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LIPPINCOTT'S
BENJAMIN

BY

EDITED

R.

MANUALS

College,Columbia

Teachers

Ph.D.

ANDREWS,

University

HOUSEWIFERY
A

MANUAL

OF

TEXT

AND

BOOK

HOUSEKEEPING

PRACTICAL

BY

RAY

LYDIA
INSTRUCTOR

IN

HOUSEWIFERY

BALDERSTON,
LAUNDERING,

AND

NEW

UNIVERSITY,
AUTHOR

175

OP

LIPPINCOTT

CITY

"LAUNDERING"

IN

TEXT

REVISED

EDITION,

PHILADELPHIA

J. B.

TEACHERS
YORK

ILLUSTRATIONS

SECOND

A.M.

AND

LONDON

COMPANY

COLLEGE,

COLUMBIA

192 Electrotyped The Washington and 1. . by Press. Lippincolt Philadelphia. BY J. COPYKIOHT. 1919. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY LIPPINCOTT COMPANY B. B. B. J. Printed Square BY J. S. Company U. A.COPYRIGHT.

M.DEDICATED AFFECTIONATELY TO BALDERSTON E. .

"The has life of poetry practical always side to it." and . a most worked affairs practical full out are rightly of poetry.

College.PREFACE handbook This in the hope that in the home and of direct will or by be serve as for and colleges. Andrews. merely are to the Dr. practical house- home courses own workers processes individual the throughout book a offers author hoped housewifery. her will are the is gestions sug- often so teachers. locality. but the one bibliography. College. Balderston. other by on keeping house- woman directly carried brings housewifery that in and given do. in connected with references suggested for teachers. and in definite manuscript J. employes teaching text a the to outgrowth in designed time. the requests many guidance of the extension sciences. relative give to Ray Teachers of wifery. partment De- . House- Gunther. book. value. It experience. who women many of and money. ance assist- acknowledges author B. much Teachers book as appreciation the Matilda Miss in the considered be reading of former supervision laboratory prices stated The and by of outline the that from suggestions these home. be may work keepers. formerly Professor Instructor H. the for expressed can not It is with in College. and the need meet now cover. or to women club- and schools by indirectly of means students. who topics within from the courses. save reference with is to to reduce to how measure some offered is housekeeping in show help is the and It it may how consulting book practical household supervise The of Household that McKeown. Emma Teachers L. R. of the Because of study their of tasks book experience groups technical housekeepers' further Any to of rural groups of women This seeking are years the only not study the many do professional other as the upon help who housewifery emphasis to and books energy. any Administration.

.

" 75. U. Figure New York E. Mott Stove 33. Illinois. Helps 27. Home Products City. York Cleveland. Zuill. Bulletin. Gas Metal Jersey. 94. New J. Syracuse. Illinois. Worcester. Chicago. ton. Figure 55. York Bingham Company. 159. Dodge Figure Figure Cooker " Agriculture. Kain. Works. Illinois. Company. Company. Manufacturing Corwin B. Cohen. and Figures Figure 74. Caloric Figure 65. Dryer York New Company. Richardson and 51 Cleveland 53. Cadillac Figure 136. Cleveland. and and Pittsburgh. Anderson. Ohio. J. Pneumatic Duntley Massachusetts. Company. Figure 77. City. U. Government S. 18 Figures 20 19. Illinois. Company. Company. Company. City. 5. of Schenck the : 1. 71. Figure 88. Hurley 76. Company. Dryer City. The York New Boynton. York. York New Kirtland. Chicago. Chas. Company. Company. Marcia by 7. Figures 17. Figure 59. of Department City. N. New Company. Chicago Figure 83. New York. Dangler " 44. Chicago. Pittsburgh. Newark. Franc Figure 89. Iron York New Company. New Newark. New Manufacturing New Company. The Premier C. Joseph Figure 78. Sweeper Company. Manufacturing 1900 City. " Company. Cleaner Stearns Metal Cleveland. H. Consolidated City. Pa. New Jersey. Cleaner. Syracuse. L. Figure 58. Figure Figure Figure Figure Figures Figure 29. drawn and 6 " Mead. Janes 70 S. York.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS material as Figures follows for made is herewith Acknowledgment use of illustrative Mead. Ohio. Roma Figure 87. Pennsylvania. Hill Figure 80. L. . Manufacturing Chicago. Sanitary Toilet Ohio. Plumbing Standard 22.

.

Supplies Household Furnishings Household VII. IV. XII. Kitchen. XI. Equipment Labor-Saving and Appliances II 103 " VI. III. Bathroom. 204 Cleaning Care and of Metals X. II AS A BUSINESS 1 Plumbing 21 . 240 Renovation and Disinfectants Household Rooms.CONTENTS CHAPTEB PAGE HOOSEWIFEKY I. Heating Lighting and Equipment 52 Labor-Saving and Appliances 1 84 " V. Cleaning Suggestions Beds. XIII. 129 148 Storage VIII. and 273 Fumigants Pests for 297 307 Teachers 318 . IX.

.

to as conditions is into rooms realm of the division dividing the her that housewife's the is that workshop order In the to-day work find roof. the work literallya workshop. the is the Housewifery BUSINESS A the and kitchen. of of individuals The accepted man do not can careful in her unless and Division involve three unit. group be of arranged equipment which fatigue carrying tools is necessary. and his under Housewif : in versed living read word the person individuals every without planning made. "family. the ought plan parts the office. and division the is according area house the As the long various from as the this only not tools is saved steps. one in the family. is in space one ery to ought man best the should of : business the of that pantry." to concern business analyzed were meaning everything. of most homes unit. handicapped the it is real Any " the It increases group consideration because any unit. add house. this cellar." a the enlarge of in concern. 1 and .HOUSEWIFERY CHAPTEK I AS HOUSEWIFERY " definition If. we group versed person living proficient as to the the "mistress. but his. but that a most already built may recreation decreases or the organized house the house As rest matically auto- to the family. work laundry. not are is arranged. and than includes must rooms housewife unnecessary distance division is. Thus. this "business" and roof. there that give results materials small how size of the the " The be from a worker so good unit and placed taking greater of the these the in efficiency of given only through business." the everything pertaining in fact organization should definition. the to the a to become and is to careful be Home. in facilities and house can is housewife the be the there in the Unit. it would under good of of mistress detail. light. ideal. No Work work. so the Space housewife suitably planned is matter income.

2

HOUSEWIFERY

mixing
above
it;

shelves
around

a

that

about

by
usually

is

the

at

of

stove,

which

and

be

For

processes.
table or cabinet

a

and

cooking
and

.placedthe

ple,
exam-

at

a

sink ;
of

center

a

small

necessary

the
done

are

is done

becomes

into

with

baking

dishes

sink, each

the

should

division

arranged by

different

processes
washing of foods

table, the

units,

these

food

; the

stove

the

controlled

are

of

the

so

units

The

units.

itself is to be

work-shop

kitchen

The

sils
uten-

and

a

equipment.
In a large kitchen, as
great saving if the room

in many
farm
be divided

house

by

kitchens, it will be

imaginary

an

line

into

and
the
these
rest part. Under
part of the kitchen
conditions, a large kitchen is not a handicap (except for the extra
work

the

clean)

to

space

it makes

because

better

ventilation

part of the kitchen, one groups
not only reduces
stove, table, and sink, one

in

if,in the work
kitchen
has
of

so

her

it would

the work

possiblefor

her

on,

and

the

do

to

she is

distinct

itself into

other

her

watching

two

are

of

some

her

the

table, so

that

sewing, reading

or

food.

units,

so

that
the

where

parts, one

the

where

of

large
housekeeper, who
this rest portion

gains the benefit of better air. The
interruptionsin her work, might use
many
for her sewing machine
and
small
kitchen
a
be

relationship

close

a

but

studying during the time
In the laundry there
the laundry divides
carried

possible; and

cally
automati-

washing

ironing is done.
two
laundry units

The

is

stove

and should
these
connecting link between
to each.
be placed so that it is convenient
The
pantry is a part of the work unit, connecting the kitchen
unit
is between
the work
The
and
the dining room.
dining room
and
the recreation
by
unit, and therefore in its plan is influenced
The
both
units.
efficiencyof the pantry is increased by having a
of serving and
that all the work
sufficient closet room
sink and
so
clearing away may be done Avithout going the greater distance into
Such
the kitchen.
a
pantry is called a butler's pantry. In order
into
its purpose
that it serve
best, there should be two doors, one
A kitchen
and one
into the dining room.
the kitchen
pantry having
is the

only

one

When
care

door
the

is less convenient.
housewife

to consider

the

relationship between
large window-like

has

butler's
the

all the

pantry, but

dining

opening

work

made

room

to

instead

and

in the

do

the

herself,she
may
kitchen

wall, fitted

secure

may
a

not

close

by having a
with
a glass or

AS

HOUSEWIFERY

of such
of

plenty

slide, plan

a

the

for

room

side will make

room

do

the work

slide to reduce

wooden

with

away

large shelves

dishes.

add

the

to the

sides

so

screen

a

ience
conven-

to have

as

the

on

of
purpose
width
the

Avhioh

walking

extra

on

serve

To

both

Standing

this window

the

serving.

of

3

BUSINESS

A

dining

pantry, and

a

of

pantry

a

requires.
Unit.

Recreation.

recreation

The

"

be

may

the

room,

one

assemble.
Whether
it also
family may
includes
a
a
den, and other
library,a parlor, a reception room,
of
and
the method
special rooms
porches, depends entirely upon
belongs equally,of course,
living of the family. The dining room

living

to

room,

recreation

the

Unit.

Rest

is called

The

"

is true

such

to

advice, the house

bedrooms

depends largely upon

unit

rest

This

for

the

unit.

household.

the

of

in which

unit

plans

that

extent

an

made

are

number

the
if

architect

an

around

in

number

the

bathroom

belongs to this unit, and
the comfort
and convenience
of the family depends to a large extent
the placing of the bathroom, and its relationshipto the bedrooms.
on
accessible
this unit quiet,and
to have
Every effort should be made
without
The
going through the other two units.
arrangement
of the hallways will be entirelyresponsible for this.
Small
individual
bedrooms, while making a larger house, are
his own
have
Bedrooms
greatly preferred so that each may
room.
A
for the individual.
are
decidedly rooms
might be
guest room
put in an especiallyquiet part of the house, for then it might be
used

as

required.

sick

a

currents

of

depend

upon

which

the

all the

the

in different
the

should

directions

comfort

so

have, if
to

as

secure

of the

night's rest will
architect's plea for low-lying roofs,
bedrooms
to a single direction, have

no

different

in

bedroom

of

"

directions."

sunlight possible,remembering

windows

two
The
that

for

unit

rest

the

should

is

sun

every

one

of

side

of

disinfectants.
the

rest

house,

house,

Let

Each

of
exposure
with
the standard

bedroom, opening

As

much^of

this.

weight compared

the best

opening

air,-for

reduce

have

if needed.

room

windows

possible,two

The

so

because

processes,

then

they

be

will

unit
the

is best

work

these

unit

away

may

they
from

be

will be
the

the

on.

south

placed

require

rooms

in winter
cooler

placed

at

artificial

warm

sun.

or

sunny
the north
heat

enough,
The

in
and

choice

of

the
in

the

work

summer

position for

4

HOUSEWIFERY

the

dining room

sun

is

were

is at

the

pleasanterthan

east, because

that

of the low

the

cheer

settingsun

of

early morning
the dining room

if

the west.

on

Halls

or

passageways

the

connect

may

three

units.

tionship,
rela-

This

toward
properly established, does much
increasingthe
of the house
and reducing its labor.
The
efficiency
hallways make
convenient
the passing from
division
of the home
to another,
one
improve ventilation,facilitate supervision,and may make
the home
attractive by an interrelation
of color in walls and furnishings.
more
without

Houses

halls

only

not

may

be

noisy, especiallyin

the

rest

center, but, unless

for privacy.
carefully planned, will not make
All of these things
not be possiblein a house
which
one
may
house
rents, but in a new
they are possiblethrough the suggestions
of the housekeeper, her
help in making architects' plans,
and iher cooperation with
the builder.
Housewife's
If this thought of
Suggestions to Architect.
home
establishingunits is kept in mind
by the housewife, the new
be planned in a most
efficient manner,
for there will be a close
may
relationshipof doors to the yards and to stairways, and windows
will be so
ventilation
but
placed as to produce not only cross
to give proper
Wall
will be planned
light on the work.
spaces
to furnish
suitable backgrounds
for the placement of stoves,
as
so
"

and

tubs, sinks
Cellar
and

furniture.

stairs

cellar;coal

should

windows

as

and

furnace

and

the

in the

bins

outside

the bin

wood,
the

stairs

journey

jujstoutside

leading

down

stairs that

the

are

from

cellar
not

too

as

close

a

cellar

connection

should

direct

allow

to

together to, eliminate
if not

bring

of

the

kitchen

the

cellar

easy

as

steep, that

door,

is,with

be close

be

kitchen.

possible,plan
a

wide

the

Kitchen

should

the

to

coal.

with

into

coal

coal should

carrying

kitchen

connected

so

delivery of

for furnace

strain

be

between

in
To

bins;

enough
coal

bin

a

make

stairsi be

and
well

or

near

the

comfortable
tread

the

cellar
a

step

safety,plan
lighted
the
and
from
a
certainlyby
possible,
ment
arrangeproper
of artificial lighting.
It is a proved
Every workshop must have thorough ventilation.
accidents
fact that much
are
fatigue and thus, indirectly,,
many
ventilation
is
The
best
windows
caused
ventilation.
by
by poor
windows
cannot
such
Where
which
drafts.
possibly be
give cross
not

too

high;
window

and

for

that

if

"

the

AS

HOUSEWIFERY

secured,

transoms

objection to them is
less privacy.
For

the

curved

being

in

made

over,

floor is to

new

much

of

cleaning, and

planning of a
it is possible to

be

better

to

for

kitchen, laundry, and

in

the

add

of noise
greater possibility

a

convenience

baseboards

considered

doors

over

5

BUSINESS

A

laid

the

over

If

curved

a

an

reasons,

should

old

is

house

foundation, if

Outside. Door

a

Y777

__

M2

Aasonr^Vall

W^

_

,

Wall

Frame

Vail

Frame

be

old.

JE

Maaoiirvj Walt

in

set

sanitary

bathroom,

house.

new

ventilation;an
and
ingly
correspond-

Poor
In.5i"fc

^.

6 win

Door

5

^3-cf

Vail

frame

m.

Fir*plac./t

Window

^|

Hasonr^Wall

AasonrjVail
\t

u"-^3'-o""

Frame
Ki tch
Frame Wall

c

A

Vail

n\Z

O

Fig.

1.

That
for

Architect's

"

is blocked

the

the

to the

new

off in

house,
so

Figs. 1, 2, 3,

in

be

able
in

changes
in turn

he

O

houseplans.
Allow

squares.

may

that

O

indicating

inch

and

drawings expressed
her.

of

method
quarter

housewife

architect

Vail

s-o'-*-i?

ir"

which

Chimne

n

a^onr"j

U

r3

Vail

not
the

may

architectural

inch

M

Easily
for

a

drawn
foot.

know
form

4

"

a

farm

house, and

a

Colonial

special

only to help make
old, but to express
what
are

she

house.

paper

plans
herself

wants, these

presented

give examples of the various
used
in architects'
drawings. Figs. 5, 6, and 7 are
drawings of typical houseplans for, respectively,a

house,

on

to

assist

conventions
architects'
workman's

6

HOUSEWIFERY

Space

some

up

before

and

made,

Furniture.

for

bedroom

has

allow

been

furniture

that

to

have

the

proper

and

(to

cardboard

which

pieces of

cardboard

bureau

plan

for

the

a

will

the

space

not, there

or

have

to
for

space

for the bed ?

be

house

these

scale

same

the

represent

bed

or

sideboard

or

house

whether

is

plans)

the

order

5
3'-!0"to

f

aji

can

pieces of

cut

These
ments
measure-

allowed

space

If she

large enough.

WW

V.C.

pieces

In

large pieces of furniture.
the plan, and if the
on

be moved

may

certain

pieces of furniture, she
the

as

space
furniture

the

house.

heen
check

wall

the

Whether

the

in

has

should

obviously

are

placed

accurate, they will prove

are

the

for

purchased

of

measure

the

it is

accepted as final,the housewife
important points. For example, does

very

in the

After

"

for

has

not

7-o-

O

n

'-o'

"acta**

Corner

911

ba.5in
Tub
if

r-o"
c

"

Fig.

bought

the

as

a

Indicating

"

furniture, she

of furniture
taken

2.

as

minimum

Placing
consideration

in

found

Tools
next

space,

should

the

plumbing

for

the

sizes

standard

this standard

may

well

be

anyway.

After
the house
is planned,
Equipment.
given to purchasing tools and equipment, in

and
is

Y

fixtures.

measure

stores, and

*"tt'

.

"

fact, all the things needed

for work.

The

housewife

buy her

may

her
equipment and arrange
work-shop so that it represents the
of work
with
the least possible
possibilityof the greatest amount
cost for equipment, and
the least- possibleexpenditure of effort in
accomplishing the work.
(For suggestionswhich may be of service
in buying equipment, see
chapter on Equipment and Labor-saving
Appliances.)
Until
she

uses

the
and

housewife
the

way

realizes
it is

that

the

standard

arranged represent

of

equipment

two-thirds

of

the

HOUSEWIFERY

Detail

"5Up

of

cist n

Uf

e

|
I'll

J-l-L

o

I

i

i

LLillill
i_|

Plan

Platform

orLaniin

fnder.3

-Landing

3tai TVK.W

Fig.

4.

"

Indicating

stairs

and

landings.

The

landing

should

be

the

width

of

the

stairway.

HOUSEWIFERY

kitchen

might

be taken

cook's kitchen
The
at

from

that

of the

side,the

rack

A

of

shipboard,where

on

arrangement
the

AS

9

chefs

a

table

everything must

above

shelf

BUSINESS

the

in

be

hotel

a

"

or

a

ship shape."

table, the hooks

beneath

or

all these bring
or
deep
and
that
which
together
represent
well-organizedeconomy
makes
for scientific housekeeping.
Certain
things have been done for so long almost centuries
the

additional

shelf

"

the tools

"

that

the

ideas, so

new

workable.

non-

of

The

Such

have

positionfor

a

is in

eyes, but

erect

not

seems

her

equipment

her

work, but
and

the

as

and

placed

have

to

has

the

so

that
can

reason,

if
them

with

their

been

been

sinks

credited

placed

crouches

almost
is
them

architects

so

of the

one

washtubs

a

considered
best

have

trations
illus-

been

backs

to the

strain

on

in

window.

the

worker's

side

light secured

The

same

rule

holds

of tubs

and

other

by

years

Tables

it.
that

little cost that it is

only

can

and

a

who

woman

stood

doing work, because
she not
only stoops

that

to-day unless
and
plumbers

installations.

height

with

over

modern

so

the

last few

lifted; portable ironing boards
with

set

only produces

not

Until

obtain

difficult to
work

tub

is

since

often

are

sinks.

surfaces.

washtubs

a

important point, too, is

most

working

been
a

of

washtub

almost

"

housewife

as
satisfactoryas the
way
at the side of a window.

no

placing the tubs
good for placing
A

placing

because

this,

existence, they

called,of the

The
the

she

whole

idea

housewife
stands

of

will

guard

all
over

high

find

over

it

tKe

making their measurements
be made
higher; stoves can be
washtubs
be made
can
higher
are

the matter

of the housewife

ing
demand-

Sinks
and stationarywashtubs, however,
change be made.
attached.
not be changed without
For this
some
expense
it is important that they be properly placed in the beginning
possible;if not, it may be worth the extra expense to have
the

lifted to

a

height that will be comfortable

for the worker.

