by as A rises and place. thus the the same hotter windows air is The are heated of air is rises. The depends on exactly the air in inlet and lighter than the of a for that openings. The same cooler the fact fore air. changing the air from crevices outlet depends air ventilation place. and of the volume the mixture or heated. of the floor. colder the of and entire that by this permeate ventilation basement the takes house principle. cold the Fortunately there no this difference? As cool air enters higher up in a room. there- in conies or of air. through leaves by and they windows and filters It enters for air to means especially made through cracks and doors and doors amount this the those It enters purpose. the on of top the near gas CLEANING the at depends It like any OF whole of the or air beneath constant cellar has house.

with the result that the skin be should becomes parched and dry. a to In general they consist of holds receptacle that the air. supplied especiallyto artificially the from There market. quick evaporation is too there producing good for cold air become is essential Moisture dry valuable are the heated top floor. hot-water hung dry on The heated the back kind some is the the on of exposed is water least a tion por- vice simplest dehouses of the is an ator radi- with it. Where placed in close contact be procured hot air is used. although very often neglected. the on to If the of air is moisture body. a specialdevice can or . As the and in steam can or of water which water air becomes the of its natural open types of air-moisteners different are air at assumes humidity. which can escape may be adjusted according to the weather. or the exit in any of be supplied by opening a window may is quite the as open rooms Electric fans ventilation. be a skylight in the hall. temperature. can inlet for fresh top of the house? air in the and be to of the rest for used of exit an This pressing as that of an entrance. that thus They change and producing a the air currents better so mixed. even more good air.VENTILATION n important. evaporated. one sonably can impure air is harbored most If is not as If there it as pure ought be must should basement. feel reathere. Moisture heated houses. air in the the that sure an there not be air in the outlet an need The house be.

enough. it will take inhabitants of the important country houses England or from the bodies of the room. but.the temperais at its finest.HANDBOOK 12 for the before OF furnace that it reaches Lack the supplies the humidity excess water the to air rooms. temperature is in this factor ventilation. if moisture way. Air evaporation of moisture has a greater capacity for holding that is heated is not supplied in some moisture. but so far they all go that there is a steady decrease in temto show perature from the high degree at which plant life develops best through the lower temperature favorable of animal most to the development life. and. moisture Besides very moisture and motion. in air is of moisture hand. kept much the Continent. 35 degrees. where the physical vigor of men to a lower one of all. . and are warmer In than a in usually kept A temperature of 65 degrees is high too warm. to 70 degrees. although it is not definitelyinjuriousto let it run that. but of must be considered This course also. CLEANING bad. hardly be called conclusive yet. to the lowest ture at on which mental down point runs physical conditions last to are vigor is greatest. which on the other is present in a crowded with room poorly ventilated people is it diminishes the normal also an impurity because from the body. It should never go over the differences on Experiments are being conducted mental in physical and vigor due to The results can change in temperature.

but Ventilation is needed to procure good ventilation care more artificial lights are in the evening. be deWhile sired a and be the best for many people. furnish fresh air to the sleeper at night is To air to the octo give pure as cupant fully as necessary of the house during the day. provided there is a good room. no may should one get the mistaken idea that a cold room only kind in which it is healthful to sleep. be very air may The breathing of cold. the Ventilation in the be obtained by any of the means evening can is that we used during the day. Here we take notice that good air is not necessarily must cold sleeping-room may cold. but the caution must guard against lack of ventilation. fortunat Un- cleanliness. like all used. is the This that means heat more be must ventilation.VENTILATION work should 13 their ordinary house from the frequent gradually down temperature 60 degrees. when using curtains are closely drawn so up the air and when admitted that air is not as freely through the Americans crevices around windows. is a well-ventilated room. it does mean of a properly efficiencyof the inhabitants ventilated amount As house is a for the increased recompense spent for heat. circulation of fresh air. but the inmore expensive. damp conditions in certain of injurious to persons A warm health. point near 72 degrees to some is important during the day. is creased heat. much attention should be given to ventila- .

" air. Ventilation is of primary importance. but for the a strong one of consideration temperature. in poorly ventilated directly. things we can see. house be can and moisture. Motion. fact that a kept cool by keeping the windows closed and thus keeping out the heated air should of not airinga house not lead to the great mistake It is all very well to at all during hot weather. but about greater increasing the we which but have must means also air is a that rooms it lowers may vital not resistance. humidity. see living. though " normally even analysis the air according to chemical was is not This for the negan impure. in factors important shown by temperature ventilation. close windows during the hottest part of the day. bringing clean not To rate.HANDBOOK i4 tion in OF in as summer CLEANING The winter. argument lect of purity of air. 50 at where 60 per 69 and the are air been portant imthat " not was moisture and cent. food and only those which requisitefor we cannot clean death cause susceptibilityto disease death Living be and most thus efficient clean surroundings. Clean . it has allowed to kept between at become temperature individual an that and between could exist the the stagnant. and motion. essential that a house be thoroughly but it is most aired morning and evening. 70 was the degrees. It has experiments that these are more than the chemical purity of the air found been is.

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is the right thing The idea that a large kitchen it from the days when in a good house comes served as family dining-room and family sittingWhere that is no the room. the and satisfaction at with look now pride. cleaning would the time that take twice ought to be needed And this was for the kitchen. ! Against it large. but the arrangement only was wall was the table. some well planned and all Everything seemed seemed admirably utilized until the kitchen Here shown. To been to have as in this kitchen the simplest meal might prepare The well mean walking miles.HANDBOOK 16 moderate-sized CLEANING OF to cottage summer friends. planned in 1914! space A kitchen furnished about with the furniture time apparent no a one-half view would to have spent in the kitchen individual the the size best reduced and to except use of this and relationshipof enormously the the weariness of the doing the work. of another of one the middle bad bit of the outside another of range. was the wall other of this kitchen the center with was In vestibule a refrigerator. Large indeed large kitchen!" seemingly attractive to exclaimed hostess least feature one of the the to space was much my nice and that at owner guests the peared ap- one very Not planning in the whole cottage. longer necessary be considered should kitchen as laboratory or . In immense an vacant give a furnishings which ought long distance between close together as possible. the the sink. "And it was.

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a deep paint is not able plaster. and oilcloth is treated in Chapter IV. washing necessary as cheap in the end as oil paint. It is more Enamel paint is more easily cleaned. every White and where white Oil It can cream by glare caused is extremely trying to the eyes. is also beautiful sanitary. What workshop arranged in such a wasteful way as been At about his has described? least the finish and housekeeper of the color can usually decide walls of the kitchen.and with it walls The Ripplin are easily and thoroughly cleaned. It is.wash- Oilcloth good substitute. state Where of the Either the walls. paint that is flowed on. woodwork is usually best finished in the The with oil or enamel color of the walls. but direct sunlight in is desirable from the kitchen point of view. cleaning of paint. making what is practically and enamel. The is a good wall finish also. But an both these finishes are very expensive. kitchen is perhaps the ideal. tilingis a beautiful finish. paper is a rather .THE KITCHEN 17 would have good workman workshop. therefore. and paint. walls paint is or an cleaned be a it the has one excellent and light tan possible because is of the finish for kitchen is durable. but does not wear away rapidly as does ordinary paint under the constant in a kitchen. white is There is also a question as to whether white first thought the the At right color. paper. if a good quality of enamel and is chosen applied carefully. as expensive to put on. good.

at once. To clean a cement with soapy water floor. Wet dangerous falls.hard advantage that with and and offers cold it the no to can to be the so It is. cement. fastened on the will touch it in opening. floor in the kitchen. linoleum. is rapidly passing. cement kitchen. but is an ex- into it as wears too out soon to justifythe expenditure. Tile makes floor. bath-room. saves the hand where soil and woodwork from the wear of cleaning. In its by constant place are being used oilcloth. and basement) are to be laid the cost of each is materially reduced. especially if a single floor is to be laid. and therefore easy can . laundry. but its expense is so hard be used in any ordinary house. for example. elastic. wiping dry. but laid that has it is baseboard. dining-room. spots are slippery and may cause The best kitchen for floor-covering available the average It is somewhat housekeeper is linoleum. Cement is being used like tile. to be kept clean The wooden scrubbing.HANDBOOK i8 Where there CLEANING OF the kitchen swinging-doorsfrom are butler's closets. some feet. or five foot long and a pieces of plate-glass about sides of the door both inches wide. extent. basedirt It is expensive. great that it cannot is very Oilcloth travagance. pantry. Where several floors (as. lodge and bacteria flourish.wash and rinse with clear water. frequently used. A to the feet. beautiful and tile. though a and cold to the feet. curving at the cracks anywhere in which the tinuous con- line.

with a quarter molding or they may should be no There place at the edges for dirt to remedy collect. and ceiling for the Floors.as has already been plain hard-wood it is so said. woodwork. is rapidly ceasing to exist because hard An oiled floor has the advantage to clean. and with ease frequent washing probable. seems that well it pays.KITCHEN THE worth it but Maid grade of buying. is sometimes Linoleum both and color varnished surface. walls. of linoleum The floor. scribed The looking with age. proved kitchen enough The have that this all must to make stove and be their sink good light. tacked being into floor for at least If this a positionit month a precaution and buckles If be should Linoleum it should out wears linoleum is should notified be it that the ridges thus firm at that so mistake their the invariably buckle. The cleaning is described in Chapter V. they should be Both side should by side . good so wears 19 only kind is the linoleum The initial well and looks so laid by expert. can it taken not Before lie loose must so on an formed. are fixtures. that dust does not flyfrom it and that it does not and absorb dark but it grows muddygrease. It to preserve is yet to be lengthens its life. be covered of the linoleum against the wall may be cemented.and washable. the once on stretch. price great. laid that they can The edges immediately. cleaning of both is dein Chapter V.

so that few steps to A shelf above putting them away. the wall so that the sink.both natural and artificial. is convenient used utensils. but often effort should be made so that one does not . but far enough up on the tallest person using that sink is in no danger of for holding the most hitting it. placing the other furniture be must shelves. retracing of steps. But the possible to place them other furniture is movable. The second group any storage shelves. should be as close together as possible. possible to get an ideal arrangement kitchen not planned by the user. commonly Saucepans and other handles hooks be utensils with hung on may be in taken screwed into the It is not in every a bottom of this shelf.and so placed that the "raw material" to the table without passes through the processes sink. the meals made table or first group.HANDBOOK 20 where CLEANING OF As possible. the and outlet plumbing placing. the best possible relation to the two In the table or tables. and stove. cabinet. and again the refrigerator must " " " " the have be should as dishes consideration. that used in the preparation of and that used in clearingup the meal. The up of refrigerator. and refrigerator consideration and given to the light. it is not always the chimney condition in this way. also to their relative positions. and can be placed in fixtures. same placed over washed are or Shelves near the there will be but for utensils sink. A good arrangement is to divide the equipment into two parts.

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away dust with that ment. the the ranges the a air which the Below oven. basemuch are ways al- coal-stoves. in some fine kindlings or shavings very 3. open 4. this is openings. Above draught. 2. oven fire-box arrangement associated or of heated passage ash-pan into This of the close it may The in part.is a similar of row arranged that entirely or simply so the In control to some from Its with the pipe damper is open air around is the be ash-pan. coarser looselyand on top of this place some a " light sprinkling of coal may this. or for building A very . Free both the fire-box and ash-pan of ashes. corner a occasionally keeps it from Twisting this paper burning out too quickly. coal fire. not be placed on may lower off stove. directly dumped receptacle in the ashes can a does and objectionable dirt Directions check. Place crumpled paper loosely in the fire-box.brush crisscross. used of the stove front is to admit purpose and the In stove. which level of the grate is a row The be opened or shut by a slide. higher up than the level of the fuel. and the fire will pass over In the stove-pipe is a sheet of metal cool it. Put wood.HANDBOOK 22 CLEANING OF system of draughts and is dampers part of every a the just beneath of small openings. Allow of it to poke through the grate. Adjust the lids. 1. can object of will circulate air that this draught is to admit around and of the fire-box through the contents this and thus cause them to burn freely.

This does not give a high polish. A good stovewith hot soapy water. and closed that heat the may pass If the fire becomes 8. a brush Many or cloth. the check be shaken may be and the fire should never top. be around it can The the oven. raked from the hot too opened. Gas-stoves vary the stove and " then . be freed by washing polish should be used. a grate. the end stickingthrough the wood the 23 add a tities quan- until the coal stands of the top of inches the fire-box. Before too applying blacking. burning well the lower draught can be partly The chimney damper may be opened so the oven damper may 7. the chimney damper pass up the chimney. housewives now prefer simply to wash occasionally to oil it. the stove A should This is best done of all grease. close the check. If it dies down draughts again opened.THE KITCHEN draught.for then it is neither too hot nor cold. When be closed. and it should be applied It is then polished with sparingly with a brush.but keeps the stove clean and looking well.and at open the smoke that so Apply 5. When may lightto quantity of at frequent small within three the oven burning briskly is coal in small Add coal. least partly. intervals four or close damper. from the simple Gas-stoves. 6. good time for blackening a stove is just after lighting the fire.

Their cost is that of a good gas-range plus the priceof a good too fireless cooker. these added It is also to warm uneconom- . with gas-ranges drums no oven. one lighted. for it can bring about cooks in hot weather Every housekeeper who should have coal or something besides a wood either gas. Where does space be chosen rather than the the not raised better than The that one the why except that most the side. kerosene. one with at one the the be until made should as to is kitchen should in which range There bend were ranges a to one in the gas-range chosen. combination be heat insulated ovens and the kettles and thus dropped over excellent. This as. housewife should suit her CLEANING OF Unless the able This means or and broiler. the back-breaking oven below. A is not to be gas-plate with a portable oven excellent results. can the conserve at top. allow ovens at the side. the find to space table permit it.the heat arm the ovens. expensive for many. recently so that she must. reason above oven below. the is not when burners good as burners are strikes disagreeably against the but it is immeasurably to the oven.HANDBOOK 24 little single-burnerstove and range does the to fireless cooker. scorned. but they are still are The initial cost is large. or alcohol stove " " as summer the heat of air is hard either of to bear.rise above ovens side of the cook should burner. a not gas- In this assortment surely be purse. but they do save fuel and also time. gasoline.

so that one is not of gas and running the risk of lighting a mixture This air in a confined portant warning is imspace. be opened before turning on must ovens leaked which This allows might have gas any burner before and into the oven. weather. washed. After burners The rest or oiled blackened each time should of of never the like the using. but if meat has been broiled the pan must Kerosene-stoves. care broiling-oven must be simply wiping off crumbs. warm to the gas- should gas freelythrough the run In lightingthe applying the match. the between because happened a lighted inclosed do not an boil burners. " be washed. the doors of both the broiling and baking gas-oven the gas. be turned as about cautions some allowed and on for so lighting a First. touched can match should Care soda the from in serious many The with blacking.THE burn fuel should be ical to Meals as few hours There are KITCHEN all the 25 in time planned that it is burned possible. be taken be stove. the burner cleaned by boilingin a washing- off and solution. which that into passes the oven openings of the gas-cock and the applying of the match. the pan be stove coalin the be taken This may of. to escape. be taken and over that thus things being stop up cooked the holes of the If this does should happen. in lighting a burner stove. accidents explosion caused mixture the to have by applying of air and gas oven. There are two types of kero- .

in which a a a vaporized before burning. and Electric at of types many better. with necessary. in good condition. can cohol-s al- of alcohol-stove of alcohol-stoves water. The charred same as the care portion of the wick should be rubbed off frequently and occasionallythe burners should be taken out and boiled of the chimneys washed in suds and the the general. should and soap soda a or stoves with oily or stove of market wickless type the present should as the stoves. there is no odor. The has former proved itself the more satisfactory The objection to kerosene-stoves by many type. In washed be outside The solution. the wick filled. Akohol-stoves. the considered same The soapy like lamp should stove be it appears whenever water the burners There " on The of the neys chim- soiled.and the flame turned low enough so that it is blue. of electrical cooking appliances is high because they are Unless the more from expensive metals. is be washed dried whenever initial cost obtained at five cents the gas-stoves. rinsed. stove " burners the The should have of be time. the oil-tank clean. and blue with those " CLEANING OF those wick. The of the kerosene-stove is practically the care of a kerosene-lamp.HANDBOOK 26 sene-stoves flame. The tank should never the is kerosene filled while be the is lighted. If the stove is kept absolutely people is the odor. burning with without wick. treatment rest are or made tricity elec- less per .

labor. are which pan cooks is well made. be fireless a ing containing boilcoverclamped. cooker a and baking. and fireless cookers be used into for the other any now aluminum have stone should These with be must so is a food. not coils of the should all the be washed stove. The should for the wick fillbut should not first time be soft. loose-meshed. cooking appliance one there is the proper voltage. thus conductor does in care wrung packed with is cooker fuel that food remove out wiped with a cloth wrung then wiped absolutely dry with Fireless that sure cooking. . Care box into it and compartment cooked. of clear water. electric an With be must be taken must care expensive installing any more to the directions for " i. electrical The greatest for it is hard boil over. and saving. Care of lamps. dusting for regular cleaning necessary be Occasionally it should stove. with cloth a to cookers. is put material from out Fireless " of heat.THE is electricity kilowatt-hour fuel coal either than KITCHEN or 27 far a In gas. dry a substance a is retained heat the the of soapy water. poor Most disks metal or are heated the substance it that can and the to put to be fireless be cleaned like a The cleaned according that metal in Chapter VI. it should be well Before soaked and using in oil. or the time. the taken that of is usually equipment and of aluminum. cookers The when cloth. pack the burner. compound utensil.

should work-table have Table. be should will there be soda reservoir that so should strong a be paper. chimney 4. holder with a glass cover is also an cook-book narrow A harbor insects even to one . A wooden-top table is good if properly cared for. but needs a good deal of time and energy. or burner wiped 3. should be a set of ing depth of jars containand used commonly dry materials liquids. The tables has white oilcloth used a good deal to cover the serious disadvantage that dust. In lighting. if used. Perhaps zinc is as cheap and " well generally satisfactoryas any surface. crumbs. be must Any kept clean. It should table. occasionallyit should be solution. for cleaning glass may method should be turned not 5. CLEANING OF HANDBOOK 28 but well filled with little space for oil the of explosive gases. It wears and is easily cleaned. but these are too expensive for any except the ample purse. The an easily cleaned surface. The be used. the wick up to its full capacity at first.The charred with a be off boiled in The daily and accumulation rubbed off daily be It should kept clean. portion should soft cloth The 2. Tables with tops of especially prepared porcelain or glass are excellent. but the in order of such to scrub the is described work-table hold there table. in never frequently The ing clean- Chapter IV. and be fastened removed Above to tables the shelves under it.

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that the lower get soon intended are choosing the about be often cabinet compartments In boxes paper box. but they are pensive exand convenient not as as glass. For tin recepstoring flour and sugar white-enameled tacles boxes are satisfactory. is made to it is true. . A good strong work-table of shelves with a well-thought-out arrangement it to meet one's particularneeds should over save of more meet motion than general needs. as there is always a for dust chance ones. Pawill remain for some neat time. Attractive receptaclesin china. Even untidy and how much of sets and insects " A small so many to keep clean. These place of a table. usually blue and These white.HANDBOOK 30 black glass with per paint. especially labels if shellaced. are on the market. Paper bags or should be kept.and they must is in the Cabinet. a cabinet The which cabinet can. kitchen and careful also about be must between taken the opened to takes of them are that a see cabinet is there shelves to with hard are should one workmanship sufficient allow the labor- made they and finish as spacing of the shelves. shellacingthis after. but some be get into the paper-covered tin dirty. but the contents of such never packages should be emptied immediately into a glass or metal receptacle. saving devices. but times a CLEANING OF have to be renewed several year. help in carrying out a color scheme. to Care distance for the storage large receptacles.

or more place to another. After the thoroughly water. expense. For sinks kerosene and porcelain and enameled whiting are especiallygood. is the most be excellent. always put up in any one be must 31 and it is clean. for Shelves greater venience con- entirely emptied of contents and washed month thoroughly. but they also have which are always undesirable. it kitchen may prove cheap and are at least Sinks. seams. The kerosene cuts and the grease the whiting supplies the friction. they sinks Sinks are of are a pensive. Slate and soapstone sinks not only have the disadvantage of being dark in color. pipes clogged with . it is " A Porcelain sinks for and in favor of frequently. Every sink should be thoroughly cleaned after using. far cost attractive whether sure White-enameled substitute is that much to easy costs very changed sink white always cabinet be a once move be can should the argument an wrong without Cabinets but apartment. but are iron less. sink flushed This flushes it out be no from with of the entire trouble it should be (boilingif possible) in the pipes and grease the after dirt hot dissolves is taken should is free every with If this caution predish-washing there system.KITCHEN THE be moved shelves whereas house new so from bodily much that this is only for those who the cabinet Moreover. right for one another. A fine sand soap is good for all sinks. ex- good cement well composition are good provided they are glazed.

It is well once system out a collection best The sal soda drain.HANDBOOK 32 OF The sinks should with the greatest CLEANING always be left dry. . Even kitchen of grease in the sink. driedlike any other dish. Garbage. garbage of white is best receptacle kept in the house at a glance whether enamel. The cook. This and water. and This dryness is one should the drain-boards. the least possibletrouble to the as it collects. The grease which allowed lye may stand to of danger always then or soda be flushed cuts lye solution. be washing emptied at the time of each dishand should be thoroughly washed. no Its cleanliness should never be A closely covered pail is good. pests. no type. there is decomposition and the odors result. Prompt disposal of garbage is a The necessity in a well-kept kitchen. solution a this pour away be flush the to pound one stand should solution time short or this is to make use likelyto trap of the week a the in quarts which to way hot a is pipes and proportion of and of boiling water either a with there care out six to into in the the drains with the of -hot film of have gathered. should and what matter receptacle. A straight-sidedwhite-enamel one-gallon jar with kept on the drain-board. for then one see can " or it is clean. rinsed.with doubtful. so effective against water-bugs and other weapon grease. takes the garbage cover. If grease is in pipes and traps.

Paper bags to be used as a lining to made the garbage-can are expressly for this purpose. which should not be than for to care the of the house. cleaning of shelves kitchen. menace they are a constant Where there is no garbage collection a garbage with to be the incinerator is equipment. Garbage receptacles must and clean. used soda strong for washing. as and in the it is better If the a drawers. wiping to way soon as be well covered The the kitchen dispose possible. washing of walls. A more includes the thorough care washing of the floor. daily and usually means necessary. earth. garbage under the rules of the municiNewspaper may be used in the same way line the can completely. and or it thoroughly rinsed with boiling be kept sweet water. of weekly. or a toy whenever is excellent broom should lye solution should for then be A this. to kitchen care In the of the rest keep clean is well cared general cleaning. and save lent washing the can. with kitchen should of the stoves. be kept closelycovered.THE KITCHEN 33 out-of-door The garbage-can should be cleaned An old broom it is emptied. make clean. include washing of sinks and fixtures. They are excelif one or and afford them can if paper is allowed pality. up- . of garbage The is If it is buried addition valuable a to safest and burn it it must to best as of the daily care washing of tables. All garbage-cans must to health.the brushing of the floor. and dusting. an heaval.

the used are lowed al- are grease remove should the be and finish The water with Grease should grease spreading. common. to one entire dry and washing. a of should one be may brush. prevent to washing-soda strong a removed washing. stand measures AND woodwork all forgotten they as soon to is of care never as WALLS. is methods extreme with there it taken be where CEILINGS dirt If woodwork on must usually to " appear. lye To bleach oxalic darkened. For unfinished an to the to the made acid. scrubbed just spots means before cold with wet to Stains " unfinished from clean caution one dirt. the wood.IV WOODWORK. teaspoonful applied is allowed as usual. surface been This is scrubbed be gone . surface in of cup surface then the a hot with the surface which has solution water. the IN be to removed Unfinished stains wood the are first be and then most off and that severe dirt. or solution.

across being thoroughly scrubbed. then wet a CEILINGS WALLS. a fine scourer. gray the In floor care be taken must to not washing a wood the base-board. WOODWORK. If work properly of water is used the great deal a becomes do water-soaked darkens. wood the Thorough surface possible with as will and water warm cloth a wrung water. the should always go with the grain of the wood. dried thoroughly it will be streaked. the grain or in a circular motion. the surface or soap brush never After should be of As fine a rinsed wiped then out scrubbed cloth. of the Warm becomes enough soap cloth The the surface washed. simply from Painted for out wrung a time. warm should clear as dry as In sand-soap. Enameled wood.as otherwise becomes and muddy-looking. After portion should be attempted be rubbed washing it should cloth wrung out of clear water is at one over and then rubbed If the surface is not dry with a dry cloth. In washing on splash water a be caretable. Soap must never be applied directlyto paint. Spots that do not yield to this treatment be rubbed with may such as whiting. off with little water be used. with the wood. a under touch " light suds a Only This surface be used. the edge and under the edge must fully washed. and rinsingis also essential. wiped off with a " These woolen surfaces cloth wrung should out of be hot .with over and 35 with brush a scrubbing. and of this solution small and water should greasy hands.

Watts should and be thorough broom draws " brushed when cleaning. All with with a tapes may a walls room and ceilings is receiving a lamb's-wool cotton-flannel brush or a bag which be used for this purpose. Hot dent is raised applied thinly and evenly and soft cloth. in any If the it is way easilycleaned are surface usually best comes berub to This must be the spot with a very little alcohol. be soft a They Silk polished with a dry cloth. used most the spot is removed. then wiped absolutely dry. Waxed wood. only a small portion being washed be wiped off with that must at a time. cleaned ceilingsare by Oil-painted walls and Water be water. A covered up ceilings. must washing with warm soapy used sparingly. . When be should wax rubbed If with a in with wooden hot very possible. sparingly. fine a scourer. chamois finished should surfaces cleaned then Boiled be then Varnished " linseed-oil with is good. a surface water water and is dented. should cloth moistened be should then a as applied as soon be applied until the the should surface be refinished. and a cloth wet in clear water. Varnished and carefully dusted and cloth should and oil. and Badly soiled rubbed then CLEANING OF spots dry with treated be may second a with cloth. Waxed " by rubbing with marred a surfaces soft cloth. wood.HANDBOOK 36 water. especiallygood for rubbing finely are surfaces.

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after Often can if be an put a accident on and of part is apply to sorbed.HANDBOOK 38 To wall-paper. iron placed the it. brushing papering warm grease chalk. ab- warm leaving on the off. paper removed. over some Paper be of kept. before a fresh the be can and is French or hours left all method Another spot spot with repeating until earth the blotting-paper blotting-paper Fuller's CLEANING these remove white with covered OP should room occurs the a defect always new strip entirely .

a good soft-hair slightly tion condibrush ally Occasion- moistened . desirable preferable are cracks good of covered are the wood. be with may a be swept dry washed mop with these in with a or duster. not to surface the and great. by the cover COVERINGS as to peted car- floors. hold as cleaned Even can floor entire Rugs The the rugs nailed-down of day gone. Painted they and " should dusted they cloth. If there is Painted the three this surface of four is traffic. they cover. so but they To keep with paint large one where placed ones finish not will as last well. rug. hard are for soft smaller soft-wood which easily. floors. or several most hard-wood is and with or is more floor a and dust surface carpets Carpets dust much car- all sooner better. they are take but the much though be filled applied. coats the floors floors.FLOORS AND FLOOR FORTUNATELY i the is pets almost replaced are clean.

an used or with ordinary an drops of linseedhours. Waxed if well floorshave one great advantage of the cared floor for. harden then Liquid may and be be used. and said of other finishes. creased floor is greatly inwearing quality of a varnished of waxing is the The method by waxing. longer is better. waxed can be retouched is careful one surface before good hard-wood waxed The in nished var- places. should covered This stand The at with wax must least floor is . a thin melted be " The surface coating of over allowed hot to thirty minutes. several The sults re- become They badly marred if walked with The on heavy shoes. Varnished painted surfaces not easily patched in worn are places to look well. should be swept with a hair brush and thoroughly Waxing dusted. the general appearance That is more be than can improves with age. should wax. pert floors.HANDBOOK 40 Varnished a soft-hair cleaned floors are brush and A prepared oil mop moistened dry mop oil and allowed CLEANING OF dusting be may with a stand to by sweeping with few oiled mop. equally are floor. worn apply more wax is injured. whereas surface a worn spot on a waxed " can be treated so it is not that noticeable. water. For the varnish floor a to finish without wax to a nish var- is preferable. solid or wax. For the originalwaxing an exbe should be employed. the floor properly filled before waxing. for as same the surface provided the good. as the floor must To rewax.

but it is harder Floor is wax apply than sticky. carpet. housekeeper who in cleaning the use carpets must greatest care their disadvantages. the broom should be held almost perpendicular to the floor. If the room be taken up at intervals. by hand either rubbed is then It with cloth by tying the or woolen a cloth over the brush.for it looks little brush A care. to sweep out large. help collect the dust and also to of paper. in order to minimize In sweeping. The stroke should be short and firm. usually made of a mixture paraffin.the dust should otherwise it may Sometimes brighten the and herself the blow the The absolutely necessary. Beeswax was formerly used alone for floors. and dusted well floor waxed with so a mop always has a good finish and a soft luster which be procured by no other treatment. and turpentine. the back.FLOORS AND COVERINGS FLOOR 41 polished by rubbing with a weighted brush (on sale at any house-furnishing store or department store). them. general direction. to A waxed with swept prepared the floor is a comparatively with a hair because waxes it is satisfaction. can Care has The of carpets.always following the grain of the then wood. fine damp scraps to . with then from warp floor sweeper always threads no more should in one first and ridges. and of the stroke the at the end " should broom than sweep is be lifted away from is across. of beeswax.

various these things brightens be must used be must cautiously. carpet. The dampened substances then there is the only slightly damp and even their possibility of stains resulting from use. If a rug is too large to be taken Large rugs. carpet-sweeper loose a rolled be same up and way the as a it up carpet. taken that Otherwise it is likely to rust the tacks.HANDBOOK 42 CLEANING OF bran. However. especiallyon light-coloredcarpets. but there is so much some oil in some of them allowed that if they are to stay in the carpet for any length of time they do stain. After sweeping it is well to dust cloth wrung dry out of clear very ammonia A carpet with water or out dirt in be may used for taking of a carpet. damp tea-leaves. rugs. Most and sweeping preparations contain sawdust oil. coarse salt. the " it be can then it swept can and Small should a of water. does The moisture catch flyinginto the the and dust the these on prevent substances of it from some Also the moisture room. be in the swept up " taken Wherever out possible small of doors. They hold the dust. but daily care should not replace the use of a broom or vacuum cleaner entirely. If salt is used it should be it is all swept the and coarse moisture around from out from be must care tacks. where they rugs can be . and floor underneath dusted. or damp specialsweeping preparations are sprinkled on the floor.

If This many house. and carpet-beater.FLOORS COVERINGS FLOOR AND and thoroughly beaten swept. beaten with switches. small rugs cleaned be must 43 procedure places. Holding them loosening of the threads at shaking often causes the border. Oriental must rugs never be beaten are shaken. in is not possible. or a wire turned. however. and vacuum when carpets twice or once cleaner vacuum a be cannot rugs properly. Rag need rather washed are rugs like are treated like other frequent washings. before in the sweeping it is well to place dampened newspapers just under the edge of the rugs and allow them to catch These at least project well out. beaten. the is rug placed right It is dry snow. dry. They should steam-cleaned. It is then swept. This water. never but be and in soap Oriental dealers be washed cheaply by in rugs. a rattan beater. Rugs cleaned good a year a rug almost becomes should where a be steam- there is in two once taken years no even is used. and then the edge begins to ravel. but They can material. as the they be They folds . side down the on or grass on end and at one shaking rugs. and brushed. Where and necessity. but is done like other should rugs. some of the out of doors. which it can be placed over to place a rug on a It is better to avoid line. any other especiallydifficult to cotton clean rugs. papers dust. If there is no flat place swept on the right side. cleaner vacuum beat To a cleaner.

cleaning. slightly dampened should linoleum be take to necessary be used. frematting up rather cause Matting is an expensive covering. and its use cannot Linoleum. On Cork Oilcloth " the greatest the " This is laid is in attractive offices or institutional use. beough of poor wearing qualitiesand cost of thorbe advised. sifts through is there with Even a even best of the cleaner vacuum dust matting. rooms. the surface should is spilledon If water a matting it damp cloth. like linoleum.HANDBOOK 44 in made the CLEANING OF catch by weaving rags and hold dirt. with even off. and unless for cleansing. or a dampened broom be dusted with After sweeping. and comes for house the pattern care oilcloth whole. and a very like colors. soil should the remove with broom. it is fine very much care quently. For sweeping matting. Matting. rinsed with Only enough removed be a clear water be washed mop or and water to a soap cloth. soft the should Dust " brush a or then using either water. is excellent It there is is rather a serious vestmen in- It for pensive ex- ob- . It and must wiped then a The with dry. be wiped up should as quickly as possible and then dried by covering with a cloth and applying a and air from hot iron or by the sun an open " window. a slightly soft brush is good to use. carpet. but is cleaned wears soon poor linoleum. Oikloth.

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blackness air also because tarnish the result of and wool. must and moisture. which with found is burned. the air. cleaning that to CHINA AND GLASS. such knows as the which the to is silver often of in the in and the air. is metals cleaning of we are impurities or of film the which metal. of of the may if washed dried either which content some or result the ferent dif- materials. The is and the are food. results from is union compounds either found of silver on Sulphur where the causes housekeeper sulphur. use. sulphide. reaction present water soapy metal The distress tarnishing silver the metal little very care. in perhaps or of are coal gas materials. which also bit a other grease. of problem THE from addition In inclosed it in tarnishes dust.VI METALS. in before putting special " silver. in utensils daily thoroughly need should away. Every using one silver . most hot the remove Metal have may oxygen be food. Silver. that the coal in organic rubber.

chloride. The reason soluble in ammonia. prepared powders. and then rubbed chamois.remains on is quickly acted upon again by sulphur. CHINA AND GLASS. many The most ways in which method common silver may be of cleaning is by friction such as we get by applying powders like whiting. that Silver sulphide is insoluble so ever.allowed to become cloth ot with a absolutely dry. rouge. putty or powder. brush If the is most silver has a raised pattern a helpful for getting the powder out of the crevices.in storing it. how- which the salt and will is rubbed discoloration then washed disappear. the entire surface of the silver.with eggs or of leaving it in be should and bleached cotton avoid also to goods. If. not materials 47 with contact silver is tarnished Because bands. alcohol. a whitish compound formed when the salt was which placed on the was the silver unless dissolved. manufacture or of have been used. or ammonia. ordinary washing has no effect upon it. The powder is usually mixed to a thin applied to paste with water. the in to use we woolen of colored use the elastic by sulphur careful. METALS. and silver. sulphur may in water. so that results. The disadvantages of this method the time it takes and the annoyances are resulting from the fine dust of powder that flies off when . the wash-water in ammonia If ammonia article will with water is not common the tarnish used tarnish in the again very for this is that the silver quickly. tarnish There are cleaned.

but in using any prepared paste or be sure that the frictional agent powder we must there in it is not If it is coarse. washing-soda. not to The is to and place the silver in cover it with bright cold water. and bringing to the boiled about boiling-point. minutes until wiped with silver. The and result highly polished silver. surely be scratched. time electricity. Pastes prepared by reliable silversmiths also are good to use. is used.where the cost the are gas. and powders contain Its The with use disadvantages the powders.HANDBOOK 48 OF rubbing is done. but the only way avoiding cleaning the surroundings afterward do to work the outdoors in or some of is where room is nothing to be dusted after. recep- covering it with a strong solution of borax. Silver be can Most the coarse of the silver will prepared pastes whiting as the has already been of this method cleaned main described. of this method of fuel. the are by placing stituent. or potash. boiling-pointand essential thing here to the a boiled It is a is that few the . cleaning by this method the over Some tie and nose CLEANING people when they are cloth piece of moist cheese- a mouth to their prevent breathing in the powder. con- it in same a as tacle. way pan brought minutes. but is clean disadvantages The it takes or soft cloth a and kerosene Another aluminum then or stay in the solution It is then rinsed chamois. It is then thirty and is next allowed it has become cold.

on the covered is then quart of soldered are silver must silver which some every bars rests with one soda. there which bars the on the bars. on the are same last way. Again the a the salt before the few minutes It is then result and liquid the rinsed is clean but . again. last the of the those the one deposit on the pan. must course Here. spoonful of salt and Care rest bottom the to table- one tablespoonful of bakingtaken that dissolved silver. is by the use of a special made in Such for cleaning silver. the silver will be clean The 49 this last two. for metals the two coming depends upon When action. It is an electrolytic is finished a deposit will be formed on of kettle which aluminum this method disadvantages of with the The last.be pan action contact. are pans pan establishsizes suitable for both small and large ments. In ready to be removed. perfectlyclean and not corroded. become most Wire the and pan. similar way in lusterless. action CHINA AND GLASS. on water. The whole deposit is the spent in that is to and the pan. cleaning the aluminum Another the are boiled with water Then instead of leaving the method The the zinc. wiped dry. METALS. disadvantages of The as and in as used is often to this which place the silver in a pan in which pieces of zinc are placed. same as or more is covered method. be soda is are poured silver is and should thoroughly over the The is added of or silver for preferably warm. but includes time the be removed. fair to bids which one the popular.

CLEANING OF which is the takes disadvantage one far less time than of any other. with and a second stitched strip half the width at intervals pocket for the handle side of the cotton so that of each flannel laid there across is this separate piece. In putting silver away. The rough should in both a cases be . Any tarnish the from silver oxidized tarnish will gray for ornamentation. The for the reason lack of luster where friction interesting. with by rubbing is that of the to silver is broken up very powder finely. Where no light is evenly reflected. applied avoiding by of the cleansers silver from cleaned be on which used silver has for wrapping sulphur has been the best been given. something wider than the piece of silver. If we place under a microscope a piece of silver polished with a powder and cloth we find that the surface. used by such as are method is to pack it in cases made of a strip of cotton are jewelers.HANDBOOK 50 This lusterless silver. appears used is not like liquid. it a for reason surface the is very this similar seems The mercury. instead would of appearing as one expect a metal. this method. powder is used the tarnish is as thoroughly redoes not reflect the light but the surface the that so in the same way. material any remove The silver. moved. Gray or oxidized washing in hot soapy which the the remove finish finish is The simply a for reason should water. These flannel.

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(found lemons) and acid with oxalic. flannel bags protect them The carbon dioxide in Copper. brass. Acids such . thoroughly. Polishing with acid gives a much is used. bronze. is soluble compound found fruits. the all trace of the acid is removed. is copper in weak tarnish in is perfectly safe affected by weak acids. as oxalic moistened a rottenstone is better no of use with over go rottenstone. the air is an important factor in the tarnishing of in those " The copper. The surface If oxalic cooking utensil. oil without when surface an an acid the and copper chamois. After it is well take cleaning taken to the up a acid. (found in buttermilk clean copper very readily. is applied vigorously luster ing clean- copper the stone the over go excess wash to acid citric very poison.HANDBOOK 52 CLEANING OF Cotton frequent use should be put away. as rotten- richer . unless with whiting acid is to for be must again acid an acid is used care vinegar). carbonate. cleaning oil. but. in tarnishes copper of cream quickly. and in of beware must A cooking. best. and than or the tripoli. such an to polished with a flannel cloth or has all been the cleaning mixture to of way rottenstone sweet-oil. with rubbed oil. acids therefore itself is not copper as are housekeeper kettle copper kettle copper This such the tarnished the bright since to use. as and After off it is dry whiting. Perhaps there than by copper well acetic tartar.

Different are copper the market. such as washing-soda. it should become soapy it can be cleaned by rubbing with a paste of whiting or a fine scourer.but cleaning it. There are specialcleanwithout alkalies. on hastens the brass tarnish therefore Nickel.or ing vinegar will brighten it. METALS. and borax. the bronze are alloys of copper. readily and by washing in hot tarnish kept in good condition colored diswater. darkened. " Aluminum there is Alkalies one does also great care be not to discolor be taken avoided. however. quickly. for 53 cleaningcopper. cheaper than As and naphtha. any and the " oil plus or an solvent a acid which and rottenstone are oil is these. whiting and weak acid such a as sulphuric. can be Aluminum. Tin darkens slowly also. and same. in Soaps and scourers containing free alkali and alkalies. The best very of cleaning are by boiling in a solution of ways washing-soda or by scouring with whiting or a " 5 must . pastes for aluminum.Ammonia but be must care removed. must If it becomes not be used. If. of it all traces that the metal with it will react poisonous compound a are be may formed. both on The action. the also be used may taken If it is left and copper on CHINA AND GLASS. and quite as effective. ammonia. as these In the main of rottenstone composed such preparations for cleaning commercial of is the treatment Nickel does same is the not on as copper. turpentine. hydrochloric. Tin.

HANDBOOK 54 fine Scouring tin scourer. is new in tin acts as to and of time waste a tarnish CLEANING OF make it shine of material. does do other metals.iron. steel and " iron There is in caring for difficulty which is not one encountered in other They tarnish most readily in the of moisture. melted then Obstinate scoured then this. wear Steel. protection and a as like the makes it longer. is formed. it may be acid. or paraffin wax. followed Iron and to If the touched by steel when monia am- not protected from the action of the by a thin coating of oil. so zinc is zinc oxide. For the Bath brick such fine or as cleaning. and some cork and covered be can stand in is washed utensil the moistened a off. commonly presence rust. emery If with applied spots rust resists with quickly to use this air and hydrochloric be may moisture vaseline. and the light-coloredcompound that it is not noticeable . not The tarnishes. and cloth rust kerosene. such as oil. a scourer The Bath brick is is very good to use. and this tarnish. which more off and as called cutlery and iron utensils are scoured and wiped dry there is little danger of rusting. air. the metal. with time. and scales rust being exposed always are clingcloselyto the metal to surfaces new and moisture the is iron oxide. Zinc. " The tarnish result of the action air. This similar tarnish on of the is a in color to zinc. moisture. allowed treatment neutralize or dried. cotton-seed tallow. rust.

if used. be carefully removed using either one. as is hastened of the the oxidation by the presence are also of the is also special value with food. . added. so that contact contaminate little slower lemon-juice. METALS. In caring for cut glass a soft brush is quite in order to reach the deep cuts. Glass. ammonia. might The brick is a is of to use. These from prevent the pans also the scratching the glass and glass from It is most essential that all scratchingthe pans. to which of washing glass is a The quickest way is to wash or washingsoap. the acid must the tarnish will form or again quickly. since used The best method acids Vinegar tain. drain. metallic film of grease dirt is liberated. Bath brick zinc the 55 the cleaning zinc. for CHINA its kerosene dissolves inclosed used AND GLASS. method. they con- After brightening zinc. because the food. and cut glass is washed pans the tray in which it is drained. rinse in hot water. for acid. but it must on oily substance drain be rubbed thoroughly and then it must most vigorously to obtain a good polish. In the necessary in which and rinsed. Washing glass with of glass in cold water is all very well for no be allowed to it. and polish with a soft linen towel. " much-argued in hot water soda then has been point. no luster.the that except zinc For cleaning zinc The kerosene the where loses there and Bath is is excellent This in comes kerosene. soft cloths on should be placed. as agent for cutting the grease.

moisture is left in the This moisture is sometimes deep cuts. Good Windows. ever. or washing-soda. results in cleaning windows used the materials as depend not so much upon the way the cleaners applied. be protected from the dust by Cut glass should When the housekeeper keeping in cupboards. but if it is necessary cotton wadding should be placed between every two pieces. the otherwise sawdust there We take must comes will be from a a care. drying of cut ful careglass is very important. The are dry cleaners . be only lukewarm For washing. adds to the first cost of cut glass the time necessary for it she finds that she has acquired an to care expensive article. There are upon of cleaning windows. the water must and it may be softened by the addition of soap. Just in a cutscratch make a grain of sand may to glass bowl so that the next time it is submitted it will break at that a change of temperature point. Even with the most rubbing with soft towels. the other by the use fine of liquid cleaners.HANDBOOK 56 used cloths on OF cut glass be CLEANING free from grit. how- non-resinous resinous deposit It is glass that is not easy to remove. one two are general ways on the " by the use of dry cleaners. better not to place cut-glass dishes on top of each felt or to pile them other. The ammonia. overcome^ absorbs by rubbing the glass in sawdust. moisture. which one the excess that wood.

such as a coin. chamois. as both soften Paint and paint and varnish. kerosene or alcohol is good to use. al(4) water (6) alcohol alone. amand kerosene. just so sure of are we After all soil has been having streaked windows. (3) water (2) water monia. or paper. also be used. but be cleaned for electric- . (7)kerosene alone. tissueor no scourers.METALS. be wiped with soft removed. These are applied evenly to the glass with water. as water A rubber is not it is apt to brush good leave to a can use in cloudy appearance. or polished with a soft cloth. Just as there is enough liquidto run. Soapy washing windows. allowed then to dry. results than cleaners are easily applied and the there is always a powder good. the window a may much too cloth. For Gas with and electric-lightglobes may either liquidor dry cleaners. be removed or they may by rubbing with a rough surface. For they are especiallygood for inside use. GLASS. Dry paper. In applying other any of these the caution is to avoid getting surely as liquid on the glass. used The are (i) clear water. chamois. but are left from coarser them which flies around and settles on this not reason things. alcohol. nish vardissolved by alcohol or turpenspatters are tine. CHINA AND 57 whiting.but care be must neither touches taken that the framework. newspaper. as neither freezes. liquid materials and and washing-soda. washing in cold weather. and ammonia. (5) water and cohol. or with a dull knife.

how is it possible boards both sides? on " " to piled dishes the at device some arrange the one sink is too and low. they would were system used the task could be dispatched more quickly. washing bottles and cruets.HANDBOOK 58 CLEANING OF light bulbs it is better to use the liquidmight short-circuit trouble when is next the current turned in water-bottles sediment The dry cleaner. and shake is dislodged. since the lamps and cause a on. be escaped. After it around until the sediment oughly. when dry. or dry rice. which easy side the is space for clean dishes other? If the place at there that so matter to procure an an inverted best stool the or matter or pan height. seldom a easy low If the case. but be it can accomplished more keepers housequickly than it often is. Far too many have in mind clean dishes! just the end If they would the means to the stop to consider find that if more end. cruets or be can by rinsing thoroughly with a small easilyremoved by clear quantity of hydrochloric acid. In the first place the sink should Is the sink a comfortable height ? Are there drainIf not. followed water or ammonia Another water. to way remove depositis to partly fillthe bottle with soapy water and place in it some shot. The task of dish-washing cannot Dish-washing. cork to prevent dust from settlingin them. a to rack sink it is is an platform of . invert to drain thorand. be considered. it is the dish-pan on to bring it to the as so is very too high.

.

and the cloth If purposes. and hung to dry after each dish-washing. just as good condition as a dish-cloth. and. soap soda the making to and keep it Small pieces of this.HANDBOOK 60 To use OF not or to use debated CLEANING dish-mop dish-mop can is a much- a be kept in question. each thoroughly washed be washing dish- and hung in the sun if possible.not good suds are only because utilize small obtainable. morethere is no a temptation to use dish-mop A other than for any dish-washing. purpose washing. if used gently. should be used only for dishbut far often too it is used for other out in a hot dish-mop is washed soda solution. rinsed in boiling water. light place In soaping dish-water a soap-shaker is very satisfactory. A over. it should The not be sweet at all why the hands. but also because one can " pieces of is to way hand for can soap of should as the a make be suds water. in used on is obtained Sal solution soap adding has soap Another by placing in the shaker. The edges of any cloth used for dish-washing should be finished. dish-cloths are good. If dish-cloth. to dry in a dry. be must a treated with it should After respect. of course. and it can be kept in with the use and crash Honeycomb good sanitary condition. and solution be can a cake suds. there is no reason and clean. dish-cloth. then make it should on taken also be as it soon out of added . a to also be used to rubbed be dish-water. intellidish-mop does save as Just as good results are obtainable of a dish-cloth.

dishes AND the form an alkali emulsion dish. because easily washed Linen CHINA It is of to wash-water. to left of it becomes in order as pan. Prepare two dish-pans half -full of ware. ironware. the first being next to the and graniteglass. Change perceptiblydirty. Saucepans and be put on cake-pans should as " to soak as soon as used. earthenware pan: 2. tinware. Scrape off all particles of food adhering utensils with either a spatula or a to dishes and rubber rinse.china. and be scraped clean solution all that cannot except Aluminum aluminum. above. is treated according to Never soda special directions on use 53. METALS. dishes. Soak in soda plate-scraper. and to are unites is which be the with grease from dish-towels having. left-hand dishes hand can bear.GLASS.silver. Crash as towels are good in general. rinsing-pan. Sort cutlery. One yard is a good length for a dish-towel. 61 specialvalue where it is an washed. checked have no toweling (usually either blue or red and white) is the best for glassware. and rinse in placing dried water ever when- . Directions for dish-washing. dishes in right-hand a water strong as soap in the pan. page it. it is soft and gives a good polish. 1. Make right-hand pan. hot the as solution Wash 4. the the are they absorb to greasy kind only worth moisture readily and The lint. place to the right of dish-pan in the following order. 3.

Wipe the dishes like dishes together. wash the dish-pans.HANDBOOK 62 (a) Never (b) Never 5.the whether she Where water. 6. 7. cloth.clean the sink with a sinkthe sink. and all housekeepers would method welcome is used clean water a by which dish. rub (e) Never sand-soap directly on a any dish or utensil. for every The question is as to the amount of water that method water. must claim mop be held can this over . temperature regulated at will. (c) Never allow beater (d) to the iron wheels get into dish-water. No one likes the idea of washing in water already used. dry towels. Wash and dry the clean. this method with This and. keeping on and dish-towels dish-cloth. OF put bone allow CLEANING pearl handles or wooden handles in water. but a constant flow of clean the water. and wipe dry all around A new device for dish-washing is a fiber mop fed directly through tubes from the hot and cold faucets. but rub on the dishcloth. needed. housekeeper afford method " the The makers uses no must if found must extra is used than more reasonably claim of the be not wholly then decide cost in the dishes the ordinary changes of frequent tested for the keeper house- justified. to lie in of the egg- water. This water no means dish-pan. Scour cutlery with Bath brick after each dish-washing.

the dishes that are are dish-washing machines and the action is so harsh not thoroughly washed that the dishes are chipped. however. few important things to remember There a are In washing of fine china. however. be washed. up After be rinsed in the same machine. the dishes in that so CHINA pipes. the on in which dishes There packed strainer-like receptacle and then placed in The receptacle containing of water. . and they must hung to dry after each dish-washing. be too careful about the be must They in good condition To keep them clean and sweet. absolutely essential in order Where successful. This because dry. shaken. sink the For into a another home a solid matter no there use but are dish-washers 63 gets down few the satisfactory market. wrung. rinsed. this method drying to have towels for which is necessary. mechanical is one. not until stand only saves dry. China. from the be taken wash-water. but each dish also it does that means have not there to are be rubbed fewer dish- Plenty of scalding water is. and the dishes simply allowed to time. METALS. in regard to the care the dish-towels. condition of one to cannot care. and revolves and spray then is also thrown the water down the over are dishes.a fine sieve. Silver and glass must always be dried. rinsed with quantities of scalding water. AND GLASS. can placed in a drainer. washing they can difficulties with most The using clean hot water. pan however.

household that care. china the results contraction or to little water temperature it upon very hot CLEANING processes can be made a . to it be change quick two the be sudden a apt dried every one should about very is cooled is Dish-washing is it between paper in should water soap brings and crack. cause is not often be well pieces.HANDBOOK 64 china with only much of use of gilt and warm. The OF which to piled until place it After has often pleasant looked task on with and as of drudgery proper then sion expan- the should it used.

is it. one difficult with is Often importance. first THE there be has. selection fixture of changed " of kind a first that better to are as in to neglected This clean. to very clean little . so the and material. because can mind her If of of consumes bric-a-brac because or up Ornaments in it general time. glass. fixed window-catches. according Chapter room " The fixtures. and they are where some be the to VI.VII ORNAMENTS. an cleaned of metal. is a tric elec- or gas often be described ornaments are difficult is for metal like the this china door-plates. one she she caring make for beautiful. of lot a likes must of the number large a in amount retain must of bric-^-brac disproportionate about thought care that is ornaments careful The and ornaments JEWELRY about suggestion should number AND BOOKS. much spend to A multitude of bric-^--brac a multitude of grimy but a time is not bric-a-brac abomination. the wife house- either cause bethen sentiment.

HANDBOOK

66

hardware"

"house
it she
and

housewife

The

expense.

OF

the

with

ease

should

both

the

which

accept

never

if

permanent

as

better

can

CLEANING

the

by changing
home

of her

beauty

the hardware

be

can

kept

clean.
China

and

are
glass ornaments
frequently left
without
washing for long periods. Since they do
not "look
dirty" they are given no cleaning except
for the house
that is
dusting. This is a mistake
be
The
of cleanness.
to
a
shining example
and
china
washing of every
glass piece in an
distinct difference
in
will make
a
ordinary room

its appearance.
Baskets.
Reed

and

"

baskets

willow

are

best

cleaned

If the basket
by rubbing with a stiff brush.
is not waxed, it can
be scrubbed
with soapy
Raffia baskets
also
are
water, rinsed, and dried.
cleaned

by

should

be too

not

Books.

vigorous

brushing, but

the

brush

stiff.

general, books on shelves are better
covered
with
not
glass, as the circulation of air
is good for them, but
naturally they do collect
In

"

dust

more

in this way.

The

entails the
thorough dusting of a book
clapping of the book in different places,snapping
times
Someand then wiping with a duster.
the pages
the dust
to be
out

of

gritty. This
a

window
If done

center

is blown

of

a

into

in

duster

if it is known

thorough cleaning
unless

"

a

a

room

this interferes
it should

large "sheet of cloth

or

is best

done

with

bors.
neigh-

be

paper,

over

the

laid in

a

HANDBOOK

68

OF

CLEANING

dry, and

times,
Somewiping it off with a cloth.
with dry chalk
however,
they are covered
and allowed
to stand
twenty-four hours or more.
The
off.
In
powder is then carefully brushed
should
be avoided
cleaning plaster casts water
as
much
the finish.
possible, as it is apt to mar
as
be washed
Casts
with the ivory-glazed finish can
it to

in lukewarm

soapy

be carried

water,

but

quickly and

the

process

should

lightlyas possible.
Ivory. Ivory is best cleaned by rubbing with
cloth (or for carvings with a soft brush) dampa
ened
alcohol.
When
be
with
yellowed, it may
alcohol
and
bleached
or
by wetting with water
placing in the direct sunlight, under glass. The
be repeated until the desired degree
must
process
on

as

as

"

is obtained.

of whiteness

jewelry, washing in
neutral soap solution with a very soft brush is good
and
It is then
treatment.
dipped in alcohol
with
either
rubbed
soft tissue-paper or
very
be
used
for
chamois.
Jeweler's sawdust
may
of use
is to put
drying the jewelry. The method
and
the piece of jewelry in a box of the sawdust
has absorbed
all
shake
lightly until the sawdust
Jewelry.
"

the

For

ordinary

moisture.

be treated carefully,
Jewelry with stones must
always guarding against the danger of loosening
from
the
best
the
stone
are
setting. Pearls
cleaned
by an expert; it is better for an amateur
should
not
to
They
cleaning them.
attempt
from
hot water.
always be kept away

JEWELRY

BOOKS,

ORNAMENTS,

69

market.

specialjewelry-cleaningboxes on the
These consist of a small cake of especially

prepared

soap

There

are

and

One

soft brushes.

two

brush

apply the soap and the other to polish
the cleaned jewelry.
of jewelry, as elsewhere, prevenIn the case
tion
than cure.
is worth
more
Rings should never

is used

to

be left

hands

the

on

Soap gets into
dust

that

one's
need

should

the

little

every

at

washed.

are

and

corner

holds

the

clean

to

time, occasionally,but

one

be

not

latter

It is well

in later.

creeps

jewelry

when

all
the

frequent.

easily cleaned
water, rinsing,and drying.
by washing in soapy
Where
sult
they are stained, it is usually better to conSome
stains are
irremovable,
an
expert.
but the amateur
while others yield to treatment,
this.
has not the judgment to attempt
with
ornament
Carving. In caring for any
brush
is almost
pensable.
indisa
carving or raised-work
be washed
in suds
articles can
Many
Marble.

Marble

"

ornaments

are

"

mild

of

brush

with

Pictures.

general
are

"

best

and

if

brush

"

cleaned

glass covering framed

The

in any
of the ways
is cleaned, but
minimum
a
be used

dusted

with

in the
a

On

the

that

with

a

pictures
glass in

The

frames

slightlydampened

backs

a

coarse

of

amount

process.

it is well
they are carved
a
paint-brush is excellent

crevices.
6

crevices

results.

excellent

should

water

the

cleaned

be

can

and

soaps

to
to

use

duster,
a

small

reach

brush

can

the
be

OF

HANDBOOK

70

used.

wood

Dark

better

covered

not

dusted

with

of

dusted

both

front

Pillows.

by

a

bronze

the

the

room

and

be

dry

carefully

duster.

be

soiled.

They

cleaned

and

a

or

can

according
other

any

easily

should

fabrics

protected
room,

dry

they
cleaning.

removed

are

from

should

from

then
to

be

back.

Pillow-covers

can

In

should

pictures

is

dusters.

be

made

so

"

they

an

it

oiled

should

clean

with
frames

of

use

glass

perfectly

a

cleaning

every

and

entirely

dusted

be

can

gilt

on

avoid

to

Pictures

frames

but

duster,

oiled

CLEANING

be
the

either

not

during
need

when

pillows

washed

fabric.

carefully
dust

the

If

brushed,
the

frequent

that

or

dry-

pillows

or

dusted,

cleaning
washing

of

taken bag and up of either cleaner. is the a by clean dirt sible pos- dust. care the everything or be electricity. All " They or power. box. then excellent machines. floors. power part of cleaners are very where than but less. hand are cleaned be may first scattered is with the directly is a Vacuum power greater hand. the vacuum power. this the of suction.VIII HOW SWEEP. TO chapter. Vacuum DUST the one additions recent by few a consideration the with dealing BEFORE AND CLEAN. attachments may ROOM cleaning-equipment. without more of cleaners With method usual the In and problem important most by run rugs. house of is taken or water the room. of A special moments to cleaners. in else even it into run given different walls. cleaning of every to scattering any cleaner vacuum deposited which and taken. the of mattresses. books. are electric or water much the force is must be applied possible with by hand- . either as power results a when vacuum efficient. pictures. dust the is greatest whereas up.

or Dust with furniture and cover with old furniture-covers.HANDBOOK 72 Practically all attachments for CLEANING OF cleaners vacuum the have of set a cleaning of different things. but not that which out wear closely attached The principle is the works surface on which that works washing-machine inside to as same more is less than the the dirt is forced the that " cleaner vacuum which on outside up material. but it must this is only dry cleaning in the literal sense of that the articles to be word. and no liquid touches all loose dust cleaned. 2. Dust and remove and all ornaments small pictures. 3. cleaners people object to the use of vacuum fine materials. or the vacuum is. size there is usually now In cities of any a company the vacuum that undertakes cleaning of a This is often a house. Preparation of room for sweeping: Open windows 1. valuable be forgotten that never help. pictures and mirrors and cover with . because as they take up the Many dirt they also take thus make it the off the nap material and quickly. as they consider that they are on hard on the materials. doth. top and bottom. 4. bringing all the apparatus. Take down Dust heavy draperies or at least pin them up. It is possible to remove has become by this method. fore there- into the cleaner. sheets 5. the pressure and pressure.