Tasks:

important, in
and
and
equipment
for the work
is the matter
of standardizing them
they have to do.
who
has had
The
woman
training automatically tries to reduce
of her
the time
and
effort required for her work, and
by means
and
the time
vitallyinterested in cutting down
training becomes
Tools
Standardizing.
turn, as the right selection
"

and

Fully as
placement of tools

in her household
motions
eliminating unnecessary
and much
is indeed fascinatingand interesting

tasks.
of its

work
House-

monotony

10

HOUSEWIFERY

SE

:i

AS

HOUSEWIFERY

when

is gone

she

really

"

the

plays

time-and-motion-study,

she

will learn

more

but
scientifically,

the

next

make

a

wider

she

has

her

work.

selection
how

learned

and

wiser

a

not

she

choice
hinder

things

some

"

game

time

11

BUSINESS

A

intently.

From

this

only how to do her work
purchases tools she will
in what
she buys, because
and
other
things help in

I

%

Fia.

plan with
face

the

6.

road

How

unit

adds

many

distinct

a

housewives

kept

bathtub?

of

this plan is that
off.
entirely closed

feature

it may

be

have

counted

account

Have

bed, of the

unnecessary

where

clothes

the

that

it is

a

bungalow

compact

Planning

the

kitchen

to

cheer.

and

unnecessary

cleaning

so

good

The

Farmhouse.

"

each

are

of

they

the

ever

the
time
taken

steps in going from

airing?

How

many

motions
in

making

account,
the

bed

and

necessary

in
to

unnecessary

a

bed

or

making
the

chair
motions

a

12

HOUSEWIFERY

HOUSEWIFERY

AS

A

13

BUSINESS

in the process of making ? Of course,
"study is to see how the effort may be reduced
used

are

gain from

the

the

and

such

a

of

standard

finished

the same.
product remain
For a comparative study where
tools and
materials
enter
in, a
The
cloth ;
bathroom
a
might be chosen.
type of brush used versus
the question of soap
the rinsing by a bath
powder versus
soap;
cloth versus
versus
fillingthe tub with water; a soft spongy
spray
when
tub is spotted
all these play a part in the study.
a
none,
Such
in no
be called
a
study can
standardizing of tasks
way
unless the worker
has an
ideal, and unless she is willing to check
herself by many
studies.
brief efforts with
But
such
studies
even
will prove
stimulating and practicallyhelpful.
If the housewife
is interested
in such a study, it will not take
her long to note that the results are
influenced
by the skill of the
worker, by the height of the working surface, by the tools and supplies
by the time of day and
being fitted to their tasks, and. even
the

"

the

fatigue of the

consequent
in any

different
studies

settingthe table, dusting, and

an

that

like.

the

so-called

the

become

going

ested
inter-

about

all the

time-and-motion

these
like

window

She

will become

drudgery

of housework

washing,
so

ested
inter-

becomes

interestinggame.
Cards:

Score
of

study

has

find herself

soon

housework, testing how
applied to routine processes

be

in the

she

of

tasks
may

will

study, she

one

If

worker.

task

some

or

material

or

a

tally.sheet

is made

on

in which

and

less

The

plan

is to

assign a
in the

number
ideal.

used

in schools

used

for
use

list in

tests

example,

For
in

and
of

points to

of

dairies

and

in

made

of them

little has

been

done

proportion

cards

score

essential

various
in

each

Score

county fairs.

been

has

the

form

score

for

cards

rating

percentage basis.

a

perfect conditions or results equals 100
are
correspondingly reduced
perfect conditions

sum

Eecent

tool

like

are

total for

The

and

cards

Score

to

cent.,

per
in

score.

elements,
its

tance
impor-

testing bread
have

been

are

widely

agriculturalexperiment stations.
in scoring restaurants, housing

conditions, etc.
While

has

been

each

home

with

a
profitmake
which
might

below

thought
test

score

be modified

such
card

housewife, largely because
individual
problem, she may

the

by

an

for herself.

to be

Examples

fitted to her

use.

are

given

14 HOUSEWIFERY Kitchen Location Score Card : Exposure Plan 5 in Place house 5 10 : Size 5 Proximity cellar. pantry. to Division of Window arrangement for space dining 5 room work 5 5 Closets Interior 5 finish : Floor-material 10 Wall-material 3 Color Sanitation 2 15 : Ventilation 5 Cleanliness 5 Equipment 10 : Choice of for " Arrangements efficiency 10 " Working centers 5 Grouped utensils 5 Routing 5 Condition Height 10 of working surfaces 5 Total Style: Appropriate Appropriate for for Card for Garments purpose 5 person 5 : Color 5 Kind 10 Amount 5 Trimming 5 Form: Conformation to A^rSf } "" Workmanship : Uniformity figure **" 9 - -"*" " 10 Seams 10 Stitching 10 Finish 10 Total 40 100 Score Material 25 100 .

.

the family washing done by rough- rates. a HOURS SUNLWS PER DAY at pound with list duties will do and work their relationship. ironing items of day.16 HOUSEWIFERY who woman does for all her the own work. The houseand she is responsible. housewife In such a 'household it is very have to of special a important daily schedule tasks: washing day (Tuesday is better than Monday). mending day. cleaning days. 8 and 9). for can method may she TIME OVER WEEK ALTERNATE Schedules when ALL maid showing duties of the housewife and of checking plan adds to the ease up in two she ATTERNOON EVENING EACH A IN THIS SCHEDULE 8. Employed for which them. ONE AW Tfme important for her to consider what example. for example. once work dry SHOULD HAVE -Chart weeks. Such a schedules. baking day.may well be brought in only free * CHILDREN PART Fig. if wife Help (Figs. the " . cleaning of silver. and plan how she employs one or more maids. Some work. It is also hire .

The next thing is to note specialcleaning guests.days off of helpers. of the number able to being she similar a into take must list of account house. washing dishes. It PER HOURS THIS days an ONE TIME OVER SUNDAYS children brought ALL TO week. apportion the so that be done rest " required for periods are here each is where task week. bed making. outside of assistance House w/fe Care Marketi/ipSuperv/s/ON Mend/ny /sr Emp/oyee Dai/yDuties 2nd WeeklyDuties of Children Emp/oyee Dai/yDuties MAKE MARE aunsim CLEAN sweep BATH MCCLEAM BEDS MA/OS Week/y Duties asvst/n CIUHIESS LAUNDRY USED 3EO SERI/EMEALS ONE DAY Free ONE DAY PEP AL TERNATE * IN Fia. one housewife's in the too that so possiblefor the It is desirable or .AS HOUSEWIFERY for greater the need making In duties. and specialcleaningon certain days every be If this is done. such as cooking.). there can schedules that there so every equal either of amount have into the can DAY PER NEXT DAY //SMS A prfmoiffABisriHG {AFTERLUNCH 8 DAy A HAVE SCHEDULE overcrowded. and dusting. the in the rooms to them present schedule the out 17 BUSINESS A ber num- (in washing. will be PREPARE ONE CHILDREN ASSIST/IK worn ROOMS OF CARE Free7/me W""/f CHILDREN PART IN T/'me BREMEASTj N"Xr ROOMS ASSIST WFER A ""rtP( 0YEE (AFTERLURCH ROOM Dusr small cleaning every household tasks plans." Chart the time YYEEH \ WEEK ALL ALTERNATE T/ME TO a 0M# BPEAHfRSTj HOURS SUNDAYS PER 0Ar showing a larger organization as needed for two maids. on certain other that With SHOULD 9. and work these is reflected should no both be day is helpers. etc. the size of the family. schedule.etc. A good way to begin would be to list regular duties for every day in the week. knowledge of organization. week.

C of hour housewives time when service.nntr i hour Service- B 10." lt/1-S:*f!ri. Rop ioTta. Service. //"*"": i/ews: d*d*. there are One Chart several way showing instead service in to Each week Once in two service. 3Je. Sfi/i.l:)**fl-k"*H. as .S Fio.( SS follows : axe when hours ." hour Ae~-r hour H"A/f-j!f'/1S:*"?r1. ""a d. . such a Each line represents broken one vertical black person's silver. especially service."n" day }. 2Scenh Ala. weeks Service.r* A having an t 7A-H-- d. Today many is of great week chart help.18 HOUSEWIFERY Service Hour ProJe For hour H "S hour service ZScexti Lur an """l Ctnh 3." .". /ds Tu/o Je. to advantage is work arrange clean rooms used most. 7 A/% Utfiff-Jii II AH- f"/t '.nl./"cJ*d. ' ' of clean * 13/1.T*"L dti )'"d..

with two different eight hours of work. B shows an arrangement for five hours of service ing. arrangements of hours which give each maid and also time off every day. seven-thirtyto nine-thirtyin the mornand from five o'clock to eight in the evening. lines the serving. the time time is On is the " freedom of the more office the rate store or do to type. The factory with regular hours.HOUSEWIFERY in Once A 19 BUSINESS (alternate with clean cleaning silver) the least. and one work. or each day doing the beds and dusting. superior cooperation with her employer. plans from Modify steps plan of your " the of your in making the plan and lessened apple of kitchen own viewpoint own sauce QUESTIONS of of ease kitchen. Draw two them 2. are " " SUGGESTIVE 1. If there is much entertainingone can hardly expect the one maid to do everything. bringing in of service. and as one pleases. worker for and there certain maid. the expense the of food expense is. used rooms weeks two AS Should side weekly cleaning for each part he demanded. and kitchen your labor. trace by preparing so other doing that dotted for it will you know. C illustrates two eight-hour-dayplans for two maids in a household. although perhaps like the arrangement is more iseems in that for the high. be a workshop Compare journeys with few . either an outhave would be the housewife to assist in helper employed. or of the herself. is no Hour " hours For hour only. Possible arrangements of hours for part time servA shows are an presented in chart form in Fig. With the taken 3. eight day per five-thirtyto seven-thirtyin the evening. salads. has for she has maid. For for work is specifiedand extra any and demanded paid for as an extra. 10. breads and cakes.that one-maid household and of hours the for different household two-maid " ice presented.leavingonly the cooking and general cleaning for the maid. The type of worker per in its favor much mistress. ment arrangefor a four-hour service from and from to ten. making special desserts. Hour Service. the accompanying charts arrangements situations less because is much workhours tress mis- gent for intellieducation. work doing some This is possibleby her taking as her task that part of the that she does well or the maid work does poorly. greater possibilities more organization of work the after hired a both help.

Home J. bermaid. B. 70.. Bureau No. Spends. Lippincott B. of School Home Economics. Community and U. Mifflin millan. Thompson. Macmillan Whitcomb Being of Family. " Barrows. S. Co. Household Helen. Bulletin Wanted Helene. to and management they heels your dollars ten library dishes. Caroline Wadhams. B. Frederick. of " Co. Management. The The Marion. Practice and Co. G. for Home. U. Discuss be 6. Doubleday. S. Tarbell. Child. Make 5. and and Woman Business Frederick Taylor. The G. Business Barrows. Theory Mifflin Build Houghton Cornell 39. Yard " Barrows. 108. have ways found you " that your " what spend.. Man- for Circular Household. of R.. Cooley. Barrows. the U. of Standards. Company. The Van Home Anna. The Bertrand. Charles. University White. C. home in which Ways how housekeeping. of Circular Wilbur.. Directions butler. Homes Successful Simple of Simple Everyday Mary. Macmillan Woman. Education R. of Department 607. University. Bulletin Planning Agricultural H. 36.. Kitchen. Scientific of Co. Bertha Richardson. " and Helen. Principles W. Kitchen Farmers' Home Jean. Terrell. Efficient Harper Bros. Study. Who the Modern " Nostrand its Co. The W. Hygiene. " Page Co. Them. the The Texas. No. Co. How and for the Circular Homes. Series laundress). Kinne. Service. Brown Management. Campbell. do Moffat. waitress. Farm Marketing Agnes. . a Co. Talbot. Donham.. Materials Farm Missouri. cham- Co. H. cook. Dodd. In alike. S. which may save be must many ? office management may unlike. Bureau of Education. Agriculture. Kitchen. Putnam Nast Whitcomb House. Mac- Co. " " Little. Young a Woman to Housework. D. No. University No. Mabel C. a Bulletin No. Taber. Extension Business Planning Home (for Women.. The Christine. Whitcomb J. Kitchen. Housekeeping. Mrs. The Ida. nurse. Household Bertha. Young. New Motion Frank. as Workshop.20 HOUSEWIFERY 4. Kittredge. and P. Farm Anna. Gilbreth. Co. Economics. J. McBride. Healthful Katharine. card score a books would buy you for a housewife's ? REFERENCES Andrews. Co. B. Scientific of agement. Century " Lippincott B. 12. Houghton. to No. American Management. Household. Green Longmans. Broadhurst. Company. Barker. Housework. your Given washing for in ways head 7. Household.

water day tohave can we given a installing bringing is. separate and more more installation. 21 . at should may cared least. the to a a plumbing . systems be of system kind waste large problem of plumbing a water water in the . and best the of spacing service In and housekeeper the have to architect the system while the of rural still however. to the Sewage situation. a will they is the for. and that so It system.CHAPTEK II PLUMBING convenience The the that and pressure. proper be ing direct- give the funds with must man in houseworker a most given house. on. are best decide efficiencyare be able avail- is to be plumbing. whether of quality that give intelligent cooperation light. best get the and the materials and tubs and improved some should inexpensive homes. because open town plumbing what but plumbing in question is such good plumbing of FIXTURES PLUMBING WASTE" HOUSEHOLD SUPPLY" WATER away house supply its water is unusual own system ? A in the introduced for given modern the served equally by for where home farm for accommodations being included The get the question disposal first in of what is thus in She do convenience fixtures be hired with who one the If provided lavatory. goes and simple so small home every duty is the out. because connections and in of single a can various the the under supply pipes carrying and water In house. and quarters should her employed. question that so lavatories. establishing next. the basins extra to can thus are introduce to appropriate sinks expensive less plumbing various they opportunities builder installation. and after plumbing is how system then follows it is used. whether adequate an expense for required of lack the of need we fact accepted an is not city or do of the country. How problem the waste. the water the him. into of sanitation study the worked are disposal by running waste As country.

for precipitatingthe mineral water. be taken must care Kinds of Water. has water water. but just accept it. never fortunate. by an expert before being piped to the house. conThe water which is chosen for drinking purposes should be carefullyexamined. a to source " one " lime lime about the settle and size of throw egg to two off the first water. or be softened in or this water is that the mineral is matter carbonates. used water chief and water. is the temporarily and easily and is either reason carbon Soft to of water sources which water water. rain are kinds " " " and forms and soft suds a is not Hard When it is does soap in the water dioxide. ap quarts Add . comes. even. temporarily hard. " hard with The " The " necessarilypure is much one or new water roof of water. taken lives close with residence. solu- salts and water.and the boilingdrives off of the water so is doing the hardness is deposited asi often seen in the teakettle. in order pure should such as ask. in the proportion of water. one a that he SUPPLY purity hardness. illustration hard private systems which of soft water. the investigate of from town some of matter a and it not so is able supply. unless to connection secure Water be must present In to The country choosing where dweller to is city or course how or usually safeguard health. " There carbonates the lime and are are in processes carbonates action the precipitatesthe make lime lump of good of water. The of of chalk or magnesia. permanently boiling softens held is free best " certain districts for all sorts hard heating wash in broken in rural for springs. Let water for stone the There salts these Rain " are two in tion.22 HOUSEWIFERY WATER Water in supply that the city is think many persons. by boiling such as boiling water for vegetables. will soften it may water in the form and from quickly. water The chemical To magnesia or lime in an insoluble form. wells. and In ing purchas- of the the kind water in of minerals of water the supply greatest from get pure keep it free tamination. " water softening temporarily hard use a water. its degree in it. It is not sufficient to send to be a sample of water examined but an should the of expert personally inspect source supply and the surrounding ground so as to discover possibilities of contamination if they exist. and a little lime gallon to every gallon of the " hard for drinking purposes. of housework. to its water neighborhood.

.

work. and been saved Cisterns " the that have a there pumps less active home is a keeps cistern pump. The when usual from much storage will be kept free from dirt water other container. as an extra precaution. second. keep rain water in good concut-off in the pipe so that the first fall of first. must be most . the air of its impurities but To dition.24 HOUSEWIFERY The first fall of rain not also the their buildings of only washes dirt. have a rain be prevented from (for half an hour) may going into the its journey cistern. Water all sides so needs to be cleaned a aeration A better condition Wells like chain tban should occasionally. because is a great handicap to have before placed in water contamination. through the barrel to go into the cistern. The or bucket with cisterns the near sink in the kitchen. necessities water like the which in much piston pump. be bricked cemented or on are best time do to this is just possibilityof its being cistern water it if one is dependent on the cistern emptied for cleaning. could pump have easily would Storage. passes -This 11 Fig. the water on from the roof to the cistern may be led through a filter which may be a hogshead filled with gravel or small sometimes mixed stones with In this way the water is filtered as it pieces of charcoal. like any rainy season filled immediately. cistern.