ROOM ROOM READY AFTER FOR SWEEPING SWEEPING .

.

.

ornaments. 74 1. and dow. the dusting of floors. The daily care of a room of a room. dusting the other the a all the top. roller next the at as is dusted Pull " 14. the wash- . then without do continue the other an- this iscleaned. fireplacefixin replace the register. and and the emptying of scrap-baskets. like any " " other The room. portion roll up it goes Continue this roller. the roller toward Pull " the down. Daily care Bath-room. Shades CLEANING " with room. less cumbersome shade dust being careful until the entire shade It is much tion por- amount. way that Dust the at shade Shades with entirely. ornaments. should include removing any dirt from the floor coverings. furniture. bath-room should be cleaned but. win- small and section til un- down underneath part up. to the shades the over entirely. the the small a portion. in addition. then side of the shade 2. draperies.and place the room Return order. the hand the same cleaned not Dust a bottom and place Roll pinch it.HANDBOOK OF (d) Window shades. shade the to removing dust from window. tures.

toilet should The way Unless attention in should brush flush it soda brush. When the fixture is cleaned the simply be dropped into the fixture and can paper flushed out of the system. occa- daily. The and mattress be turned be beaten sionally. The brush then be dried in the open air if possible. thoroughly soapy better The best and then and water than the a longlong- large nickel-plated tongs that come especially paper prepared soap for cleaning toilets. so that it will wear ding evenly. way and cleaned be and should chain receive tub the The as are same stopper well as the pipe is flushed there is great danger of dirt with clean hot water collectingthere. as generally the only water which receives is soiled water. to the cleaning in the bedroom the bed must already described The be well have springs should special care.HOW CLEAN TO bowl. The long-handled brush or tongs should be scalded after using. the " dusted.tub. The cleaned according to the material as any other plumbing fixtures. The bedeach day should hour be aired at least one and each covering of the bed should have a complete air bath. should In addition Care of bedrooms. and usually the overflow not enough of that to flush the pipe properly. toilet. It is well to turn one day from end to end and next day from side to side. overflow to do wash the overflow handled also this is to hot with handled and pipe. be or Even the are washed. should should . and A any ROOM other 75 fixtures wash-bowl daily.

Blankets. should inches ten wiser to edges. There top. in in tucked arrangement of taste. of the the This side right middle at tuck to bed. in should warmer. from double drag in as be The upper then both 5. 4. should This " bed. 1. and smoothly Under 2. a The matter head floor. gen- nine come bed. be in the should of Upper 3. one-half eral. The and is folded in the is almost easier the at to spread to wash should the blankets the the sure blanket at the away with firmly over firmly of put whereas unused generously sheet are two binding be can or It is much apart. and should and be in be enough the firmly side down The wide hem the bed. wide the This " sheet. both in at up. on sheet. should sheet hem foot the tucked This " of the also should tightly drawn. and pillows . and sides. the double of bed of the blankets way grows the tucked blanket this blanket the the the blanket on head double cut weather as is of edges open the be at ends the The " foot.HANDBOOK 76 the Making bed: Mattress-cover. It with be placed on the sheet head should be all sides. half It is also much pieces. middle the CLEANING OF the hems should same just come be should be tucked put as under to the in right on sheet. frame firmly of the at foot. the of kets blan- and.

place. is not convenient is second-floor The that will trunk a linen-closet special be house- of storage when should drawers of the to but else box although best A arrangement. thus linen-closet careful be under piled should so not are should can linen Clean and white. carpenter a that a light a They articles for in be convenient.IX LINEN-CLOSET A SPECIAL /"\ linen is best is the or much chest less used The in closet. linen-closet. than best shelves labeled any than the constructed Also carefully placed if are if direction. at well- purpose. a A and this position possible it should the next bottom airing of and the and painted by and that drawers of piles. a something tall for place be out withbe always the linen is evenly. sible pos- closet. wears should dusting include of the quent fre- shelves . very so rotation care best are difficulty. constructed the necessity. the serve is shelves shelves expensive A better hall and The sliding contrived.

least in cities. orderly piles.now buy their sheets ready made.whether they are In this country actually of linen or of cotton. kins. smooth the linen. be taken that they In choosing sheets care must wide A sheet enough. for all sheets. purchase well-made always effect an though the careful buyer can by buying the material and making the economy is the added sheets. convenient. are have ones seldom. at long and three yards is better. many do not have linen pillow-caseswho housewives " have linen The sheets. too expensive for most touch of Many people do not like the cool. linen sheets are families. especially in winter. are long enough and should and be at least two three-quarter yards Most people. because It is possible to it is more linen and cotton sheets. pillow-cases. Again. In selectingeither sheets or pillow-casesit is wise choose to cut more cut in the even off are those that have The making. cut the ends are uneven.mattress-covers. naptable-cloths. choice between the two depends partly on taste and partly on income.HANDBOOK 78 and OF the and drawers CLEANING keeping of the linen in neat. The Choice is used house-linen term of linen. hems. and doilies. whereas been torn consequently Pillow-cases those if ever. There advantage that the done hem by hand does not catch and hold dust hem under the edge as the machine-stitched does. procurable rather torn that on a truer have thread in various than and been and sizes to .

German linens are the most Irish. Table-cloths with plain linen centers and a simple border of plain linen. and fit various-sized kinds common is the comes linen the market. Scotch. Linen and cotton tubing may purchased by the yard for pillow-cases. expensmall designs. but they are also more more as comes the pattern and troublesome. choose a border should table-cloths For be table-cloth choose circular continuous. It in a great variety of designs. They may be purchased made of linen or cotton tubing or simply from also be sheeting. must be as by fineness of threads. Pattern are always attractive.LINEN-CLOSET 79 pillows. the latter almost edges in laundering. should be chosen Table-linen by weight as well Care. and as is less sive.but not a great variety. German is perhaps the most is the cheapest and The durable. on finest and Of the also these the Irish expensive. with only a simple center design or those with good all-over patterns are invariably stretch on the as . good Table-cloths purchased by the yard or cloths in pattern lengths. It is procurable in good designs. taken that the weight is not due to starch or sizing. with follows a are round a design which to very the a as table center Round they are most it is better with a to circular outline of the table than cloth. however. threads most hard are twisted that it so qualities. The Scotch has great wearing stands linen well between finished It as these the Irish linen in many be may It is almost two. expensive. avoided.

should match in size They vary from fourteen to thirty-one inches.but are never good to indelible-ink be look at. according to their intended and Marking of is slow This consider must whether is she each housewife the ture expendi- letter-shapes can over quickly embroidered house-linen beautiful are as except that be now onto the for the dery embroifor the compromise a tractive at- by embroidering afford can most White time. but a good colored markingthread is more easily seen. the linen. to family. For of linen. according different members tapes. or they may the made next directlyon best. and bought that are linen. When the marking is . any linen The " work. mending of marking way in white. Differing colors on towels for different rooms easily keep the same towels for to use one individual different the liking of the Woven name and enable the wife house- types of towels.HANDBOOK 8o attractive OF CLEANING serviceable. firmly sewed of her on. as stripes do not wear small In general. White stitchingmay be used. but busy housekeeper. the table crosscross-stitching is very acceptable. Napkins table-cloths. are haps per- with rubber Marking a stamp and indelible ink or simply writing in pen and indelible ink are lasting. table-cloths with designs wear with than those better large designs. use. They are not as all by hand. and The satin figuresor well as the ordinary finish. These markings may be made on tapes and then sewed on.

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a place is good of the distance The are one or two somewhat. table-linen is really an precautions which however. side. Both sets of threads should portion. There the market for on are some special threads Darns made the wrong from are darning linens. as then the that weaken results may strain which portion. be made the ravelings of the linen which can from the good parts of a worn table-cloth. the threads as hem any The have weakness the fineness and facilitate linen broken art. In general the threads wise are put in lengthof the goods first. as Thread linen of as before soon near on the near from mending There that markings a about one-third corner. and to allow also to allow for shrinkage. matters be darned is. extend beyond the weak . On each turn must be left a tiny loop of the thread for the pulling up of the weaving. should away " is noticeable. two if of center OF CLEANING placed diagonally conspicu inmarkings are most monograms Other placed the on under side in the end. but they should all extend the same not to point.HANDBOOK 82 there so as may be to balance. ings placing of other markbut if one is necessary on napkins is difficult. one Ornamental be napkins must the napkin is properly folded placed so that when is well placed on the letter or monogram the surface The that is exposed. and then the cross threads are as woven into these. appearance of the best are The possible should be used.

snowy impressions every the and perfect of income family textures cleanness the piles linen the possible marking. one's a well-cared-for whiteness. and . any sion. with should snow-white but 83 attractive of impression pleasurable most can give. Beautiful allow where beautiful always and shining of that all is within be the is is pride perhaps is house-linen power.LINEN-CLOSET A linen-closet filled linen housewife. posses- too small to is still there The the of precious weaves order.

neither for will useless retaining top bottom or use frequently so purposes.STORAGE SPACES and nASEMENT attic. is that as purposes. beauti- like used care for any the should . requires a great chief advantages loses all in Basements Daily the other storage deal of room of an fruits is the and not to lot of it and is nor of the ventilating. commonly both or special house.J either are In city often used floor of The the first of the for house in house for of used again. storage of storage basement storage. houses. Weekly. vegetables If it of that the one if everything. top can important be is the living the needless include should in a moving about should basement is which store are care either using To question for more space whereas used articles sentiment thing the be purposes. part and never One useful swept an material care. dusted is ful. house. Basements and attics " I. can caution accumulation be for the other for useless used however.

SPACES walls 85 as so to discard all decaying basement should of the occasionally yearly." can be in ink and used Such unused a catalogue to one year after year.as "7. The articles may indexed card a on catalogue and a statement made to as is stored. The number The and tray." and when a where each erased last a card in which is far the best designation. as "Curtains.STORAGE be taken to examine whitewashed be these The ones.giving the number each be is to method. headings. There ing is noth- exasperating than to look through box box before finally finding some carefully upon stored article. be written in pencil can The main change is made. if possible. Another is to plainly in ink on a card. A third is to have catalogue of articles. each receptacle plainly and to post in a number light part of the cellar a complete list of the contents written of each number. hours to it seems a great deal of work. In using either basement attic for storage a or be saved by labeling the great deal of time can This not boxes and box trunks. unless it is to have the remembrance more of the article 7 exact was conditions put away under burst upon which you that same just as the .but also whitewash germicide. found. " the walls white and the only makes is a good basement lighter." "n. but it saves of time that will inevitably otherwise be spent in be hunting for stored objects. trunk or One method is to attach to the itself a list of the articles it contains. lower half.

with well-fittingdoors. means ing curtailtime a spent in cleaning and also means which on such " of the steps of the housewife. deciding where Vegetable and fruit closets should be also in the coolest and driest parts of the basement. the orderly the methods easier will be the cleaning that is necessary to keeper's safeguard the health of the family. are and boxes CLEANING OF Worry and nerves.HANDBOOK 86 article appears. cupboards and closets save all-important in a preserve-closet. Cupboards and closets. necessity in almost every be placed in the coolest part This should house. that in should be plainly marked so in all they seem shelves time is lost in no putting away preserves any and how to place them. of storage. any Labels but The time. or very be placed so that when should it is open the light A from preserve-closetis a window a reaches always possible. conveniently a saving in placed. The .but it is the a closet. as in too houses these out-of-sight places are sadly many neglected. To have plenty of closets. This is not good arrangement for closet. All this applies equally to the cellar. In the planning of any house thought should be given to cupboards and closets. saved by labeling in not some to tion men- way all trunks. The houseThe more calendar should definite include dates cleaning should be done. time. and it should be painted either of the basement If possible the door white a light color.

and this is not done.SPACES STORAGE of contents these be must 87 carefully watched to the of guard against decay. and the like. should be taken to glass cupboard great care frequently used dishes in the most place the most should be dishes other convenient place. that air. especially if several people put away dishes at different times. put should have between two needed extra small other slat across run rest stand shelves " two Where inches " adds much glasses. a for storage space articles. should be in elevated completely convenience. Labels on the shelves are advisable. be boxes be a some placed so way surrounded never storage great is also may or for basement boxes and trunks the but damp. It bends less. . A in closet Such a closet trunks The horses or should placed wherever convenient.as one over should contain The butler's pantry boards. back the at from the back affords platters. for a to screwed into the bottom of a hung from hooks careful shelf. and and frequency of placed in regard to convenience Often shelf of half the regular width a use. their use also makes easier. dish-cupThese should be white enameled and the can see glass doors so that one and In arranging a china contents at a glance. large plates.cups. sometimes Cups are against the wall. with in wooden on they are Basements of accidental case dampness this elevation does protect the article. but unless the handling is very breakage will be frequent.

should in cleaning. the other convenient kitchen. shavingbrush. A bath-room used by the whole the toilet each member must see family where articles of all the others while using his or her of all the is unattractive. nail-brush. or some place.On the first floor there should be a cleaning-closet. and each should have for soap. care Cleaning-closet.in either a back hall. tooth-paste or powder. which be at least weekly. great economy a about important points to remember of a cleaning-closetis to put all implethe care ments and in order. one tooth-brush. The second floor should also have a cleaning-closet. sometimes wall.HANDBOOK 88 CLEANING OP A hall closet for holding wraps and rubbers also be used great convenience. and own. are members with away cupboard. and other individual toilet articles.but to have a few of the most frequently used implements and cleaning-preparations the on " second The floor is of time. and it can is a for Such closet needs extra a storing card-tables. white be bath-room The cupboard should inside and should be washed out enamel weekly. clean to keep them away Far too often a cleaning-woman and uses a mop then calmly puts it away and proceeds to forget the most dirt that Bath-room and she " a It should This detachable contain as it. is sometimes one many built in fastened sections on as the there family. exposure these articles is unsanitary. put of the . This need be as complete as the one the not on first floor.

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where them to have even on with the best of care they are pushed around when one steps into the closet to get something else. because the most economical the of are all swung into out the space. Bedroom closets " depends closet. ten excellent or twelve inches long. but the shoes do not get array on a shelf is . The closets. To a have shoe-shelf the shoes can be placed ing invitsurely more than the floor. and top.and its use encouraged. At a very placed in any in an orderly small expense closet. easily may accessible. device is the rod in loop form. the From full-lengthdresses when the door opens light and air. which fastens to the inside of door the lower on of the bar trousers or which of bedroom arrangement to closet of this ten be can dresses the near twelve or hung. For some entirely upon closets the only possibilityis to have one long rod lengthwise. A shoe-bag can be used.HANDBOOK go CLEANING OF A good antiseptic for washing small wounds well be kept out in the bath-room. of the is saved by shape space hang clothes and to enable the user to see at a glance just where thing everyis. The only disadvantage is a possible sagging it. The position of these rods depends the shape of the closet. all cases. In having rods size the on and however. In door under the weight hung on of the of closet some practically every arrangement rods is the best. and in others several short crosswise rods are An the best solution of the problem.

if it has is There door. can and of type is to four heels.SPACES STORAGE An dirt-catcher. as floors. laid. catch to and a inclined on have slipping. a the shelf catch to is there. the are floors with hold down substituted for to great a easily cleaned the cover holding is often floors be aired aired. is a a slightly inclined inches With shoes the on door one bottom the A well-built clothes not with tar-paper and closets should method with oilcloth Here the is very wear All house is cleaned being cleaned. is from shoes hanging with side thus glance just what points shelf shoes the ordinary inner the from keeping for they should that ventilation the 91 when every from room airing and for closets the rest should closet it which thorough as for of the be leads is cleaning any other . closet used the one then of the convenience. the edges. strip of metal a bag door. are part quite Thorough as necessary of houses. thus even one the hard-wood where easiest in frequently This Except of one but good. should closets see attic as have be can can closet is sealed molding quarter a better. All not the ridge about Several Even before. and the when at linoleum. linoleum. is also a device the be a with placed loop-hangers be can for furs put is nearly lined possible. described near heels. as slight.

XI AND CHOICE reply THE CARE OP question. be always the the erator refrig- clean. and The . the to our and exteriors finished then condition?" possible best But that so have "Why undoubtedly essentials the are REFRIGERATORS it air The of are ture tempera- the in should every ture temperawalls fitted. query looked be a be. the to would food. of food frigerator?" re- follows." our preserve "What refrigerator refrigerators. in but factors the " be can good of leave part no the it kept 40" or of the of air with should 42" tightness on with the the well- hold house- question essential the in air frigerator. re- in currents which the maintain in The motion. stagnant-air-spaces. insulation which doors a and Fahrenheit. kept most are other all temperature the A interiors food of preservation be may "To for Attractive in as equipment. should a desirable three are in of to comes in and articles there ease refrigerator depends the when circulation and refrigerator.

whole The walls different to prevent heat from the frigerator refrigerator. other may be to according all cases the thermos or maintain words. which the thoroughness of the insulation. or In the temperature. and even of a . In many is an refrigeratorsthe only insulation air-space.ordinarily.fireless is the same of insulation bottles. is. In the refrigerator cookers. no way passage the insulation the buyer to judge whether the for reliable given refrigeratoris good. The is poor the insulation or principle in refrigerators. A poorly insulated capable of keeping the one refrigeratoris interior fireless cooker at a no low more ture tempera- keep things hot if broken. In the best rethere are from nesses eight to twelve thickThese the walls. instead of being of such material. felt. layers are usually of traveling into in insulated are materials. the insulation In can to either the maintains insulation a bottle high contents.or as also to be a poor of these layers. insulat- wool. and thermos low temperathe object is always to maintain a ture.CHOICE depends circulation REFRIGERATORS OF construction the upon 93 of the interior. should prevent There of heat. is commonly a cheap and poorly constructed dead-air-space. such each of heat. than a but in fireless cooker a the object low temperature. and conductor is known of which ing-paper. but most makers a are sample cross-section glad to show of course tells the story of the of the walls.

the most example of this is the drops of moisture common found the outside of a glass of iced that are on condenses water. good-sized one ing open- free passage of the air. For this the ice-chamber reason always in the top of the refrigerator. so that on the both air it leaves as cold on and gathered by dry. so will the moisture in the air a on in the refrigeratorcondense the ice. Just as atmospheric moisture cold surface. ice-chamber. We all know condenses that the moisture of the phere atmos- surface. and forces the air which has compartment is heated become The heated air it is where the motion continual a to section next of the back gets air to so in the again cooled. The of make can CLEANING OF to circulation a principle as the circulation of exactly the same is that cold air is heavier air in the house. compart- a series a perfectly Other time. again begins its cycle. of air in the refrigeratordepends walls allow is there all the refrigeratorshave excellent the on refrigeratorshas so the depends the best of movement The of sort some adequacy. Thus the air cooled by melting of the ice drops into the below.HANDBOOK 94 uninitiated its to circulation of the walls between in the One of the in the siphons free air a walls judgment in the different that air as ings open- ments. and that there is the ice-box. a cold the ice-chamber The ice also the air in its passage should absorbs be odors through the food- . which on heated than air.

CIRCULATION OF AIR IN REFRIGERATOR .

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and especially The white liningsare desirable prepared enamels. and also it is easier to clean are the them. The outside of the . The liningsof refrigeratorsvary according to the prices. moisture lects. being broken always a possibilityof the cement that dirt lodges in the crevices. shelves in a refrigeratorare either stationThe ary is more adjustable. finish of the refrigeratoris important only in regard to its durabilityand to with which be cleaned. the other linings porcelain.porcelain. therefore With not have a chance to collect. The most linings are galcommon vanized iron. In general it can the ease is used. tile. and prepared the white enamels hard are dirt does " " have to no reach. tin. clean if sufficient effort is made. There or possibilityof the shelves change of positionsof articles where adjustable.glass. glass. The and decay of some the disadvantage of having metal linings have and but they can be kept seams sharp corners.HANDBOOK 96 CLEANING OF If these general rules about position are food in a be observed no refrigerator should contaminated by any other food. exception of the tile lining. latter. colso kind takes place. however. and there is disadvantage of having seams. because they show the soil so readily and water. but the enameled polished hard wood a These metal exteriors are increasingin use. and seams The no corners which tile liningshave. They have the advantage of being cheaper than the others.

large refrigerator with a large ice-compartment a lot of a large ice bill. of refrigeratorshave fewest moldings. as described is thereby retarded. " " . To the of the housewife but must reach the beyond time same easily cleaned. refrigeration. from does not get her money's worth of for the process she What several To saves times over the on on the ice bill she food first the often loses bill. refrigeratormust be bought with reference to the size of the family of course too not small.whether necessarilymeans food is kept in it or not. and the housekeeper literally the ice. must This be is an rather extravagance than an economy. above. more sorbent ab- non- white. housekeepers Many by practise what they think to be an economy keeping the ice covered with ice-blankets or paper. and attractive the at 97 hard. with the best get the The sive expen- afford cannot is therefore effort. smooth. but equally of course be kept at the not too must large and next maximum of efficiency by keeping the ice-chamber well filled." hard-wood refrigeratorcan a porcelain or enamel one. very and REFRIGERATORS OF the refrigeratorit A kept well filled with ice all the time. If the air in the ice-chamber is kept secure economy. most are They are ordinary "hospital cleanliness. house- service A well- be kept and a with hard-wood better from one condemned plainest exteriors.CHOICE they as are feel that not to lack any constructed clean as very as little and who she keeper.

will not compartments higher in temperature be a great quantity not If filled with by being well This air. Formerly the idea of the refrigeratorin the kitchen . Such a refrigeratorof a fifteen to fiftydollars. should at such times be careThis saves the covered to by fine screening or cheese-cloth entering the refrigerator. then melting of the increased therefore of heated of amount chambers other and ice will rise will be is the be there air to melt allowed to temperature accordingly. however. is the why. also be side This means be can can either set size. diminish in the to the a ice great extent.the housewife get that she will be willing to keep filled all the one time. the ice may be that against pierced with doors rear or a an door to the where outer of put into it from the wall ice- frigerator re- which corresponding the outside.HANDBOOK 98 40" Fahrenheit at then much CLEANING OF the air in the other will the ice. costs from good make makes all can Refrigerators of good standard choosing be a fitted with compartment. annoying trail of drippings and dirt which ice-man to bring with an always manages also it makes the it possible to run him. in must refrigerator. prevent dust from The place for the refrigerator is important. and ice during the coldest months refrigeratorwithout This of the year by leaving the ice door open. For an ordinary family a refrigerator of with ice-chamber an seventy-five-pounds' capacity is a good size. and the of greater because of heated amount ice. fully opening.

then the ice replaced. with is to be filled Every time the ice-chamber and be removed the remaining piece of ice should the compartment wiped out. with The refrigeratorshould not be connected other drain unless it is trapped like any the house is necessary then great care to see fixture. it the ice bill.and even If it drains out that the seal is kept full of water. of white-enamel to cleanliness. The ice should be in one piece and should new be washed before putting into the refrigerator. whether in a hall whether it be just outside of the kitchen in the especially built for it. " Hot into the or even or warm food should be never put refrigerator. The temperature be affected not by outside refrigerator should conditions unless a door is left ajar. refrigeratorsof the present day there is no reason it is the most should be put where not why one that be next to the range or convenient. but that feelingis graduWith the well-constructed losing its hold. of refrigerator. and rocks. A set great aid it. it is particuWhere the outside ice is put in from larly important to have clean ice.OF CARE REFRIGERATORS 99 ally absolutely tabooed. to procure 3. Artificial ice is much cleaner to use. but it is not always possible 2. and the water empty into was loose stones Care 1. extend distance of the house the piping should a should from the house. dishes Bowls and and plates is oval a dishes . It will raise the temperature.

should be kept in a covered meat 4. be never washed before being put in the refrigerator.so they may in the order in which they were bought. be cleaned up 9. and refrigerator soda a be cleaned cleaning racks hot the solution thoroughly week. should and at be the least In washed every floor of once a scalded. Eggs should be kept in a be used rack or dish with one layer. If anything is spilledit should 7. and no stale food left there. dish. . be should Milk-bottles 6. as the danger of chipping or even breaking is great. The rough surface left by the cracks or chips is an excellent place for bacterial growth. the only covered with paper of possible exception of oiled once. Uncooked Cut covers. Eggs with barn-yard soil should not be put in the refrigerator.HANDBOOK ioo of this ware OP be turned can CLEANING upside down and used as be glass and fine china should never put there. this weekly in with day refrigeratorshould The washed and shelves soapy then all food should water dried. of cracked The or use chipped dishes for food is greatly to be deplored. Food should kind. The 10. possiblesunned. and be or if be must removed soda moved. at once. re- and solution. enamel 5. with any used paper. The contents examined daily. of the refrigeratorshould be 8.

too.CARE OF inside of the The REFRIGERATORS 101 refrigeratorshould be thoroughly washed. one end of which is connected The with in the water faucet main and the other in the front of the end terminates refrigerator. but in general they consist of a coil of heavily blocked tin pipe in the ice-chamber. but are when they get into the drain-pipe they have a favorable place for growth. The drain-pipeshould and be cleaned with with hot soda long-handled bottleAfter brush. and above the freezing-point. according to the make. as they often have a very disagreeable collection of dirt from the impurities of the ice. must water be thoroughly or water soapy washed in hot a soda or soapy water and scalded. boiling should be poured through it. They vary in price also. this. it is thoroughly cleaned. dirt may The also be quite dangerous. If the waste water drains into a pan. bacteria may tell what as it is impossible to be present in the ice. dark. These seldom are placed in refrigeratorsof less than one-hundred-pounds' ice capacity. Many refrigeratorscan be fitted with a waterThe cooling apparatus. since it is damp. It would be hard much to give too to the care drainage of the refrigerator. As long as the bacteria in the ice their growth is retarded. They are a a a . position and type differ with the make of the refrigerator. then cleaning of the drain-pipe and pan are extremely important.

in much-desired refrigerate. kept cause be- of waste a good not and preserve some up time. better does to be give cause Be- insulation refrigerator to pends de- one. which cannot it there a we of care drinking- pocketbooks. refrigwhich tion. kind The they having on risks the run CLEANING because without times bottled It OF the family. our buy to not that so process good to choose we of circulation poor to article place having into which size insulation is properly. with that erator. in the though even condition. the economy temperature the water to without ice refrigerator poor pays and putting upon poor of remember to ice which largely but the cold insure entail. ice more and A perhaps a uses may long a cheap a enough good have lasts in low furniture. condiand .HANDBOOK 102 convenience great all at water does water is it of of buy food is is in kept may be be the end menace a to refrigerator and loss the a to health food it does A good the mean poor and sanitary pocketbook of food.

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bad. to carry the out cannot " same jute. a small With chair time. The problem of rushing chairs is not so simple. of the and can amateur. continucolor rest chair seat attractive any much have harmonize most jute is " or. Caning is and the art of simple caning can The hour. an cushion. a CLEANING thought.HANDBOOK 104 take but her courage of reconstruction and is in seat in her hands and furnishings with the the at go patience to Even the unsightly than the broken cane And nothing is more slovenly more chair? a than that cover hole same pierced wood they are thought. The with which to work. one can do is to glue . and one from there is a start to finish. or simple by process. material be with process wet and Coarse better. be kept wet. be learned in and of cane.whereas is at least caning of a chair by a paid worker sixty cents. amount by any intelligent of the boys or girls. the woman. a recaned be can one with bought and nailed evidently not made covers. a room makes be " not jute dyed color easilyand Another does one to a as well done thing which in it does not to with by the work good a the easier have to ously. it must because the rush be must should work ously continupulled very tight. and usually a dollar. However. OP actual is cost money is done the work by the exceedingly slight when the cost of the simplest housewife herself. because are to fit. for rushing where time passably good substitute be given to it that is. What on.

Too housewives many their mistakes A taste. Has not every one live with to with their hodge-podge it surely rests a seen room be may content sometimes or room are water friends' of furniture no to one with be one or oak. perhaps. finish with rubbing down a good with . in it. over the next color scheme of the jarring into that color.the cause The first step is to scrape off the dryremoved.CARE REPAIR AND FURNITURE OF 105 Nothing is more distressingthan to sit one's guest in a rickety chair unless it is to have is bad. room. removing the on be made remover. article The with either twine soft glue should Excess should be be then tied strips of carefully wiped securely cloth. soft or off with a damp cloth and the article then allowed to stand until the glue is absofor twenty-four hours lutely or dry. of the prevailing style at the time of purchase. but. Specially prepared liquid glue or the hot glue that has to be melted over used with equally good results. of uneasiness be readily can fortunately. Either condition sit in a rickety chair. exposed. glue and leave the surface of the wood covered with a good standard Both surfaces are next glue and they are then fitted together perfectly. but they surely two intended not were If the that This suit the at least could means varnish best or first paint same decides housewife will pieces for the some room. furniture. with a in it is and distressing. fumed and and possibly a bit of wicker mahogany? Each piece is indicative. pieces each of yellow oak. cherry.