When reservoir it is necessary to start or or prime the pump by pouring the down fill So water to cylinder. it have pure. the satisfied department check expert an Water water are bucket. The underground streams should be planned for with the dug well same general conditions well. How form to " power pumps electric motor. the iron piston pump the water and delivers water is low in the well more rapidly. long as the water is enough rise the the have it in pipe. with driven a by the surroundas be sure that no for that reason cesspool. gas The piston pump " spring which by water accessible raise to analyzed " bowls stone or to the from a several pump. such are layers of rock. to find water This filteringtends to purify the if entirely free from any surface which water tamination con- water. force hydraulic ram. worker lower and almost next Some ? level types of pumps engine. how they are built. The health of the family depends where they are located. have states. deep enough to pipe. gather and hold in from that runs water or springs. has water in it and is ready to deliver water. 11. the of pump is point where may sary neces- it is the chain piston pump. or with a rope and (Figs. and closed iron fiftyfeet or hundred has so and more. All wells are influenced ings. 12) is easier to operate windlass. being present. operated by windmill. The piston is at the stroke top of the cylinder. of water. or has the question is. everywhere replaced " the old oaken operated on a long sweep. it be made needed. in will do or can thinking it free in seep it is some possible contamination up supply.privy or drainage so wells Dug cemented are reach the of any kind can in at the top of the well.25 PLUMBING carefullybuilt and supervised. Cisterns are filled from roof water. and from what upon Wells source they are filled. usually deep artesian wells several for in as well. filtered its way well that a deep driven gives good drilled or drilled or wells as sian arte- an made by a varying distances. pipe being driven down well. When the piston pass into the space above bucket which was . through many down. and the beginning raising the handle results in forcingthe piston down (1 ) The valve in the piston opens and lets the water it. of course. . filled from There are springs or underground streams are kinds two of wells : the driven Driven dug wells. and " the There Do state a that feeds be not well. and drainage into Pumps. sometimes feet.

and indoors connecting it with a Bringing the piston pump is one be placed directly sink It need not great improvement. force so pump make elevated tanks in the possiblea gravityhome attic water or elsewhere system. and (This is being thoroughly aerated in the process. buckets filled are on their stops. chain. 3) up-journey of the piston forces the water into the spout (4).26 HOUSEWIFERY The cylinderthe water will be above it (2.) Force (Fig. as and is water as the will pump on the water thirty feet vertically. the water upward road to deliver water. the over line as well Chain The well. bucket back to the cistern by dropping from thus working its way to bucket. " Piston These of a crank buckets handle. means be of a and filled. which deliver are piston pumps pumps be forced through a pipe to some that it can under water so pressure delivered elevation By or through a hose for garden purposes. is at the bottom of the . which are pump. may . 1 and 2). bucket operate by means pumps elevated through a pipe by small along a horizontal about Fia. 13. fastened draw an endless 12. if the pumping left drops back through a very small opening in each of the buckets. the same principleas aerating boiled water for drinking by pouring from several times the water one pitcher to another.

and the iy2 to pipe should be from spring at great elevation. the down strokes. water size of the pipes.27 PLUMBING Gravity System. may The be furnished by a windmill. gasoline or electric power may engine. withbe dispensed with. the the from inches smaller goes out spring in diameter pipe will the unless tion elevahouse. the spring must flow through the pipe to the the water to make proper pressure from spring a 'ia. may be at such a height as to insure pumping. water pumps. from do. when If the spring is located below 2 a of stroke. or if the water supply he pumped is from must to the storage tank. 13. on The louse. house. Water " For a system supplied by gravity hold a supply for two large enough to "With a large elevated three days is sufficient. of The the pressure both up out goes and down depends upon spring. " Types a storage tank of force 1. the distance the on . the water In this case the size of the tank depends upon how often the owner wishes to pump. spring the tank or out In order to provide a gravity system. 2. be pumped The water by hand or by power. a well.

into the times many and " a Setting of hydraulio is derived ram will ram that 14. including in the house In thus machines. cost Electric motor may Throwing an is required.28 HOUSEWIFERY by Power. etc. be might pumped brook a be may high piece of ground a revolved a flowing water. and when but the volume a storage intervals done be at the tank has a good capacity pumping can A li^-H.P. gasolineengine used. which a in turn windmill. milk separators. than for a windattention fuel is of course required and also more of water pumped is greater . mill. 14) a hydraulic ram than the source much higher from farm. it can 250 will pump about 5]/2 gallons a minute purchased for $35 to $45.is available. of water according to the amount be feet high. Such force water inch rams of the falling falling a few of stream cheap are water to install nothing to operate. The Spring Fig. two-inch lift height into a a ram. of all kinds. the water of device. little attention . Pumping wind. Gasoline engines are of specialservice on a farm for power ing washthe operation of pumps. a to force used supply. pumping water. operating a pump. " on other a or pump forced into wheel a is located. The outlet depends upon the height above the outlet at water elevated an windmill The " water level a example. tank the operates is tank. and there stored at ience height as to produce through gravitythe convensystem in all parts of the house and grounds. be " Where installed electric electric power directly connected switch starts the pump is available with and a an water electric pump. (Fig. Pumps. feet of the power For example. such of at the pressure which water a be may When Hydraulic Ram. For to distributed to a tank on a situated by gravity. the from of stream three-fourth tank. with By by the of means and the then fall.

The " " " " type of tank is and sometimes Elevated tanks bands. the danger of possible the possibilityof freezing but introduces clean out be provided with a damage from leakage. This system includes a pumping pressure painted to " steel tank its located in the as the water fills the one-third is water The pressure. metal with oak. Installation be drained of the is to be used be be drained. From resulting from the establishment is piped to the various fixtures in the usual elevated tanks the water way. should frost-proof.will freeze and often burst. freezingby not allowing rooms prevent freezing. the the then against the forces " the In water case and on All the filled with that sewage traps in through the water only. Piping is made tanks to must be enclosed watch the protected from the housewife's water kept sufficiently warm responsibilityin this matter original installation of pipes.. buried not in the are Pipes outside the house which earth below the level at which freezingtakes place (some two or three feet in the northern age Storstates). etc. pipes is small in amount "compared with the convenof such a system. air is under about 45 System. should other pumped air pressure pounds supply system piping should constructed so be filled with capacitymay of the air which cellar and a summer system can destruction system oil. all of the season summer such of pressure the air is compressed . outfit and a tank system.29 PLUMBING is one built in the attic of tank cheapest form on Placing . the pipes of the house. tank system is the air Air Pressure Tank Another System. system is to be used all the year around. the piping. every part be made that is exposed.thereby preventing freezing and laid in the of two-thirds that of the tank in until pumped Care and piping system. the tank cedar of or copper to house of the outside separate tower a constructed are are on or prevent its rotting. Water for in the entire grades fall. tanks. bound should be zinc-lined. The is to and .gravity. Inside pipes are to get too cold. In case the frost-proofby laying it at sufficient distance below the surface of the ground and by not laying it in the outer walls of a house. It must " This overflow and an pipe to prevent leakage into the house. and flows by. The cost of complete installation of tanks iences and.the tank in the attic overcomes or top of the house. and built is often built large enough often supply several houses. Tanks.

some must one in the to be cellar shown. closet. such the item modern more of equipment. To Thaw would Pipes. if she in has from it off in reallynothing the This it. Iron pipes will not show this bulging. a that pipe. is chapter foundation all the is to shut-off water obstruction direct to turn There which the radiates thing than more be drained. or in any room sufficientlyheated. the apartments the shut-off is often washbasins for each turn-off should its location.page 232. Lead pipes that are frozen will bulge slightly. A pipe once thawed out may be kept warm ing by standa lighted candle nearby. the are of opening a frozen pipe. cause Oloths wrung and most safest candle " of out hot and under like pipe. is usually so -slightas to be easilythawed not out by the housewife. and it .and under has this already know not is the house. means CUTOFF WATER Fig. laundry. freezing of pipes in kitchen. the sinks and shut-offs house.30 HOUSEWIFERY However. CELLAR. shutting off. the it off is is of pipe. The " inside bin of the supply water Shut-off. 15) Avail. with house handle. 15. to turn cases. Storage. ing plumb- . see a know leak cases housewife In on the ask After piping is. in other usually a put water In a is not where in the cellar or connection faucet. Do not put a too rapid expansion. wrapped successful the the bandage. as burst probably water. for and that front through one Cut-off " Cock Stop (Fig. main other or regular faucet pipes should house a a private house. Water in Be around in inflow istreet houses careful or that should turn-off use a of the wrench does to turn To individual close the main of case it. coal a The turn main commonly and houses.

.

laundering. . of " age sew- disposal is through which is public sewer to sewage 16.32 HOUSEWIFERY Wash rH"S"Y -VEJfT after water. water or often free from a if around keeps " Sanitary plumbing stack. where in the farm facilities water are poor. poured best method conducted Fig. is often used house. provided good use for is water clean floors the soiled water soapy often one washtub the is will and clean not rinsed The in sees that or are afterward. washed with yellow or soon turn and often the from Fixed soap. no other clean longer things the The floors such water . Where no community a munity com- disposal there is system. to be emptied through a trough or pipe which the into enough is a and plants roots garden far from the away Clean house. Waste. on the a plant insects. soapy fectant disin- good Human The down the water conducts plant. is This scrubbing. washtubs gray slippery are stalled in- be can just as a sink.

charcoal Dry lime or to water and vaults the into such use the position in a be can no sand in box. both is cared Types single house a off the waste to carry waste for closet disposalof of These (Fig. mixed loam The as relation chance fine kept removed T/Af" and put to the vault. that is the contamination such access loam taught throw extra that be be a soil in should closet should decompose the danger sandy supply the necessary. All be screened waste so that . privy Outdoor " When vault. new there or is superstructure CLAY T/MEFO of whatever particlesof using the person with a bacteria and cover. one meets another danger quite as immithe serious. over W/TH priviesand manure flies is impossible. by the there is privy. as of from piles.33 PLUMBING the best methods and of these of . each a sand or closet. and. in the not to excreta absorbs the odor. 17. these require running water piped water supply. 17). Besides wastes. simplest method The " earth cesspooland septictank. human the are the latter is safer . should house be dug and in water contamination. where no is waste for by the of Privies.should flies. and the loam nent from drainage. closets human privies or VENT/LRTOR LATT/CE OUT HOUSE F/LL IN 'L/ME OR FROM Fig.

be involves " how " Two forms emptied another far away p" earth closets. When is how the closet by burying. and how " at . Where and the from best the care of house. to bury? 18 has This Where and to 19.34 HOUSEWIFERY LOAM COMPARTMENT REMOVABLE RECEPTACLE Figs. the waste big question.

closets water and 18 The 19). its drainage.the closet is often brought too near the house. but that is better decided by the natural drainage from how it affects conditions of a surrounding and lower the privy and level. Flush water flush waste called the siphon. 20). and contain it be galvanized a iron box closet. but of way supply. and its relationshipthrough drainage to the water supply. flushed The each is piped a to closets. also must lime and kept method the is to be re-used Flush Closets. Another remove be the should drawer Fig. be containers good fermentation " human are to after caring for be Flush 20. to by of means and sand are and with water. and of built are closet that and should and down " " flush open of these closets efficient water an because they always requires not only that it be so flushed as to ." in the modern of the house system of water the the course Both plumbing partialtraps themselves. For and convenience protection." superstructure filled. condition build vault and water-tight concrete the first is duplicate vault when abandoned vault. Some (Figs. closets connected planned (Fig. the first vault has destroyed its contents. are to have trap.being careful may in type of drawer charcoal.35 PLUMBING so low level that a surface water there into or be can the no water question of supply? This gettinginto wastes becomes vidual indi- an question answered by the contour of the land.one them " of it is the flush used. care time of called with also there flow of are the water types the other are closets free a connected both the where waste two a a cover Flush have to There out.

water so that inflow the the as sewer RUNNING traps water goes bends are enlargements in waste the pipe. down constantlystands gas through the water of Water " S TRAP or TRAP HALF S TRAP ra K WJ TRAP S AND WITH CLEAN VENT OUT OUT Fig." WITH HOLE pipe. page Water Traps.36 HOUSEWIFERY insure clean below. 258. from water above The and common the Half-S It will be in the be but trap after the use seen water. 21) are off down flows TRAP S HOLE that of the otherwise there less unhealthy Let it be after use. For flush cleaning closets. Types the in the trap flows over- level full. traps.always leaving the trap forms of traps (Fig. traps CLEAN AND COVER of traps. sealing it against As more pipe into the house. can be conditions housewife's Kitchen that water sinks not from concern are or is allowed flush to remain closet ought to only disagreeableodors this water to teach often which the tains con- flooding gradually stopped . or waste. the water the pipe. the S.see chapter and Cleaning on Care. and or in the bowl houses in the trap into emptied city dwellings into country in those of the closet hut are septic the sewage system. water Flush tanks only not closets in cesspools. pipes which. the the sink. hold the last lot of in the pipe. once more of all into at clean 21. the U-tube. tub.

a traps. connection plumbing institution in This kitchens. piping. before a trap (Fig. taken the Care. thirty away house.a sandy built by making a welllike soil for the outlet. grease after Without Disposal Sewage Community sink ened.and is very likely the well or to reach cistern. as the liquid containing organic waste leaches out and contaminates the surrounding soil. This requiresproper provision if of water desired. than lighter water. for the house cold water P" . Cesspoolswere originally cistern (Fig. and the solid waste remained behind to purify itself by its own bacterial action. enough porous the liquid. around the the and pass. 22) allows grease This off had See chapter on Cleaning and grease. the liquid material then leached through the sandy bottom. the warded been of water would which used be may sold to the soap for home-made soap. 23) lined with wood which stone to receive or was the waste from the house . if possible. and. The also become cesspool may a if nuisance the soil is not absorb to by overflowing. is a trap.but on every storage ning run- with no a single house community sewers. page the or 26G. which into an cold The the grease into the inner the entering chamber. easily have could which dishwater in waste water of an inner waste water outer chamber water supply chamber and through circulation_of outside grease which chills or congeals the flows. . Cesspools may from the through passing built some feet from the outlet. Grease traps are often put in with kitchen cooling and hardening on the repetitionof this naturally stoppage of grease. which water Sewers. hardthis grease had and carried off the melted have sinks. choosing. The constant of contamination cesspoolis likelyto become source a to the water supply. especiallyin large hotel grease later and the expense an causes thorough flooding. out factory or " Where available. being grease. Tt mav to empty out the cesspool in order be necessary " to remove the sediment which has collected in too great amounts.37 PLUMBING up of the grease because sides pipes and of the closes the trap with dishwashing with had hot Continued trap. waste and dispose of the human may water waste sewer by running its own into or a septic private cesspool pipe tank. is thus be the at gathers top and vented preCesspools.

38 HOUSEWIFERY The frequency with of the soil . is of more a Leaching box- cess-pool. wide. 24) is disposal.r"SK SCUMBO/l/?"" "m FrfOM //0{/S" uT CO/VCft"r" Fia. Septic Tank (Fig. sometimes The sewage this must which it is never he done 23. T^STJWl- . and 24. shaped." long living in as also depends upon Septic tank. the and number three times of persons connected. This tank is made Fig. " on the porosity necessary. depends satisfactorymethod entirely of concrete. and as the house whether with the the size varies which total the outflow with tank from is .

.

and When realizes one of waste. cleaners and care quality for bathroom poorer give the for best handles kept free from results is at a chemicals medium extensively used and scratchy first cost. a be it will seen porous be carried of the ods meththe to on house soil have should of matter a the from grease by forming film the kitchen of grease on prevent this pipe leading from run through it into the septictank. but to ing be cleaned by carefullywashthe without possible cleaned is a coating on another metal. The privy must -be kept dry so that the bacterial action will destroy the material the into without the risk of seepage water supply. To the care very age slightin comparison with the cost of the risk involved in the drainfrom either poorly built or carelesslyoperated cesspools and privies. waste drain of means must not or Another likelyto become and pipes and a is by area furrows. so Enamel surface kitchen oxide. that this remove For the metal faucets.having the through open results are is not joints underneath the best in accomplished active more porous liquid absorbed. Nickel and naturally the friction as well as cleansers will Faucets. PLUMBING All while metal FIXTURES fixtures should cheaper at first will While the of be good quality. and laundry brass fixtures are usually They will oxidize. passes of liquid contaminated greater amount disadvantage of having all the waste in the be both water septic tank should In soils. pass sink the the through is tank grease kitchen trap sink. of the problem of the seriousness that the cost of the septic tank is the irrigation installed the is is that nuisance a all water If opinion among the tank must through. the cultivation The question of whether through the septic tank pass there be made larger and by organic matter. forming a green deposit of copper brass fixtures will need a Of the good deal of care. and as far as of strong metal use polishes. then. plated. nickel will soon will fixtures quality require is silver- is first quality nickel. in the more modern .40 HOUSEWIFERY the outflow is led pipes. the chemical action of strong finish. the material usually chosen it should keep this in good condition and wiping dry.the require much best refmishing. all the water all the If sanitary experts. cultivated the in a ditches. " chosen.

metal a on less so more are silver- than platedhandles. the the room. 26). house for you flood individual and can to be used spurt out and have used. first gaining use in connection tion outfit required in hospitals. or level faucet that so or hand the it is where operating it is the faucets As machines either or both On faucet the as outside attachments beds. 25) screw a rates where water that stay open sometimes important item.41 PLUMBING with the sanitaryplumbing fixtures. In modern plumbing the stopcocksunder water to shut off all the house necessary of such a shut-off. is of faucet choice The each fixture supply to fix will have so a it is faucet. spring faucets long as held open may are only be an closed." handle to work cold water screw a kinds such faucet fio. high curved a machines and little expense end to plan either plug or cleaning porches. by the saving in money may work and and nickel expensive than They handle. Foot-pressure faucets where "^JSP^" high. close the house begin to take the faucet apart. a 25.watering flower one should repairing a faucet. Usually stays (Fig. Before Faucets. to be turned . 27) devices with have in useful and hot working points should to touch (Fig. because hold be must rooms in ' chosen. are most or pitchers. dishwashing are being connected V*"* open. is preferred. This device would where spring faucets are to be in kitchen a in used are disadvantage a water. The great advantage is the eliminaof polishing metals. Goose-neck bottles for free hospitals. water typical spigot. those faucets with faucet cases work other great hindrance a pipe. otherwise the more for fire emergency. the great disadvantage is of the extra work than balanced be more This its cost.all the water In the absence not be such at the sink with pantry supply " shut-off. Such rubber hose of a by means easilydrawn from a tion combina- bathtub.but until open. and Leaky and more will pipes often of to and in as great installed venience consave have and of water is used of in the when a then be to assist in extra can charge dis- fillingwater and faucets washing which be installed are at various a great advantage. common a (Fig.

showing Fig.when plumbing. reset use on and nut leather water Remove stem. goose-neck outfit is especially for good an laboratory. sink Such the new the and This the big old washer from in stem Fig. using tight that Filters.and belief Instead. they The selves themfilter . in the should a the to are supervisionin breeding-placefor with the be convenient for connected to the filter easy. order that bacteria. sink a a constant or device. 27. use flows. Dish-washing " fit the is held be must the on not washer around nut the washer does washer worn Replace one. It is good for all time. Porcelain 20. strainer and faucet. they need may not that very become monkey-wrench loosen in the common a when turn faucet to make filters close kitchen. sink. are so placed as the cleaning of be once installed it and make it so is used. put with worn opening through which or place with a screw To do one. The of the end leaks faucet because has screw take out block the and the Fig. Fig. the in replaced and stem of the end the faucet the and 27. the this loosen lubber 26." the big nut. by a new the it does " not Filters. also for pantry.42 HOUSEWIFERY off. They kitchen.