Perhaps the best way is first to take off the originalcovering. plicable bedrooms. "carving. or prime necessities for this task are infinite patience and accurate measuring.HANDBOOK 106 CLEANING OF and then applying a good stain of good paint in the desired coats In painting furniture. paint for the last coat is usually more ture Before attempting to repaint or refinish furnifine emery-paper. taken Sometimes and it is handles should possible to remove be for such as glued-on good superfluous ornaments. such as a (fora few pieces).or a warm gray." a fretted top piece to a chest of to the legs of tables drawers. or fancy additions has been chairs. and under decorator painter or such painted on such requires a good knowledge use it is wiser direction the often are of not an has to add the unless The ordinary qualificationsfor artist. When England one and on that upholsterers in many the Continent are women. a bright orange is particularlyapThis treatment good blue. to Decorative designs furniture. an attractive. it is a in this surprise that so few women care country even attempt reupholstering. to have enamel shade. by enameling the furniture in a good color. The new matter for considers . three two or or knobs all removable off. With it is possiblefor most to upholster a chair women The couch with even a presentable results. room Many an unattractive or made into a quaint and interesting room. but their of design. not them work.

just as carefullyas one would material then be pulled and stretched The must the spaces. gain very much take more Moreover. less however. to cover care being taken at all times to keep the threads running in the right directions. renovating all times. stretched tight. the strikingpart with of the hammer be covered a piece of may kid. her as would home in attractiveness. pattern. using the old one cut a dress. If the housewife learn to make each repair just as soon the need is noticed. ment Departstores usually carry a variety. finished. one to the mar best for woodwork. Furniture.but lessens the danger of strikes. wears With least in spots. care- . This makes hammering a little more difficult. the is a necessity at In many necessary the cases.CARE REPAIR AND OF FURNITURE 107 for a covering should be cut. out. marring if the hammer The choice of the right gimp is important where the edges have to be covered by one. like everything else. she would pleasure in her task because she would know that another piece of repair was the not as calling her just as soon first was purpose. be careful not In tacking the covers must on. Eternal to keep furniture vigilance is necessary would in repair. this A small very Where hammer is the surrounding woodwork is very easily marred. frequently best times of care general if furniture would care at pairing re- be given lengthens were Nothing the Ufe of upholstery like good brushing and proper at for all furniture.

HANDBOOK

io8

ful

CLEANING

OF

soiled, because

becomes
of

then

Vigorous brushing takes
film that

the grease
this is done
up

be

to

and

and

breaks

the dust, and

holds

care

reupholstered.
dust

the

out

of

best

be washed,

it cannot

needs

it

course

the

with

dusting. Upholstery

thus, if

frequently, there is less opportunity
for a layer of dirt to form.
Spots of grease can be
from
removed
clothing (Chapter
as
they are
is so good that
Sometimes
the material
XIX).
the best remedy for the soiled covering is to remove
it to its old place.
it, dry clean, and return
In such cases
a new
gimp should be used.
For
furniture
rattan
vigorous brushing is the
best treatment
to keep it in good condition.
Sometimes

finished

wood

is discussed

in

what

case

is most

film of grease
that holds
surface muddy-looking.
for

this is to

quickly with
of

neutral

a

get dull and

surfaces

of finished
general treatment
Chapter IV, but in this particular

The

grimy-looking.

wood

needed
dust

cloth

and

The

wash

is to
then

best

the

makes

the

ment
possible treat-

entire
of

out

wrung

the

remove

surface
a

very

suds

warm

and

dry immediately with a soft
cloth or chamois;
after the surface is absolutely
with
be
rubbed
a
good furniture
dry it can
polish, wax,
oil, according to the original
or
a

soap

finish.
It
the

seems

use

of
who

almost

grittydusters,
are

finish of furniture

to

unnecessary

careless

by the

but

there

about
use

caution

this

are

still housewives

and

of dusters

against
mar

the

containing

AND

CARE

of

particles

fine

dusting

of

scratches
Since
clean
"

April

the

done

stirring

every

her

to

for

summer

piece

of

is

put

repair.
who

The

results

tries

this

one

cleaning

ments.
imple-

dry

in

mop

guilty

are

methods

away

and

attention

and

is

of

the

many

chairs.

housekeeper

making-ready
when

with

and

modern

the
have

superfluous

seems

person

tables

on

for

VIII.

furniture

careless

109

Directions

Chapter

carpet-sweeper

a

FURNITURE

matter.

that

hitting
The

hands

in

warning

against

OF

solid

given

are

Another

of

REPAIR

of

with

the

who

finds

a

desire

keeping
old

might
furniture
into
will
for

the

days

thorough

some

turn

best

aside

gets

possible

surprise
first

ing,
clean-

early

set

in
the

"spring

the
for

house

a

time.

any

a

week

special
state

keeper
house-

of

XIII

HOUSEHOLD

INSECTS

PERHAPS
1

no

of

tive

than
which

A

towns.

other

flies,

pests

known
be

positively

has
rid

of
The

has

the

not

found
holds

been

every

belongings?

wise

if

a

if

it

as

them

disease

feeling

are

and

to

of

noyance
an-

to

carriers

of

get

has

in

guilty

is not

of

it

wants
not

been

this

been

not

disease

have

pests

many

does

noyances,
an-

possible.

as

who

bug

and

determination

housekeeper
Even

of

housekeeper

guilty

one

simply

of

are

but

The

Even
what

insects

all

proven,

guilty.

innocent.

disease,

that

minate
exter-

cockroaches,

the

completely

and

insects

many

of

to

other

health,
one

as

cities

made

upon
so

general
crusades

many

all

carriers

good

become

pests

fact

be

to

to

menace

a

in

mosquitoes,

that

now

so

being

looked

were

but

is

but

alone,

Formerly

pests.

insects

in

on

effort

flies

not

indica-

more

Swat-the-Fly

carried

general

is

against

numerous

being

are

and

feeling

the

are

PESTS

movement

one

the

AND

proved
spreading

among

carry

case

her
disease

and

one

driven

light.
Fly-paper, either

2.

the
are

die
be

window
to

CLEANING

OF

HANDBOOK

ii2

left

and

open,

flies then

the

the

poison flypaper,
The
flies are
be used.
entangled in
may
They
sticky paper and die from exhaustion.
poisoned by the poison fly-paper and either
or
are
stupefiedso that they fall and can then
is good, but
method
the
Either
swept up.
be

latter should

used

tanglefoot or

with

great

where

care

there

children.

are

by the different names
Insect-powder,known
of pyrethrum, Persian
insect-powder, or buhach,
insects.
is sold for killingall kinds
of household
Buhach
is a California
product and is more
likely
At night
the Persian
to be fresh than
powder.
3.

all the
and

doors

the

the

In
then

4.

be

windows

and
is

powder
morning
swept

up

the

flies will

and

burned.

has

is also

be

used.

are

room

sprinkled profusely

Formaldehyde

method

of the

closed

in all parts.

dead

and

can

following

The

used

tablesuccessfully: two
tion
spoonfuls of a forty per-cent. formaldehyde soluand
one
pint of liquid, composed of equal
and
mixed
milk
together. This is
parts water
the room,
and, proplaced in small dishes around
vided
no

A

been

other

piece of bread

inducement
Where

happens
they can

to

flies

food

is present, the flies flock to it.

placed
the

in the

solution

is

an

added

flies.

gather on a ceiling,as frequently
after nightfall,
in damp
weather
warm
be rapidly disposed of in hot soapy
water.

INSECTS HOUSEHOLD PESTS AND 113 tin cup fastened flat to the end of a stick is half this. Careful screening is a necessity for keeping out oil of citas mosquitoes. as a rain-barrel.no than drops into it and drowns. with be covered a can very. what used the fly should be for necessary means allowed the to annihilate live to procuring of killinga longer any the withal where- it.which No matter fly. controllingmosquitoes is to get rid breeding-places if possible. Thus to enjoy the be air in the evening in safety the piazza must the mosquifrom screened to protect them toes as so night air. the be kept covered with kerosene bodies of water can If an during the summer. The best The breeding-placeof mosquitoes is water. is if the family are malarial. The is held directly under filled with cup A the fly. receptacle of open is a necessity. Strong odors. then. destroy the mosquitoes. such and kerosene ronella. ammonia. are good repelthese . such. known to possible. is to fill up or drain ponds and pools way. of water where and other bodies mosquitoes are If this is not breed. Mosquitoes. very The best way of their Sometimes water and that fish can of are be introduced neither drained into nor bodies of covered. but for now night air it is known ered consid- was that not the harmless-looking mosquito. but which the the are more prevalent at night than in daytime. that water fine netting. Formerly " malarial.

may each unwittingly bring it into the house on her clothes. or are a the indeed member is has of nuisance a been has used bedbug varied. have that killed for flies. that they shall be killed before they have a chance to bite. although they can food for to live without They have been known considerable periods of time. Bedbugs. In cities where houses built are close together bedbugs are known to travel from house The to house. is supposed The family to laundress. of the insects held under bedbug is one suspicion of being a carrier of disease germs. however. . as food. soapy should one the on bed to go as in in any out mosquito-infected place withfor any that carefully examining the room have Both comfort and safety require crept in. The bedbug long standing. The preventatives are to take all precaution into the house against their entrance on baggage. or hand-bags. although no case has been proved against it. it as long a time as man " The enter the hot quitoes Mos- effective. It is known. of the known very for almost beds. that they prefer human blood subsist on other things. indeed. In traveling one has innumerab trunks. CLEANING wholly never house be summer may are the ceiling may OF in which ways a house guest. opportunities for picking up bugs and home in the carrying them carefully concealed folds of clothing. but they in described the by No settled water.HANDBOOK ii4 lents.

page Cockroaches are thin brown bugs species. and " on 122. to Dark. and one-fourth of turpentine is also good. and for this reason they are often around closed quently numerous plumbing. damp places are favorable their growth. Fumigation one acid gas as described Cockroaches. It is applied like kerosene. . A of three and mixture four or of one of ounce corrosive mate. when possible to use it withdestroying furniture. crevices with either applications with Several should be days between made all bugs which have been as to reach so may hatched in the intervening period. Cockroaches to be most things which followingremedies many The seem are are wary set used: to about ing touch- catch them. Kerosene. or any other article. out 2.INSECTS HOUSEHOLD AND PESTS 115 furniture. with special attenand bedding. clothing. subli- pint spirits pint alcohol. gasoline. to clean beds. but very effective. with sulphur or hydrocyanic4. 3. Boiling water. mattresses. kills the bugs and eggs. and to have cleanliness tion everywhere. Frevery they keep out of sight during the day and come there out are many of their hiding-places at night when everything is quiet. When be they have entered the house they must of the following means: got out instantlyby one benzine old 1. especially in warm climates. and are The remedies. It is a deadly poison. liquid should be a forced all cracks into syringe intervals or feather.

the Another success water. and large black all have red known to the enter nouses. Any of the powders should be used freely. ant. preventive method is to in put a sponge. places where often soaked it is known used with in sweetened that there are . paste and length of time. crevices below around the the sink sink. page and the by hydrocyanic-acid cause The annoyance. The foods done best method which of prevention them. sprinkled most 1. species of Several " little black pavement scribed de- as gas 1*2. placed and with of Paris Plaster is often and all cracks extended an cockroaches 2. This is fairly effective. a provided the oil is not allowed to evaporate. attract but is to remove if this cannot be legs of the refrigeratoror table holding the food should be placed in dishes of water ered covwith film of oil. 4.HANDBOOK n6 Borax. the ant. driven This cases factory satis- flour mixed and paste is put in to a eat and another paste a and saucer containing the plaster of Paris mixture. ant. Fumigation on Ants. the on used base-board most borax used ously gener- length of time has the premises entirely.at frequent intervals. near it is The bugs the water. has been for from used. CLEANING OF saucer water. and for an extended Insect 3. freelyin In many results. to go die. then powders are used with varying results. ing-houses frequent dwell- ants been ant.

these odors keep away One The outside. but if eggs not kill moths. and then become entangled in the sponge it. the webbing. and cleaned. stand underthing that the housekeeper must tained thoroughly is that odors such as are obfrom camphor. so that there time are to no The stored 9 larvae to eat the material. thoroughly brushed gether with moth-balls or naphthalene.INSECTS HOUSEHOLD PESTS AND 117 The places through which they enter. sunning eggs must care from have no lay their eggs. Under factors for often air. or. are placed moths that in a cedar chest. already present in the garments the presence are does not of these odors prevent their hatching. be killed by pouring boiling water over ants in or ants can Often the number other ants Clothes forsake moths. cedar. taken is not in and liable moths to the motion keeping clothing free conditions these be clothing to free it from putting away. toIf garments. and naphthalene do These all repel moths. if laid. closet in which should be clean woolen and garments free from are any to be accu- . and the gallery-making.nevertheless the are the of methods control same. There three large the so types of clothes moths the case-making. the eggs do not lie undisturbed long enough to hatch. Although they all work " are common " differently. sun. are brushing larvae and and greatest before Clothing which harm from excellent are them. is used The moths. is killed in this way the dwelling.

of course. good garments If there is any breeding-place for moths. who can the usually afford to pay for such like fur.. " In this country alone storage there is a only for record of fiftyspecies of fleas. Cold-storage plants for clothing. The cat-and-dog flea must be guarded against . picion susthat a closet has been is frequented by or it is advisable moths to crevices with gasoline or larvae eggs of moths A or which way has all the spray benzine which been so may used with kill any to as be and cracks hiding there.rugs. simplest and best method time protecting woolen at the same clothing.the cat-and-dog flea and flea. are troublesome. expensive materials Fleas. Of these the the former human is the not are more common. but at least a source two species.n8 HANDBOOK mulation of old which articles OF woolen CLEANING or rags other any lie undisturbed for useless indefinite an Such furnish a length of time. but is. Just how many of trouble is unknown.but fortunately they are all of them annoying to man. then place them and all cracks box and paste strips of cloth over openings. expensive for the housewife. and brush them in a regular suitthoroughly. are It is haps perof storing and country. available in all parts of the etc. In this way the box is absolutely tight and if there are put enter are in the no box moths the clothes present when is there no for them way to it. air. for success storing clothes is to clean.

.

dark places. misnamed. as If house a has become infested. upon partially covered with rugs. In general. and the bug not buffalo-bug cause itself. the increased passing of carpets and use of rugs that frequently. bugs. the larvae gnaw holes in the border Sometimes of carpets. Buffalo-bugs are buffalo-moth. then the carpet should be but loosely tacked that the edges can so lifted frequently and examined be for bugs. The larvae of the the trouble. down the middle of the back.the buffalo-bug will less of a pest. other insects. they follow a crack in the floor and cut a slit in the carpet just could with a pair of sharp scissors.buffalo-bug. They feed mostly ness. Carpet-beetle.HANDBOOK 120 OF CLEANING impossible to catch one. Their favorite habitat is just at the edges of the are With carpet. or " they as are really three-sixteenths of an They are about inch in length. can the be taken become sequent con- up less and . buffalo-bugs practicallyimpossible to control if one insists On floors but having carpets tacked down. and roaches. buffalo-bugs do not find hiding-placessuitable for their development. and are on especiallyfond of flies. so that the best preventative is dryTheir bite is poisonous. with a general background of black and white has a red line which is spotted with beetles. They flourish in damp. but woolen materiwell. If a floor must be entirelycovered. as neatly as one als They not only attack carpets.

but be handled bait for with those care. effec- very on also are can claimed It is also only. be to are spring traps There set. gasoline. " and fillup the holes through which the house.or with spraying Generous PESTS AND INSECTS HOUSEHOLD combating in weapon the and furs can be materials buffalo-bug. a trap with They . Woolen in the same as protected from its ravages way gation Fumithey are guarded against clothes moths.is kerosene effective an 121 benzine. passages are guests of this family. can they enter be filled with glass and then and mice is to rats with over crumbs no of many is less likelihood there left about holes The covered and is covered If all food metal. frequently of their one ber num- tempting the bait. market the on small are of these many filled up. tions prepara- mice to bait any These rats. remove has been Cheese the that trap. best prevention against The and Mice rats. be cannot entrance odor. caught. however will sometimes Sterilizingthe trap with boilingwater this difficulty. by hydrocyanic gas or sulphur is good. and can There that are to easy which for mice is set which said are them cause and Mice refuse to and put preparations on poisonous a are very trap in which and rats preparations these any and wary. is the most It is kills the more animal strong springs must common humane and to best choose instantly. that the market disintegratewithout rats to enter be tive. If their place of traps be set.

completely covered or houses be taken. The only way is to close up the passages them through which they enter. but the is ing generated by combinphuric potassium cyanide. and it is impossible " " " to The any exercise too house foods to be that are Nickel removed. A cat house that is a good mouser will usually keep a clear of mice.HANDBOOK 122 be should a set clear wall. as In attached extra must care the gas in the has been known pass through cracks walls. and its use is growing. be used. They enter by windows or very any other to guard against opening. much Squirrels. Hydrocyanicacid gas has been used effectivelyagainst household pests. and rats usually run mice or near close to the wall. OP the near as CLEANING possibleentrances. sulPure potassium cyanide be sulphuric acid may is closed If a room only the commercially pure. but there is one about it it most important thing to remember therefore is a deadly poison. be vacated. Squirrelscan cause damage if they get into a house. and gas should be brass be reobjects must moved with heavy cloths. of potassium cyanide for every ounce tight one is enough. The hundred cubic feet of space one . as their sharp teeth work quickly. Hydrocyanic-acid definite should to amounts gas of acid. great care fumigated likely to and in its must absorb use. Hydrocyanic-acid gas fumigation. and water.

may should room the windows outside. The be must cyanide never process and should be measured placed in a paper bag. finding the it is easier hundreds. be hundred to stance. gating Before doing the fumiproceeding. the water be jar. in- For hundred thirteen well and work to feet. even contains room seventy-fivecubic on of PESTS of old carpet thicknesses or paper floor-covering from any Then the sulphuric acid possible accident. After these preparations the operator. However. This should be poured slowly into the water.AND INSECTS HOUSEHOLD proportion of ingredients is cyanide. the the room a person the Three enough room can and should four or gas enter doors should the room not be . cubic completely. the be end of this time opened from hours after opening have escaped so that in safety. holding his breath. should drop the bag of cyanide into the acid and leave the room as quickly as possible. and this may room stone a sium potas- of commercial feet. one fluid ounce fluid three acid. the person floor protect the to should of the be and room or all his wraps door is open so that sure that the out are that he promptly. and After taking the measurements feet in the of cubic number work basis the on if a basis the sealing the be placed in After should placed on several phuric sul- of ounces and water. reversed. or At most The remain closed eight hours.closingthe make can door six exit his after him. it would of fourteen 123 ounce one room.

HANDBOOK i24 The the jar should attempted and Sulphur least for fumigation. purpose. followed For placed be sulphur the in should most cubic thousand every on emptied thoroughly be " of pounds two sulphur be destroyed a must peared. to tub a leave after some washed. disap- taken. and should feet sealing Sulphur If a never careful sulphur sulphur water should him. some fabrics and papers. should bricks danger in of should the be burn closed Sulphur to also of each tarnish and room will the often be no it it to so door the used used " set operator closing alcohol The The completely room pound allowed space. ordinary small more for every fumigation of ignited room tablespoonfuls two person. six in promptly. bleach metals. there is sulphur eight fumes the are be receptacle that so quantity or metal a candles completely. precaution at should jar be by except entirely fumigation gas directions then the then Hydrocyanic-acid be has absolutely or sewer The way. in left contents into odor the until occupied CLEANING OF for this is well about " that should it will be kept hours. wall- . add of After fire.

day the " and time To nerves" last- a make departure of on a This art. the she should be ined exam- must never be can sure that turned off.XIV A CLOSING close TO its and house a for way trip scramble minute definite plans freedom from real is without is valuable. off can and in dry. whereas house the Then if a . be mind kept as it pan in be to dry as condition of thing will the The herself. water water possible. a place be refrigerator can such Every housekeeper dry have to sure insects it unattractive. most worry started family a vacation a before MOVING get or is forethought when HOUSE. -moisture the should water-supply The this is is remain under forgotten. first The everything that there where and the will might be If that her will find house is done there into plumbing. be done be no house. possibility at housekeeper and at should the be last least of the learn moment. means the on day itself. usually to do this entrance the through can If turn so.

then In usually gas from This draining of traps should entering the house. in the For system. also be Garbage pails and receptacles should This and dried. . small a each is oil forms prevents crude-oil or a the film tion. and dried.such oil. Moreover. closing a house in the winter the plumbing because the traps should be care requires more drained the water of water entirely. and ceptacles reshould be washed. washed thoroughly. to the moment Then. evapora- cottonseed- used. again. Food boards cupall food should also be cleaned. refrigerator should receive special attenbe It must emptied entirely. the trap of every the left full of clean water. possibility of the house. is quite as thoroughly washed essential as the cleaning of food receptacles. scalded. should be This trap and as this reason oil into of amount fixture. and left absolutely dry. The tion.HANDBOOK 126 man so up that outside from comes OF CLEANING it is difficult to arrange for washing hands water family has of departure. any of circulation it is well A of if the house there of air in the to pour drain-pipe of the entry there sewer will be into gas is to be be no the left for always possibilityof in the trap evaporating simply from the length the water over time that so fixture must water heavy oil. be done by a plumber. Otherwise In in them this case stuffed may the with freeze trap paper and the trap then is drained to prevent and sewer burst.

.

All windows at and. Window draperies should be taken down.128 HANDBOOK sprinkle rugs OF CLEANING with or camphor naphthalene. well built it is wise across and to wrap covered of newspaper the thoroughly brushed it in newspaper should Mattresses to is very house be dust. this and on it does the also locked. ance annoy- she has done . moreover. herself. Either one simply acts as a repellent to insects. it is better leave to of starch. yellows them starch free them to be saved. but not ironed. that she has done she When a window material. house would need to be things which off each as accomplished. dust it is desirable wherever the whole dark some close to would prove card. room covered be Unless closed. It is wise it from cleaned the and with must be closed past the window-sash out window is dropped sift in cannot Shades space as to have may be who one a and much unnecessary housewife then would can with list of the done cross and her locked. by looking all the necessary the will be saved family of her wonderings whether If the or no things. as the attract may insects. worry simply and dark has lay a fold and projecting to otherwise. If not washable they should be and aired before thoroughly brushed putting In leaving curtains or any other material. before storing. when be drawn. away. some The should bedding aired. and if washable they should be washed. should If every but make a and window-sill the tect pro- paper.

in barrel a utensils. that. on drawn moving accomplished tear condition go. furniture of there is way on plan of the in the be number. goods thinks one house method articles a a that at this needTof well contents the necessary as 129 certainty is Such thing. the Then numbers corresponding written plainly a of goods. With dire which Russian the A The is card a fastened to each where each this little The the and wear house same habitation. the family one any useful the jardiniere is enough should dwelling the of of work possible for upon of marking hours kitchen contains ardent plan The saves first and.CLOStNG this. relief If family closing of the and packing-cases and index an barrels and later. barrels boxes unpack to a of MOVING HOUSE. means time a housewife. house the " be To unpacked. hands find to to dampen in the of a color catch to needs be is to on vacated either should one would be to A be or to show in planned and with furniture. other the or the to A find and the in new . the receive to new member of the have to which " piece can way opening piece of furniture. left clean like the only will quickly nerves eye. the to as made. saucepan numbered be that so the are brass most should it is then moving. roughly placing who simplest and spirit.

the heavy its or which family one for difficulties three days require . Part sorting clothes. soiled of done rush. washing). many strength instead out to be not (since to on wisely be the clothes has soak had much are one to may mending clothes then them Monday really If some putting taking white be can of is ones. stains. If a and she find would Woolen spent in grow in badly preliminaries awful though even end Sunday putting that feeling wash-day. should Indeed. Tuesday. easier to wash be washed to her day of by rest night. for been always cognomen chosen been LAUNDRY who the the wash task a of worst on has two materials. washing her before. day. housewife finds tears the without "blue" a would one. and to vanished if of do and soak. Monday have if it overnight unsoaked on set Tuesday Tuesday soaked than day Tuesday" task? Clothes better are "Blue that the Would washing.XV THE MONDAY has aside acquired for the day.

point too often. white clothes on another. Mending. and to both she must avoid getting overtired preserve She will (which usually means cross) herself. is needs mending place where no nine The " not Attention The to let cannot "rst become clothes called be for solution very this to the culty diffisoiled. Most " that are women disagreeably pleasant particularly unwill prefer to are . that neither the family nor plan her work so herself will dread particular day of the any "good day. colored things on a third. because often so special word.LAUNDRY THE such specialcare. the pleasure of By such an arrangement clean can be enjoyed without seeing things come weariness that often the overpowering destroys it. Moreover. There the is laundry. Badly soiled clothes to field-workers handle. 131 done be then special day. may It is on a foolish tradition a that the housekeeper" must always finish in one The is the good housekeeper's first concern health and happiness of her own family. and the family the family meals day" need not be disturbed by the "washpeace of mind clouds. there will clothes always be some by especiallythose worn " children and soiled. week. stitch in time a in as a will spare the sent to clothes This the mending is frequently neglected agreeabl handling of soiled clothes is a dis- task. However careful housewife the may be in directing frequent changes of clothing.

the trying such fastening insures against be possibilityof losing one end of the tie. bobbin in way them good deal a " be to should is too cut to to be the it put them to linen bobbin linen middle in the removed and is of the for the laundry. and be Where fastened be it is not be off of time substituted. rather than in front. and most ments garbe mended before can laundering. as they are always in the and ironing. the in at hand are there should on. and should corset-covers shoulder and where the are under thin ends materials yokes and fronts. The sorting of the clothes should be done in a good " " where lightroom taken stitches the is the place where included be sewing-materials at sorting goes its equipment and laundry itself If the once. But the bulk of the washing outer linen. Clothes " tween point half-way befront. tie at a likely to stick such for the as are up and much laundry must show worn for always . and it should as on wringing invariably trouble much sewn " should discarded. If buttons it is well loose are washing and leave them after. chemises. underwear If this frequently takes in again ribbons used back. before Ribbons for removed. It may noted that the ends for undervest. bed and house linen. Sorting.i3 HANDBOOK 2 have greater more work and tear rather than wear later CLEANING OF to and clothes such on mend them before all tablewashing. well-equipped a sewing-box.

towels. if three tubs are should be placed in one. (3) colored materials and stockings. (4) kitchen towels and cloths. (5) flannels and wools. White clothes should be soaked. embroideries and laces may be held an exception and washed a on separate day. The wash-water should be kept warm by frequent " 10 from water. and then roll the soaped parts inside. and with cover warm keeps the soap the water soapy where it is most This needed method and vents pre- washing it out. and handkerchiefs. good way is to arrange them in the following piles: (i) table-linen. Handker- prevalent.soap the badly soiled parts. but a better way is to wet each article. It is a great fallacyto believe that clothes be washed clean in dirty water. Even for the housewife who clings to tradition. In soaking clothes. . table-linen bed and body linen in another. Soaking. last need soaking chiefs. (6) embroideries and laces. and dish towels " and cloths of all and most soaked salt or These in another. available. body-linen. (2) bed-linen. as is stated later. should be a pail of water containing Clothes be soaked by may are placing in soapy water.THE LAUNDRY 133 A be sorted. since they should be ironed or pinned out while wet. pack in a tub. the first least of all. especiallyif colds in by themselves boracic acid.so that the dirt is loosened. Washing. The suds for washing should be warm and clean and should be changed as often as necessary. Warm water can also expands the fibers.

(5) handkerchiefs. (4)bodytowels. before or and tween always be behands. but this is a usually done under physician's directions. terial rubbing. be The washed be and rubbed shaved soap better. then on wrong. rubbing cool. soap it forms not putting in the boiler. wax They are all used in the proportion of one tablespoonful to two gallons of water. other cold then Clothes a suds more are and water The latter finely is the quickly. and boiler of clothes water. Each started sterilizes and with whitens clean cold clothes. and this should be done so that the mashould be boiled benefit gets the hands board the should be turned and must The only. the odor make remains should in the be clothing. Unless most carefully rinsed. (3) towels. Boiling all white clothes . turpentine. linen.134 HANDBOOK additions of hot is allowed If the water water. more CLEANING OP to clothes to following order: (i) table-linen. clothes the must solution. The brought slowly to placed in this and the boiling-point. while rubbing. and. as up in the contain and hands the side. it on boiler should friction of the material gathered clean in the minutes ten as germs is that this killed with are ill-smelling clothes of of amount boiling. Sometimes kerosene. (2) bed-linen. Disinfecting because disease germs requires longer boiling. (6) kitchen the should be washed All clothes right side on need clothes Soiled the first. Boiling for sufficient for ordinary clothes. The is necessary. or paraffinis used in the boiler.

.

clothes need not mar the appearance. washing is to be done must Surely a . is of Pressure is also important. becomes the iron and cloth this water for additional more reason even. posiput in a convenient be put in iron-stand and a soft placed so that it dampening. Care should be taken in folding the ironed Folding according to special directions. than simply pushing an iron Ironing is more The the surface. Starched irons. great importance. it is a but does not improve the appearance. but more She should have the body weight of the ironer. stretching of the material over in the wrong in the right. well to iron the especiallywhere Part surface. If well done. attention on be part of the plan. folding necessity in storing them. clothes require the hottest Every article should be ironed dry and then hung to air. and wax tion.HANDBOOK i36 should the CLEANING OF good condition. and never places. be can As small the heat grows For of bowl easily reached smoother. it is things first. her body the table of such height that she can use undue strain on wrist weight for pressure without or shoulder. the irons cleaned. coarser a gloss is desirable of this pressure is on the finished provided in the be supplied by must weight of the iron. be good deal of the drudgery can of laundry taken work if more out thought is ment given to the planning of the details of the equipof the laundry and the general plan for doing the day before the Some the work.

THE If her housewife each and will laundry own to need LAUNDRY at go sigh it deeply ironing. take a hit-or-miss simply time the instead problem in 137 at style the mention work to of being of none of out tent con- them washing .