to the a candles new factory to Sinks. then at to too replace the large ovens to consider not and is the the cases long old rendered standard with month per filters intervals. time is by the firm inspected regularly and be " The are be baked first It should put in in thing be a is water The days. of are cylinder of fine cylinderis connected outer the which is would approved many which consist of a hollow called teacup of a oversaturated boiled. easilycleaned. assumed care of at 95" as sterile filtration may be obtained its contents.even are and germs filler and so proof against filters say to reverse If this is done at least it. the filter is said days. sink. many to be sterile for a nine only five days. cases amount an pads most the they as all remove disease.it leaves the suspended matter coating on the exterior of proof if the filtration germ length of time during which the porcelain candle. Filtration medium with such means passing water through some close crevices and of particlesof pores" as to prohibit the passage dirt. requirement smooth. although they be of these to clean water the and hold they faucet. ones which At go sterile.and . and the better types with proper care do supply pure water. with fillingsof cotton batting. and the a possibilitythat clean call it germ proof. is enclosed water Those daily. are well as the dirt and such filter is as they keep back the germs a called germ their proof. All sorts of cheaper niters have found into homes. filters may he rented which In such rents. at of the filter and the temperature depends upon temperature of 72" Fahr. Many of these filters built are clean to be water will In given for many and contents might be all attained. filters will These themselves. these should this time. or broken charcoal. of the on the Directions the filter and once flood with filter a market by with the the system with day.free from bacteria. sand. water clean are becomes soon to have are cold bacteria. of one water the water be and glass.non-absorbent. or by means filtered is forced through the pores of the porcelain to the inside of the candle dropping into the reservoir. force with dirt.43 PLUMBING should supply clean water. supply pipe to Pasteur unglazed porcelain. If the pores of the filtering medium of microscopicsize. is not a continued too In localities some the Fahr.there The type. to long as never small screwed metal. that is. while Such . gravel. picked cotton or way asbestos. but no one This of filters the candle. about pad changed frequently.

an by impossible to keep the which and first choice or and easilykept clean.and Galvanized and considered.in institutions where dishes may be washed in the sink. a like enamel of word the finish. (one grade of increase in named. Care porcelain.soapstone non-rusting. inexbe a gradual except in pantries. kept in good condition shallow from soapstone sinks However. the The chipping or This " is it the from the is impossible breakage. on which and bright.rots sweet-smelling. beyond the sinks galvanized coating is drops of oil wiped over the of every enamel implies. can become It sink only A as rinse more dishes easily it becomes a a a slop sink. iron.HOUSEWIFERY 44 used are wood. They of any that means clean while once used are material cleaning agent. Copper the slimy. tage only advan- that.because a sharp blow cracking tub. Either " will pensive. rusted. The the advantages that in modern homes disadvantages so outnumber of wood a wooden is is not sink slowly softens. shallow which like surface important an is^ as porcelain is quality of the under is would surface. cause enamel. and porcelain. Copper. reach of easily and cheap are penetrates the thickness. made metal its freedom gets materials Enamel housekeeper. The materials called which is alberene). made Many of the early sinks were " wood. slate. than chooses institutions. smooth. molded chipping. the prices the order Sink Wood: Materials. worn surface Sinks. Galvanized iron " easily be kept disadvantage is that if to prevent Slate. there seldom are keep and and sink sinks saucepan. becomes free from Iron. and If enamel result free and covering bowl. impossible to remove. it will grease. is necessary of any kind it is with may consideration. because to is wash so and will sink be deep that tub-shaped washing vegetables. and of few a wooden ones used are The to-day. rust. and grease. will help without One and of these a baked. and be water. soaks It is almost splinters. them Porcelain. good general size . there is less danger of the dishes being chipped. A few Both " require much to care Enamel-lined agate both its in Size small a stain or in it and durable The greatest off. copper. enamel-lined iron. for surface one A an ware earthen- an mined is deter- which blisters. " enamel clean slate sinks absorption of grease.

it fine pans may enough both working center drawers. in the Drain so the is made and level the of built with are by the excellent complete of cabinet. if they are usually are the too of grooves deep they . windows. if space permits. Sink-strainers should be kept at one end of the sink and should be used to prevent small particlesgetting into the trap.keeping back bits of food. it acts certain be too fine for outlet drain The " openings so that.45 PLUMBING is large enough one stand Outlet. Were it would and washing that sink. " Well-planned arrangement of sink. Two drain boards.because the rinsing extent. Drain Boards. proximity the sink. 28. for the smallest The outlet flat with be should as a sinks rapid drainage. cupboards below small sieve. Some slightly sunken great disadvantage. because they make possible the separating it " and hard classifyingof wood. often oak. this is a requiresspecialcare to keep it clean. with . Fig. are more satisfactorythan one. to a larger particles. most just deep enough the dishes. and to carry These drain should be off the water boards grooved.

and cleaning. because it thorough cleaning.each having its own the faucets. In quite open and that so case must be Fig. have the sink except perhaps the worker's anything under must Towel for racks level than and shelves below closets of the out more way above drain the it. build or easilyrolled out for frequent the cupboards must leave the plumbing proof against leaks and dirt. two drawers no close way closets and in a under the trap. to advantage to mount allows board the all of which is the when limited Iu drain board in not an on cupboards (Fig. 'by using appliances which former the setting into the top of the latter. they either solidly to and If drawers boards. " The idea and space-saving illustrated of further by drawers. Space-saving built-in are Sinks. 29). " be may Sink with Building should in drainboards. Open drain Plumbing.46 HOUSEWIFERY will be hard clean. drain so that of the sink the washtub meets an is in extension no way drain soiled by in the the side waste . " the board wall. up great help in cleaning under a or and extension pushed to be use it is often spaces. board sink or allow 29. of the The tub.which sink. so that either is complete without depending upon be carried out in small kitchens other. and because it is a principle of sanitation to-day that all plumbing should be open so that traps easily accessible (Fig. either drain of dust an fixture. 28) are built under build them that they fit tightly and so them rollers on prevent collection floor. A kitchen of good size need not are stool. the these found against the wall. may sinks and combine washtubs. base- water .

.

48

HOUSEWIFERY

(Fig. 31).
gas piping

It will be wise
can

be

to look

painted

paint, for that matter, and

with

into

the

question of

aluminum

can

easilybe

onb

which

paint, or
cleaned

and

because

cost

white
is

a

enamel

cheap

and

satisfactory
support.
The
at

Fig.

height is

best

right angle

a

30."

Sink

only 50

that

at

the

elbow.

per

cent,

efficient, because

standard

back, good poise

of the

of sink

This

keeps the worker's
position insures

materials

and

too

low

drainboards

for

the

a

bent

straight

worker,

The

good.

fatigue. The depth of the
must
be considered
in determining the height that is desired,
for a shallow sink can
be placed higher than
So long
a
deep one.
the
of
sinks
wiser
be much
to plan
too low it would
as
majority
are
for;the usual worker's height, 5' 5"
5'
5' 6"
7", and set the sinks
40"
from
accordingly about 34"
top of sink to floor; wasbtubs
body,

and

it is set

arms

less

sink

"

"

"

should

be 36"

to 40"

from

top to floor; then

for the

unusually

short

49

PLUMBING

worker

platform

a

fatigue from

no

it

causes

use

of

Fig.

31.

a

much

large

"

This

had

shows
sink

and

the

bracelet

is divided

allow

to

Such

makes

possible for

without

a

each

at

to

the

a

worker

platform, even
the

older

comfortable, with

more

platform, that
be overcome
by the
down, may
side, and by having the platform

The

which

extension
furnish

work

her

position.

boards

step off.
it

make

stepping up

drain

large enough

would

objection to

may

be

used

place for washing

to

step about
needed

if not

children

to

and

to

take

a

raise

all low

sinks.

This

rinsing dishes.

without

by
their

the

having

housekeeper,

share

fatigue of overreaching, and without
and
splashing caused by the height of work

to

the

of

washing
dish-

panying
accom-

worker

not

50

HOUSEWIFERY

each

being adjusted to
children

will

the

be

or

bright

The

finished.

to be renovated

tub.

"

very

useful

in

washing

task

Fig.

Bathtubs.

The

found

mothers'

device

other.

32.

"

A

in

It

at least

requires
once

all

a

a

platform for
duces
greatly re-

and

faces.

bathroom.

is

great

year,

movable

a

lavatories;it

hands

well-arranged

cheapest bathtub

of

of

one

amount

making

tin, either painted
of

care,

it in the

end

and
an

needs
sive
expen-

51

PLUMBING

The

enamel

A
porcelaintub is by far the most satisfactory.
bathtub
is
porcelain
very expensive,and reallygivesno better service
than the heavy enamel
(Fig. 32). The newest
porcelaintubs are
made
without
set
into
the
and flat upon
the
legs,
directly
corner,
that
there
is
chance
for
dust
to gather under
them.
floor,so
no
For

or

materials,see
Washbasins.

Washbasins

"

Marble
which

Sinks, page 43.

is

more

less

or

of every

Enamel-lined

or

is

the

2.

Where

3.

procedure
should
Why

What

the

first choice

in

do

of

a

be

placed?

method

Describe

Why?

of

stoppage.
have

not

a

perfectly straight pipe

outlet

an

as

for a flush closet?
consider
the best substitute
you
should
it
shut-off?
Where
the
of
a
purpose
What
box?
is a street
waste"?
is a "stop and

to

a

Why?
be

is

the

Considering
rain

of

of

diagram

a

system.

case

you

Draw

system?

washbasin?

or

What
6.

satisfactory

more

be

by acids,

QUESTIONS

plumbing

a

"clean-outs"

should

sink

of

purpose

general plumbing

What

porcelainis

celain.
por-

or

housekeeper.

1. What

5.

is affected

porcelain would

or

SUGGESTIVE

4.

marble, enamel,

absorbent, and

destroy the glaze. Enamel

in all ways.

of either

are

should

7.

Why

8.

How

can

9.

How

could

of

cost

economical?

water

from

water

hard

building
Why?

be

water

hot-water
test

brick

or

boilers

converted

housewife

the

a

into

soil for

cistern, is

cement

for

water

and

absorption

the

use

for drinking?
laundering?
rapid drainage?

used

be

never

good

placed?

REFERENCES

Bailey, E.
Bboadhubst,

S., Sanitary

H.

Jean,

Home

Care
T. M., The
Clark,
J. J., Principles
Cosgrove,
and
Farm

Home

Fuller,

and

Conveniences.

U.

Myron

D.

trand

the

Co.

Bulletin

Harrington,
Hering-Shaw,

of

L.,

Chemistry.

Community

and

Manufacturing

Farmers'

Applied

and

J.. B.

Macmillan

House.
Practice

S.

Macmillan

Hygiene.

of

Dept.

of

Co.

Lippincott

Co.

Co.
Standard

Plumbing.

ing
Plumb-

Agriculture, Washington,

D.

C,

927.

Water

for

Farm

Homes.

U.

S. Geol.

Survey,

ington,
Wash-

C.
Practical
Hygiene.
Charles,
Sanitation
A., Domestic

Ginn

"

Co.

Plumbing.

and

D.

Van

Nos-

Co.

General
Science.
" Eldridge.
Hogdon, D. R., Elementary
Hinds, Hayden
McGraw-Hill
Book
Keene, E. S., Mechanics
of
the
Co.
Household.
Hot-Water
Steam
Lawler, J. J., Modern
Heating.
and
Plumbing,
lar
PopuPublishing Co.
Lynde, C. J., Physics
Macmillan
the
Household.
of
Co.
Hygiene.
Macmillan
Co.
Ogden, Henry
N., Rural
E. T., Modern
Conveniences
Farm
Home.
Wilson,
U. S. Dept. of
for

Agriculture,
Winslow,
Wood, H.

Farmers'

C. E. A., Sewage

B., Sanitation

Bulletin

No.

Disposal.
Practically

270.
John

Wylie

Applied.

"

John

Sons.

Wylie

"

Sons.

III

CHAPTER

HEATING

Heating

and

As

the

although
no

its

stoves

which

fuels

rural

the

Where

home

housewife

not

taken

in

the

end

which

for

adaptable

used

for

Humidity
has

the

keeping

stove

This

of

that

In

will

heated

lower

fill the

cycle

is

which
the
52

promotes
cook

stove

heating

it is of

as

letting
is

it

water

This

it

as

and

and

in

in

the
it is

circulation

by
control

a

problem

the

stove

water

on

the

of

matter

a

or

erable
consid-

A

room.

leave

room

is

of

stantly
con-

Nature's

air.

it

ventilation, because
for

air, in turn, heats

or

fuel

by putting

that

so

much

evaporates.

about

ventilation
flues

evaporate

as

is

burning

needed,,

automatically

level.

most

are

investigation

Recent

"

easily accomplished

rise

Some

her.

to

(compressed acetylene)

Presto

artificial

brought

air

ism
mechan-

or

gasoline, kerosene,

are

Problem.

Heating

water
the

Ventilation
gases

be

and

device

the

or

light.

moist

and

renewing

of

and

comfortable
air

cooking,

the

they

idea

in

saving

for

because

electricity) which

and

gas

separate

electricity.

and

new

new

much

its

must

available
gas

often

is

home

as

it is not

are

the

so

than

for

the

can

quantity

mean

city

they

consider

to

acetylene,

heat

radiator

or

and

and

that

shown

furnace.

(other

heat

both

time

of

them,

because

; (but

well
made

has

place

adopted

not

would

Kerosene,

acetylene.
are

fuels

other

of these

law

has

has

the

take

may

time

of

so

because,

there

rural

individual
as

house,

a

handicap,

a

and

heating plant

increasing,

is

the

and

advance

necessarily expensive

are

of

lighting

The

furnace.

country

electric

in

common

suffer

ing.
plumb-

water

upon

conveniences
a

is

as

way

dependent

apartments,
districts

their

in

lighting arrangements

separate

or

in

lighting system,

community

have

of

use

is

Rural

comforts.

added

offer

which

possible greater

makes

lighting, and,

community

essential

as

plumbing,

systems,

sewer

lighting are

modern

LIGHTING

AND

cold
and

air

to

vides
pro-

and

enter

rises, and

the

air

produced.

openings

increase

the

ventilation

; and

HEATING

in

rooms

A

fresh

with

room

used

air.

air

these

With

given
Suggestions for
window

Lower
Have

Use

the

a

ventilator

more
as

and

up

out.

with

basis, various

working

a

board,

Lower

"

window

top and

raise from

door

opposite

and

open

window

air to pass
rapidly than one

stale.
tions
sugges-

ventilation.

from

a

heated

for

facts

Ventilation.

window

a

heats

two

for

be

may

be allowed

must

spaces

53

LIGHTING

AND

that

so

the

air

from

the

tojx

the bottom.
also

open.
sift in

may

between

the

sashes.
Use

manufactured
that

ventilators

be

can

grate with
sick

a

a

hallways

fire

principle of

window

a

form

some

board;

of shutter

pipe

or

hall

the

act

as

flue.

a

in it will ventilate

burning

out
with-

open.

been

has

and

candle

a

or

cool, moist

rooms

which

sheet

the

on

usually have

into

being

windows
In

is

regulated.

opening

Doors
A

which

be

air may
of

out

wrung

supplied by hanging

cold

As

water.

fast

up

it

as

dries, remoisten.
FUELS

Fuel
it

is food

produces

partly by

the

produce
Wood

is rated

which

it is

duration, and

hand

little cost, it is

so

at

keep

to

easy

much

hard

wood

"

Of

the

at
two

especiallyserviceable
which

are

still in

flues,careful

a

the

attention

one

if

an

has

local

from

by

the

ciency
its effi-

market;

odor, and
needed

amount

abundance

an

used

for

of wood
A

wood

have

as

is controlled

dirt and

expensive fuel.
it is possibleto

being

proportion

from
by its freedom
intenselyhot fire,but

and

makes

very

wood

for slow

less cost, and
Coal.

unless

coal; but

as

wood, the light softer
heavier

quickly

rapidly and

of short

to the

used; its economy

required heat

burns

supply

in

price

Its

its freedom

by

value

volume.

and

of the

home

in

It is rated

fire.

its cost

proximity

the

with

ease

for

heat

in the
the

for the

to

waste.
a

fuel

fire
at

fire is not
two

types of

quick burning and the
fire can
be operated at

burning, the wood

greater convenience.
types of coal, hard
because
soft

and

of its freedom
As

coal.

will have

to

be

hard

soft, hard

from
coal

given

is

to the

the

coal

excess

is

gases

likely to corrode
care

of the

flues.

54

HOUSEWIFERY

heat

(great
slowly

burns

little

care

C high burning

[
coal

Soft

flue

corrodes

I

Advantages.

"

'

]*
less

Disadvantages^

point

high

cost

Disadvantages-!

^

Pom

heat

dirty
smoke
low

Wood

\

Advantages

"

burning

point

ash

little
clean

less

Disadvantages
6

with

ovens
a

is

charcoal

a

coal

from

residue

supply

small

a

made

in

the

which
either

than

porous

and

temperature,
Coal

"

type

low

a

in

most

great

part,

as

illuminating gas, and
burning point and so

it
is

work.

by partiallyburning wood, is more
soft coal, bursting into flame
at low
for broiling, since broiling over
used

is

so

often

wasted,

as

of substitute

lumps

is available

coal is

minutes

of coal.
a

very

The

into

is made
in

molded
markets.

some

greatest disadvantage
which

heavy smoke

is

given

of its

burning.
sene,
some
localities,
play an important part: kerogasoline,alcohol,acetylene, Presto-lite,gas, and electricity.
fuels each
require a different type of burner, and vary in

These

fuels, in

price under

different

Kerosene

In

used

are

first few

Other

a

has

heated

secured, in

of

and
briquettes,"

as

bricks

off in the

and

or

is often

which

dust,

bricks, known
of this

coke

It is

when

gives a specialflavor.

charcoal

These

is made

watching

coal

manufacture

a

Charcoal,

soft

air.

cheaper fuel than coal. It
especiallygood for quick kitchen
is

requires

from
of

})urninS

expensive

(
Coke

heat

ral)id

is

wick
the
a

is

fuel

a
is

used

modern
wick.

an

which
in

conditions.

oil which

has

necessitates
the

lamp

or

a

with

strong odor, burns

much
stove

cleaning
to

feed

and

the

heaters, the oil is vaporized and

so

care.

flame
may

an

odor,

Usually
with
burn

fuel.
out
with-

.

meter. " Interior of a gas the bellows showing Washington. HOUSEWIFERY 34. D. C.56 Fig. action. Standards. Courtesy of the Bureau of .

for used that blow likelyto issue rules which Underwriters Fire These be purchased in water-tightcontainers and is perfectlysafe so tional kept dry and in a well ventilated storage place. plus 9.80-$1. The amount the reading taken difference between and oh first may furnished to feet dial indicates the middle the and tapped. which is natural is invisible an is substituted gas obtained the from Fig.and that Because that be turned flame as be obtained can Gas. any two the dial on and figures. always which the hand rests.00 and the on for right hand figures. the by writing to lighting. Natural gas. secured from coal by heating. figures.000 feet between lesser of the example. pipes and is controlled by stop cocks . 35). $.one connections all burner are tight. if second a vein Read 1 For are gas the for localities some are so oil factured manu- by companies consumers The dial " indicates 100 sand thou- two meter as shown one taken at the is distributed by end small $. the cubic per thousand manufactured gas.000 feet betweea numbers or connected Both give out. it extends and the bide car- office in any large city. between reads of the $. heating. a month beginning would be the of the month month. is piped like 79.30 read earth in earth In cooking. is gas feet.000. the Gas cautions. index " as it so much per gas (Fig. vapor for 2 that The out. gas. 34) and charge for be represented at about The feet. cost price may cubic (marked the serve the meter To is natural meter the into and j(2 ^L Gas " will manufactured of depths 35.500 cubic veins (Fig. which natural 10.57 LIGHTING AND HEATING be should of the gas being poisonous. The Na- is long that it would low so extremely careful by no chance the 500 used in at the In reading.25- feet between 1. Meter thousand) left indicates the 8 reads of gas or 79. water.500 feet.000 plus 70.

and is used to ignite the gas as the valve or cock is opened. cooking. and incandescent mixes burner the the Bunsen known right proportion of as air burners individual and and that so gas gas not 'burns stove enough air with with air burns Fig. much A This flame is that by opening the overcome pops on lighting and on ventilator turning out air. constantly near on heaters. cock into has and the too Gas mixer. burner of v j 37. 36 and 37). One must not feel that this pilot is not costing something. it will for heat. especiallytrue with high chandelier lightsand for lightsthat are pilot lights on gas .58 HOUSEWIFERY of various shapes (Figs. Fig. an air mixer monly comheating. before burning. which I as blue a in deposits soot and lamp burn unmixed Gas greatest heat. a yellow tip to the flame means is between the stop going in at the mixer. " chance Yellow for flame air until for at has light. but to its cost is more is than nalanced This some by its convenience.and light fixgas ranges. with intake the gas the flame. gas jet which the burners tures. Blue flame produced by the Bunsen " which has which mixes holes for and flame yellow like give a the kerosene that the flame of the cooking. For lighting. Be sure that there is blue . no the air. 36. Thisflame point of burning. heating and lightingappliances are a A pilot light is a small burns great convenience.

fans.which of chain the 59 LIGHTING AND or on gas for gas of using an is the method lighting system wire led from electric spark produced by a dry battery with copper to the battery to each individual wire.are between machines with direct current if one but current. but one can buy any ice sewing machines. to fuel but is a safer than both are Kerosene store. As of electric the current is most often know alternating. . of the inflammables the Keeping any safely stored An electric " at temperature makes low a Electricity. so safer to store. it is much cheaper to turn on the than and carelesslyto keep the burner going. Gas. so that difference the for the types of will of company Knowing necessary of these two nating types of electric currents. the two wires coming in contact is pulled to open Continual produce a spark. this has which lever operating The a automatically pilot spring. burning of pilots of gas stoves. One must for a leak in gas pipes with hunt flame as a candle. therefore in certain proportions. the alter- two are direct. electric washing machines. the easilyturned be stairs.which ignitesthe gas. Besides the knowing voltage of the the kind current. information. or match. Any of Danger from the gases used for fuel will cause asphyxiation if breathed in quantity in the pipes. crosses the gas valve. etc. Kerosene. Acetylene.HEATING at the off foot head the or by pulling of may cock. attached gas tip. one should motors asks for them. them housekeeper of these is to she the motors these for her as The use. The which are two to know local tric elec- alternating to operate cream freezers. or must hence one guard against leaks against air the fumes of if mixed with Gas and flames blowing out. likelyto be alternating motors.are highly explosive. an never open of kerosene and gasoline should always lamp.. released the worker. " and currents which the is not There current is often more currents furnish course used. Storage the thought of avoiding spread of odor and he with danger of fire. gas. at very little cost a flint lighter may be purchased which and because will at any time spark a light. This of course shuts off the pilotas soon as by caused the extra cost of gas eliminates by most pilotlights. light matches gas have is like The newer a pilotwhich a type gas stoves spark burner. because matches is not necessary in the use are cheap. more gasoline outside house. Gasoline. A second wire as the chain the copper the lever operated by the chain.

which current materials certain by about 1. so Home voltage is usually 110.on lesser meter.000 kiloto the the reading period.000 watt 10.voltand 110 then. pressure measured the flow by force is of electric rate of the by voltage. Electricityis measured used . and through conductor a unit resistance of is called A ohm. left. read To beginning In the 100 a then the period composition a white light. the indicates right-hand dial subtract at the to become as left.HOUSEWIFERY 60 machines." terms dial indicates kilowatt the in are the reading. Heating lighting by electricityis brought or offered the KILOWATT Fig. revolution next electric Our emit the number of the electrical passage of the stove. lights and home age. read of radiate of such that hand last. warming In the lamp incandescent To the and heat that is. of current.or electricity read right case irons. is the kilowatt. hand at the If the . an flow the to the of current is the watt unit of electric power. of the wire indicates which pads with Bead 38. from have we heat.indicates extreme from a (Fig. the to In produces heat. thousand thousand : kilowatt third between end which the of a A watts complete hours. . 38) meter consumption. the the amperage. hot-water watt-hour a electric or Electric an of Dial " ance resist- by HOURS is finer and distributingunit watts. special wires of watts bills To the obtain of " of hours indicates hours. of "kilowatt-hours. are usually operated on alternating current should make but one inquiry of the local electric company before buying electric appliances and equipment. the number electric of dial kilowatt and rests. heaters. Meter. the hours. two the numbers that 10 the by meter a small a a unit. as a is watt used the hours. A low voltage 'be attached to a high voltage line without electric utensil cannot The overheating and melting the wiring in the utensil.

reading above is the actual consumption in kilowatt hours. general principles extra compartment for baking. have must a for compartment fire called to furnish cold air to the passages dampers which open and gases and air and of cold is the same of waste for stoves and gases and furnaces.and gives . a fire-box. This kind used in the gas stove. particularlycoal. 39. A Bunsen 40.and flues to carry close to regulate the hot air.openings fire. The hours. Cook but stoves have follow the oven the as of all stoves and furnaces.HEATING AND 61 LIGHTING ingly multiply/' multiply the difference accordthe reading is direct. " the is chimney. of burner flame spreader. for of fuel use with extent some partly upon the Stoves Heating. of stoves and the management depends in bums for the and the A hood stove over air and of heated cooking be connected with the w/rw burner with Fia. Coal and The wood and off waste draughts principleof firing are the common fuels. an . if the dial is plain. part upon the proper kind of heater. Either furnaces. escape odors must " furnaces Economy use. " type of fuel which they Fig. or 538 kilowatt dial the on has meter " HEATING Stoves vary to in the and Cooking.as above. Laundry. 8 plus 30 plus 500 plus 0000.

30) above heat and to cooking odors adds much kitchen. of cleaning. electricity. that and food and gases them require stoves oven With below or gas stove may called burner a consist of or plate (Fig. less heated only to a much nickel. when around to go extra degree. well of ornamentation irregularity not stoves: A holds dirt coal 3. gas burner. only 1. A hood (Fig. stove. found stove casting specialdamper a which. 2. that one the to of the or are Different it is three if " Cook case Two. are chosen air dishes. in one put together are called gas plates. one has a gas range. the combination one on top and perhaps three or four burners burners above these burners. A " usually four such portable either kinds cook in many is built Every escape Stoves. or much stove is for the conveniences.62 HOUSEWIFERY Coal waste cook forces cook either Fig. the oven for Wlarming ovens like the oven. 40). an for comfort Gas and 41. used 'box. *but adds the the which termed oven a the a heated work of of without stoves. is be put on burner. gas. . the damper is rightly adjusted.

.

to help in lifting the boiler. so particles. Gas laundry stoves may be purchased with a central section just largeenough to hold the average wash-boiler. the stove is built with a lower working surface. it naturally is gradually weakened very heat. in Any " laundry stove.- laundry The be to workrooms Fig. stove stove a possibleto in kerosene of means it is specialburner burn kerosene over By gas. of such flame the that sooting. 43). so sides very in stove. or without burn to cook allowed usuallybe as will and even all charred free from kept by the irons against the side. a or pan. is This. plan irons or and kitchen where must because such over fact.and. irons closest hottest come contact part of the care will have to be used not to throw a boiler.which the dry laun- for the stove or may for device the cook the two keep lect might sespecial laundry stove for the -A ideal -the housewife case 43. 44). coal water They flat are will heat planned to the stove burning becomes this intense kerosene way the the heat rest up (Fig. like be converted that will heat cook a coal a (Fig. in which laundry. can be can a boiler clothes either set would a A separate.HOUSEWIFERY 64 wick The odor. As old. fire. Laundry into stove. A longer time as is not the heat stove a must intense so be must be will that of coal wood Stoves. the hold having them the all laundry use. irons are by around In this into the with the fire. usually built with the sides of the stove while a for to top contain not may water-back. a necessary be combined. In .

It will be found room very use. The to beginning is houses very mild or for summer cold weather. Cheese- . the Heating by the most placed in stoves. signed *""""" . whether stove is to be used in ventilatingby the not are old-fashioned Franklin that fireplace. It a flue occasional The the really heats fire of Furnaces. pleasure of the open and with connects for satisfactory Hot-air heats space an the between the not or fires a designed to sent represtove. Hot-air fire burns cold the " by stove a like much grate. in the inner air which jacket and furnaces is piped are reallyjacketedstoves compartment in from the firebox. . or it is room." a coal stove defor heating irons. (Fig. as fire. method common one of is still more or rooms. flues to heat by the rooms effective system more Fig than 44. Grate and of dust of iron means fireplaceopening into throw possibleto out more heat into the room.45). " tO . stove furnaces air chambers heat is like that management part of the heat not expect to have the as much give as to Fires. spite De- dirt. Will built in them.! It USe. sides the heating for burners covered or one on 65 LIGHTING AND the the heat central space are hooded or covered is held in around iron. fireplace grate. so that one must a " room about the evenly heated as By stoves.HEATING type of stove. Fireplacesare useful for rise of hot are and ". and it is also possible that the heat from the grate on the first floor be conducted may This is a above. mtO COme factory method where the winters severe a Serve as " SatlS- a heating houses of located air and the fall of cold air. be such stoves give a cheery heat and can its drawback easilycontrolled Their furnace or cook with the sible.by animals. . posof a Fireplacesutilize only produced. this burners of irons. These because fuel-savers are both. of care involved.from the chance entrance of be tion radiato the flue extends protected. . individual heating ably prob- houses. giving the a is placed out in the stovepipe. means . A boiler may be connected with this stove allowing for hot all over water the house.of carrying coal through the house. i the " simple Tl . which of wire grating. This and by out-of-doors cold-air should opening in the cellar wall.

it is partiallycleaned the the often are in divided so register. air chamber of the furnace. forcing other of the water of heated a pleasant . rises and separate flue a that so of street is circulation furnace various rises to the that put furnace. level. The dry. and the heat is hot (Fig. thus system is keeping up the circulation easilyoperated. Hot-air heat relieves the purpose in to " Diagram of hot-air is likelyto be dusty and dust difficulty. 46). 47). as water rise to the air arranged for the the air so it less water warm siftingof will moisten parched. Hot water heating systems operate by water through pipes or radiators located in as OUTS/DE the This it cools and in the descends to radiators the the the becomes circulation rooms than hot radiators. and water the make 45. in furnace tank a The to water.66 HOUSEWIFERY cloth sieves to of hot-air a a low jacket into the air enters at the over openings of air the air as As dust. expands. one. flues which attached are parts of the house. a CH/WEY SMO/fE PI//PSAIR FROM Fia. each reaches flues TO cold from passes are terminating room ciple prin- the through these to it and These comes the (Fig.is heated. heavier boiler.

p " ^ CD j" c g " S O 0-3 CO " J !D r B" "Hg g -Eg. O a 2 n O_o a o "" _.a" h q CD - !." g p " ssb! h'S.o "! Co o sr"0 7" 3-pss* 7T^ 2 3 " _" ' "0 p s5' rt-B-VJ CD B"cd 3 " g2""3-o 2^ C" O ""? "-"" hi 2"P *s O a cd "*G. "* P Co a S " 2 *"" 5 S. "So3'?S-p w"' "^" 2 """'"a o 3 G-CD a 3 cTra 2 o "" o h g-e-o 5 "*" j-g 3 5 CD r? p a 5-5-3 a" "" 'u Ji. B B" 3 :" CD CD . CD H-H-g^j 3 2fp " re a to i t. ce P cb "5. So "D 3 B y."" " B a n S'. 3 3pt^"S-hoV o ".S8JfS5 ""o-g " ~" a CB CDm. lB a'"*t+P " wP g a "d P efcJ crp jt" 5. J5"" p.5' O CD OP* "offl "9" ST c 3 *" h g H-H.

.

otherwise. registersset in the floor furnace. in that and circulation into open air is rooms only will carry to small a quite compact. in One floors may rise to the upper. it is possibleto heat a inconvenience and having unsightly (see Fig. second floor that the heat The equal by " ease built without for The without heater heating water a should be may that the heat the house. with the chimney is and heater halls free the A " the hot air connected pipe house from 67 LIGHTING AND The rooms the on r Fig. or the fire. of the to the the heated are 48a. should rooms it has One-pipe means one-pipe system the pipelessheater one-pipe or through the house. furnace differs to conduct the off the smoke The All hot-air and from gases of the where one furnace. the water but is that house. with which such a furnace be installed is about may In an old house. other. 46) is about a of so lower planning expense house pipe heater means connections. for for . it must much Coils be bered remem- less heat by using a larger furnace. the each prohibited. be on the north placed in this used be to heat overcome side of the furnace.HEATING One-pipe or PipeJessHeater. which was settingup of any stove. This may 6^ feet of The either of depth and could breaking be the it without walls cellar pit or easilyarranged or even cellar. is suited is best of arrangement heated of flues no that This necessary.

to back runs boiler the into (Fig. through from a the the back bottom higher heated Diagram " level and showing of the at stored as at small water. 49. heat supply water of hot heating in a . the water is which constant satisfactory.as water water (Figs. Water the heating hot A " cook supply water of has often stove the Pipes house. as it cools steam which from Steam the changes steam which water. water of lar Simi- furnaces. back water a let are COLD HOT Fio. cost The with a latter and by circulation level into the heater. and return hot heating coils are Special water-heating hot-water water often stoves box. Hot for Heating. there bleak where are large buildings and in situations boiler in the basement The system operates by a low-pressure steam rises through pipes to radiators . 50). 49. 48). available maintain cold of hot fire boxes the cookstove.and are more the also boiler and of fire lower a the on connection water boiler a at back.HOUSEWIFERY 68 for efficient heater heating apparatus is the most winds. from in the put into are coal fire.

.

heaters may gas water directlywith the tub and basin. any The gas faucet is Fig.and is opened. while run.70 HOUSEWIFERY insulating the boiler the heated water be may kept for several warm hours. be Instantaneous for use where houses water 52). that water for The pilotlight. easy heater. when as the it may. burner of faucets A the is the water the on Instantaneous " creates as as a water the gas is on kerosene hot-water heater. for long as the water long as the faucet gas bill. the change in 52.as full force. or Lay fire grate the begins reversing . MAKING Starting should material to burn be Fires free for the AND in Stoves from fire it will settle all ash FIRES REGULATING or Furnaces. This plumbing burns immediately and like the gas an hot-water no full. fire-box material. of the turn hot-water gaa heater automatic continuously as opened. the turns flows. how matter in the problem to force gas giving Careless long instantaneous an when bathroom. 53).and heater large a heater small is chosen system. makes if there one is the hot-water water a pressure system no not most furnishes faucet (Fig. continuing on hot water use is heater gas water all over the house convenient hot there placed in the bathroom the heater rural water the home through pipes (Fig. and " The unburned firmly but looselyso that evenly and not topple over.

As soon Should any unburned coal. a kerosene is this coal is hot 71 LIGHTING AND HEATING flame. the As bottom. add more. " or paper. great where its naming point.such ?ia. no hot-water coal range heater. and where and required to bring the coal to the only enough coal to cover or in be should then put on coal. as 53. Blue there flame is leal of heat the fire with burning-material shavings. then wood easiest The the fuel. start wood lightly. a heater Such gives great service in houses a cookstove is used entirely. .

Grate take be established.be left from not it is when a regular time and night at over keep old an general When " be be removed far made these It is an back in ashes back heat the as the between but paper.72 HOUSEWIFERY clinkers. the same followed. from Such a piece can be used on the next fire. be well coal it will as should ashes placed on in and day day and fire is burned the thoroughly clear. To keep a large log from burning.place the back shavings it is grate. the across wood throwing until the andirons. shoveling coal in the grate are eliminated. a to leave economy throw to out fireplaceand the will always pushed but as is a brushed fire at to have as so wood where fireplace. perhaps late fire is no at night when longer needed. Small fire. Lay the heavier sticks on the flame burns along the kindling. opening the front damper lets in air which will feed the fire and assist .it may former a slowly and be laid of on the steadily. regulating the dampers of stoves and furnaces. When hold to the fire fire than new at day to in more or back into log the not as In log that A back log chunky stick of has is a been the the across wood is chosen inches deep fire . and clinkers The fire. and kindling flat than great help in building hard another. the andirons and heat fire. more out.hot. and full of gases it burns quickly and makes an requires. In making a grate fire the grate a should directions should ashes cleaned the coal more added fire. three or when several room. in fact will stand. only little it burns coal In it grows smaller heat. and placed fire is a building a range fire.because sometimes far so " of air to the access Usually assist them forward a free or the each out burned. stand the burning piece end back in the corner on or against the side. It because hard dirt and lowest can noise be may with a yellow flame. lay the paper cross shape ashes out blow to fire.and as it is isolated the heat of neighboring pieces it will stop burning. the place of take bricks In the to fireplacefire is made. to In as grate fires soft coal burns it is porous and grate fire. Usually lasts from a the heavy one fire and a brought forward new log put in. furnace regular cheaper build to a fire times.and in that paper way bags the because excellent handling. and a fire. it will be heavier are andirons. it often on place fireor the when as on sticks so making a kindling so that led to up the andirons. Fires. and hillock in two or left. filled with heavy lifting.

the chimney be used or not. The of the . it to This of coal -Diagram will cause oven. grate fire. dioxide together with of vapor. Dampers of furnaces may be operated from the second floor by having chains extend up through the floor from the cellar. Economics. In a cook stove. gas and Closing these dampers. oven in the in the assists further third allows the chimney (Fig. To economize stove or a furnace. entirely. 54. and whether a cook whereas direct a is called damper should In on the ordinarily be closed. If. to as of a save fuel and range Keep the have from more indirect draught heat. Century draught. checks damper is to be the keep heated from heat the burning. and the 73 with connected opening the damper of carbon the escape LIGHTING AND HEATING stove. the of the should will and chimney and under Fig. the or fire-box. one has a water tank in the from that part of the grate to keep the ashes away range. be sure which is to heat the water. indirect A. partly or same degree. Home B. keep the ash-pan clean. so taking too much care coal. as in a kitchen range. 54 B). This closed.its burning . the latter is used especiallyin the oven is to with fuel. 54 A) water smoke. These water pipes are usually placed just back of the fire-brick at the back of fire-box.and keep the fire grate free from ashes. whether startingup the fire.so as to let in air and prevent the grate bars from being overheated.do not pack extending beyond the lining fire. From Parloa's box turning of the heat up the chimney from the firedirect draught.furnace coal is. direct draught. fire to the controls the the heating damper oven going form out of the behind passage go in a roundabout is called the indirect draught (Fig. Co. that should be used. be the if the that so oven.

its cost under any down stairs to open to the saving of strength in not going up and chain has a the fire in the the during Ash will and be Chutes. of cast-iron like the top of a . and than the coaled emptying ashes reducing the work that should of cleaning up. are sufficiently be well It would to keep a large pot at simmering temperature. close the drop in about one and the break off door. the hot coals away is a good clear red.or a pint of lime. draw quart of oyster shells. There that they To a poker is man the house. accomplish included. With draft. close the and white they form heat. certainly they places special dustless ash trap-doors for fireashes the blowing back of to reduce so as Clinkers clinkers clinkers with dropped are Remove more are devised are and in much so subsequent work the when the will fireplace or cleaned dampers during until night. day.and cost from these of down chute. the damper door and on is opened . keep the fire hot either the clinkers the poker. simple device can often be installed by the man condition is nothing in comparison the family. if the others. so-called "simmering Gas Burner. these off them break To fire-brick. the damper is opened." which while they are small burners. the the from adhere and fuse day easilytake woman break likelyto " the Certain fire is at fire-brick. especiallyby proper Much also several are is specialdevices which result of in heat conservation. By releasingthe chain. the damper is allowed of This to close. question as to whether " such a Gas burner Stove can also be Tops.74 HOUSEWIFERY ring on it and by pulling the chain. from the fire-brick. The planning In " coal range the and morning.so coals are best moved re- the fire At the time when by using oyster shells or lime. well furnace of fire will need the care a regulating the morning. ash be found is of the to the dampers leading chutes to usually all attend can care in the little. of Heat. when of fires. the Conservation economizing to lime the cost " of possibleto-day in the way management fuel." stoves have "Simmering large burners. to investigatethis for the housekeeper in purchasing a gas stove the stove has a small simmering burner. the ring is then fastened a hook so long as it is. in There or in the to be oyster shell will very easilytapped cause off with fire is out. the to Fire-pot. " put on old Tops are made stoves.

for slow is sufficient under the front burner cooking of the flame the gaa stove top like the coal stove. . a top makes Economical kettles two for the heat is the idea (Fig. kitchen top is that with the heat of one direct for cooking. with the more back of when coal stove a radiated lighted. accomplished heat. Burners the cost the so heat for same to than much those heat are as of when the way the the material more those that the of which is are bottom operated the pan and is side types the the back over a the on is down pan. of saucepans make more of the turned of saving bottoms the the of different pans the conditions are burner small conserve kettle cooking the fuel kind proper that have on of the quickly and flaringup directlyunder heating the also saucepans that saving by using will heat bottom of the gas use give realize would More " kettle the front. The gas. which that cover two available smaller ones are The idea may be top of the gas stove. 55). top for a gas stove. pans ical econom- flare at the saucepan is heat Such burner. fire is in the " Utensils. The is not that the burner. burners pan secures it is than more it is economy. and the same. for as This is a good Cast-iron means 55. and the directlyover burner burner of this used the heat same than one with broad a top. of metal shape and so save do not to keep actual fuel approximately that of the constructed. Fig. that hence enough The . Covers fuel.HEATING 75 LIGHTING AND and be fitted to the entire may range.