Clean clothes crusade for importance given are it are laundry sufficient necessarily work. is and housekeeping are being is always the greater and more set his on and "down out" with woman clean ings. in more has cleanliness. of essential an great have and ironing household . This cleaning clean is crusades are. for one again the civilized demand that of possessions. why for methods that providing cleanliness And that being can There people best the human a This workers made country statement.XVI THE MANY LAUNDRY: time a the that measured be than find that is their is this the is to a clean of by start body. social that been any cleanliness. thought. and fiction true more feet its persons truth remark the civilization by includes EQUIPMENT of city and more more. surroundand centers heard much so to or more we realize man clothes. harder than few some the housewives Washing other this of part Considering cleanliness.

whether large. and it is almost as tiringif the walker with that she is going the conviction starts out before she reaches her goal. and they should be placed at a height convenient for the It " " person who is to It is far use out think of food of most. light.THE LAUNDRY 139 they can be made easy enough for any and strength if proper of ordinary health woman be given to the position and equipment attention if the housewife attacks the of the laundry and and of mind work with the right attitude body. If she has the good or fortune of planning her own house. but bend over that it is all the time going to if she is or beforehand sure her. then she should thought to the planning and equipgive as much ment of the laundry and kitchen a as carpenter A good carpenter sees would to his workshop.will be distressingif the washer is forced to tasks. that his bench is placed in a position to get good about its height. weary is seldom possible for the housekeeper to the position of her laundry. walks A long walk is tiringif one bent over. with short steps. and he also has a care of the laundry The essential features the tubs. the stove should the the table. and also have advantage of the best possible light. laundry work the kitchen. as she usually choose has to take what is already arranged in the dwelling that she rents buys. It is not pleasant to being prepared in a room containing preferable done them to have the . So to be exhausted it be very small or very also a washing.

and steam be may To basement. separated from closet.HANDBOOK 140 a of soiled collection laden with to have a laundry the CLEANING OF clothes in or atmosphere an It is better laundry odors. for it more be it may or means a no floor space. and also it is usually cheaper It is a saving of steps. In whatever position the laundry is it should ventilated. washing becomes It is better to much less of a physical strain. of to install the plumbing. The small kitchen and a small laundry. steam be spots unless windows the stacking of the plumbing If tubs are happens. be well have plenty of light and in an do her best work Who atmosphere can the steam with heavy whether she has The or no and clothes odors? are to only as to Who free from plenty of light? should laundry tubs reference house. and there is no strainingof the eyes. have to but in that the kitchen the laundry it is well to have case by and hall small a kitchen the on it floor. high it is always something on which too an to easy matter stand. to prevent or odors passing too freely. so that the washer in a good light. often with placed the rather see can than with ence refer- in the at the stand can fairly right height. For place tubs too high rather than too low. which entails quite an expense. tub there is no low remedy except having it a but if it is raised. A to movable arrange floor . laundry is often first floor the on utilize basement in for space economical. additional course. so that if they are erect.

and can be non-absorbent made almost by painting with with paint. porcelain. and materials mon comlaundry-tubs. non-absorbent. It is not price. is more Tile is durable. and . Soapstone has an absorbent that it requires especial care to keep it in good berine. easy to keep clean.alberine. used for laundry tile. three are is There " tubs used are enameled are should much be at least two better. is fairly non-absorbent. may the floor there is is splashed on if water but danger that the mat or the person standing on it will slip. as it is easily cleaned and does absorb water pensive. but it is the Cement is perhaps and cold. Slate enameled tubs iron are porcelain. good. Various tubs. LAUNDRY be set lower good for than thirtyis inches. exnot readily. of which the most soapstone.THE should tub No 141 cross-piecesunderneath of slats with this. The " floors common hard are and materials soft wood. Alcondition. cold surface. In order to do away specialcement the difficultyof standing on a hard. with use. and easily kept clean. wood Hard Tubs. Soapstone having seams and slate have the and of being dark disadvantage of surface so in color. four Floors. most hard prohibitive in satisfactory flooring. but is less expensive. splinters and roughens clean. is durable. and for iron.and cement. but it is somewhat floor is not soft-wood A easily kept absorbent. slate. the worker be laid where rubber mats stands.

rubber using. protected from sudden change of temperahas evolved The present-day wash-board which the rough stones on primitive people be must from rubbed are molded of the is then is not is a and pounding wash-board it is sometimes glass. tubs are dition. CLEANING OF they and more. the tub may are Fiber tubs sanitary as it ought to be. perhaps the hardest to keep in good conhold them In order to have together is be kept damp. still cleaned stones in streams In some by rubbing of water. they are smooth. and cheaper than the others. as Glass or side the it is often angle. dirt. being used more Where an impossibility. and light in weight. Wash-boards. or clothes countries pounding on rough . especiallydesirable because are seamless. Galvanized-iron tubs are fairlygood. fiber. should be wiped tub except the wooden one any be not as dry. and and seamless. and wood. smooth. or soiled clothes very since is necessary. tubs are Portable easily filled by using a piece of After hose attached to a faucet.HANDBOOK i42 non-absorbent. wash-boards ture. and as dampness they must favorable to the growth of bacteria. poor friction metal of into board wash- of the tub. These made of are portable tubs must wooden The galvanized iron. always be must at a material same as wiped dry. and the tub last almost and the board advisable. stationary tubs are be used. too After low using. The loosen This For " their clothes.

.

.

partial hundred the one dollar and fiftydollars. many it is possible to get a useful one at a low price. being replaced in 143 wash-boards homes by washingof these is chosen wisely many one saving of and time Wash- energy. They help the cleaning range in one of two either by friction or process ways This latter prinby compression and suction. which is commonly vacuum washing-machine. or water-motor. this type. is being used more the clothes as ing-machnies in many come " cleaned are fabric. set no are They are as useful for rinsing as for washing. and should be more generally used. and of special value where there tubs. Wringers not only save the strength " . be attached to washing-machines may portable or stationary tubs or to the boiler. Although of the washing-machines are very expensive. They are a great time and labor-saving device. electrical power. but with little and wear tear on the shape. is conical in The theory is that as it plunges into the clothes the called In a air below that greater pressure into this machines fiftycents on so-formed be may to These one within pressure of the the outside obtained forces and and the duced re- the dirt up Washing- vacuum. from is cone atmosphere. gasoline-engine. Wringers.LAUNDRY THE " are machines. and there where is a great and tubs The Washing-machines. They attached also come then are to a special tub. styles and in a corresponding of prices. They are equipped for running by either hand. general. ciple and more.

to They should weight. according to their intended copper " If heated use. ironThese latter are very convenient. are Very small useful in ironing articles such as baby dresses. or with . Irons. eight-pound irons for table and bed linen.HANDBOOK 144 CLEANING OF V of the tear laundress. fabrics Wringers washing-machines. durable. be and they also prevent wear Hand-wringing necessarily that so This use. sixpound irons for ordinary garments. but the on the strains clothes. it is most by dissolving the surface off thoroughly important that the rollers be washed after the application of oil. " of copper. Irons in a come variety of shapes. A good boiler has at least the bottom Boiler. least three With irons less. sizes. handles. the wringer must casionally work rollers darken to easily. and three or for thin garments. loosened Like be may After run the pressure by power of like using. This and the is because best boilers is not are all copper. These four pound ones are almost obtainable in the old-fashioned types with tached at- adjustable handles. but as the kerosene cleans rubber. but only also transmits heat more readily than tin. condition be can overcome by rubbing with kerosene. they will not become be oiled ocmachine. are for necessary a over stove. and weights. at efficient work. because an irons holder is not needed. one invariably has to lose time waiting for them be of assorted heat. the rollers should flat. The any with than more rollers.

pendently indethe in is naturally use increasingrapidly. useful for gatherings. and is to be encouraged. have is increasing. For giving finish to are cuffs a collars and polishing-iron is excellent.LAUNDRY THE 145 which are Ruffling-irons. very slender and pointed. gas. are (2) The two depended hot-roll buttons types rollers of that mangles: of wood made weight and upon mangle to pressure take has can one out the roller . and save part of the coolest the the by electricity. They give an heated irons used be fire in the they used be can Their room. gaining in use.65 The of use gasoline. They give good results with flat " work be and - for ironed garments flat.60 cents . good equipment for a family is : $ 1 eight-pound iron 2 six-pound irons. and can condition of steps. There without are (i) the cold-roll mangle has which The are of these wrinkles. This is an iron with a corrugated surface. heat. more A be added to the collection for crimping ruffles. are (ironing machines) Mangles Mangles.and alcohol advantages in many continuous even. not rollers heated.40 . at 30 . These their use. of they range. so that A fluting-ironmay friction is obtainable. three-pound iron ruffling-iron tiny iron i i i 25 25 15 $1.

may alcohol. The metal roller. boards be Skirt-boards padding. may is convenient. otherwise original shape. Mangles. hand power. must herself calculate for saved by the energy and Tables of use expenditure.HANDBOOK I46 which second the and is cold CLEANING OP like padded and of iron ironing-board. Oroften firmly hinged to a are be hooked in use they can be folding legs to there may board . boards. so that it may metal roller should waxed be like an iron to get be The heat supplied by good results. that In not case and are excellent where it is dinary always standing. " There should be a good laundry. The right side of the article is placed next to the be polished. housekeeper the mangle home time and justifythe from cost dollars. Those thirty to two hundred whether for a the the articles in their out machinery. alone. an heated. and when back. or a motor. gas. can it must be well padded and firmly For this purpose firm table in the make Blankets cellent exheavy cotton. It is of general use and be used advantageously in ironing flat pieces. or they may covered are with made very firm possible to leave a skirt-boards wall. great be must care taken feed to come they cannot evenly. to be supported by whatever The latter have a special standard. gasoline.or be fitted to run the make. according to electricity. like any Each require oilingto run smoothly. by a Mangles may In using any mangle belt. Wrinkles are moved re- by heat as well as by pressure and weight.

but when be dried on possible they can inside. be most carefullywiped with a damp cloth before hanging clothes on it. the A " indeed. must have a firm. outer closet end that or Sometimes a 147 so rest may on it is possible to have that when in not use be concealed. make starch. coverThe with is covers Stoves. them hinged in end. Some these frames be worked can by ropes so that they . stove boiler. are fitted or gas-plate serves Stoves especiallyconstructed Drying.LAUNDRY THE support the chair or table. purposes and it can is best be tied This on. they can Thirty-one inches is the right height for the ironing-boardfor a person five feet six inches tall. large or small. it must kept covered. or on ropes of especially constructed drying-frames. and burner both that so skirt-board satisfactory than tacking are more easilyremoved more the for the cover tapes not are These A very for are two- well laundry made for gas.but also for ironing many be well Any ironing-board. on heat which irons to coal and " When method pinning. clean. Clothes an amazing amount are much better dried out of doors. as a clothes-line can collect of dirt and dust. the purpose also available. heat is necessary. Sleeve-boards only useful for ironing small garments. rope. The not most in satisfactoryclothes-line is of use it should be taken down If this is impractical. cotton padded and must ing. where the sun and air reach them that is not freely. as for laundering. sleeves.

HANDBOOK

i48

be lowered

may

while

ceiling,so that
while
drying.
useful

It is also

too.

and
filling

the

clothes

This

type

the

where

CLEANING

OF

a

raised

then
out

are

drier

of

kitchen

has

to

useful

place

to

of
is

serve

to the

the

way

especially
as
laundry

keep dish-towels

Such
of the way.
a drier can
dollars.
Drying-closets, heated

be had

out

for five

tricity,
by steam, elecgood, as they make
gas, or coal, are
very
quick-drying possible,but they are too expensive
for the ordinary house.
pin
clothesClothes-pins. The old-fashioned wooden
still holds its sway.
Patent
clothes-pinsusually
have some
metal around
them, so that in time
they are affected by the weather, corrode, and
"

break.

They also often cause
Clothes-pins should

clothes.
when

in use,

not

is

is

made

small

apron

ticking,the bottom
one
largepocket or
It is

a

a

very

of

from

a

dust.

A

article.
material

heavy
is turned

smaller

the

on

covered

kept

convenient

of which
two

spots

be

protect them

to

clothes-pin apron
a

rust

up

pockets for

great help to the laundress

to

It

like
form

pins.
clothesin both

clothes, and is also
hanging up and taking down
the clothes-pinswhen
not in
a good place to store
ings
Clothes-pins should receive occasional washuse.
so

that

Baskets.
are

a

"

their

cleanliness

A clothes-basket

convenience.

still stands

first in

The
number

may

be assured.

is necessary,
willow

used.

and

two

clothes-basket
These

must

always be lined with cloth or paper (white oilcloth
is best) before placingdamp clothes in them, as the

HANDBOOK

iSo

stand

should

beneath

be raised

iron

easily,while
is oval.

whole

the

The

and

of any

is advisable,

cover

the

by

firm

the material

this

as

is best

For

is

necessary.

A

movable
re-

be washed

can

The

made

the

iron.

material.

cannot.

cover

cover

the

that

so

iron-holder

an

made

be

may

CLEANING

enough

be scorched

will not

old-fashioned
These

OF

best

with

shape
side

one

side of two

other

pieces overlapping
half -inch in the center.
a
Through this opening
the pad can
easily be slipped in.
A clothes-horse
which
after
to hang clothes
on
be well
ironing is essential,so that garments may
aired and absolutely dry before storing.
A laundry with
its own
equipment of utensils
saves

many

the

burden

A

of

for

kitchen

It is poor

steps.

a

wash-day
a

cup,

laundry ought

to

by having

spoon,

contain

to

economy

or

to

other

any

the

run

add
to

following:

teakettle

i
i

small

i

saucepan

tablespoon
one-half-pint cup

i

The

white
and

teaspoon
of

about

five-

quarts

capacity

making

starch

will not

rust.

enamel

knife

case

bowl

utensils

the

utensil.

pail
dipper
dish-pan

i

to

for

cup

large wooden

should

be

made

is very
make
the

Enamel

helps

quart

spoon

of materials

which

satisfactory,and
laundry look light

bright.

The

amount

of

equipment

which

a

laundry

LAUNDRY

THE

done

work
the

in

and

best

that

last

longer,

can

being

but
used.

it

is

they

to

are

utensils

more

laundry
done
the

As

economy

Good

all

lighten

will

good

afforded.
also

it

equipment.

the
is

of

amount

Where
which

in

tools,
be

the

on

house.

included

be

utensils

the

everything

house

should

while

depends

contain

should

151

in
labor

with

all

the

buy
not

only

satisfactory

XVII

LAUNDRY:

THE

THE

MAKING

REAGENT

A

is
makes

change
is

dirt.

Soap

either

is

it

REAGENTS

that

chemical

a

or

by

and

it forms

tact
con-

physical

a

For

dissolves

reagent;

a

OF

substance.

reagent;

a

USE

substance

any

another

on

water

AND

example,

carries

away

emulsion

an

with

dirt.
When

when

reaction;

in

they

chemical

the

knows

he

which

of

the

is

knowledge
proportions
whether
and

what

of

the

of

of

use

what

in
or

no

precautions

shine
sun-

As

of

with

and

applicable

best
to

taken.

bad,

telligenc
In-

include

accomplish,
the

the

dealing.

must

it may

be

good
is

she

reagents

must

chemist

should

so

both

it is used,
it is

a

or

unless

use

substance

just

which

results

which

and

laundry

little

the

properties,

with
the

the

intelligence.

experimenting,

substance
in

in

is

peculiarities

know

laundress

with

air

by

reagents

laboratory
used

be

can

clothes

physical

a

reaction.
of

supply

have

we

bleach

chemical

a

bountiful
the

clothes

we

have

we

A

starch

we

a

the

ture,
tempera-

all materials,

The reason for this yellow color is that very minute particles of iron rust are the material. Iron desirable un- in a give the clothes undesirable most yellowish tinge. or is due hardness us contain addition the from temporarily Temporary and undesirable an to of lime sulphates and of these salts may drinking. however.organic small even matter. it as for of suds. it undesirable make prevents the Another making substance for pass soluble water of lime to addition carbonate to salts. but they do for laundry purposes. and free from discoloration. cannot procure water that fulfils these . and it acts also soil well as find we carrier a as insoluble much from clothes of the for much solvent to free the soluble as on dirt. deposited all over Water should for successful be laundry work clean.LAUNDRY THE The most soap. If we and amounts may odors. A natural clothing. the commonest. soft. time same 153 reagents and water are tial large supply of water is absolutely essenWater is the for successful laundry work. very renders it in some is such a splendid solvent water for laundering and water cleaning. hard. fortunately. fact that the Unfortunately. a which laundry may purposes make water is iron. permanently is due The it harmful make not hardness permanent may The nature. the and. at necessary. cases poor its way which Because water on Why? rock through soil and of substances hard become may It may be chlorides of lime.

how shall obtain we and water it? then How how shall As laundry purposes? hardness salts. . by boiling. appears long been hard it suitable is put into hard soap know we make we has is due in water When shall has to get rid of the lime from remove at her water lime is soap business the only hard or of the mand com- entirely or at its ill effects. The at the bottom water of us often has same can are found then familiar be taken with the from white top. just so long have lime soap formed." which the sides of the tub. This the been we is that this soften. Just as the lime remains in the water. moreover.HANDBOOK 154 CLEANING OF requirements by simply turning the faucet. the of lime presence and the lime water there is formed "lime has single bit of the lime to form lime very hard. become it must so the soap until united with the cleansing effect from no soap least said for soap. or on the clothes. impossible. may dition be removed by boiling or by the adof alkalies. housekeeper who either to to reduce curd This soap. which is due to carbonates of lime. or ammonia. do intentionally when thing we and in teakettles. and.the lime salts are precipitatedand settle softened of the receptacle. on the a as scum on of the water. Temporary hardness. salts decompose the is commonly what surface shall as we shall get we every the to soap called before. When is softened water borax. lye. curd Most which is the lime precipitatedfrom the water. if not materials. such as washing-soda.

The washing-soda must the use is to four or five days before the water be added The top to stand until used. the water tablespoonful to a This in the tion propor- gallon. may be of borax and matter parts of borax to added to is then one precipitatedby the use alum in the proportion one part of alum. is by only way to get rid of iron in water of washing-soda. and allowed The is then water Organic of a mixture of two mixture of drained off. be used. Where .but amount be may if the increased. water 155 to by sulphates and chlorides of lime.but it can be removed alkalies. but In with not care which excess. placed are be may ened soft- (i) by the addition to each gallon of water of two tablespoonfuls of a solution made pound of washing-soda by dissolving one in one (2) by adding to quart of boiling water.LAUNDRY THE hardness. in one (3) by allowing for cup each in several ways: gallon of water dissolved hardness in these is very water one one of cup amounts hard tablespoonful of borax For water. be added enough of softening water there must the softening agent to precipitate the lime. is unaffected by the addition of boiling. ordinary are the sufficient. adding In added and in water clothes the alkalies they should first be dissolved before to the washing-water Water in it. solved each teaspoonful of lye disone gallon of water of water. due Permanent by boiling. to add would so be much that deleterious to there the is an fabrics.

soaps and strong. and then it is proportion correct of it. " home. general. Soaps. amount nip the tongue. Free in soap by placing a small If alkali is present it will . but which have home. the present Soap is made soaps. For ordinary white linen and cotton terials mamild and are good and they strong soaps are also desirable where alkali may be detected in the mouth. product possible to fat. silks. results from tell the own excess an greasy their definite the of the many industries almost entirelyout of the rarely find people we in one taken been who time is that now produced was classified mild and latter strong be soaps more soaps strong than should be mild. so that make from combining used in be not a The poor with lye the fact that know to put with the The may The medium free alkali.HANDBOOK 156 extremely is water OF CLEANING alum scarce precipitatethe dirt from be used again. lye. it is not there of fat a be must that causes of the nature exact In Medium These Excess of either. delicate colors. free alkali. medium. proportions so of at quality of the usual home-made impossible alkali to fat excess soap. This to can of water Formerly soap shortage where is sometimes it so used that the be done should water only it absolutely makes necessary. the and causes caustic often will soap. water is hard. as contain soaps the no tain con- former. avoided in laundering fine fabrics.and wools.

.

as a purifierfor ordinary household the be used either directly upon Soaps may rectly of a soap fabric or in the form jelly. thus soluble Although it is not an efficient disinfectant in cases valuable of contagious diseases. moval facilitatingthe rehas of dirt. It is more economical to buy soap during storage it may and harden. soft in water as Dried soap readily. It should be kept uncovered there will be no covering to interfere with quantitiesso that effect of the air. durable more It fabrics. present in the fabric.and desirable to use. it is nevertheless washings. we soaps. but concentrated fabrics. wools a soap kinds least two which and a even a of soap small amount " medium is well to add soap a for a mild for materials soap of alkali might injure. soap antiseptic properties. used alkali reacts the CLEANING containing free alkali is soap with fat which any may be forming a soap which is Aside from in water. the make made must not Moreover. a strong soap goods. for all white third. silks. jelly is the more choose How shall we soaps? In general it is-a by a reliable good plan to use soaps manufactured It is poor economy to use cheap. Soap didirt more the fabric removes quickly on it is applied in such a than jellysimply because for fine form.and does not therefore in large dry out so the that ing dry- become does not . will do for all mistake of believing that one soap be equipped with at A laundry should purposes.OP HANDBOOK 258 When the material. poorly concern.

cool and to the keep hot until soap One-half pound of prepared soap bar of soap. much exposed twenty- as In storing it the ment five per cent.THE wash air for to 159 quickly. clothes . used in place of one chips sunshine. may or cup fat before adding the lye. lined boxes water it to Pour with the into waxed harden. " Cut soap i large 3 quarts of soap bar of finely. arrangeshould be such that the oldest soap is used first.add boiling water boiling water. always possible to make people believe it." i 5 pound pounds When of lye dissolved in 3 pints of cold of fat clarified and melted lye mixture the fat and stir until wooden or paper. Either two Soap jelly. Laundry so away LAUNDRY lose time. and thick as pasteboard set away to cooled has as add honey. where keep snowy out-of-door not treat drying is an impossibility. Soap formula. be added to the both. may some as if soap. of water. These simply increase the cleansing powers. tablespoonfuls of borax or one-half of ammonia. How long will clothes dried indoors Commercial white? laundries. sunshine Air reagents and in the although it is " Air strongest and sense of the may and use. is all dissolved. be are word.

Bluing is not an essential for laundo We not " work in the and Soap same water necessities are soap and in order water. water be sanitary. Bluing may them attractive. " Indigo was originally of plant . from call us Bluing is obtained different i. dry Bluings. Any housewife drying was an impossibility city where out-of-door remembers the joy that she experienced when she again could have her clothes dried out of doors. to have clothes sunshine dried be can they may yellow color which often of doers be be may to air and without counteract the caused by something drying facilities. and one which is perhaps truer. then ever question the fact that why should any one air and sunshine portant imare reagents ? They are most reagents and bring about most pleasing who has ever lived in a results. question the fact that the chemicals which are produce this whiteness reagents. explanation.HANDBOOK 160 chemicals with OF retain to CLEANING their original whiteness. be used or Bluing should effects out Bluing is used this addition. but when make to necessary the as reallyclean and clothes in the sense to counteract washing. when Another give the effect of whiteness. because of careless in the kept white of poor not. however. sources: Indigo. clothes appear does bluing make white? Why One explanation often given is that yellow and used together blue. being complementary colors. is that for what the slight bluish tinge makes of most whiteness.

for the bluing may unite and all the soap alkali particles. the more finelyit is ground. however: that iron-rust is decomposed by alkalies. Prussian blue. carefully rinsed. from obtained it finelyground lapis lazuli.and the with into article become mottled with iron-rust spots. It has one indigo and is also easier to use.but now is manufactured in the form artificially. or of ultramarine. if clothes are " 4. As the efficiency of the bluing depends upon the suspension small of these particles in water. " Aniline its action is blue is a coal-tar really that of dyeing the . to have necessary. but the chief (synthetic indigo). Ultramarine was originally 3. As Prussian blue is one of the most liquid bluings in common the market. Prussian blue is a very satisfactory bluing. but now little used in the laundry. powder.It comes The better the grade of small cubes balls. This gives a better color than 2. However.LAUNDRY THE 161 manufactured is now artificially origin. very finelyground so that it will be evenly suspended in water. Formerly it was it is very ingredientof bluing compounds. Ultramarine. any a other material alkali before is not putting blue we with Prussian have bluing made may quite a disastrous result. great it is an and iron compound drawback. so " If all soap or thoroughly rinsed from results. it behooves to us practise careful rinsing. Aniline product and blue. it is the for satisfactory results.

" not an of absolute the main . that particular brand properly.HANDBOOK 162 material. using liquid bluings In strong solution the of this to tub in of water tub is a bowl first and get the to more it is safer There from be never is a which in this way to and then she The than bluing-water than that necessary. only the finest of of this blued Enough In this way of water of to should. is obtained. bluing is also difficult to wash out of materials. This and it requires an acid to bring out its color. Aniline blue is used in commercial light blue. find out should Each which learn housewife is most to the market use must periment ex- satisfactory. great variety of bluings on to a enough shade. and then stirringabout very in bowl a the of water. powder poured into is then water desired the shade. like bluing. should in solid form be come Bluings which used by wrapping in flannel or several thicknesses of other kinds of material. Starch. be only a light blue. laundries extensively. The OF CLEANING simply dyed is material a very. caused streaks get by the strikingthe particlesof bluing which have settled. otherwise as clothes tub before will be there tub the This stirred be however. Starch. The by putting the bluing in direct. It will not set in an alkaline solution. is One essential in laundry work. but not in the home laundry. water placing clothes in it. more should should make add then desired evenly blued to choose.

In general. compare are . Corn starch gives a greater stiffness to the fabric. a rice starch and starch has the wheat is not manufactured To of greatest. laundries. obtain laundry starch except corn any Commercial of rice. wheat surface. is their penetrability finish given to pliabilityand the articles. to penetrability. as pliability wheat starch gives better results. and a pliableand fine finish. make use and wheat starches. according to the fabric corn. is used starch of cheapness and the general lack of knowledge of because of its advantages of the different for the because and desired of various use of also because in The son rea- in laundries starches differences the kinds. the starches which commonly starch gives a good color. however. and wheat starch As tint in between. corn starch a yellow color.and it is also considered to offer better resistance to dampness. in fact. the and also the Corn also the because finish. starch much used starch corn stands the in between.for its reasons of the is to use clothes. housekeeper of to-day uses corn retail grocers. 163 LAUNDRY THE the improve Another appearance for its reason is that use materials keeps glazed surface of starched clean longer than the rougher surface of most starched unmaterials. a smooth used. the American starch. Rice starch gives a natural purewhite color. it is not always possibleto at many starch. but when well as stiffness is desired. poor- Rice is not here. in this country and est.

HANDBOOK 164 is in Starch which the form of in present are CLEANING OF very many small granules plants. have will stick to the iron. the heat mixture the moisture causes granules.are used to wax. Starch should be cooked long enough so that there is no possibilityof any of the granules being left In unbroken.and to prevent the give smoothness iron from sticking. all the not case granules are in cooking. Different to material The may most Borax the whiteness be added common is beneficial to starch additions in that starch. and finallythese swell and burst. the starch or is reason must there so of the be will be thick that freely. marred slightlyyellowed because for this part . and finish. When is heated. resulting in jelly-likestarch paste. Bluing form. and in the starch. of starch see are masses powders which we is added water to starch and the granules. Oily substances. adds are creases it in- gloss. to diluted as because Starch form.and increases the stiffness. substances it. of the ing in cook- it. These The starch granules will not dissolve in water. such as paraffin. Cold starch is used for great stiffness. they will in all probability be broken broken Then the starch by the heat of the iron.lard. and cottonseed-oil. and also we the may to the penetrate of the appearance scales which the starch become may caramelizing of bluing is often added streaks it does to starch not improve borax and mix may added in fats.and also of the .of it.