56) leading from the the conserve will covering This heat.and not indefinite as so be left in so long that it not should Food to think. the fire will the much so fuel is in thus up escapes rapid burning Ashes is closed. leave it with ashes closed. with the idea that when the workers finish cooking while material they would wooden or be Inexpensive cookers may flour pailsor boxes filled with insulatingmaterial be made by digging a hole in camping.are constantly attending cooking time is so long that is longer the than housewife The time pleasure for several hours. and the fire is not is. 57). in sections in at are once the with stove. insulated 56. a hay box in which the European set in this nonconducting peasant placed hot dishes. fuel they reduce cooking process. the front the upper insulation with furnace for the hot-water food the unburned Journal. . may about went when their work. fire rapid when so oi white. Covering pipes (Fig. e. required to cook each thing is quite definite." or forcing the in use. fire-box and startinga new When with but not most flue.76 HOUSEWIFERY " sending proper fuel is by current direct a more damper will also damper often it will check the fire the out the Fig. hot air.and damper steam open. a . and a do much asbestos covering the work The it bands to 1 i hold -i " it insulatingjacket dollars. to the because fuel waste damper front hot-water comes labor lower lightcovering of coal.clean from botwJ^^^" mon com- that usually wasted with the ashes in cleaning fire.that closed. Charles and water v^ouricsy pipes." when not first fireless cooker To was strong flavor that has been this overcome in a give kettles and boxes use. place. oven keeping the chimney up more cause of the rapidly while to burn in kitchen wood adjustment the of waste of coal and Saving Dampers. the ground. metal with to attach easy matter be had for boiler can an in that savers a oven *^ cookers Fireless with clear. and finallycool in the Constant kettle. . few and foods many An them. but has time to over-cook. oven heat the The damper and brought is stoves dampers. made with (Fig. in The is. that it dies out. hot Home Ladies " It is the to damper open. and called a "cooker thorough airing The work other or give the food will taste. steam. seem many not only cooks. about through labor of They savers. steaming and cooling of foods will give the cooker a about go may strong odor. lower Insulation.

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The to non-absorbing and easily cleaned preferably aluminum. ""C The amount time necessary cooker to get of hot means 58. The to retain without ovens liftingor are so changing. cinders. heat-containing stone plate. insulated that the when food the is in the tireless cooker. is very ecohave stoves One two of the burners the top of some or on the kettle. hinged " of In the combined fuel. zinc. once. for container-box lating trunk. pad of excelsior for the cover top of the outside. lining of nest A. or some for covering. properly used. if operated in of its efficiency conjunction with a coal stove. outside B. heat. C. agate. good. aluminum.and labor-saver burner firelesscooker with the gas gas stove than a stove ing to boil- stone disc reason a or it is with a blue by making the flame tireless stove cooker coal range. enough fire to cook food a long time. and at over non-conducting hood that may be lowered walls a a or finish to this For will more coal enough to roast or bake. G. F. baking. non- rusting. and long boiling. D.and of various be foods may essential The requirements box The The a have to of small for housewife the good tireless cooker good ones that so several ferent dif- simultaneously. the process. insuor material" sawdust. E.HOUSEWIFERY 78 sizes. this type of stove. paper. Home-made " fireless cooker. cooked thing for in nests even know to is the standard : insulation. soapmaterial. tightly-clamped kettles to have lining of compartments be to covers. of the tireless The efficiency cooker is greatly increased by to the floor save raisingit from the and stooping on bending be " "/? gives only fiftyper cent. a the and of water kettle a fuel for temperature Fig. baking temperature is . tireless cooker stove. small gas a the make the oven principle is with insulated nomical. perhaps long enough " kettle cooking aluminum. metal tin. tireless The part of the worker. Soap stones or iron plates provided for roasting.

one should also locate " plugs " in the baseboard for attaching vacuum cleaners. several the bottle has vacuum leakage fireless and vacuum.both ceiling lights and wall lights. heat a or linings of non-conducting or bright unscrewed thus cooker. one should study the location of lighting fixtures carefully. The constructed these between two a glass '" 1 Fia. Placing lightsin rooms and halls . inside the a saving in renewal new screw new top so models inner as to the container cost. a mirror. are primarily from a principle convenience. Vacuum as the containers bottles or tireless cooker. surface The so In that vered is sil- prevents radiation tight cork and cold. while indirectlysave metal baking the the and out 79 LIGHTING AND They fuel.etc. because a outer Calorie retaining either assist in like 59. with electricity.cooking appliances." cold.HEATING be turned reached. the fire may until sustained cooker temperature is practically the in roasting is completed or tireless oven. they do the on same with glass containers double-walled are air is exhausted jacket. thus forming material of heat. prevent metal may The of jacket replacea broken either can heat be one. LIGHTING In building. walls.

One would hardly depend entirely upon and libraries.HOUSEWIFERY 80 for much thought.is hard to remove. lamps. unpleasant smoke odor and no dripping of white or colored. howlight is a soft yellow. the clearness of the light. modern the principle of indirect lighting or lighting uses reflection (Fig. the house better prove at its non- value. and will give more several ceiling and better light directlyon the user at less cost than light.provided smokeless. non-drip candles. or ground bowl. whether excellent Kerosene lamps give an light when kept in good The condition properly filled. give off a great deal of heat because there " will be Such occasional attractive. increase or decrease the amount following table showing degrees of light absorption by different types of glass shades is interestingfor a study of comparisons : is Per Clear glass Slightly ground 25 Ground 25-40 all over or painted light linings to or pleasant to Some " 35-60 Opal Colored White cent. Such a spreads over light gives a brilliantly without the softeningeffects of any shadows. stores.in dining where there are rooms.as the light is tiresome because lighting in bedrooms so general. The reflects it to the room. and is most pleasant. 60). 5-12 the 64 dark shades will give clear a light most eyes.the light is reflected to the ceiling. most suitable for show rooms. no most and for convenience lights.because bad positionsare not really a matter through only inconvenient. in turn. To soften it.and this. like influence Types of shades The of light used.and largehome rooms requiring indirect clear. which absorbs some Paraffin candles least. ever. for reading and sewing requiresonly one burner.and. but too often mean expense unnecessary A good droplight burners having more lighted than is necessary.one would find relief in a dull opalescent of the light. and so angle of light is broadened the room surface. Kerosene much do involve in the care. It is lighted room. and clean chimney.clean wick. The lightburns in a bowl fixture hanging from the ceiling. wall-paper. a one candle in going burns will soon about the use. paraffinewhich. for are no .strong light.

of kerosene the newest lamp. page 250. Of ordinary wick efficiencyaccording to the type of burner used. a tank is provided where from this tank the the gas is stored as fast as it is formed. or one that the first cost is are 81 LIGHTING AND either reasons low. The much consume room. those with air within round. hollow the flame wick and especially good. it it requiresa globe or lamp shade burns with a yellow light. Unless gas is suppliedwith a specialburner.HEATING a dirty lamp for their use and odor from and the smoke oxygen. and supply pipes branch. The newer or burners.The to give service which tip spreads the flame into a so-called "bat's wing" (see Fig. and no burners. a lighting.with no brilliancy are mantle 60. 37). called Welsbach. Presto (condensed acetylene) may be used Acetylene and like gas. but the and to camps. the The 4J9"A L/G//T Fig. see a To kept carefullytrimmed.. to rural homes can Any gas tip must be double so that the flames coming from two opposite holes in the burner strike each other and spread the flame. and the wick gas mantle clean kerosene lamps.-Inverted must The center draft kerosene mantle extra mantle lamp.and old-fashioned gasis at all satisfactory. Such of lightingis most with mantles a means adaptable fixture be used. the fuel is easilyobtained. has a type of the light four-fold. Kerosene lightingvaries in its expensivesystem is necessary. In an acetylenehouse-lightingsystem. Gas Lights. increases which cost to furnish for fuel." must be " " " " 6 . be handled as Specially suited carefullyas for lighting large rooms." light. * fish tail. chief turned low is disagreeable. chapter on Cleaning.

when been the the air lamp air present to was of carbon. a finer filament than the carbon.very white is often mantle The burn.making the consumption cost in the latter case about oneThe modern half of the former.while using fifty-five with a tungsten in the same time only twenty-fivewatts consumes filament. first lamp inefficient because relatively modern filament a powder so there filament uses are so is no used lights. first carbon time same is heated oxidize be silver have they give a put before heating a lamps globes in which Bunsen may clear cleaning silver. when These soot. the are longer jarring no that there To is below in from the ventilator mantle. and most with is the filament. and be not and upon its position. so that the clear. which consumption of electricity. no mantles is not to oxidize flame. flame into incandescent becomes mantle the air with mix burners. open a they blacken Should burning. or before gas mantle white a the the clear and wide until all the soot is let the gas burn the off. candle-powerlight. and yet gives a greater light. burner.HOUSEWIFERY 82 Bunsen are gas burn burned. and heated. glowing white. for example. reflects a light.burning without white does rod calcium a on it is (Fig. vacuum glass filament that proved im- been has sealingthe bulb. it means enough air going in lightis will last much very in places where itself which.and less electricity. gives a clear light different degrees of much tungsten. Produces a mantle 61. 61). so cleared. a to " white light by incandescence. For a few minutes burned light will the (J IsIlJII Ul may for An old mantle be may used as that at the CHECK The Fig. A sixteen watts with a carbon filament. the regulator is mantle light. which mounted but and there draft. . The electricity. frail. since the GAS after but readjustedto give a good De Electric so good. light. com- tungsten filament is.and This not Welsbach entire glow.The brightnessdepend upon the size of the filament a small is the it whiter use electric bulbs is exhausted The saved.

Van Co. Wright. Wright. Agriculture. Give above electric might a housewife's advantage and disadvantage is the is successfully lighting heat to the were what in factors occupant will fireplace or stove before room main it l. Schoolhotjses B. . What 7.. Hinds. S.. Barrows. If 0. Why 10. Cleaning. is Why 3. Electric Lancaster. Fireless General R.. F. King. S. " Co. Bureau and No. 12. Fire and Household. Medicine Hygiene. heating furnace. White. S. General Chemistry. when A modern lighting system should not be selected on the basis alone. Why do 5. Be economical by turning lights out. D.ecessary affect this does precaution be must coal the taken with bill? them? REFERENCES Fletcher Dressler. Elementary H. Home-made Dept. U. Rural Education. S. Hogdon. How at ways not water to normal of smoke when the better draft than could a tireless rise in a coffee too of coils in those as much from heat the other water. Maud. Lighting The the Home. QUESTIONS SUGGESTIVE What 1 the are . flickeringor dazzling light produces eye strain and headache. " walls with than white ones. D. of Vulte. the causes 8. Ginn Henderson. McPherson Paper U. Science. In one What 9. Cookers Their and Use. 97. Milton. Safety Household Chemistry. Century Co. in a House. Nostrand Luckiesh. S. Bureau Saving Fuel Heating of Technical Mines. and Schools. Bureau Farmers' U. Fuels The for Kitchen the for the Household. a watt lamp will illuminate where a singlelarger light is desired. and U. Herman. a tall chimneys camping. Ventilation F. Chemical How Circular Publishing Whitcomb to Run " It. 75.. Standards.. 2. S. Bulletin Bulletin 771. and Rosknau. Money spent in proper lighting may be saved economy A of in the oculist's bill. Why will 4. of Cooking. Dwellings for Grounds. S. S. a a damp very short cooker chimneys? be made? a stove? stove? going to the attic radiators floors? How What fire is first started? percolator? light bills be reduced? of a highly polished economical on ? room a temperature feel comfortable? a how prevent methods Describe have fireplace as a you may the expense 11. Co. M.. " Eldridge. No. H. above and over the shoulder. Preventive Appleton Co. King. The light should from come not in use. No. Marion. electric use AND lamps 83 LIGHTING of two or three sizes in lamp will do for closets and fifteen-watt ordinary an other places sixty- requiringlittle light. Hayden Rural Etc. J. a forty-wattlamp is generallyuseful . It requires more with dark light in a room Lighting Hints.HEATING Tt pays to A household. Heating.

In equipment for equipment. Selecting Equipment'. are Size Material 84 of working furnishings. of the a scribed. plumbing. household this placing of of work. considerable part " the of the household work them chapter kitchen for satisfaction This that mean on " tools. de- laundry supplies in etc. certain a Utility " is ings its furnish- has equipment. with I KITCHEN EQUIPMENT. kinds chapters: two chapter (V) next presented. the a the following Construction What outline is may these things length homekeeper good help tool ? In Fitted Time Labor its task saved saved bought are This. involves the is described. . together in in and used are principles regarding involves and for equipment equipment of various which " heating. as to that capacity Purchasing obtained pense. in working this Besides the equipment equipment with used in selection succeeding chapter the In tasks. buying many the miscellaneous and household hangings. house a APPLIANCES" supplies . the some " house equipment immediate and comfort work. are in the with for such a later chapter (VII) on her not should be renewed to requires study the answer question. for question. ex- " Economy to are of : Renewal Results amount as so is housewife the time. " Wearing Efficiency than discussed are that of Shape " which rather use. working and In the cleaning (VI). as and the tools. then. the of tasks often and labor savers equipment stated. buying the household furniture.IV CHAPTEE EQUIPMENT LABOR-SAVING AND GENERAL Given lighting. to answer be able to " Renewal Care Related cost cost cost costs. called The are installation problem next the machinery. working adequate conveniences other of Working subject is presented general for is household.

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and to group tools about the working center in which study may open frame receptive they are a towards door to be used. has been Much Placing Equipment. making otherwise must and renovating of furnishings and garments. by putting herself in a of mind.and leaving one's work the shelves the stove. or five years. as is often operate them Labor the and with the maid to best either . On washing. " effort and fatigue in housework. the income method as compared with the quality of work done under the new from fatigue. is do labor a not saver. equipment when case investment an into a home come they may is greatly reduced their efficiency that spirituallife and family. or pulleys. or does to not not be the for Under so poorly to be used at learn to how them. one after one little it costs. and through saving the housewife old. and for and time more at considerable out the income the necessary savers without not are study find to of how knowledge all. near Racks and placed near two for .86 HOUSEWIFERY of time expect a hand.each closet equipped with two cleaning closets its own working outfit so as to avoid the waste of time and effort to go after the tools. pressure convenience in work. which the be hired for the housewife they energy and her are only hastily bought definite . and becoming willing to shift from old The of all is to raise the habits and methods. is where Here the housewife's saving. labor conditions operated through allowing mental and weight. or year a " breaks same down how matter no the for itself in to pay that just it is not way. and every Every tool. in going over the stairs. said in recent the tools that years on belong the to a of the It is this best ways to reduce that principle suggests floor levels. One the other trials is two or fair to must a figure One must gain or loss on the basis of one year. to create a close working relationship between tools. without money these when time The cost . poor In more.no matter however. simplest labor saver height of working surfaces. near the sink. efficiency produced by grouping together This is most helpful and is one process. of repairs.or vacuums how simple. the income allowing time for other productive work such as mending. use mechanical necessarily mean and and cylinders. to the teach cannot savers. motors housewife the is when operate them. an washer motor appliance investment.and of keeping in cost in the way figure on the renewal and from the investment by the amount working order .

Where are they down cellar. through all the processes carry them paring. and. lastly. salt. ? Creamed how far is it to the dining room pepper. most tubs have given the feeling of going head first into them. it is wise for one with If it is necessary to economize each working center.washtubs. let the housekeeper pretend she is do the work potatoes. height of working surfaces. over vision. some and it is wanted. for efficiency. is alterations.be a well-equipped Believing each room to plan separate sets of equipment for workshop. potatoes are not the real question. but used two the in be tools must disadvantage of course places. getting butter. draining after cooking. For example. all of which increase fatigue. A low working surface means it muscular means fatigue in position. or the woodNow washing them. or are we walking miles because we have not planned the kitchen properly? should. in the Even house that do so.boiling. tables. money. where more permanent pieces of equipment facts of relationship detailed processes of operation. equipment being chosen.back porch.such as sinks. which working centers possibleextra step and The especiallytrue in the kitchen and in there are the laundry. unnecessary backache and compressed bending and stooping many times . superwill insist upon raising the working levels of most of the washpermanent tools. Height of Working added the to much be satisfactoryworkshop by having the stamay tionarytools. the question is. and all " . make kitchen of service at be should themselves so related that 87 APPLIANCES LABOR-SAVING AND EQUIPMENT every of is especially tools. of extensive study is to take the architect's plan and of the kitchen. or laundry. movement work out the when it afterward without This house is is great inconvenience which the saving in years of work the bought finished may warrant is to be cost impossibleto it is often planned. remembering to begin by going after preparing creamed shed? the potatoes. as and done expense. These and more grouping of stationary equipment. table.have we arranged A good way to make this " " working centers so that they lead one to the other. The housekeeper who goes into which she is giving her share of intelligent a new house. and imagine it is a real room in it. dish . where when is for is that the tool rarely ready use. pantry. and stoves. Sinks have usually been set too low.possiblethis grouping these working centers. placed at a crouched. uncomfortable good working height. it means lungs. The Surfaces.and all points to study and thoroughly of tools in best positions are is saved. cream.

62. page 48. (See chapter on Plumbing. can once dollars regular kitchen short. or Naturally be the each drains be time.) that or housewife plan the sinks. Sinks readjusted at the plumbing drains or be of the cost law sink telescoped.tables. because tight connections these table only set. this is possibleby means Fig. unfortunately. top is the rather than the bottom. places for the low.so readily raised To help the only and three the one to the of the the side top of the table. of some ten working surfaces of blocks placed under The workers.and that It is easy for the housekeeper to raise tables and stoves.88 HOUSEWIFERY tables are of the sink ordinarily far than the that the Keep in mind working level. and rather of the washtub are too to fifteen requires that there tub. " One surface working is suited them. when and a that bottom work.etc. are in not the elastic cannot up to the present time sinks and tubs lowered. height of who is abnormally worker tubs..it is well for her height of working surfaces to stop to consider what her like body .

kneading bread. with the arms If the surface low. " The floor. and in angle at the straightso as Fig.beating cakes. Let the housewife with her practice doing most of her work back straight. from worker's the 63. Levels washing be lower for may clothes on board. of course. back. giving fatigue at the waist line (Fig. not can high wall worker's the of arm least strain constantly bent not pending de- if it is elevated . a raised arm and shoulder positionbrings the ache of fatigueup higher between the of line. the body is bent down. bend forward at the hips. sink shallow a be sink high as the waist depth. Just how inches high should a working surface be? many That depends. not at the waist. washa ironing. raise the working surfaces so that the body need bend shoulders not at waist to reach to the or work. 62). work stand 89 APPLIANCES because in and all these to notice the years ing. top of this tub is 36 inches Note good position of there is need of pressure. Dishwash- stationaryequipment has been set too low (Fig.AND EQUIPMENT position would how has she LABOR-SAVING be if she did been forced to the comfortably. and mixing bread are bent at right angles at the elbow. 63). If the surface is too high. preparing vegetables. better. upon the worker's height. the back table top at The shoulders higher than the placing of its on bottom be of a of reach a deep too the the sink much is used when worker over the cannot the as cause be- one. if bending is necessary with her work. the with bottom. deep mounted bottom the is too stead in- can sink the done at wrist. and there is no to . process where and the arm line elbow becomes wider any because more the nearly produce leverage.

deep Quart Tea brush Vegetable " quart pan quart pan quart pan quart pan quart pan 3 quarts : brush brush Butter jars. KITCHEN Suggestions Ware: Agate Double EQUIPMENT for Kitchen Equipment brush Sink boiler Colander Earthenware : Funnel Butter Ladle Casserole Pie Pie plates. small Bowls. or thereabouts about inches inches 33-38 to the top .6 inches. Dipper Skimmer Brushes 2 Tea quart quart quart quart quart 2 cups bowls Mixing measure Sauce crock Custard plate. Tables and other surfaces should be should usually put at a standing height. avoid as much possiblestooping down and stretching Put heavy equipment on lower shelves. Surfaces for standing work are of course higher than those for sittingwork (28-31 inches). Dish large (basting) Coffee percolator Coffee pot " Kettle 6 cups oval pan.90 HOUSEWIFERY than rule better medium height 5 " Avork should about 34-40 oneself to observe be and experiment. and of persons tables for standing " kitchen high. of shelves where The height equipment is to be put away is also as important . up high. washtubs For sinks about 36-40 should inches be to the roll of the tub. feet. There always be a high stool available so that as much work as possiblemay be done sitting. Platter Refrigerator Soap dish dishes Glass: dish Baking covers 1 for 1 2 for 2 1 for 4 1 for 6 1 for 8 kettle Dust small Pitcher Aluminum: Bottle large 2 pot White: Enamel. Fruit 1 cover dry groceries quart pint 1 Lemon with for Containers squeezer Measuring Spice jars cup Iron: Dripping Pastry brush Refrigerator brush Scrubbing brush Griddle Silver Kettle brush dish Frying Garbage pan pan can for large (galvanized) deep fat frying . shallow pans 1 4 6 8 Spoon.

Oven beater egg skin Chamois Dish strainer coffee or Wire Linens 91 APPLIANCES Wheel measure grinder egg-beater. pan . pot ware: Japanned LABOR-SAVING Broiler Soup Bread Dish drainer Potato masher Puree box sieve Cake box Sink strainer Dust pan bin Soap shaker Flour Toaster Tea box Sugar Tray and Cloths: Wooden : board Bread Cheesecloth Chopping bowl Dough board towels Dusters Ice Floor cloths Glass towels Hand towels Back Salt (nickel) forks 3 tablespoons box Spoon Step-chair Table. G cups Pastry sheet Measuring fits any Steamer.. shallow basket hooks Thread deep Thumb Labor sifter tacks Savers: Aluminum Grater standard cups. pans. 3 feet : Miscellaneous teaspoons half teaspoon long : sheet Asbestos Broom Steel: Bread Can Calendar knife Carpet opener sweeper Clock Cork screw Hammer Coffee Ice Cork pick Knife Large skewers Metal mesh Nut pot needles Match cleaner box Pad cracker and pencils Pail knife Paring mill Labels sharpener Meat Paper Greasing Scissors Spatula Shelves Tin: cake Angel Apple drawers Scales corer cookie and doughnut cutters Bread Cake and Waxed tin Biscuit. Cake for deep fat frying cleaning mixers Bread mixers Fireless cooker Half-teaspoon Meat : Basket Scrap Screw String pans Flour Wire towels for Rolling pin 2 1 board cloths Silver 4 freezer cream Knife soft Holders. kettle y.AND EQUIPMENT iron Bussia Boasting pan. each 2 muffin tins. pt.

with substantial legs. Very great heat. will Enamel is being perfected to chip an inferior quality of enamel. Waterproof keep them proof against water. any hot dish. in each table is necessary lasts to cut zinc-toptables far as good suitable wear and condition. Glass-top tables are that is. meet being perfected come " Kitchen been cabinets constructed as are the combined outcome tables of the and study of closets which have methods. Settles.HOUSEWIFERY 92 Tables.but good laundry tables. not proof against heat but are such set upon them. and be top tables may Wooden tear. not affected by chemicals. but hardly against the marring needed while they alkalies with cloth. and " points to are Choose a strong. as Enamel tables. then. so or so in easily kept it is not will care varnish of one this wear that cover that allowed are cover. trays smooth. to produce breakage. gas stoves. unless even or stains.so To quite serviceable is affect covered tear. blocks underneath not be purchased with only excellent which tops make square may be A tables.should be guaranteed proof against chipping with such things as screwing on meat grinders and bread mixers. efficiency . or by the knocking of heavy bowls or knife handles. too.as an unsteady table is especiallytroublesome. be overcome that may by putting The lesser evil is short legs. Kitchen material Firmness. Enamelled of fact. well-built table buying a table. be papers. height. which it is almost impossible to prevent. before being accepted. tack are most oilcloth. material to directlyin contact with food. easily cleaned.are giving good service. as a matter and tables are which will all requirements. acids is to hot bought. require constant or top should table the to be as oil stain with to as top tables Wooden stained material The rooms. and are and non-absorbing be easilycleaned. kitchen of these of in considered close such of such texture material for and be may and be only care on. and wear unless scrubbing carefully protectedby working boards. tear Both needed table are wipe top which are pans Sheets of zinc but concerned. great to the may they in good condition. on they are not are knives or be used may and as a serviceable zinc. is likelyto cause rapid expansion a saucepan.because to raise the table to the proper height. unless its surface. for example. such a point that the housekeeper in buying stoves and tables should to the subject before give careful consideration refusing either. gives a long. be resist to to resist varnished. damp a with set it.

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some is slightlyaffected both by . ample. or tin may process. more expensive than metals. tomatoes. and which that required for metal smaller consumption of fuel. the fact. water. agate. is Aluminum a metal that may therefore be be used is not 212* over purchased. be may heated it as ferent dif- to degrees of heat with without or It is ure. lemon. moist- capable of into any being made but is shaped pan. num Alumi- acids and lies alka- for vegetables.and baking acid foods apples. be never with It and should soak to put soda it. ex- will discolor whereas fruits and foods acid brighten clean it. glass cooking new which been There is used shown baking to for cook dishes. or tomato. enamel.after of aluminum pan when bright as Crockery chosen are baking. for either method. or ware is for as and these fruits. and is most easilycleaned with dilute acids. for like Fio. White " enamel kitchen cabinet. In cooking any foods in an pan. and .94 HOUSEWIFERY and where the temperature Fahrenheit.such as rhubarb. and glass for slow roles casse- custards. as new. 65. baking in less therefore utensils time with of other is a than a all has kinds.

Utensils " " for Different dough shapes TYPES work. Courtesy of Miss Good Mildred Housekeeping. 68. Good Housekeeping. Fig. of Misa Mildred Maddocks.AND EQUIPMENT VARIOUS Fig. 66. " BakiiiK dishes. Maddocks. OF Courtesy COOKING of Miss 95 APPLIANCES TOOLS Mildred saucepans. 67. Housekeeping. Maddocks. . and LABOR-SAVING Courtesy kinds of Good I'io.

a good bread knife. is little difference There brown.is in Good usually of the cost. Steel steel should be to buy not pay holds used chosen a when sharp edges cheap grade of the cutlery. either blue. or mottled. One as plain color. These cuts better knives should be saved from the edge nor rougher work one." given and ware. are it neither takes It a does sharp housekeeper should plan to have a carving knife of high-tempered steel. for enamel is as Fig. sheet on With expands the great that so is likely to has almost power. boiling.as higher tempered required. placed in if.let the pan should be they of cold larger pan a its worth. and one small vegetable knife with a thin blade of high-grade steel so that it thin parings. in favor the in difference and water in the for all are water.HOUSEWIFERY 96 Enamel like high temperatures glass like coating a frying. white. service. which which is gray that agate ware usually considers chip off. after water to are toughen the enamel. and with than more is agate or the expansion is no expansive the and heats steel sheet steel. Courtesy Housekeeping. Small cessities. and steel. enamel is a temperature.they in that this seems of severe very Enamel Miss as a change . and the enamel or but there in the wearing power. before better wear boiling. of the The kitchen such as the work of turning food on a . usually proves kite! cool Sudden agate. professionaltesting. of Mildred put into boiled test utensils will Maddocks. covering. 69.

bought for dish drainers. the following in mind from : which kitchen Avoid utensils food be may utensils. General should or difficulty. it saw work. is Tinware the Get cans. strainers. dark rings Fia. bread. only with chapter on Cleaning. for turning food. a roundand a can knife is best for measuring. are equipment be suitable and Standard. Cleaning and .(To pages 261. For itensil over Tin melts this reason. without in it for for acid and outside the baking foods. is stirringand ally Especi- where apples show the effect of the acid of the Wireware be must space bottom table. cleaned 262. and as most of them are sharp-pointed they are not suitable for bowl scraping or for measuring. chapter on " Cost. cracks age stor- considered. selecting all utensils. The often tin seen found of sauce-pans.97 APPLIANCES LABOR-SAVING AND EQUIPMENT griddle or in a frying pan. 70. Below method In " kept lines clean discussed in the nature Aluminum The for for that spoons and to be are used cake for dough boards. Folding wheel suitable kitchen in small on of baked and the apple on tin of the dish. Woodenware standards or with is most mixing. and on not made steel foundation. bottles tin or butcher bones. and for scraping. and suitable or by tin a be never fire it is not tem- is affected should a a sheet a comparatively low a )erature. see with sharp edges. to crack or the knife need so for that be used coating of thin tin of on icids.frying baskets.bread racks. $l-$3. stewing melting of tin is in the globules of the put thing some- moisture. Buy a cork-screw ended case is no need of taking a good knife to open that there so opener. A spatula is best for dough work. " the items some of labor Cleaning or is discussed using Pan of of specialimportance in kitchen savers. Disc in the for Silver.and egg whips. and meat boards.

and Palette strokes a with dish be may on grains are to its consequent called several times of use abrasive an the cloth and on wear with Spatulas. Cookers. energy Cork for Cleaning Knives. and the finish and 134. Fireless in water.through These into Metal-Mesh of and with only and Very handy cents. towards unlimited Cost. vegetablesand meat. reduces 10 the cents-40 sink cleaning to such a a labor minimum saver that . in the sink " Cost. dozen meals other flours.) Half-teaspoon accurate be Cost. time. true. The mixer. with no expended in long kneading. Pot Cleaner. 10 cents. which more efficiently pans iron on various when almost an bread. $3. Cloths.98 HOUSEWIFERY It Care. if Mops. have " dulled soon efficiency. In pots and cleaner with by such the dish grit in the Dish Paper sanitary. This device cleans is much than a knife. the silver leaves (See " also they do machines given a the mixer and whiter a worker. Any large flat cork like that from for cleaning knives. but the wear A string mop Dish 'be used for washing dishes.The different the helps represent an grinders. in small Meat making Grinders. $1.00. if is greater necessity than an even harm not satin gloss. can bread Cake and of cake it with chapter on Bread time saves because savers. " Strainer. invaluable before cleans knife case a These cents.page mixers.25-$3. 60 Cost. converted and Heating chapter on measurements.with Knives. is reduced to careful measuring by the use of this machine and baking. " economy possibilityoffered by the See 76. mixing bowl. but such be must mops kept Lighting. saves labor. flexible blade strokes the 25 cents up.00-$4. Such in Two and frying pan griddle. throwing away.) Mixers. 3 cents-5 " used greater efficiency. " not use. produces standard cake the . may bread Making " " does one want not put the hands to very clean. of bread Cost " These labor savers of work amount time less mechanism. but this way knives.00. Cost. and like all results. the and use. $2. page 263.Also or and water.the grinder may be used as a mill. instead of material less waste turning food cents. cloth. from " thin. Cost.50 are much in does less of the Supplies. " for a are efficient. It not only a big jug is a great labor saver and stainingof a good dishcloth. mixers. page Measure. investment food materials. $4-$40. Sink kept it eliminates Cost.

are scraper be may three-sided sink be and 99 APPLIANCES LABOR-SAVING sill its or outside and efficiency cleats to raise have a it should make it provided space make window to add it this Cost.itinsure keep it organization. to the it above dryness of contents. efficient in very with close .AND EQUIPMENT no shovel sink. on To be put sill. " Wheel table. it should be be can one a may its to sanitation. a pumps washed just puree strainer Egg-beater. Any box moisture roof be on which well the window projects ventilated to to facilitate be put box. wire to keep in the corner as of one to clean to necessary needed force no be may of wire Fig. be can used as a whip. and cleaned. mediumly woven Wheel the out tin 5 cents-15 making strainer of the It or it is best close. Window increase two should the sweet table is a real labor A wheel The shelves and extra top Food-storage the window on a clean food easilyas a china plate. of the out scraps easilyoperated. cream 71." window large and shelved to easily cleaned. and " a Cost. and waste sides. strainer is too light. it should slanting rain-proof smelling. with painted . may sink. saver. It is cents. eggs This The strainer puree the pipe. and Box. $10-$15. " " be any it should easily moved efficient.

insuring dishes.or more. force removes the it because dishes the to when suds is is created soil. from grip metal hot makes water rasping no better hand. marks use. Dish Spoons. then so a rack or soap This stacked requires the that The racks hold the dishes apart part is free to be washed. put into or soap powders must soiled the formed . bowl on and arm soaking them worker's or ache. of the scraped. well-rinsed By using helpful labor saver of eliminates it the for water hot wiping necessity rinsing. should It paint. to rinse and stack. burns no in cold is There cents. it only in the is perhaps the large family. a the water water a hand over or the is most often used rinse leaves the hot film is not left as into comes is the a power dishes and case washer the device. Wooden noise. and made to the outside on directlyinto open window a house new a at the house. and be well should dishes on water. drain dry there is no glass or china has been " . are whether done of about considerable a the when this must that that family a should This Cost. from each other. A labor-saving dishwashing method in small economical most families. the through be built can located be building In center. This is a most Cost. and usually there is a holder especiallydesigned and be dissolved Soda for silver.is forciblysprayed over been arranged them. saving Wire Drainer. kitchen food ventilated a of the the near on the kitchen a specialdoor by wall. this method of water to receive reducing when there has been a considerably the time required for washing will be that seen machine the will prove the dishes disorderlypiling of dishes. the an the economy are scraped. Dish-washing labor If stops one to think is finished work and will be with and saver. and is used machine the a or not. dishes. $75-$110. The saponifiesthe grease. " dishwashing stacked. and have a pitcher or pan from is efficient. " metal black " easily them cleaned. in which dissolved. try.100 HOUSEWIFERY enamel white food-work storage closet wall. sorted. no less hand possible. dishes be be six part or eight.hence After handles. 10 cents-$1. the silver. 5 cents-20 Cost. very dishes. Machine. as the dishes are brought the dining-room. in draining hot. then which throws soda solution and the as wiping " the hot either by As water. inside soda that the has the tank of and machine. In dish-washing machines. and clean and labor thus towels.50.

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Home D. Farm Housekeeping Institute. Maria. Home of Economics. Household Engineering. Goon Efficient Bulletin Nast " Conveniences. Page Good " Co. Herman. What economies 5. Parloa. Co. for the Household. 927.102 go HOUSEWIFERY the through easily from journeys many though door is poor. A room. Agriculture. S. of Dept. Vulte. a what 3. Bureau No.. poor each labor-saving housewife a It QUESTIONS what spend. Measurements Household Chemistry. . Housekeeping. 72). thing devices in know economize you are the saves substitute. Given $25. and 71 a machine? table? different advantages electrical an wheel materials used for cooking disadvantages. the listing operating in would purchasing you buy? electrical an device. In 4. its is tray SUGGESTIVE 2. Make a a can ways or by of cost but even singly. S. versus REFERENCES Child. represented comparison utensils. Washington. a better than 1. Chemical Publishing Co. The Christine. Frederick Kitchen. keeping House- Institute. Co. U.00 to What points must carrying whether sweeper. C. (Figs. Doubleday. lar Circu- 55. ironer? an in between this Do washer. New McBride. Georgia Farmers' B. Century Standards. U.

page Laundering desirable of the process 21. which waste V and in given the Herewith and chapter in the are supplies.CHAPTER LABOR-SAVING AND EQUIPMENT LAUNDRY The disposal laundry of Plumbing. with laundry equipment LAUNDRY supply water a on chapter listed a on the tion descrip- (Fig. page items of for discussed are laundry equipment important II EQUIPMENT water. of APPLIANCES" facilities SUGGESTIONS FOR are processes 273. EQUIPMENT 103 . and items more requires Laundry Renovation. 72).