.

as is described on should Materials page be 164. the rubbed into material. as in double starch it is two use jelly use jelly so and table- three use for thin ring stir- Strain minutes. and laundry for softening water " very grease more to form a than soda must can not mass soapy easily rubbed soda The clothes. Cook. the jelly. then Stir before using. and tablespoonfuls of starch. slowly. for twenty use add mixture water be must thick that it readily if placed directly over most flame. *4 of starch cup borax hot the " mixed ^ with of cold water cup teaspoonful of fat y" teaspoonful of borax i quart of boiling water i the starch and To fat. Thick starch. greasy and grease be used in also out in the washing with reacts which flushed can then of the the be terial ma- washingcolored materials.and then medium For hot. boiler. dipped into the starch while hot. the constantly. and after wringing it is well to rub the the hands between to help rub in materials as so is always Starch starch. boilingwater. cooked would the of cup burn starch For Starch starch. and it alone.HANDBOOK 166 add and well mix CLEANING OF smoothly. Washing-soda Washing-soda. . however. one-half the borax. starch spoonfuls of starch. on is useful However. solution.

any Washing-soda is much maligned mainly because it is carelesslyand improperly used. washing-powders must Washing-soda for three four can cents usually be had or a pound. ammonia is It is made laundry. whereas washing-powders cost two. or five times as much. four. purchasing house- . but in all cases a washing-soda forms a great part of the powder.THE be must as 167 rinsed thoroughly it eats of out white fabrics. be be used should Washing-soda should LAUNDRY added to in solution before water and it clothes. Ammonia. and few borax. others contain some soap. dilute known with It six times strength with It has been a Household water. according to the brand. three. to " in extravagance. the fiber if left in. It is a very strong reagent and therefore must be used with care. made are tirely enof washing-soda. Many very of the manufacturers of these powders recommend that the powder be dissolved in water ing before addThe to the wash-water. a ammonia-gas an Ammonia-water is far from as the that water to in dition ad- by dissolving ammonia to druggist much which estimated better valuable to is buy centrated con- and then obtain a deal. Washing-powders in general owe their efficiency Some of them to washing-soda. The difference in the cost of washing-soda and be noted. object is to guard themselves which results from against the harm the direct contact of fabric and washing-soda.

or the hands. the its use. as it is not harmful materials. It is being more and used to soften water aid in removing as an dirt. Also it is not so hard on the hands. is a great help in Javelle water. ordinary strength add six parts of water to one of ammonia-gas. Like is an alkali. in should material no be and clear water thoroughly rinsed in ammonia remains in the fabric If Javelle water water. whitening agent. as one must judge any of ammonia-gas it conammonia tains. the material of equal For removing stains a solution is made . will be injured. Borax " is useful dirt. reclothes. but washing-soda. " be used matter with what great After care.HANDBOOK 168 hold ammonia OF pays one CLEANING from two to five dollars for pound ammonia-gas. and in the in moving softening water. It is a to splendid cleansing agent. according The ammonia brand. Borax. Javelle water It is a strong reagent and must removing stains. ammonia it has the advantage of being volatile. colors. price of concentrated dollar per from seventy-five cents to one per for the to runs pound The trated saving in buying concenammonia is evident. as a stiffening removal of stains. strength. by the amount The retail price of concentrated ammonia For is between forty and fiftycents per quart. ammonia. its action gentle.so that there is not the danger of its remaining in the materials and eating the fibers.

put into this solu- are brought to the boiling-point. and then rinsed. general bleaching it is used in the proportion to thirty-two parts of one part Javelle water For articles The of cold water.a solution used in the desired. i of pound taken be cannot Too materials. in the much caution pre- rinsing. " washing-soda dissolved in i quart of boiling water of chloride ^2 pound dissolved of lime in 2 quarts of cold water Pour the clear liquid from solution into the dissolved settle and then cork. Gum " the pour a dark Gum the soda. the case arabic dark of the starch can . and then A used solution of gum in water according to the material and the stiffness Simply to give body to materials. place. as in of silks and laces. laces.allowed to stand This is used five minutes. clear arabic solution is often used where stiffeningmaterials color of the starch would be objectionthe white able.and It may dark-colored silks. on in place of starch so as to avoid marring the the for danger of whiteness of the appearance be made material. in this.LAUNDRY THE quantities of Javelle is then stain immersed 169 and boiling The water. and keep in arabic. be used for fine organdies. chloride Let of lime the mixture liquid into bottles. It is also used materials. about for general bleaching and often also for removing faded all the color from Javellewater. tion.

may or purchased in special form. and When all dissolved. when Wax Wax. " Oxalic in acid. cork. acid some is of great assistance ink. poisonous and must chased Used in the proporin crystallineform. i ounce i cup of cup is water of gum of a of gum arabic satisfactory. alboiling water need to be increased if the strength may in a stains are obstinate. strain through a cheese-cloth. either beeswax be used. Oxalic acid is It is purbe used with care. removing When stains. It should be tied in a paraffinwax may cloth before applying to the iron. It that they may If it is not be bought especiallyfor irons. " Oxalic iron rust. is essential for rubbing on irons so be kept in good condition. pour into a Sometimes bottle. tion one tablespoonfulof alcohol is added to the soluit is to be kept a very long time. " arabic boiling water boilingwater hot over CLEANING OF over until water the gum arabic. tion of one of teaspoonful of crystals to one cup though it is effective for many stains. used cold solution. cool.HANDBOOK 170 proportion of one-quarter solution to Gum arabic Pour keep quart of one the solution. and keep for future use. and hot it acts more some fruit readily than applicationof oxalic acid should be followed nia by an application of ammoand water thorough rinsing. The .

carbon tetrachloride. oils and useful for removing These are grease. proportions Tartaric rust and stains. spot and in then excellent obliterated rinsed thoroughly a in clear the article ammonia water. Perhaps the safest of using it is to place the stained portion of way the article over bowl of hot water a containing borax in the proportion of one teaspoonful to each The acid should then be applied quart of water. turpentine. They open should kind. should floor to insure where their so be that a there are if is a flame all heavier they current are of any than air. and then dipped immediately into the water. Solvents. A medicineAfter dropper is an easy way to drop the acid. benzine. Hydrochloric acid. and home for be used never The vapors therefore there of these sink.ether and chloroform. drop by drop until the stain changes color. all of which are extremely volatile. used out of doors or by an window. If the stain has not disappeared. It crystallineform.and .LAUNDRY THE Tariaric acid.the treatment should be repeated until it does disappear. should borax or Hydrochloric be water acid is removing iron rust and ink stains. strong and eats acid is used acid oxalic as iron in " 171 is beneficial is also It is also the is used same in moving re- purchased Hydrochloric acid " the fabric unless caution. gasoline. in the is very with extreme poison. used of air near in the the quick removal." Naphtha. Kerosene. be used with extreme must they should be care.

or with the portion to be cleaned. treatment same It is also stains beneficial in the moval re- setting of colors. and it is also used for rendering some and the in the " non-inflammable. Curtains submitted sometimes are purpose to this treatment. French dirt and absorb to and earth Fullers' be used should of them None and solvents good also are CLEANING OF flame. Alum. Plenty of soft essential Air all times.1 HANDBOOK 72 alcohol used not a near chalk. is covered powder and allowed to stand several hours until The the dirt is removed. Salt " is for good frictional agent a cleaning of irons. kept . clothes two of alum ounces water and and dissolved are the articles children's dresses this For in rinsed are last gallon of one in it. occa- gence intellibe far the first. or the apply the Salt. but chemicals Other will For on hand the good soap successful laundry should then and sunshine which the than and they and worse for where reagents or water they last state be cannot in to be be must of the used used work at able. of again. Alum is useful for clearing water. volatile. for setting colors. These " The grease. powder is then shaken If not from the material. only with textile may are sionally. brushed cleaned. usual of reagents amounts for household use see to be Chapter XXVI. valu- very had take part need also are solutel ab- are there their place. so are material.

.

The boiling effective if poured from a height so is more water the If the fresh The easily accomplished. old when removed while that stream will strike material is stretched many stains are entirely by this same soaking in cold water. Boiling water poured through many stains which have in cold already been soaked will obliterate them water entirely. a delicate cold sunshine. Between decomposition and dust there is every possibilityfor us to get a with which to deal. of teakettle a will methods be may colored on injury Sometimes water order to have way our a it will be kept is wet to all the either of these white goods the treatment but harmed. one. that sure the This ing boil- article sun in is the their fabrics. grandmothers bleached we possibilityof some time is spout stain resists both yield this the is not color. and The it is in the effective. especiallyif if must If force.a more method severe stain long standing and is of usually weaken may to necessary to a obstinate very resort When a it is which means fiber.but if the stain resists. In . more complicated substance take To stains the simplest means out any should be tried first. be must cold easily removed more and water.HANDBOOK 174 OF CLEANING stains left on material. the Practically all stains are if first soaked in which obstinate become used. from stain from there bowl a stream the material articles the to a remove spot with over is excellent. Dust may change when also gather on the spot.

working in the been This was material not that us the forgotten be the application by that of an alkali. that the housewife not so begrudge may time. to try thing to do it be boilingwater thing someor its action. on a piece of the " . bleached of means to white only method and sunshine and cotton affects freezing applicable linen materials. a acid. if it had itself in of the material the texture be as itself must reagent followed of such means. if possible. It cannot an alkali the action of use that resort to necessary of acid must an vice and where the stain has appeared. If it is which has a tendency to set stains. In removing there is only one the stain a safe reagent. eradi- been unharmed. must means Most has the of be versa. other to turn would eradicated been have cated. whether more severe in from colored materials that is.when. and removed the with familiar are later cases a hole result of the reagent after it had stain. be too much emphasized that stains the earliest opportunity should be removed at after the mishap. it or This counteracted. the water is retained stain yields because in the The removal of stains by goods for a long time. and. and colors is also silk Either and wool fibers.before washday. In all cases the necessary them they must before be removed they are put in soapy water.LAUNDRY THE stains winter be can 175 removed and materials The by allowing the article to freeze.

" as so grease washed moisture are as left length of time.HANDBOOK i76 Whether first. oxalic Age stains. the dye used instance. two alike. soapy water. and chocolate and often. and also a weak action of boiling water acid. material CLEANING OF or the no color is depends entirely upon For in the fabric. Cold " blood stains. brass. if of especiallyhard to remove. will not injure the finest materials. they cannot very In any without case destroying the material. such be might as acid. but unless pieces of blue cotton may appear dye they will they have been dyed in the same harmed by the treatment in same react not the The way. Cocoa. and with with Chocolate. should considerable soap " See Cocoa to used in the starch. such Brass cloth. disappear the paste should until again in the same way not be Brass. be eradicated long standing. color in one destroyed by the application of boiling whereas the other the might withstand water. Cocoa. be can first be cannot paste made the on on sun. such as removed by bleaching Blood. be used then be spot and of washed stains. " on dry. are . should article The to in the water best finds one soften and the treatment when appear together for be a first treated material and stains if neglected then water. raw left until applied again and This the spot is entirely obliterated. Where thing This paste is put does stain If the use is can water a linen.

the of they bleached. doubtless the most table-linen and very are on used be may neglected. but ammonia Fruit " of difficult to stains all stains if remove should not be so on used. natural bleaching by the be used. water (see page 168) may and Cream. Borax stains before placing in cold water usually hastens " removal the yield to boiling water. Alcohol Colored inks. yield. ammonia goods.they can be bleached. old.which as we as is a it dissolves all know combination the sugar it would of and the dissolve a fruit-juiceand . Because of these constitugumlike substance. is will often stains tea then stain tea time very are be must Javelle or sun juice (which less grease) or " with it more always has combined and then removed are by soaking in cold water These water. is usually sufficient to inks. pectose. water and coffee tea sprinkled on Coffee. cream.LAUNDRY THE 177 they should be sprinkled with borax before being ing and then. soaking in glycerine for If the often aid its removal. common Alcohol solution. poured on fresh fruit stains boiling water removes them. stains of colored They also yield remove " to colored Fruit. in often short a and Coffee obstinate. meat Milk. spots usually washing in soapy If they do not disappear with this treatment. Almost all fruit- and pectose. just jelly. and very stains These stain. boilplaced in cold water should be poured through them. after soaking. a sticky and juices contain sugar ents.

CLEANING OF HANDBOOK 178 by Javelle or so or sun water. cannot See be removed also Pitch. cooking-soda washed is washable. Sometimes when fresh.the If. " so paste of white placed whole if used water. is if the the in as and Ammonia to method in washing new. sugar. yields to boiling water. and it will yield to Javelle water or be removed it can sometimes by bleaching in the has to sun or deal freezing. even peach stain. after . warm water out. and these usually sufficient. or is allowed to stand removing is not of bleached be to acid oxalic by even stain process need It may simple. dissolve solvents remember it has been out immediately. or of case stains. however. In may affect the soap and and cases colors. and the article must ammonia in The and acid oxalic The and water difficult fruit most clear in then stain with water. ammonia the on When an usually be taken can will if that but soap. be used should Javelle water given in Chapter according to the directions invariably be rinsed XVII. Grass. stains grass soap is the This be is or that vaseline washed in. are cold water and best washed. alcohol. grease and possible. in the the material frost. (ether it article is to children's does stain Then color.but it is important is not it. which one It very seldom. with moves re- the left until be can article clothes. If " naphtha alcohol where molasses a or may be stain turns Grease.ether or gasoline Vaseline also yields to these gasoline). oxalic acid.

LAUNDRY

THE

Indelible
their

inks.

indelible

Many

"

this the

have

inks

as

nitrate, and

silver

constituent

main

179

to

thing is potassium cyanide,
a
deadly poison. It is usually used in a ten per
be thoroughly
cent, solution, and
must, of course,
In
washed
must
not
out.
using it the hands

remove

best

in contact

come

with

It is best

them.
indelible

inks

it if there

the

dyes. These
injuring the material.
"

Sometimes

get, stains, but
about

them

stain

common

most

know

we

we

and

the

at

difficult that

have

we

were

it
matter

when
own

would
to

then

every

formula,

and

where

deal

know

the

At

the most

one

of the

with

is ink.

composition

caused

the

the

his ink

different

from

it is

age
dam-

simple

present

makes

that

we

nothing

comparatively

wonder
for

to

spot.

one

time

of

without

Perhaps

has

a

manufacturer

formula?, is it any
find

be

the

remove

know

same

possible for us to
of the particular ink which
If it

we

them.

see

made

removed

and

on

Many

are

how

often

more

until

time
be

cannot

cuts

any

brush.

a

present

aniline

Ink.

with

applied

at

are

time,

from
all

his

other

impossible

to

all ink

spots? In the first
should
be applied, and
often it
place, cold water
will wash
fresh ink stain.
out
a
Here, as in the
should
of all other stains, gentle means
treatment
be used first. If cold water, the gentlest of all,
is ineffective,then lemon-juice and
salt or milk
is the next to try.
In using lemon-juice and salt
one

remedy

the stain is covered

with

a

paste made

of the two

HANDBOOK

i8o

and

sunshine.

placed in the

removed
should

before

it has

added.

The

be

to have

in order

CLEANING

OF

dried,
stain

the

stain

If the
more

be

must

is not

lemon-juice
ened
kept moistIf it

reagent effective.

impossible to place the stain in the sunshine,
and
is a fairlygood substitute
steam
holding over
is

hastens

is used, the

If milk

action.

the

stain

is

colored
displaced in the milk, and as the milk becomes
Then
the stain is allowed
it is changed.
this
until it disappears, and
to stay in the milk
after the milk has soured.
usually occurs
Salts

of

is often

lemon

used

on

ink

stains.

lemon-juice and
is chemically potassium
Salts
of lemon
salt.
binoxalate, and it is a poisonous compound which
of crystals. To
in the form
apply, it is
comes
and
the stain, and
moistened
placed on
again
This

must

helps the

sun

acid
in

not

also

can

by
when

used

acids, and

are

Another

be

an

acid

these

other

acid

according
We

therefore
as

many

means

tartaric

the directions

they

times

be

must

ammonia
removes

that

or

lowed
fol-

borax.
stains

failed is hydrochloric

acid,and therefore it must
with
be used
Hydrochloric acid is
more
care.
stronger than oxalic and tartaric acids, and unless
the action
is stopped immediately
by an alkali
is also
the fabric will be destroyed. Javelle water
It is applied
beneficial in removing ink stains.
in the same
for all stains.
(See page 168.)
as
way
acid.

This

is a stronger

have

to

and

remember

must

alkali, such
which

with

Oxalic

action.

XVII.

Chapter

these

confused

be

HANDBOOK

182

is formed, and
acids

CLEANING

OF

do dissolve in water.

these

These

for ink
exactly the same
as
way
stains.
Lemon-juice and salt can also be used on
iron rust stains if not of too long standing. This
is applied the same
for ink stains.
as
Kerosene.
Kerosene
wash
be
on
goods can
used

are

in

"

washed
which

treated

absorbed

with

with

stand

to

water, but

Fullers'

by

portion is covered
allowed

and

soap

be

cannot

be

can

with

out

water,

until

the

earth.

the

materials

on

The

Fullers'

the. earth

kerosene
stained

earth

and

absorbs

the

kerosene.

Machine-oil.
washed
When

out

with

out

it has

it is not

Machine

"

-

neutral

oil

can

and

soap

got into the stitching on

advisable

in

gasoline or
Meat-juice. See
"

Medicine.

wash

to

it, it

can

usually be
cold

water.

dress

a

be

and

dissolved

benzine.
Cream.

Medicine

stains

in most

yield
Iodine
stains, however, yield
readily to alcohol.
more
readily to ether or chloroform, although if
not badly set they are soluble in alcohol.
Mildew.
stain

"

Mildew

"

because

is different

it is

a

mold

from

cases

any

other

and, like all plants, it

and moisture
Like
for growth.
requires warmth
other molds, strong sunlight will kill it,so that if
the

cloth

is dried

stopped, but
bleached.

depends

The
upon

Sometimes

the
ease

how

sunlight the growth is
material
is not
necessarily

in strong

with

which

it

long the mold
the spots

can

can

has

be removed
been

be removed

ing.
grow-

if

they

LAUNDRY

THE

covered

are

with

183

lemon-juice

and

in the

placed

with
a
sunlight. If the stain is covered
layer of soap jellymixed with pulverized chalk and
pear.
disapexposed to the sunlight it will sometimes
have
all the other means
Sometimes, when
will take out
the stain, but
failed, Javelle water
direct

it is

impossible

had

chance

a

The
not

best

to

left moist

and

especiallyif it
is dark, there
Clothes

grow.

for

is to

has

cloth

When

with.

and
is

length of time, and
is rolled up tight so that the inside
is every
to
opportunity for mold
often
mildew
if left dampened
for

warm

in

long time

a

mold

long.
guard against mildew

contend

it to

if the

success

too

grow

way

have

to

insure

to

a

weather, and

warm

sometimes,

and
left on
the
are
being bleached
extended
it is
for an
length of time when
and there is no
sunshine, they mildew.

if clothes
grass
warm

Milk.
Mice.

kept

are

See

"

Cream.

Mouse

"

stains

in drawers

removed
Paint.

are

in empty

houses.

by bleaching in the
Paint

"

spots

can

found

often

on

They

clothes
are

best

by

pentine,
tur-

sun.

be

removed

chloroform.
The
benzine, naphtha, or
cate
last two
are
especiallygood for colored and delifabrics.
Any of these reagents dissolve out
the oil which
holds
the other ingredients of the
paint in solution, and then the insoluble portion
can

be brushed

softened
both

with

good

"

If the spot is old it should

off.
grease

before

"

cottonseed-oil

and

applying the solvent.

lard
On

be
are

non-

may leave a resinous residue. Varnish stains are treated in the be paint. as around the tops of collars. Turpentine.HANDBOOK 184 OF CLEANING fully caregoods the solvent should be most used. be taken must care chloroform. while the paint is still wet. but for cleanliness. to absorb the surplus liquid. and to prevent spreading it should toward of the spot the center always be rubbed much as as possible. from woolen terial maeasily removed if it is dealt with immediately. Stains from perspiration are reand by moistening with water placing in sunshine. as naphtha. but it is well to have the article cleaned immediately in gasoline. or. but this washable can be dissolved in alcohol. gasoline. is easily disand absorbed. such as French starch. This is not because there is any danger Paint of the be may reappearance of the paint. and they are highly It must inflammable. moved Perspiration. except that they cannot removed by rubbing with the material. unless pure. being wet.the article is bleached more readily if it before is dipped in soap solution placing in the sunshine. White paint on black wool will disappear entirelyby this process. The paint. It is also a help to surround chalk or the spot with a powder. if badly discolored. that the greatalways be remembered est in using benzine. by rubbing the part touched by and the clean paint with another part of the integrat material. Very badly stained collars will yieldto same way as " .

and then apover plying Wax. be used. melts the and wax If it is not dissolved left.LAUNDRY THE and this treatment If this method Javelle to without Pitch. The out. but a 185 and grease after then they Sometimes turpentine. the If there drippings from with rest alcohol. of the remaining wax may removed by placing a piece of blotting-paper under the spot and another it. are be Most. place obtainable will take water. water need wagon-grease the be can to moved re- in washing application of grease is the is sufficient. resort be had can it will not doubt. " a the As much wax as hot iron. softened be cannot harder material. Wagon-grease. The heat blotting-paper absorbs removed benzine. scorch If the " is not the material and only injured it best way to do it in the sunshine. Scorch. and " with with and soap The water." See Coffee. it in entirely gasoline or in the can be case removed of . but it should not be scraped so close material that the threads to the roughened.as candles. a on it and sunshine no such is Javelle as scorch. be possible should scraped off. the be will article bleached is much process Pitch. if not all. Tea. Pitch. may be is color colored it. the on injure the material. " See surface be bleached can this is to moisten Where bleaching agent. the out Tar" See Pitch. tar.

treatment. To " important. salt should wine through page CLEANING the soaking water If " fresh on once OF be ing ruinplished accom- . as of the All stain. dried in cold water. with the at stain. This been will considerations. only tellige in- color. 1 possible. General the helps a according ought water on resist used be This usually take it should can boiling has wine has however. remove it no condition I'll try so of or time same good exercise out which the to worse. white spot the and thought. but of spots removing a is and an little is it any ink an of does good deal the a forethought. black spot? require time of satisfaction spot without usually as often requisite is the as stains can is removing not a in make expense obstinate This It take ugly as there material. and it will 68. If it. whether probable points are composition nearly fatal be leaving Is not Javelle directions to on it. and problem leave to dress blue a a intelligence. to stain color. and reagent at absorb material.HANDBOOK 186 Wine at stains. water stain. stain. stains. material. the out it out first must one but take to boiling usually bleach to placed white pouring this be badly neglected. material "I say this. but unless the the spot a stain consider the kind has the the can't The first white spot." the remove the three is to choose possible. To some removal the of will not ready The in If.

consist cleansing fiber is work both for to cotton the The elasticity.XIX WHITE LAUNDRY: THE is fibers the for in its also and twist give intervals. a long a examination linen If length. slight in any long effect thoroughly rinsed on ammonia on washed to . and ferent dif- the laundry fibers way which tube in than edges linen same The twisted doing cellulose. flat- a interesting. and the of part most respond they and of structure in help a Cotton general. with fibers have formation and transparent indented are these at under and have they then to in stay dissolve will solvent a if allowed to provided water the at lightness of acids acids mineral tened. most allowed they enough agents long. in the of understanding AN MATERIALS a for material material only are remain the the action entirely. is reason thicker certain a this tubular which walls mineral Strong The it is slightly fiber linen smooth with tube center. the chemicals. An microscope is and cotton Weak out fibers.

but beyond a very brief cotton not of time space neither cotton limited use is there be can If but no solution on of acids color washed should in be as to and are in white considerable should soak Because injured by alkalies. and consider with is not fabrics linen nor possible. stains ease. then They should many soapy waters as necessary. tartaric. nevertheless. of have little white or borax. and cotton dry to and get into the on are line long time. and citric. the counteract CLEANING OF called often acid mineral common muriatic acid. and harmful no effect fabrics. all white materials. for a very short time. used in the it with use Every housekeeper must noted in Chapter XVII.HANDBOOK i88 in remain most to seen durabilityof be affected. mineral necessary and on ironed. such as little or action no allowed unless moistened difficulties. their action removed if that a a because goods. oxalic. provided the fabrics linen left in the then fibers materials. . is the be not may but. may Hydrochloric acid. the material its effect fabric the is allowed acid If the action.we ones is deleterious. do not injure and linen fabrics.have household.at least the most be soaked. Strong alkasolutions. both used when and cotton linen strong soap cotton and If used and to with then we sufficient precaution. as care. Organic acids. organic acids stains remove later are be may from washing-soda. acetic. solutions Weak linen If this is done. soiled possible. the immediately.

.

but let us hope that we of using our time and all question the wisdom Table-linen strength in this way! dampened broom.HANDBOOK igo OF CLEANING by ironing table-linen just after wringing it from worth the time and the last rinsing-water are There is no strength that it entails. All partly dry on the the right side. Table-cloths are much so with table-linen wrong folded wrong so much should side and surface more moving be ironed entirely dry side out. ironing table-linen. question of the beauty of the result. and rollingtightly.folding the wet half over half. rolling tightly. to stand heavy cloth. dried table-cloth wringing as the dry dry as possible. thus doing away cloth.alternating the wet and and dry ones. are Ironing a necessary table is easier than table-cloth on board. With napkins the same the out idea is carried by wringing one-half of boiling water. rolled tightly with evenly with a whisk and the hems in. wrapped in a selvages turned several hours. number of napkins out then placing the napkins in a pile. In any case the aim should be for plenty of dampness evenly get dampening even is distributed. Another which way laundresses some to use of the putting one-half in boiling water. on with .heavy irons and pressure best for the results. and allowed with most usually be ironed satisfactory can results. on a a In as at of it is one the possible to expose time.

FOLDING OF HOUSE-LINEN .

.

The to about a selvage. ironed. and in made crease creases in a both on are ironing. or The placed fewer better. halves of the the After loose creases again is ironed cloth sides. with the initial in the upper right-hand if it is so placed that that is possible. other and crease this way the the right and wrong all uniform. Napkins should be placed on the board with the selvages parallelto the edge of the board.LAUNDRY THE selvages together ironed then and both on 191 corners halves They even.opened out. the be rolled storing. quarter of an inch of upper Now and this surface ironed.) (See dia- may for table-cloth. the left-hand edge is folded to about one-half inch of the right-hand edge. and the selvage edges folded to within one-half inch of the center The one rough surface thus exposed is crease.it crosswise the on folds the on center ironed. then the lower edge should inch of the upper within half an edge. and the folded edge is brought over and made with the outer edge. The corner napkin should be ironed partly dry on the wrong be brought to side. gram. of are the side. and this folded edge is then brought surface ironed.the cloth is ironed first on but onehalf of the right side. If more sary for storing. The more folds are necesright side. rough surface last entire a folded It is then the and ironed then In side. absolutely even . wrong pulled into shape the carefullythey are be stored with just easier the ironing. wrong side up. If they can the center they are then ironed on both crease.

Bed-linen. and wrong thus This some the they part may wide usually the end must both on be must escape hem is the most soiled well soaped well rubbed. Small (See diagram. the on then CLEANING and the folds is made for the quite together. paper doilies is described Colored be in Chapter materials in then stored flat or XXI. Sometimes crosswise folds are not pressed in at all. allowance pushing out of the material by the folding that A well-ironed follows.as many is people think that the surface broken by creases unattractive. The roll. Doilies are ironed on the wrong on the on a right side.) napkins folded crosswise once are by bringing two edges twice together and then creased lengthwise so that the monogram is on top. and Sheets " they as are with system. The end handled and part of the sheet. napkin has good square and no the corners projecting edges. treated are and of embroidered treatment table-linens colored other should They side the the same washing as and ironing. and left process for ironing. and This ironed the napkin is turned By not making last surface. hung like table-cloths. the . attention. side out until Sheets the in the dampened should be pillow-casesshould receive be should turned They of washing. sides.HANDBOOK 192 OF is ironed. The the or with thus washed cumbersome so be attacked most be must center most of attention.

heavy irons They are ironed on necessary. side from it should beginning seams the be edge should folded be over folded at be ironed the corner the seam. side. Slightly less than should pillow-caseshould of the the the case other exposed rough . wrong ends hemmed side either on plished easily accom- more the to are center right side of the hems are out. and ironing sheets. and the end ironed Then if ironed and away collect. and hem. Sheets turned Pillow-cases are right side out. The folding of sheets is people. then over. If hung by the opposite the hems. strain on folded then back hems the sheet of the sides out. and if hemstitched the stitching. with no escape at the there is undue opposite end. where and a third the one where will be usually they of ironed. having are and The pulled until even. inside of the hems The be ironed first. suf- pressure of the out the center by the ironing of the ends. and crease. like people leave sheets unironed fresh the of smell sun-dried hem. narrow because wide the ficient. The by two brought together. so that the mostly Many at the hems.LAUNDRY THE 193 Pillow-cases are hung "long way" of the cloth. and pillow-cases are but slightly dampened. on wrinkles meet. If the then irons wrinkles the the taken are are side with side with and hot are In pressure the the on they material. by the seam hem they are likelyto be torn by the force of the wind blowing into them.

In wrong wringing. starch to one quart of boiling water. should be washed the on boiler If hems is no mutilated The the be off. neck-bands. In " attention be must armholes. and the then whole turned and last rough side ironed. Before putting into the bands and should be soaped. and for trimone-half to tablespoonful of starch one The thinner starch can quart of boiling water. and side in the second suds. taken a amount thickness is used should wrung. so of to flat. than for the body of the garbe thinner should ment. inside. A good proportion for the body of the and is one one-half tablespoonfuls of garments ming.so reason in side in the the on them also to have wringer in even will be evenly there one first must care be forced not only the wrong wash-water on right side. the as hot. They first suds. made All be by diluting the thicker starch. of the the turn Materials folds. Body-clothes.HANDBOOK 194 CLEANING OF side ironed. they If little a any starch they will garment is used care article to buttons be fed to the the whole garment the that that why wringer.and washing body-linen especial paid to hems. and should be washed the right on should be starched be and depend greatly on for the trimming The starch individual taste. After they should to help blend . cooked starch should be used very starch wringing garments out of the be rubbed between the fingersso the starch with fabric.and then side.

.

.

of their porous out nature. corset-cover by band. drawers combinations hem. will which 3. difficultyon account These general rules facilitate the ironing: Iron laces and embroideries first. not wet. out. quickly because more may 2.and garment Starched of skirt chemises of entire whole the of tops corset-covers the tucks parts of The clothes this hung wind be the hung whiten to the blows should helps in in them. and can dress. chemise by one hem. ruffle cover half. from They If too wet the must there be of the iron sticking. the and but be taken dampened. and All clothes through center Starched line as be should or by should garments as soon dry be well moistened.THE LAUNDRY 195 general. band. and sometimes starch). (in thin starch). sun corset- drawers.as be not avoided. the following garments or cuffs and yoke garments are starched: In and hems of drawers. side out. Leave consistent as with much ease of the in garment handling a garment ironing so as serious folded to which or in ference inter- as retain is as . skirt by one side of lower side of by band. the entire wind if it starch should clothes be skirt lower (in thin sometimes or the combination All white if possible.as they dry 1. The hung wrong of hanging are good: nightdress following ways by one side of lower hem. night- the or (in thin starch). Iron least be a that part of the mussed by further next slight wrinkle will not be with good appearance.

The body " " of the chemise used for the Laces pad and may be ironed in either of the ways nightdress. " (2) tucks. (3) back.HANDBOOK i96 moisture much to the retain part with cloth a article. (i) Trimming. (3) body. (3) Nightdresses. if diagonally the threads across of with prevent the threads small. large any ironed be it must originalshape It is sometimes with For instance. Also wrinironing with the threads ought to prevent kling the at Under seams. (4) band. evaporation To possible. The itself. scribed All this is dein Chapter XXI. The be ironed double yoke." (i) Ruffle. (i) Trimming. Corset-covers. instead to wise of moisture. (4) body. in its or of the material. Skirt. embroideries should be ironed on a Laces are bring out the pattern. Drawers. as the unironed cover CLEANING OP a the threads skirt is ironed along the seams. Chemise. (2) body. (i) Trimming. (3) body. (i) Trimming. (4) peplum. (2) hem. almost or invariably the result is a sagging skirt. garments are ironed in the following order: (2) sleeves. of the material. as so as to . should on to give better finish. (2) fronts. often simply pulled into shape. body may it may be ironed or a single by placing over " board. garment be ironed the right side so however.

choose have time limited clean some the free obtained rinsing. the should lace ing. drying. which enough then requires " or to ing iron- strength . materials than others. of which do if enough 14 " require not our clothes there is to better iron ironing of fabric time not all use the clothes thorough and careful to laundry given the that do have to amount should housewife clothing and by affect not the much clothes. object the articles be can careful work materials snowy-white result of white not require well ironed cre'py some for well. our all for is be should wrinkles. into In be laundering have to This washing.THE and Cr"pe If LAUNDRY seersucker 197 require garments lace-trimmed. iron- no be pulled shape. is materials It ironing. If ironing. can should but from only good that that clothing.

than Dyes with unite cotton and does treatment resistant readily. For others. This reagent for way to last removing a the setting a and stable pinks the are and blues about it fastness stain is always first. in they that mean improved wash many fast comparatively MATERIALS has dyeing extent an COLORED LAUNDRY: THE or removing important. should always A be . than rather to dyes up them lose they and now this that The tough very so are same means retained. be may only it materials.XX HP HE of art 1 that not color the fibers do are take not colors Some fibers. stand can to materials color. easily. generally considered lavenders. but of any In little until color dealing safer far the it be washing. been colored with by stains. especially is linen more materials try they washed. white as the great so However. whether sample color. it has linen and than told be can and themselves cotton reds stronger care consequently considered are with that attach the instance.

vinegar. than worse the stain. girl An interesting thing happened to a schooldress in which the who wearing a new was had evidently color was set by sugar of lead which in the riot been be solution washed out.LAUNDRY THE tried out first otherwise the sample of a on 199 result colored a be may material. The must care dant morproperty of vinegar is due to the acetic acid. sugar are are used vinegar in the tion proporof salt two cups or tablespoonful of alum or one tablespoonful The maof sugar of lead to each gallon of water. terial or one in which soaked color the is to be set should be overnight. if possible. In using sugar be taken. of lead said not to be lasting. stockings retain a better color if of the color The is set in them. a salt of acetic acid. household of lead. mordants. as it is a poison. of one-half cup of salt. She went into the try chemis- laboratory. In general. and mordants These alum. The either mordants. a firmer These keeper house- for the pose pur- strengthening a weak color or for making all colors fast.and the experiments happened to with hydrogen sulphide. After working there about an hour one of her classmates turned to her . Dyers chemical use between union substances the material called are also substances can use to and cause the dye. it is better to set all Even colors. Sugar of lead is lead acetate.and should be thoroughly dried before being submitted The effect of the salt and is water to washing.

when process substance recommended. appearIn general. but that it is far cheaper in the end the fact remains to wash and wear For tear removing oxalic often clothes or color is of removing stains tartaric than a weak to submit good deal organic acid. CLEANING dress Ada. considerably. such as If the treatment. remembered be In it is better. acids. it . lead sulphide. she continued. to the of soil. but it isn't!" "It was. because it is poisonous. and ought never a best mild ored Col- fore there- be badly soiled. is hard If water alkali. a acid.even with them to this mild use. Naturally there excitement until finallythe explanation was was some made was that lead the material in the which acetate reacted had with was tained re- the drogen hy- sulphide to form the black compound. to be soaked. "It is. especially for children's clothes. of water. causing a gray ance. on the dress. lead acetate. the the colored laundering soap hold house- every is harmless. stabilityof strong the facts complicate their laundering These color. "Why. on Quick as a flash Ada looking down.to materials the the water. The clothes it must be softened with for this purpose is borax. is not In which and that all have a it must always strong and effect on alkalies of and sunlight. This is a they should never hard saying.HANDBOOK 200 and OF exclaimed." but. detrimental a use long-continued action use of hot use possible. I thought your quite a bright blue!" answered. is the best injured.

.

More ill effects are obtained from careless from careless than drying of colored materials side out They should be hung wrong washing. To dye of the of is added material tea strong a amount same may browns with small strengthen blues be blue. Quick drying is important.but a last may piece of the material. scale it will be less noticeable. and wrong the hands to obtain between a good blending of marred the with starch also be colored if it does materials material. and in the shade. left starch the on the material. as unexpected hues of dyes. as is retained. As as soon they should be taken from the rope and damp- . the the shorter the time the moisture dry less danger there is of fading. the retain CLEANING OF color same a the as for the rinsing water give good results. obtained by putting the material into the starch then rubbing side out. the according to the starch The material. wringing well. the combination from obtained are is important. and have to expect may starch excess of which appearance is a badly best results are The by starch scales. or the to This purpose. should be tried in the sometimes colored water first. The starching of colored materials is put into the starch If the material right side small out. arabic gum is often used so For in may that dark place of starch.HANDBOOK 202 the rinsing water tans and the Sometimes coffee. and to strengthen ored be colrinsing water may originalcolor. article the finished rubbed not we in.

LAUNDRY THE ened. They are Silk stockings silk. the material by ironing on the right side makes keep clean longer. clothes. wrong side . ma- the feet to wash always advisable of new stockings before the first wearing. materials before directly should washed the on all colored pulled into shape side hung wrong be rubbed may stockings. time short Colored like more appear ironed materials the on material new stand but side wrong than a when ironed the But the smoothness obtained right side. as the surface does not pick dust so readily. hot very hot irons injure the may color. not on They wrong. Stockings are treated like other colored terials. as the dressing added by the manufacturer frequently lessens the wearing quality. For this reason ironing on up the right side is the best for colored kitchen aprons on and The is sometimes used used colored irons enough should give to be on a children's on materials great heat as be must good finish. on the If necessary. be ironed Stockings may they are ironed it should not. 203 After dampening they should before ironing. but should They and soap should be the are be dry. right side rinsed like are It washed then be out like any hanging by the first and to top. or be on the as desired. but avoided. If the color is not considered fast it is a good plan to wash the feet of the stockings before putting the rest into the It is water. feet of the elsewhere.

work where the as be must care stockings. a out. mately. stockings for places down way crease reason Until to put iron. embroidery. the colored have can that of province have and clothes but sun. ironing the follow. . as by when using and the aim they the ironing. the on and should iron the ironing. in worn outside the should be the entered. no the we be drawn have to not warm. In inside. Our materials leaving shade done drying. hot.HANDBOOK 204 and with a hand should hand is little of the shall With colored is art have by is problem laundry. embroidered ironing CLEANING OF same only be rinsing. utmost care laundering as in this the washing. to laundry made be course. be more deal to and their is In There and may dyeing care linen retain are of always fading. legiti- question the far one perfected almost as is is saved materials colors being entirely with taken this nearly thought cotton In faded and original concerned. the of good all can of summer.

but only show not must of the exercise stretching. The washthickens them slightly. It is usually impracticable to dry-clean lace on clothing not washed. may complicated more the original outline. . with a the when The combination shrinkage uneven also is not accomplish. but linen is cause be- also in the thing possible to must one washing be. as or and about care fineness usually needs AND laces are better ing dry-cleaned. The ing dry-cleanof laces is discussed in Chapter XXVI. fine imitation rather ironing bring an one design well. combination a laces care especially difficult of materials.so that the lace loses its delicate and fine appearance.XXI THE LAUNDRY: EMBROIDERIES IN laundering only embroideries have not of the a to article the also the always and retain must it is is there process its easiest is pulled threads so the of and very tight that All real laces but there and The an often finished to This and lace. about- stitches are ugly puckering results. because in the more case LACES materials.

seriously be treated and delicate must fine materials to fine.and fine laces should which on they have been sewed. in the proportion tablespoonful of either to one quart of water. or Each the loops on the edge. workmanship. This soaking loosens the dirt. and is often lace in soapy either water to which borax has been added.HANDBOOK 206 household or but in The linens. the less wear and of course on ing the lace. should be caught down kept by placing the lace in relation to the of the cloth. bleaching. This the shape threads preserves and also Lace the prevents is treated dirt is well to soak ammonia or tear on the like all fine materials squeezed Soap should only neutral and wear rather be never soap than rubbed should lace. Laces a bag the for cloth often need bleaching lace it around bottle and place it in the a wrap Javelle water is keeping it wet all the time. of . boilof one is necessary. One common way is to sun. out directly on be that it. but by the respect due with CLEANING OF they care. in order to whiten lace. even washing all lace of appearance marred when it is real and needs exceptional is not laces many washing. so that the lace clean. " rubbed used. such as muslin If lace to it sew on a fine cheesecloth. less handling is required to make the less handling. of it. fine it is better is very piece of thin cloth. should Laces always be placed in be kept on boiling. It is. and even and the shape carefully edge. Sometimes.

and ochre a tan tone. way For a to proportion as thin the lace coffee taining con- table- one It is washed white rinsing and of scribed de- as very make in black of coffee. If allowed to dry this crochet roses are way . For giving body to lace the following things be used: two tablespoonfuls of borax or two may teaspoonful of tablespoonfuls of alcohol or one white was to sugar ecru or one on 169. Tea gives a yellow tone. but starch Black of water. in Irish picked up is a raised pattern. whether To it rinsed. these into shape. laces should e*cru color. Instead of ironing it is better lace to stretch while wet into its originalshape on a well-padded and board pin out each point. is there as it may be dipped in originally. page is appear thick. for instance. coffee a warmer yellow. tion. cup arabic gum Sometimes washed is best ammonia or this is apt used. tea or coffee solution or an ochre-powder solua the strength of the solution In each case This is practically depends on the color desired. cup in this lace is washed for in dissolvingthe stiffeningagent coffee is also used. be thoroughly Like all materials. such as lace. but 207 not to it with use fine danger of rotting the threads. lace in the spoonful to one in exactly the soapy same water. but steel pins may If there spots. the color in the solution itself when seen through glass against the light.LAUNDRY THE it is better also used. Brass or black rust cause pins are safe to use. give lace an laces.

Several on placed on top of one another If stretcher.HANDBOOK 208 lace the like appears lace that taken must be Lace done ironed and finished. the of replacing them. but the latter is the If the stationary pins break cheaper in the end. it is variability of the thickness water. not the the give to those curtain-stretchers. The movable pins can those with movable in the initial for curtain-stretchers fifty cents to four pricesis range dollars. like new. one Prices dollar and . The cheaper in the beginning. Care point is pulled out. a sheet a on tains cur- carpet and the that.a very thin starch is used. as impossible used. be starch are be can of amount should curtains Lace stretchers. lace other treated practical. of the be too stiff. curtains ironed. when new it should is ironed padded board CLEANING OF be placed on well- a the wrong side. In as brushed well be be should curtains Lace or shaken much as like they should putting into the case every before much loose invariably they contain dust. on about " is not be curtain- on pinned straight. if looks ever. Because but they must not of the material.how- seldom. but off there is no way ference difbe replaced easily. on each in this way ever. For stiffening. very from small. be can curtain Just are a pinned pinned a two Care put must be to word types stretcher firmly out taken that one available. with There stationary pins and is the former pins. If.

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If it still persistsin puckeras the cloth placed over sometimes a dampened puckered part and pressed will shrink out the difficultyis extra to fullness. pulled are shrinks only the is perhaps the most for this is that material where cases are to do difficult needlework deal. matter a that they simple very lar. There tight. rectangular.or any form be stretched into shape and other must with Doilies the threads of the goods.Great side. there is a bulging of the edge. Just as " " plain linen Sometimes gloss. wrong CLEANING OF HANDBOOK 210 to be taken has care It is keep their originaloutline.oval. such as simple scaUoped doilies.when would one Drawn-work with often is which one only we have to in drawn-work very than more thing the resort broidery em- is to pin lace. the The threads with linen of the the thread itself. doily other than circuable unbreakTo keep the outline there is just one make to rule circular a the threads to iron with " of the material across surely as the iron runs All the threads.are better ironed only lightlyon the wrong side and then ironed on the right side. a with even the greatest deries embroi- care tendency to pucker. doilies circular. best The to way this overcome pull gently and stretch into shape much ing. that is . as possible. so that the at all times. and the reason drawn-work. ironed with much plain linen. There is too it out as tight. they may hump the emin the center broidery or pull around they may have up have may a itself. square.

of the If part that exactly the should be not stretched. On all linen. but the in time of the many and money cost cleanings .LAUNDRY THE ironing before and then line.and then pulling and stretching. in every threads care of out the or tion direcof threads stretching is not done here. a like any other embroidery. badly puckered pieces the only This is done out. whether pillow-case or napkin. should every looked be piece of lace and broidery em- for any necessary nine on ordinary over repairs. the Sometimes with be ironed should monogram first on pad.work are. Before cleaning. and materials. the piece should be examined pairs reagain and any necessary made. first and foremost. the outside The mistake little ruffle. of course. here it saves haps perthe whole piece/ After cleaning. should count not only the original cost. since it stretches This. the basis are pulling these This be done must of the the drawn- to stretch without threads pull straight those to that theimaterial 211 work basic with drawn-work. The requisites for ironing drawn. thing to do is to pin them especiallywith small articles. This is part of the cost of such luxuries. or drawn-work. lace. infinite patience. is to iron along the hem people make many is wrong. If a stitch in time saves at least nineteen. piece forms a first. just snap. It may housewife not be amiss that when she also here to remind the ful beautia buys or makes she piece of embroidery.

the result esthetic an common used where plush Lace of would be to by cost times or article cleaning households. for ness cleanli- beauty. from the heavily to here. . often they or such not they The detract add Simplicity and kept silk. only by will stand the original of the cost. make their total is for very and embroidery of cost well materials clean. of habit The the cleaning. computing number CLEANING OP kinds. now and economic here adding simplicity such an the simplicity greater as real price. properly beauty ally gener- example. may as and and the of of should of the its makes elsewhere. "well-furnished" in for are and curtains. are heavy. other draperies many in as for curtains.HANDBOOK 212 that follow must fine underwear. of And use. most beautiful as commonly this weeks would so the of cost dividing calculated times of with as be can the the again. cleanings type houses. many while house. complications and the as wear. lace. maintenance. computations in once cost number gain.

experience for also is the band neck- necessity. be of well her could greatly. ever that voice have feelingly most CUFFS cents was COLLARS. special be well used they alone may soaped. time. should not take and also the a . first tone one a student evident the any had shirts. is also experience With articles from increased but waist who shirt-waists. SHIRT-WAISTS. as shirt-waists suction attention. AND '""PO think 1 that I twenty-five shirt-waist!" made she had the expression launder The on her a of only not the up and for results. and patience but laundered.XXII THE LAUNDRY: SHIRTS. and collars. can starched heavily face waist good articles most care her of a quite was paying laundering which held she It requires for necessary the remark respect laundering cuffs for as tailored grudged always the ironed. In and Before if be a shirts washing cuffs soaking and have must they should is washing-machine soaped 15 well.

far our Thus problem is comparatively simple. however. the cuffs should be with cuff is covered a pulled into shape. all wash for with a clean.and the collar-band cold starch the part of the it and into the is made hands cloth damp allowed as described article to blend stand the starched and is rubbed garment The 165. ma- placed in rolled up a and if possible. and page dipped between with portions are whole hour on the starch cold-starched and be to squeezed then so The as cold-starched. The ugly yellow spots so often seen the on cold-starched articles scorching of the starch are the specks by result of heat of the . we can care garment cooked cold starch.front the garment and of Collars parts. predampen sents be overcome difficulties which only by can to an experience. are the terial. The and then fine cheese-cloth or piece of muslin ironed This takes off partly dry on both sides. Before beginning to iron. The ironing. special attention have CLEANING OF half a pleat. the cuffs. required care white The clothes. the superfluous starch so that there ought not to be any scaling.HANDBOOK 2i4 from dirt these be must garments by all colored like all white all the on treated with and materials made and cuffs the must Colored turns. in starch over washed ones is starched garment proportion of in the one tablespoonfuls of starch to one quart water. When is sprinkled. and it in either starch or it evenly. and then it is hung to dry.

' then be opened out. the free end so that the cuff is at be pulled over as the small of the board. dampened slightly.however. uses sleeve-board blamed is then and is is often one she the carded dis- trouble than it is more being much the sleeve should In using a sleeve-board worth. the seam on the By using a sleeve-board kept uncreased. end It is also well to have bottom The edge of the board. and the other side ironed. In ironing the fronts it is better to iron from the can be creased neck-band way extra of the to the fullness bottom is top. this stead inMost .LAUNDRY THE The the iron. although use the on All finish. the ctiff ironed a rest should of the The of is first wrong the that removed now and and side then right side will have cold-starched be ironed in the of the before the parts same way waist. the In bottom noticeable. so the on 215 A sleeve-board laundresses many tain ob- can More than splendid results without one. the next it is dropped from portion ironed. The then turned. flat. of the sleeve is then ironed. sleeves are ironed. next here. and as it is ironed the board. where of the pushed it is so to waist. and so on until the whole sleeve is finished. crease can and removed by pressing. has trouble in ironing sleeves because amateur Of sleeve-board the course wrongly. If. good waist cheese-cloth right side. one has the no sleeve easilybe can the sleeve-board sleeve side ironed one along the seam.

not only with bunching just below A great tailored waists.front pleat. heavily starched . the of ironing-board can be used for this purpose.HANDBOOK 216 CLEANING OF perhaps have had difficulties with an ugly the collar. the surface can again is be dampened dampened For dull a and ironed. deal of that can be rightly attributed to ironing lored In ironing taifrom the bottom to the top. easily ironed more shirt-bosom. (4) back. often the domestic finish. the cuffs and a putting this board By no The same. but the material still retains a good finish. parts The ing fold(2) sleeves. called finish. for giving A polishing-iron can be used This is used to the heavily starched parts. size of shirt there and back is This a the is front. The damp polishing-iron is then pushed the surface If over quickly and with pressure. the into the is shirt the is the The the finish after face sur- it with a slightlyby going over cloth. the order is (i) the heavily starched cuffs. the is carefully rubbed polished surface with This takes off cloth.whether in the same way attached as the or detached. is done according to the diagram. (3) both fronts. but with lingeriewaists. a slightly moistened the gloss. more polish still is desired. then. Collars are ironed and cuffs. of us " In order ironing shirts the front of bosom-board. up waists.and collar-band. board small over about interference bosom Sometimes are ironed the between end the as usual.

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accomplish. not first. All but it starching. to not CLEANING except with them cover this OF only is waist a she feat is a which practises. good a cooked applying articles ironed are does blouse from and precaution as all waists of for the of perfect. practice alone difficult every This makes . blouses none task This practice necessary dampened of results necessary out.HANDBOOK 218 starched to materials. they it out by are and silks laundering The that heavily improved flannel tailored the dry the but not are like experience the again. ought method the of is speed drying a for by and In fact. garments one in starched thin or Silk is be can both starch been heavily require soft one has is necessary. with the same wools. tailored it provided where waists. the but novice. experience as is certain a material the keep to obtained finish. be can starched extra treated If easily parts dampening. in that a stick. can a cases do. since essential absolutely is but ironing. ironing for it cloth Excellent thoroughly.

the wool which wool guishes easily distin- is covered surface obtained. adjacent fibers interlock. the Its rounded Cotton wool which microscope of the is serrated. the wool fiber is too that is posed com- cells. which from which According to the source smooth different very fibers. silk and of animal are characteristic fiber. appearance it under WOOL vegetable origin. cloth fabric a comparatively segments projecting edges loosen. from of overlapping edges horny characteristic woolen When its small numerous of fiber is The scales fibers of of the with appearance little direction. far the result characterizes When is the the this board- poorly washed .XXIII THE LAUNDRY: and THEfrom silk wool and cotton fibers linen fibers of are AND fibers linen are The origin. the surface or and fiber has all lie in the same horny scales.drawing interlocking goes like other any surface. SILK closer together. the or give the fiber is wet its fibers As swell its the material and dries.

be avoided. of be do not a dry on weakening used fabrics. must must never avoid use changes water hotter in tempera- .HANDBOOK j2o CLEANING OF interlockingis increased by rubbing brisklywhile wet. by change of while wet. Therefore The shrinkage brought about by the use of strong wools. care laundering of wools requires more There than the laundering of any other material. by rubbing soap all these should be carefully avoided. This of the The alkali chemically on the fiber. Weak They in any Thus acid solutions be can allowed evidence they can stains. so that the best thing is to find out For what to avoid. to do good The results the than laundress lukewarm. are may like is often use only slightly injurious.such as washing-soda. Strong solutions of alkali. affect woolen to when without of the sorted re- resulting material. Mild solutions of weak alkalies. temperature and directly on the material. Their to in washing badly soiled wools. as they have a softening effect on must will reduce and wools the wool in time to a soap- consistency. and and like borax ammonia. be used. fibers and the so shrinkage. decompose wools. ing are pitfallsfor the novice in both the washmany and drying of woolens. necessary for moving re- Strong acids. by the use of strong soaps. and action. result of chemical is the soaps causes prominent.however.softens the projections to become more This increases the interlockingof the acts soap it. by using a hot iron.

three . For almost water that of the garments for so a ammonia ready for washing is placed rather thus prepared. be knitted or crocheted articles. of the water hand should be When to see placed by the be stretched it may not all woolen in it. should suds solution than discolors must water hard and and water least two wash-waters garments. of cleansing wools is first to brush The best way dust as possible. must alkalies. possible before putting the garment mixture it forms If the dust is left on muddy a not with The water for be used.more and If necessary the purpose. should the The should rubbed. the material to take off as much is so rough that it can hold The surface of woolens of dust. borax or be should The water be garment in the tub fabric.LAUNDRY THE and in the wash ture and strong soaps use the on material refuse to rinse water. She in drying. and beware before also must carefully measure. and matters are greatly a great amount loose dirt as facilitated by getting rid of as much into water. washing. sweaters.so that they can stretched to their original shape. must take care as to position of too quick drying. Soap purpose. must article out one be added.must wring by hand.must rub or 221 material the rub never soap itself. it is clean. kneaded As the suds kept under water. the be soft. such as are necessary. and weight at some neutral lukewarm soap. it of for the used to lift the whether under be solution soap necessary to soften made of water fall.

should wringer is not available. patted and pulled into shape. The . the For last using. knitted should a articles. cloth. ordinary room (65" to 70") temperature is the best. Any garment must in which it is desired in to have it when dry. perature tem- same or more white wools be slightlyblue. Drying in the sun shrinkage and also yellows the material. drying-room should not be too hot nor too cold. not be squeezed from by The twistingincreases the twisting the material. the place of that which was the last oil makes The wool the softer. gives the wool some taken out in washing. As much If a removed from Crocheted and sweaters.such as shawls be placed on a flat surface. and Either condition be overcome can by pulling to stretch it and then patting it to take in the extra be left in the shape fullness. HANDBOOK 222 wash-waters and four suds ought The to water as rinse-waters be for the The practicallyclean be rinsing must after and two wash-water. interlocking of the scales and thus increases the water possible should be as shrinkage. covered with the and material. the fire to dry quickly Placing near creases inincreases the shrinkage. Oftentimes stretch length and the garments shorten in vice versa. To rinsing water may be added in the last rinsing water glycerinemay the proportion of one tablespoonful to two gallons oil to take This of water. should be used. the water removed the fabric. breadth.OF CLEANING are necessary.

Here again the laundress must remember that extreme heat cloth is taken up When the should be drawn fuzzy like Blankets often can new are up so that means the nap the material shrinkage. as do baby's things. If. Very tablespoonfuls of borax or one-half cup of alcohol. When lutely abso- be ironed by placing a dampened cheese-cloth the material and pressing over with a warm iron. that is not possible they are hung up to about dry. The shawl only way to make fringes soft is to pull the threads apart.LAUNDRY THE if white. is to place it of drying a sweater. need Flannels other wools. 223 pulling into shape Drying by is far One common preferableto other methods. in a bag or pillow-case and hang it up until dry. are added solution to the soap recipe on page 159 in using it for making suds for two . way for instance. washed like other flannels. Oftentimes dried by placing on shirts are forms. away and is most need satisfactorywhere garments frequent washings. the garment is that result The usually dries baby's stockings and quite shapeless. but a soft as and fluffy as when when new. of the wool is soft and material.or both. however. This does with the necessity of patting and pulling. finished the This is fringe is bit tedious. the same in care washing as If be dried flat and they can stretched into shape they require no ironing. the same precautions being used temperature as dry they when dried flat.

should have the line and they must at least six inches put over In this way be pinned at frequent intervals. If it is a windy day. if placed on the line. As many and two or three rinsingwaters. . CLEANING OF HANDBOOK 224 is a very great aid much so cleaning blankets. the soft and with a whisk brought up and fluffy. it will run stripe. that quick drying is possible. care be taken that the threads and stripesare straight in and when broom the If the true. Blankets. through the wringer and They should be wrung hung straighton the line. The color should be set if there is suds should be any danger of its fading.and patting. table and the filling then be pressed pulling. so the better. When a large dry they should be placed on distributed evenly by shaking. They may placed over a line " with For a cool dark iron. Perhaps the heavy indeed when is to place them best way of drying blankets on In pinning them must curtain-stretchers. Blankets very full of water. it would not quilts except on a clear windy day.washing-machine A blankets. A washing-machine is good for this purpose. If a curtainnap available. the is blanket may be lengthwise. woolens. In this way. if the into the color in the stripes does run.so much be better to wash In fact. almost made whole is not stretcher blanket is brushed dry. Down quilts. used as necessary. there is not a great deal of stretching. and especiallyblack goods. as it eliminates otherwise necessary are handling.

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ready It must to up. (a Then hands to It is allowed to the iron. for necessary quite washing The fibers. but the appearance Sometimes silks is improved by its use. Starch arabic. the result being a wavy one pearance apof there is no in the threads. very large pieces of thin silk are putx into very thin starch so them firmer. .HANDBOOK 226 The silks precautions are same for wools. wrung the that from of by hand the threads another.and if the color is not stable it should be set with vinegar like should Silks for reason be not doing not material. In as changes in temperature laundering colored silks a sample should be tried first. however. cloths while It is well to place the silk between wringing. last rinsing water The may solution arabic gum as described on 170. and way wools. never cloth a Silk should be sprinkled. good plan help get excellent)and until damp. cotton is different so but by hand. sensitive so to the wool fiber. page the gum Heavy silks have body enough without old of thin silks and arabic. be slightly white Pure (not cream) silk may also contain blued. When slip over silks are wrung The be water must overcoming this appearance. squeezed out either by hand or by the wringer. as CLEANING OF both as animal are is not silk fiber. cheaper than gum wringing. the silk is placed in After towel Turkish a to make is used it is because it is as is out the stay in the towel be ironed while rolled to clap it between excess moisture.

a a If not badly soiled it porcelain. or.LAUNDRY THE Just sure as silk is as 227 sprinkled there is spotted a appearance. can be washed but if that with is not a soft cloth sufficient for and soap solution. so that the water garment is stretched becomes too treated like Silk small. howwhen the silk cr"pe is in the form of a garment. any silk wear under- woven and should be into shape. This latter thin silks. hot too not a ironed be Silk may then side. to dry. wrong ironing with also It may a be by warm treated silks. such as a waist. If the cr"pe cannot be stretched. and allowed ever. Sometimes. better still. best way The to wash as ribbon is to wet it and lay it out perfectly flat clean on table. not ironed. silk Ironing silks very stiff and papery. The cleaning of ribbons is not always as successful it might be. be successfully laundered silk may the like other Silk sults re- makes wet on hot Too apt Pongee drying absolutely and iron better by placing a thin cloth over the of the silk and ironing. spread evenly upon clean table. as same way it has a tendency to draw up too much.as they often better for very side method are sometimes or side wrong obtained are right the directlyon iron. so it is also to iron makes an yellow silk. good results it can . cr"pe be may taken from the last rinsing without a wringing. or glass surface. it is better to iron it the silk.on marble. with is made not stiff and while stiff.

may Ribbons often dried by wrapping cool iron. as it is impossible to see the dried on whole ribbon at once. soap the wrong side arid then the be thoroughly clean it must and water much as water as sible pos- with a pressing the ribbon It time cloth. there is more danger of rough places in the ribbon the bottle. and jellyfrom gelatine up (an animal it. on When in clear CLEANING OF brush and It solution. placed on the table. at the same keeping it smooth. when dry. For instance. boil to the vegetable fibers must in laundering if results and . and vegetable foods require different treatments. flat.boiling in making is a necessity. with no placed smoothly on the table it will have just as rough places in it when dry as there are airmany Wash under bubbles it when placed on the table. are around The only principleis the same. because they are animal fibers and are composed mainly of nitrogenous material. which by different are treatment vegetable from fibers and and cotton are made We all know that animal mainly of cellulose. as when Silks and wools. Just be as treated substance) we get no jellyif we vegetable and animal foods have respects.HANDBOOK 228 be scrubbed should with rinsed a be washed right side. so differentlyin many textiles made different have are to be of animal treatment satisfactory. should be left stretched the table perfectly on air-bubbles under If it is not it. removed do require linen. in making a jellyfrom apples. a bottle. be ironed with a almost ribbons.

curiously rather or be in used a good with . other doors haps per- inexpensive. are silk ironing. cotton and The the acts much All of 16 and evaporates lasting more these draught. most quickly. water. article the when but used. and readily. by does it for named. ether. than used advisable often substances because used. that form. it best are none of them of mings trim- it of out can is of ever it odor is its cleansers. are the without cleaning the without cleaning mean only Liquids absorb for not but liquid. these. not Of gasoline. liquid common and in difficulties of dry-cleaning dresses case of lined are is It linen or most they trimmings.XXIV DRY-CLEANING is DRY-CLEANING of use dissolve or the with of use and wool. or the made garments where especially garnitures fine other is used injured be This soap. chloro- gasoline is for used naphtha. that is would of use those are process cleaned and water dresses and be to they The grease. have or because benzine.

however. bottle cause only for fear of explosion. quickly produce unconsciousbe poured from the never They should into an dish. commercial cleaning fluids are more expen- . Either alone is to be great care. which of quick work spots)in must tion evapora- quickly. has a liquid is use precaution is observed. French chalk. a spot cleaned. bottle. and if this earth the are used materials dry for cleaning. In removing a single spot chloroform ether or work without the does injury to fabric any odor the almost to color. magnesia. Putting a piece of blotting-paper under also helps. several has spot. but betheir vapors ness. spots it is rather than is always danger of If. and or evaporates be with used must instantaneously.HANDBOOK 230 chance to the or of degree any safety where in contact come it sends vapor perfectlysafe Flour. but it is easy spot caused by grease (and that must one mouth at the to move re- means this way. the cleaning agents should be nibbed toward the center to prevent spreading as much possible. In general.if better individual the garment the clean to a whole leaving marks of a garment There spots. but applied by a clean open cloth wet not recorked be any most The at of the Because once. meal. Fullers' corn CLEANING OF fire in any form with either the Their all about.and it is also well to surround as the spot with other powder magnesia or some absorb much of the cleaner to as as possible.

and for sponging off ammonia. as. A second receptacle should be ready for a second is rinsed in gasoline bath. lightmaterials a bit of soft old white linen is good.DRY-CLEANING sive than have them liquids named ingredient the some 231 here. alcohol. be made good cleansing agent that can up. will last for some For will provide a fresh piece for each spot. It is color in many without trying it first on some the one of the most of slightlychanges never safe to use unexposed part material. and that fabrics. but not table-linen. stock- four inches by three pieces about time. it spots. is made mixing equal quantities of ether.so that there A danger of injuring the color. and kept on hand. off. should small be tried on a piece of the goods the material before using on itself. and a box of these inches. unless a garment clean gasoline. streaked ap- with white thread before . by tightly corked.it will have a clouded. This is simply used Like the commercial cleaning agents. A cotton perfectly clean piece of old black stocking is excellent for applying a cleaning fluid will be to no dark material.as the nap is likelyto come it is a good plan In cleaning a whole garment into cut first to brush well and second to mark each spot putting into the gasoline the spots can be found and bath. The top of a discarded ing. A special attention vacuum washing-machine is excellent for the drycleaning of large articles. Then given without much searching.

cleaning with the powders the material is covered with the powder. always being of unused cleaned in gasowhich has been Any garment line If the pearance. so that there is no danger of any part Fine laces are being left untouched. dirt is removed from . the second liquid. as strip of red cotton a liquid should be used only for the first bath. Jugs should be plainly marked and filtered and those containing liquidused once should be designated in some (such as tying way this about the neck). or fresh If benzine air until badly the wrong should the wrinkled odor be allowed to stay in the disappeared entirely. and Flour meal not are as good to use as the if they are other powders. are as spread out on a paper and the whole covered with the powder. such laces. Fine materials.23 HANDBOOK 2 OF CLEANING gasoline that has been used for cleaning the gasoline can be used should be kept tightly again. Gasoline corked in stone jugs (preferablyout of the house) and the best way of removing the dirt after using is to pour the gasoline back into the jug through store). and allowed to for at least twenty-four hours. chalk most are Magnesia and French For . the garment be pressed on may has side. because not entirely removed from the material there is danger of insects. usually cleaned with French chalk or magnesia. stand It is then and the powder brushed unrolled shaken from or the material. a piece of filter-paper (obtainable at any drugGasoline. rolled up.

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nap market the hot a a hanging in the open evaporated entirely. preferring to send to a comcleaner. those who few wish greater to be . out creases a heavy take pulled slowly spout As and this with are washed then placed over cloth same and this is amateur. several petroleum products care also times. drybe must vapors is often from ducted con- all made are that cleaning with is gasoline is more plished easily accomif the gasoline is heated.even person bath is used. The because the statement be 224.but on page already been said with with iron of the on drawn manipulate to with velvet and clever a velvet over than the ing dampen- all the time. gasoline has nap but soap. do dryOnly a small proportion of housewives mercial cleaning at home. It is much a iron.HANDBOOK 234 feathers with method best Velvets. clothing for however. in until To raise the cloth is steam raises the the which teakettle and of this. be freshened may soiled the placed on the by the Velvets " air on of neutral avoided gasolineif wet suds a CLEANING OF with gasoline the they may inflammable. cloth Down the easier away is can the The the over There nap. economies in There are. by cleaning and iron out. This statement perienced true. as it does be quiltscan as other any described as has cleaning the be and bother the little device placed velvet cleaned article. but it is rather dangerous for an inexif a water to warm gasoline.

the is difficulty This doing garment a other than 235 duced pro- gasoline.DRY-CLEANING well dressed Many is otherwise woman can in cold avoid the is but hands cream the hands useless. possible when even "good as the be dry-cleaning made practically easily can gloves. of rubber washing nibbing the only with difficulty. in will hot Any The feeling with contact avoided by the use are not used. water do away and with that intelligent by soapy soon new" as disagreeable these home. at danger. .

washable laundering the than If of for left clothes condition Other be Silks than more care washable all to wools. and better. nothing as should mending be care examined places. or would clothes CLOTHING OP entails clothes of care much CARE GENERAL else and but . and take elsewhere. button things! frequency there clothes not re-enforcing this are all taken when imperfections they important most looking clothes if how with but wools receive must other garments. are This buttons in keep factors only water washed off. and hooks but eyes. and dering laun- them. clothes which is of one the possible. darning. well patching.XXV THE THE their laundering Frequent has silks of washing apply much longer becoming badly soiled. can the Mending wear and good before time. as soon they also include as well. urged been should but would time more much dry-cleaning. look tightening as If they A loose will the including is weak in keeping for mended just longer.

After each be well aired. the freshness that can ness through carelessNot in this detail. wearing they should brushed and with soft brush or a piece of a lamb's wool. Shoes take time keep in good condition. Anybody should be able to afford these for every pair of shoes. If they are forms the on put be perforated so that air can forms should get inside. Washable need OF They easily removable. attention.GENERAL CARE slovenly. Airing clothes is also necessary. Care of to shoes includes cleaning and . Airing clothesclosets helps in this. left on. allowing dirt to become reallyentangled in the fibers keeps material newlooking. there is too great danger that the more." of the dress will put it on "just once Brushing is also taken whenever off retain regained never be When the if a are owner brushed Clothes important. yokes. They should dress at when once 237 collars. so as washings. but clothes should be taken and given a complete air bath outdoors in a once while. The stretchers that have toe-piece and heel-ball of wood and tween a strip of pliable steel beboth and excellent are cheap. constant CLOTHING to guimpes always be frequent or should encourage also be taken off If they soil is noticed. cover housewife holds she once sees realizes lost how much what dirt her a dress dresshas escaped. Protecting dresses as they hang in closets by light washable means a covers great saving.

should have a Every household good shoecleaning outfit. prevents use or Name-tapes both writing in indelible ink are good. placed with name. should be however.HANDBOOK 238 CLEANING OF one's entire appearpolishing. Some specialpoint on a hem is a good place. Trimmed home ribbons by new their service be bleached may should be much at in the hat home hats may of the hem the be recurling lengthened. Too fail to have Americans many shoes mended reheeled resoled or or sewn or by a cobbler patched in time to lengthen their life by weeks. are a very close second. Every neighborhood has its little shoemaker's shop where this can be done. but if for for most be used. however.but its is perhaps too legitimate. but they should also have be paired that they can so distinguishingmarks without difficulty. For general stiff. The equipits use as soon as they are ment should include a good oil for rubbing on wet shoes. Nothing can mar ance quite as completely as careless-lookingshoes. The from Stockings not only should be marked with the name. thickness use name and The care.This can be done by having showing through.and the children should be taught old enough. Untidy gloves. also. marked. should Hats after wearing. always be brushed " " A whisk the dirt has reason any a is best soft hat-brush broom whisk broom is sometimes freshened at feathers. . and Straw hats Clothes embedded become may hats.

a of small of life the and it well is of amount the means dressed but time.CARE GENERAL letters numbers or of pairs matching Proper than time the end a daily and It a also being case means Then name. saving great lengthening passably 239 matched. This trying the of does take where a frequently much them pair to is the by stockings. clothes of care spent clothes. . between condition the assuredly most be can satisfactory more the following numbers CLOTHING OF in time of the difference dressed.

Everything be size is broom. the hung handles of the of correspond with end handle. whenever up should process putting away. surface .50 $. Implements: 1. 50. in to the into used of the above just (as in in cleaning before size other An- of the the bristles illustration). many two. Broom. A " Cost. Carpet-sweeper dirt.XXVI CLEANING-CLOSETS LEANING in IMPLEMENTS general - should to way a of be hang can of screw-eye. every cases 2. wise have to be Cost.35 brush for $. Long-handled floors. 3.75. A. in which outside good it is should use. Cleaning-closet. 7 5 to up. hair Cost. hooks any the bottom the as cleaned thoroughly provided catch to implements. for $2. broom corn should In cleaning-closet. to for $ taking up of one coarse $. and stiff be ered uncov- i . method by always a A possible. inserting be implement.

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HANDBOOK 242 OF the save to they The cleaner one in bow of her back. Whisk broom. up. Special brushes are upholstery and button also good. a short- be tiring learn to drop knee a of not will but using ward awk- are use dust-pan need if the make back. brush can This " with a long handle get in between and radiator is the the wall.35 Cost. cheese-cloth sheds In cloths use. of 9. Cost. Cost. An " up. Radiator-brush. $. 11. assortment paint-brushes is excellent. as they ravel (a) Cheese-cloth are good No should cloth be so old or for easily.20 handled. . 7. Dusters. The edges of all dusters are better finished. $. 10. short long-handled.25 up.45 up. hair Short-handled up.506.15 for furniture. $. but empty. $. $. Brushes brush. soft ordinary that used. 8. handled on CLEANING it rather than to Cost. Scrub-brush. slender a so that one coils of the Cost. This precaution is especially " " - with necessary dusters. $. lint general. should This be fairly stiff and is needed for scrubbing unfinished wood.

moist so be may same taken not are Oil stand to be they just hold the are cellent ex- dust. is cellent ex- furniture. and material chamois chamois dry for (d) Dustless as possibilityof lint. metals. dusters are have been with oil. should be Dustless washed Cost. and alduster the short time. lowing wrapping up tightly. ers dustquently. fre- . often that they or for is polishing glass." These dusters for there (c) Chamois. dust. no sometimes and furniture. those chemically hold that treated crude-oil. Enough be obtained by dampened moisture can holding kettle the over by or used of steam placing a few a in one drops of water corner.15 up. (b) Silk.CLEANING-CLOSETS 243 dusters should be slightly or oiled. $. in the be must streak. so The is either cheese-cloth flannelette. enough that should dampness to plied ap- dusters that There a Care way. is fine Moistened " used soft dusting.

A basket or pail for carrying small and. Carpet-beater. Cost. Lamb'swalls. A brush with a long flexible wire handle for cleaning the pipe of the refrigerator. brass 6. step-ladder. $. Cost.10 up. $. $1. 2. Cost. Necessary cleaning reagents: of danger B. $.00 up and $.00. medium. Floor 7. or washing-powder.75.25 up. " $. Cost. $2.OF HANDBOOK 244 12.40. this purpose. $. Pails of fiber or galvanized iron are for holding water. 3.35 up. so This 1. A good silver polishor a silver cleaning pan. gloves. Cost. Washing-soda wax. Rubber brush for ceilings and wool 19. Refrigerator-brush. Cost. Rubber window-brush. 17. Small firm " and made that should there be is no collapsing unexpectedly. A good good polish. 4.75 up. furniture polish. reagents from cleaning-utensils one place to another has its place in special are a cleaning-closet. necessary $1. CLEANING on the market Cost. A 5.20 up. 14. 1 6. Cost. . Mild. Scouring soaps or powders. 18. 13. There tin baskets enameled for 15. its and strong soaps.

One 7. Salt.02 Ib.05 oz.25. Desirable additions to the for the suitable amounts 1. pound borax. Wax.02 ounces four $. $.35 qt. 8. 11. 5. $. Fullers' earth. pint concentrated Washing powder or One - ammonia.25. . $. One pint concentrated diluted 2. $." $. $. fine powdered Four ounces pumice. washing-soda.CLEANING-CLOSETS 245 brick. be labeled oz. Kerosene. 6. alcohol. One-half pound whiting. chalk. Laundry closet: Mild. One pint hydrogen peroxide. pulverized.02 oz. 12.02 oz.01. as "Poison. 9. $. Two oxalic acid. " 4. 17 Four ounces gum arabic. $. ounces to be ammonia. ounces hydrochloricacid.01Eight ounces $. One 7. To French ounces labeled 6.. medium. 1. oxalic acid. $. C. pint denatured $.02 10. Bath 9. One 5." 3. oz. Starch 2. and cleaning-closet ordinary household: and and strong soaps.05 Ib. $. lump 3. $.10. To be "Poison.25. 8. Bluing.02 oz. needed. $. quart Javelle water. Two Two or 4.

16. chalk.02 oz.10.HANDBOOK 246 13. . 15. $. $. One pound borax. 14. Two ounces French White CLEANING blotting-paper. Pour OF ounces alum. $.01 oz.

No. 47. Bulletins: Common 345. House Cornell to Destroy Disinfectants. Reading Course. Gas Hydrocyanic-acid against hold House- Insects. New York . 46. No. 51. nominal cost. No. Some 369. No. The Centipede. 108. The or at Carpet-beetle House a Agriculture. Ant. Farmers' No. The House The Silver-fish.APPENDIX SOME United States Washington. of Department C. The Bedbug. 48. White No. of PUBLICATIONS HELPFUL or Buffalo-moth. Flies. D.) circulars: Entomology 5. How 459. Rats. Cockroaches. No. No. 49. No. (Free 34. The No. Ants. Bureau No. House Fhas. 50. 71. No. No. House Flies.

27. 41. 23. Van No. OF of New York. No. Rose. (Free Household No. Choice S. ii. College 4. Bishop Rensselaer. Bacteriology. Martha and By Van Care of Emily M. Herrick.HANDBOOK 248 State Ithaca. Mary By Watson. and Insects By Glenn Methods W. By Ida Harrington. Cornell Agriculture. Utensils. CLEANING Rules for Flora By Cleaning. W. 25. Laundry. of . No. and No. application. Household Control. No. The University.) on Martha By Rensselaer. Saving Strength.

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Butter. 1 20. Carpets: Care of. 161. 244. 160. 44. In cleaning-closet. 95. 218. 68. to launder. Burlap. 117. 116. kitchen. 28. 115. For cockroaches. 85. 201. 51. 31. 149. Bedbugs.119. Blouses. Cupboard. Buffalo-moth. Cabinet. 39. Cleaning of. 178. care making. and 40. 55. Carpet-sweeper. Can-opener. 18. Carbon tetrachloride. 182. For 177. Bluings. Blankets. 75. 168. . Borax: cleaning silver. Cedar. 176. 154. Broom. 119.245. Bristletail. Black lace. Carving. of Caning chairs. cleaning of. Bronze. Closets. Boiling Books: Care of. 166. 88. Cake-pans. Kinds Care 122. 30. 68. Body-clothes. 48. 114. Centipede. Bleaching: By various agents. 155. uses. 177. 165. 90. 248. 47. 21. 216. 115. Cement. water. 75. Camphor. 127. 120. Buffalo-bug. 54. Card catalogue. In laundry. Cases for silver. Ceilings. to wash. Chairs: Caning of. 29. Bin-drawers. Bosom-board. CLEANING Bran- Bath-room: water. Casts. 183. 67. of clothes. 69. Bed-linen. stains. 170. Cork. 242. 53. 61. 178. Bedding.50. 240. 244. List of. Of yellowed ivory. Beeswax. Bric-a-brac. 157. to iron. In kitchen. 104. 192. 75. Brushes: Bedroom: of. Boracic acid. 120. 128. 223. Blood Boiler: For laundry. 194. 74. 65. Carpet-beetle. 162. Brass. 127. 240. 44. 53. Hot 144. 159. for floors. 120.HANDBOOK 250 Bath OF brick. 206. 66. 164. 133. Carpet-beater. 44. 36. 76. 240. 42. 117. to wash. Benzine. and Bed. 37. 134. 242. 171. 5. 55. 238. 41. Buttermilk. 207. 36. 141. 104. 52. 75. 229. 69. 171. 247.

Clothes-moths. for dresses. Clothes-line. Clothes-stick. 176. Laundering of. 149. 231. As of measure Closets: Care " 91. 135. 138. Dampness. Clothes: Airing of. 56. Boiling of. Closing a of. 171. 86. tartar. 213. Corset-covers. 232. 68. Chemise. 28. Starching of. care 28. Curtains. 37. Dampening Damper. 7.Cook-book Cooking-soda. 36. 125. 230. Chloride Chloroform. kinds 88. of lime. 237. 52. 178. 89. Cut-glass. 44. Collars. 196. 169. Marking of. 5.INDEX (Continued) : Rushing of. 87. Soaking of. 5. 196. 52. 217. Brushing of. Colored Best acid. 202. house. 236. 106. Cocoa stains. 22. Cork Cleansing mixture. 177. Washing of. 4. Ironing of. Coffee stains. to iron. of. 208. 135. 237. I. 2. 90. 229. Cleaning of. Cleaning-implements. 88. Chocolate Clothes-horse. danger of. 148. Citric 251 Cleaning-closet. 133. 104. holder. . 237. Cross-stitching. Dampening Drying General of. meal. 86. 183. 135. Importance of. 150. 147. Upholstering of. of range. 52. 238. Drying of. 149. 214. of. to clean. 134. Chairs Chalk. Corkscrew. 244. 48. 22. 148. 118. of clothes. 240. Cockroaches.80. 202. 198. 240. 57. 132. Ironing of. 88. 2. Cupboards. Different 201. 3. 182. 115. 203. 52. Cuffs. 116. 213. Curtain-stretchers. 147. Sorting of. Copper: Definition of. Cotton Covers batting. in kitchen. Cost of. 183. 91. stains. 135. 6. 52. 133. Cleaning reagents. 177. 23. 2. to iron. civilization. Chamois. 21. 176. 63. Clothes-basket. Cream of Cream stains. Coal fire. 58. 245. China. 68. 86. 55. Clothes-pins. Clothes-drier. Cleanliness: materials: way to wash. Clothes-hamper. Corn of. carpet. Tarnish. 87. Cruets. 117.

Meaning Of linen. 192. Dusters: Chamois. Dustless. 63. 119. 93. 164. E 60. to of. 26. Flour. laces. Floor wax. Caution 27. Kitchen. 4. Electric fans. Dish-cupboard. 59. Added For to Feathers. Hard-wood. storage of. 147. Flannels. fluids for.washing. 58. Drawers. Emery. 119. Electricity. Drawnwork. Electric stoves. Laundry. 142. Drying-closets. directions 2. 243. 135. Dish-washers. 230. 87. 223. 62. 59. With powders. 73. about. to iron. 40. 41. Dish-drainers. of 101. Drain-pipe. 54. Dryness. Fireless cookers. 61. 80. in wood. Dust. 196. 229. of clothes. 166. 234. 171. Food. Dish. Ecru. 40. Silk. to iron. i. 229. 224. Fire-box. to wash. Drying. 112. Embroideries. Ether. 26. 147. for. clean. 234. 141. 39. Fat: Dry-cleaning: Commercial 205. 60. 27. Fiber Of Fiber of. Darkness. Dust-catchers. Dish-pans. 22. starch. 231. Gritty. Fleas. used Substances 231. 40. 61. 9. 28. tubs. for. 148. to 62. 5. 19. 91. in closinghouse. 243. Dampened. 229.230. When used. Fly-paper. CLEANING Dusting. 19. 207. soap-making. 232. F Mixture Of 211. Dust-pan. Doilies. Varnished. of 178. 233. 2. 2. 108. Dish-mop. . 127. 22. 112. Dish-cloths. for. 37. 211. 242. Dents. spots. 36. 229. 243.OF HANDBOOK 252 danger of. 209. Floors: Closet. refrigerator. 141. Waxed. 205. Fireplace. Formaldehyde. 182. 159. Fishmoths. Down quilts. 125. 1 1 8. Cheese-cloth. 241. 230. n. 209. mop.cost Dish-towels. obtain. 27. Embroidering. 21. Drying-frames. 99. Draught. Egg-beater. whole garments. Painted.

pipes On Fruit By 253 and traps. Spots Stains. 96. House-fly. 155- Hats. 181. Rubber. gas and electric. Hydrochloric acid. Hydrocyanic acid. powders. Insect 181. 115. In stains. 232. Indelible 233. 55. unfinished wood. 154. 178. 153. 129. 105. ink. 230. 115. 141. Cut. 171.INDEX stains. on 122. 116. Gasoline. 167. Fuller's earth. House. 93. Moving Rattan. 238. For wash-boards. 54. Lining for refrigerator. 56. Holder. 172. table-top. to 175French remove Grease: 245. 245. 153. wall-paper. 32. . 112. 244. 230. 115. H sulphur. 25. Iodine stains. 53. Ink stains. Insulation. 34. 32. Enameled. peroxide. closing of.57. Insect 116. 170. chalk. 232. 60. 105. Repair of. 155. Gas-plate. 142. 142. 96. 28. 169. 172. Iron: of. Galvanized. Receptacles. Globes. 33. Glass: of. Care In water. 182. 32. Gum arabic. 179. Garbage. 38. 178. 202. Garbage-can. 105. 127. 54. For Gloves: Cleaning of. Furniture: Care of. 229. Gluing. 178. 33. 125. 168. Refmishing of. 122. 58. 37. 23. Gas-stoves 24. 179. of. 108. Garbage receptacle. Fruit-closet. 121. Indigo. 86. 177. 24. 103. 171. Glycerine. 180. 29. 182. 126. 181. 1 Ink eradicators. Gluing of. and ranges. Il6. 103. 38. for cook-book. of water. 121. 184. paste. 171. 177. Hydrogen Ice. 126. 109. Household 107. ammonia. 97. 56. 55. 181. Care Cover 28. 232. Hardness. 182. Grass Freezing. 170. in. Fumigation: By hydrocyanic acid. 28. for cook-book. 108. 177. 80. stain.

Kitchen. 136. 15. care of. 161. 170. 136. 141. 25. 245. 26. 37. 187. 134. 55. 34. Linseed-oil. 77. M Magnesia. 211. 171. to dean. 178. To Kalsomine. 206. 230. 142. 178. 149. prevent. Ivory. 182. Milk stains. Mice: Labeling. 39. 50. Stains. CLEANING Lime 195. 241. 189. Mops: Dish. curtains. Marble. 32. 19. Irons. 236. make. 183. 179. 183. 135. to Dry. 140. Location. Meters. 232. 94. 28. 95. iron. 146. Linoleum: Cleaning of. 216. Mildew. Moisture. 60. 127. Laundry closet. 80. 62. 18. Jewelry. 78. 54. 182. 89. Laundry: Equipment. 96. 131. 169. 182. 140. 182. 185. 115. 85. 89. soap. 182.36. Kerosene-stoves. Medicine-closet. 144. 208. 140. 145. 55. 188. 86. Ironing-table. K Mangles. solution. 120. 8l. 1 stains. 158. 169. 27. 245. 208. 182. 91. ^For floors. 245. Uses. Fiber. 18. Monograms. Ironing-board. 77. 241. 46. make 159. Machine-oil Kerosene. 32. 69. Metals. Javelle water: 154. 154. 145. 183. To Lace Lamps. 20. 21. Iron-rust. 87. 68. 142. work.OF HANDBOOK 254 Ironing. 183. Medicine stains. Linen-closet. To Jars. Meatjuice stains. 138. 139. 79. 44. Molasses. Mending. 57. 69. tubs. 1 68. Milk. 141. . 52. 146. 155. 171. 68. Matting. 186. 179. Luster.to launder. II. Wet. 182. 14. 124. 31. 12. 17. Iron-stand. 33. 16. 183. Laces. 172. Linen. 207. Oiled. Lye: Uses. 33. 40. 19. 44. 28. 80. -juice. Laundry Laundry Laundry Lemon reagents.

192. cleaning. 24. Oven.wax. Preparations: rats. acid: of. 196. 178. 245. Pillows. 117. To cleaning metals. 152. Stains. Pillow-cases: 178. 86. 185. 52. Paper. Mordants. 184. of. Plate-scraper. 193. Preserve-closet. Reagent. 134. 81. Pumice. 57. 141. 29. Moving. Nightdresses. 30. stains. 121. 49. 17. 157. 70. Moth-balls. Pastes. Nickel. solution. 245. for silver 47For cleaning copper. Marking Sizes. 17. 91. for silver Pan. of Paris. 78. 1 1 8. Powders. Prussian blue. 170. 21. 17. Potassium 126. 48. table-top. For refrigerator lining. for polishing Newspaper. of. 117. and . 170. 25. 244. 191. 161. 37. to iron. 1 8.INDEX 255 (Continued) : Paint Mop. 47. Pictures. 179. 28. 199. Perspiration stains. Naphtha soap. 17. cyanide. 34. 96. 129. 44. 181. 122. cleaning. 113. Rats.wringer. 171. Moths. Paraffin. 80. 183. 53. Oil. for N Naphtha: Uses. 61. 127. 21. 29. 183. Ranges. Ornaments. 18. 5. Paint: Black. 241. 65. 69. Napkins: Oxalic 170. 82. Enamel. 52. 53Peach Soaps. 17. Oil. Plate-glass. 189. Laundering O make 178. Ripplm. Porcelain: For laundry tubs. 28. 54. 117. windows. Pitch stains. 127. Uses of. 229. Oilcloth: Cleaning of. 37. Pails. Putty powder. 33. Plaster For Uses of. 22. Marking Size Of. 53. Mosquitoes. Laundering of. 116. Naphthalene. 22. poisoning For mice 121.

50. Garbage. Salt.witch. 227. 225. 46 for. 119. 98. Moisture in. 213. Rugs: To lemon. 119. in. Rushing. 93. Sink: 186. Oxidized. 58. 30. 99. 20. Placing of food in. Refrigerator. 100. wood. Cement. 97. Silver: 54. Kitchen. Shoe. jeweler's. et in 179. 47. 213. of 61. 28. boxes. Resin. 133. 43. Rouge. 51. to To 127. Laundering of. 51. Pan under. Rubber stamp. Silver. 214. 219. seq. Glass. Ice in. Finish Silk: properly. 199. 29. Service. vs. Shirts. 222. Labeling of. tin. 92.OF HANDBOOK 256 Salts Receptacles: China. 58. 31. 43. 92. Sheets: Shirtwaists. Sawdust. 87. 68. 94. 216. Cost of. Height of. Keeping for. of. 29. beat 180. 42. 50. 99. Care vs. 36. Choice of. White-enameled Refrigerator: Care of. 3. Rottenstone. of air in. 92. 30. 157. for. 52. Care 50. to launder. 126. Dish-cupboard. Cases for Cleaning Door-case Gray. CLEANING . Lining of. Shawls. 90. Rice. For of. 43. Circulation Construction of. Rag. Filling of. 80. 30. 104. 20. 32. of. 102. 216. 172. 4. keeping. 94. 238. 237. 96. Temperature 95. Rust. 192. kitchen cabinet. 214. 31. 42. launder. Ribbons. Oriental. value of. 226. 125. 98. Setting of colors. varnished launder. 20. Shelves: Depth. 43Small. 182. 58. 42. Drainage of. substitute 193. Saucepans. of. Shot. carpets. 96. 185. to launder. 39. 78. 29. 31. 172. 47. 90. 30. Scorch stain. 98. Shoes. to clean. Marking of. Size Shellacing. Silver-fish. 29. Large. Location of. 81.

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174. 133. 155. 178. W bottle. Of room. 71. By electric 13. 126. 142. 171. 134. Ventilation: Tar stains. 54. Ultramarine. Utensils. 8. Telephone. Umbrella-stands. 46. Trunk-closet. 127. 127. 10. 57.HANDBOOK Sweaters. Vinegar. Washing. 52. 107. 72. 224. Tarnish. 177. 19. 93. of. 121. 166. 81. Uses 53. fans. 10. Tea stains. Tissue-paper. Vegetable closet.92. 185. 36. 185. of. 143. Of basement. to clean. in wood. 130. for laundry. 75. Temperature: In refrigerator. Traps: For mice and rats. 9. Cleaning of. Upholstery. marking of. Towels. 141. 84. 10. Table-linen: Vases. 20. Wagon-grease stains. In cleaners. 134. kitchen. Tartaric acid. Turpentine. Choice of. Washing-powders. 153. 42. Table-cloths: of. Laundering of. 185. 9. 96. 12. In plumbing. 14. Washing-soda. 17. 37. 36. 87. stains. 161. for cleaning toilet. 28. 79. ventilation. 171. 167. Varnish Of house. 14. stains. To obtain. At night. Sweeping: Of carpets. 81. Mending of. 199. 41. 67. 79. 54. Of room. Tapestry. n. Wash-day. Washing-machines. 55. Importance of. 10. 127. Velvets. 52. Tin: Wall-papers. Tiling. to CLEANING OF 222. 68. uses Thermos 18. 189. 189. 82. stains. 37. 96. Tongs. 9. 13. Table. Wash-boards. 52. 184. 154. 234. for dents . Water: For removing Hardness 183. 150. 86. Hot. Vacuum Marking Vaseline Choice of. 53. of. Laundering of. Tripoli. 108. uses of. Walls. 169. n. launder.

Shrinking 53. cooling - 155. 125. floors. to Drying of. 128. Windows. Wine Woven 128. . 40. Water-supply. launder. Painted.INDEX (Continued) Water In in. 17. 34. Window-draperies. Softening Wood : 157. 186. Iron of. 141. 168. 54. 220. 128. Dark. 34. name Wringers. Water-bottles. wash. White tubs. 225. of. 19. to : of exterior 155. 55. to Whiting. soaps. For ator. 35. Unfinished. 101. Water (Continued) For 159. 58. Window-shades. of. Woodwork. 219. clothes. 28. 36. Varnished. refriger- 96. For laundry For portable For table-tops. 188. 21. 52. Wood: Enameled. 222. clean. Wool: materials. of Whitening 142. 35. 170. stains. 153. THE END 28. 49. 35. Fibers. 144. 259 31. Zinc. 185. Stains. tapes. 225. . Waxing. Waxed. Washing 245. Wax: irons. 18. 47. 36. 154. 80. 56. apparatus.