104 HOUSEWIFERY .

two " " are are just more as efficient. their corrugations.) will not ones on legs of means efficient. Any material Washing smooth. page more are wringer board in either Wash-boards metal glass. but may are metal For the molded Have bracelet. of a personal matter as that the type of tub is somewhat (See chapter on Plumbing.zinc. machine Washing zinc or 105 APPLIANCES LABOR-SAVING AND EQUIPMENT broom Whisk Wringer Wooden spoon Wax discussion detailed For chapter see SUPPLIES LAUNDRY FOR SUGGESTIONS Supplies. though connected wringer tubs on on by all the tubs.glass Washboard. With a it is extension and ease washing convenient. height which portable tub to the comfortable Folding benches are great helps where space is limited. that legs which are sold with the be made always too short. however. be most and than length. be mounted on gas-pipe legs. pages corn Gasoline rice Hydrochloric acid peroxide Hydrogen wheat Turpentine Washtubs.and The sharp in a 47. cut to the Stationary tubs may For molded These longer by Plumbing. 2-3 Washtubs. The fact .rather proper tubs. and easily cleaned is good for washtubs. come in either crack with glass. or galvanized iron. are easilykept usually less clean. on Alum Hyposulphite Alcohol Javelle Ammonia acid Oxalic Paraffin wash Blue Potassium Borax Soap Soap Soap bark Chloroform Soap chips Detergent Soda Bran Chloride of lime form. ) should have benches Wash long enough legs so as to lift the will save fatigue. non-absorbing. The knock a or a fall as easilyas will the glass ones. page 44. that is Process. (powdered or crystals solution) Starch chalk earth Fuller's permanganate solution in Ether French soda of Kerosene " Benzine Blanket 136-142. direction. so to price. rapidityof machine the possible to the use work tub one tubs (See chapter so three will will do.

A. five-yearguarantees. and bearing the ball- The wringers have usually the cheaper wringer will go endurance of easier.106 of the HOUSEWIFERY corrugation being the wear the on long feet. Country Courtesy Fig. revolving cylinder type. pressure type. D. Wringers ones add have two much to the action three- reversible. a vacuum Types with lining. dolly. will washtubs require shorter washboards. a corrugated and suction C. washer wooden or cylinder copper. 73. but even a . and with a a lower and saw. E. a. B. " washer. inner cylinder perforated. funnel. a. board beyond it advantage the easier it is much makes an washboards Most projects up board is pronounced is considered. the feet to work possibleto work with with a less boiler of washing machines. The stronger greater service when The side springs side springs and ball-bearing action. b. clothes that less when have very tub. are and of strength and is smoother and wringer. o. so be may lower the shortened board. " of chance High spilling water. the Dolly type. outer Gentleman.

prevent One of the machines is called a " Dolly. Fig. but for study they may (Fig. oiled 107 APPLIANCES suction market . are which in this inner revolves in the cage and The action of the cage water.sheds.EQUIPMENT far beyond that time taken not AND off when if LABOR-SAVING kept in action. washing machines a " " Pressure and clean. it cellars. Of these five groups. causes a displacement "drop washer. drop on each " The of the dirt. two tubs. 73). rooms. The continual and to dry causes shrink. not expensive. $12-$150. " put metal tubs. are some be divided Fio. the " " wooden or on machine . resoap and the load should be so full that not do the clothes not revolution. verses. The clothes Rotary washer.and is Washing Machines. The are cleaned by the displacement of dirt brought about by means tion of fricand agitationas they are drawn through the soapsuds. and three-year or five-yearwringer is better purchase than the cheaper ones." This cheaper type tions rotadolly is like a four-leggedmilking stool which by reverse draws the clothes clothes through the soapsuds. heat of the house porches. and soon leakage A wet results. There two dred hunCost. barns. the other three are likelyto all are have 75. and if the pressure is A the on into five groups usually found with wooden 74. in the machine when in not kept use sponge may furnish moisture this to enough drying. gives its A best unheated wooden service tub when machine stored and is used cheaper in in first cost.

are There friction. rotary and of the power three types of suction fall in the 7G. on are the like same cages which principle that revolve the the coffee . 75) water. Fig.with the solvent remaining The suction. and water. and stroke. action and pressure of the pressure machine. upon down up and water rise and stroke.and The second this. the which cones clothes The through creating them. " (Fig. Rotary clothes in machines soap and (Fig. pressing the clothes on the machines cleaned entirelyby forcing no the lift when cones on soap the are The Oscillating washing suction is machines oscillatingtypes. cleans the clothes. and the mechanical principleis friction.108 HOUSEWIFERY has the wash-board principle.Two type of machine corrugated boards. rub the clothes top and bottom. shaped like discs or half cylinders. 74) depends tub.

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Those pillow cases equal one should consider who buying expect to operate a washing machine half-barrel also barrel and in or quantities. percolating washing devices two percolatingcoffee pot. To increase the suction. it is forced circulation the clothes.and after five minutes percolating devices are suitable only for white cottons and linens. or an equivalent one six double " sheets .00. spray forces and water which soap the principle of put into the wash-boiler to be are the on expands. the device The to have vacuum as boiling must all device be of but funnel used on materials.110 HOUSEWIFERY with lined connecting with All washing the metal heavy a or sewer a machines that of sheets number bulk. their efficiency. which produces suds as the washer works the cents. use should For It a a be as wife machines.) who feels Various washing devices are possiblefor the housewife equal in bulk it unwise one spend to aid complete most funnel to may shortened neck the into a larger a made be broom in money the home The funnel machine. (See chapter on Supplies. house are machines Most having pan.50 As to $3. These ground coffee. dirt and clothes should dust. types requires may to work constant aid own for washing For wools for that one all these part of the woman.50. of the for of amount at a tin one end to fit 5 cents to 10 about costs A hand. which often have smaller funnels inside. the house- power soap chips instead Baskets and Hampers. other in " sheet i.so valuable the on for soiled devices hand plan to buy and Drying Process. the water heats and A constant top of the funnel. washing soda soap chips in powdered form. 77) a are collects papier-mache far better basket- than the . a by fastening down handle. so that shaped container.page 138. (Fig.just as the liquid coffee is The out " at produced is water does over the the percolate over the clothes are cleaned.e. four towels sheet. container ornamentation. which bag. capacity load. cut funnel. devices may They have speciallydesigned funnels. of cake use free washable metal for the can from muslin " The soap. there is All this increases a perforated soap cup. measured can be well " by washed wash outlet an for waste water drain. which $1.washer. ing washVacuum a good vacuum reallymakes 75 cents be purchased from to $1. or is a most valuable it would that pay to alone.. and and funnel up There the are in the down water. and silks. be done work. three sheet. through clothes.

For washed a and of the the is as house line. efficient copper wire is more ing it is put up permanently.especiallyin small yards and on back porches where Some clothes may of the if in a limited dry in the air even space. clothesa. is so likelyto be soiled. an apron the whole viceable being shallow and wide. stretch. Patented . which is important. the basket as like useful when shaped and worn Clothespin bags are most with a wide pocket. take convenient screwed the or side the to fence hold to very like hook a hook. Eein use when not or up to the ceiling. the . the on ahead the holding worker. needonly to be wiped off just The as before The use. also will shrink the that line will hemp soil enters it is hard to 77 " Clothes container (papier mache). Ticking is the most serapron used much willow material bag. able of heavy washsquare the corners material. The baskets to be used in the laundry be light in weight. and sew cut of the Such square bag will a clothes-line and always the to hook slide '"km screw. because they pull full of clothes. wire.111 APPLIANCES LABOR-SAVING AND EQUIPMENT hamper. hangers have been so perfected as to give excellent the service. at the same time making it possiblefor the clothes to dry in the air.take up small yard or porch space. such clothes-line be can another easily. having good capacity. The Dryers. when its fibres clean. so so deeply that when it is wiser left out nently perma- to take it down use. " either hemp gives good clothes-1 ine.and wet. 78). rope or copper service at little cost.when volving umbrella hangers (Fig. These linings are easilycleaned. dryers are of specialservice for kitchen drying. a of pins at hand. and after each Fig. and preferablyhave an adjustable process should muslin lining. It is best to have them not too deep.

sugar kind. the drying compartment takes These stove. if constructed dryers are These dryer. a must air from " walls bought complete like electricity.evenly. (Fig. than sprinklingwith " " the hand. for wooden wheels a " shrink and crack. because they do the work more rapidly. one. If or are very kinds costs ten like flour sprinklersare one buys this cents and or with its cork shakers. dryers may be bought with In such in a three so kitchen be the the clothes. and installingthe moist the Fig. and umbrella an the cost when that so not in not con- use. on drying Revolving clothes dryer. either use out. dense the 78. whereas such to-day a it . metal the or even track for oven the used Closes may like set stove. pulley fashion For Ironing Process. be quite sure the holes small. It be built set up as into the corner of being may the of laundry (Fig.and pulling out do of the better work if they have racks.and thoroughly. Sprinklerspay to buy. and connected clothes will reduce and with pass as up flue a unit. They or gas.112 HOUSEWIFERY The efficient for all kinds of weather is the dryer that is most indoor-heated because it is not dependent upon sunshine for dryer. One of the best will fit any bottle. the two a sections. two The fit the a kind that housekeeper used chairs or a table and various requirements of occupies little space to have a to stretch chair. dryer. a coal. 80). Ironing boards may be found to different housekeepers. Many need in when not board between use. Such with stove a a dryer may be bought drying. Other like a bath spray. 79) and be the house is built. place of two.

a By spending more gas money. 113 APPLIANCES LABOR-SAVING good way to store equipment laundry or laboratory that is limited is a boards Most space. ing be piped directlyto the ironstove may board.) the sleeve the time for the use light. an Choose electric iron a plug This are without labor the savers. which help in doing up shirtwaists and shirts. 79. Elaborate ironing equipment of this be purchased at some kind cost.entirelysaving the worker ing from wasting time and energy by walkforth back and to change irons.she will have good equipment with little cost. wiping cloth. stored be less substantial the the at storage of holder. used like those a square-ended board in a commercial laundry is most useful (Fig. " Diagram of clothes dryer. 81). may little planning on the part but with a of the housewife. is not running the risk Heating and Lighting. and even hand fastens be put at any height. folding boards. is the standard long. It is much efficient and more permanently are which bracket hooked quickly no folding board This bracket.is EQUIPMENT AND possibleto purchase a in metal a board the costs Boards that have can than more into of some drawer small a cold when This in in a for end the could shelf-fashion set wax. Sleeve board the one to is the more FlG- iron. 82). inches 56 are To size. that is. not may and work be are . making the outfit a complete working unit. because one (See chapter on ironed as 8 boards well and the to connect be other ironing board. up right- J"- iron the iron in this way. With likely to electric an take it would to work near the iron. not that specialboard. attachment is (Fig. and may it. getting gas and board together. page but good light place a placed right safer way of to affectingthe 57. Sometimes the iron tory satisfac- more way have round.

six would These and pads should then be there are is part of the dryer. Heavy use. of lasting qualities. and will be needed for kept ready less likelihood ironing heavy to ery. Metal " silence a of the cloth. table. clothes-drying board to is better allow tapes will hold for come the not about them purpose two firm. protect the dining-room Two layers of the new. will make for three . The a good pad. Every houseor wife a much outing well have that to on plan hand. padding. they might preferably be kept for some on other " Fig. a heavy As old blankets do not give long service Ironing-board Pads. the ironing board. polishing cloths. . There is no need to pay the extra for money a so- called the padding is usually only sheet padded board. because with three thicknesses no wadding. wipes. Two or domet flannel will make better pad. felts large enough padded. at 50 be needed. Cut these for shrinkage. such inches cents as is sold to old. any other equipof using: a srood towel. embroid- use as ment. for it will pay to buy some may for house to use remnants iron cloths. thumb tacks or chooses to buy clamps that one Embroidery Stove serviceable most much unless cabinet. and the many times when soft material is wanted.114 HOUSEWIFERY much reduced. makes or too three 80. always made.

large enough to slip on covers good a is muslin ironing. most one have to make way stand " has away a they closet from Flat-irons. or efficient the pad should the dust them than that 60" wide may of this ironing-board inches two tapes pins a fashion. each on each on Cut cover. Good " the and even unless board may Irons. is cover 81.are of great service. Portable boards for laundry equipment. Old " can is most and bought. 12" the sew . it have to felt with old blankets. that remove on side. and long enough wide to enough put on a are to be fresh equal the used. to choose x size .A is there need no the Cover size. them a when pillow-slip will where need the dust. covers to kept is to cut side than if them easily. about four sew for of the board or should easy is service muslin width The equipment length better unbleached fastening that possibleeach ironing day Stationaryboards 18" lasting service more no to much put heavy under hem. to turn be cut may bulky. half-inch it is better be A Fig. tapes tacking. large and board kept always ready. any together so two give sheets serviceable. than as the on be may of felt like that piece of 115 APPLIANCES LABOR-SAVING AND EQUIPMENT are is better so easy if needed. sad-irons. Clamps in not An use. ironing-board covers. be ironing muslin easilycleaned and Ironing-board Covers. but to be be purchased of different shapes and .

iron saves walking fuel irons because savers will reduce worker's seem the with the to and they hand of unexpected fuels.irons with by portable handles.and are of from the to top of the asbestos rest. draughts end of Two iron is very parched and holder getting gas a The that a paper. will also Put carry which heat . iron electric irons their stove to is best get to with heat a hot ironing room. and iron. Iron be purchased in any holders department or housemay These side of asbestos. because their weave makes are them and soft holders for restful and swollen from Iron less non-conductors or easily fold each saves board is used hand.and to being wet. operated at the the while safest.. and heat. them silks and wools as ones allowed frequent changes for hot cause base. and matter (cost. but if one already owns one. etc.on the savers under the where handle heat. allowing one children's clothing. The the the heat becoming The to on used most be able avail- self-heating These use. and iron. great are of the prevent the to continual as about worker helps rests sheet. kerosene. are be as lasting as flat-irons becoming loose.$3" $6) the and familiar beware gas-iron of is gas-pipe. alcohol. gingham. hand sheet a labor is set. of ticking. this pipe will be safer and with spiralwire to prevent cracking give greater service if it is wound The electric iron is sensitive to a fall. smooth a stockings are especiallygood as a foundation. cake Gas. the from determine the as the because ironing sheet. it will be of great service in finishingsmall gathers as baby-dress sleeves and bonnets. this them. handle dle. covered with one housekeeper may muslin. asbestos an the save end wiping cloth.116 HOUSEWIFERY weights such for to Be to from " work is has in the catch asbestos irons or such mar materials irons. usually have one make of folded old stockings. but are of the possibility because removable with to likely not of the and goods number insures smooth a small two or mark.it is only other cold a tin. iron the sure eight pounds. the rubber. The furnishing store. or The outer cover soft. The usual as ironer an five to asbestos Puffing irons are not needed for the ironing of puffs to-day. they sheet. gasoline. and electricity are main may rubber of care and thought fan the of must flame. as irregularities may irons. jacket and hanpreferred by some. leaving a The this three. such of the more a .

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electricity. by being attend to the to by having the machine ironing. acid Pumice Scrubbing. The The the Better folded second and board iron hands results take to the efficiencyof that so or gasoline. other. reported one-fifth that these pieces take about work. The economy if electrically heated. the time required for handsome before slightlyand ironing. Good CLEANING Materials and Tools Vinegar Supplies: alcohol (wood Alcohol used may be Wax Whiting Equipment: ) Ammonia Bowls brick Bath Box Borax Dutch earth Fuller's French or chalk Small oil linseed or Whisk oil Brushes Lime Oxalic Floor. sprinkling and of a help in machine folding is perhaps more ironing than in hand size greatly reduces ironing. for example. wide single thicknesses. Spotting Wall stone polish metal Rottenstone Sal-soda Carpet Salt Cloths Soap Soap Steel soft hair Radiator Porcella Silver tray for cleaning materials Large Kerosene Putz or Brooms cleanser Lemon Cleaning for soap or cream Broom Cheese wool " sizes sweeper substitutes and bag cloth dusters powder Turpentine 2 size small oo Cork cloths " . is increased by being able to heat only onehalf of it at a time. and sheets enough when in half of the machine. as in ironing handkerchiefs and other small pieces. one family. and an board. A heated power mangle of household the labor of ironing flat-work. free steel roll is like an ironing power driven. roll mangle a of the towels. gas. and allowed also that to stand linen time be evenly dampened. The secret of good ironing is that the cylinderspress evenly each on and other. napkins worker in on covered each is increased are also obtained are is cloth revolve This steam. especially lengthwise.118 HOUSEWIFERY is heated like by iron.

better for brooms paint brush is most satisfactory.EQUIPMENT Cover cloths. They give greater service if bought in two to clean around sizes. the regular soft-haired dusting of portieres. cleaning cloths. mops. Brooms should be chosen with such that there are good corn seeds. Upholstery brushes of them hair like a paint brush. old nail brushes are not so good because they are broad and stubby. more thoroughly. For the satins. Step pan closet Flush spoon Pails woven Newspapers Polishing cloth Dust 119 APPLIANCES LABOR-SAVING AND driver wooden ladder cleaner Vacuum cleaner tongs Wrench Hammer ment presented the important items of cleaning equiptures. special ticking. for scrubbing brushes. greater. They may no be bought with two types of handles.one very thin and narrow handles and purchasing in of small grooves. 84). the light bamboo handle and the heavy wooden stick. as brushes. wood Long-handled brushes with hair bristles for hardfloors will do the work with less dust. Silver brushes should be soft to prevent scratching. (Fig. Old tooth brushes' will save the expensive brush . and more easily. and The brushes. etc. pay to buy cheap brooms in the end the cost will be backs and a backs Solid shaped for its special task. and if the new broom is plunged into a pail a more . Hanging the broom to lengthen its wear.but firm enough to get in cracks and crevices. and Brooms It does " first cost brushes not not is less but have solid easily warp. tub cloth Knife cloths Measuring Mop old or Dish Dust Oil cloth Floor cloth. The best does which wood Brushes.and brocades. There here are (page 129). sweeping mixThe including labor-savingappliances used in this work. Whisk are them as a they would cleaning heavy fabrics. cloth. treated respecof cleaning and the suppliesnecessary are tively processes and and Care in the chapters on plies SupCleaning (page 240). The is lighter broom a will do much great saving to the worker. Some are the crevices and folds around buttons of that made are of hard should be good brush are especiallynecessary should be made tapered tufted at the of soft end for furniture. loosely can Sanitary Scissors Tissue paper Screw Waste (cotton) Skewer. they do not mark velvet or velour.

it hot wire insert or heavy a patented hangers market. most of nature of clamps. which is noisy and brush so the door marks Dust to be used covers. ornamented Bags or covers. so that the portieresmay covers carved are to two be should covers of shapes. a cover or two two-yard squares of the same pictures. Various the on are in the them cold. they it marks of such covers terial ma- pattern sheets even size that for which other house. made and oneas ones for or a or three for the chairs the desirable large bed. and several be planned should pictures of this material with can heavy be enough couch. bewalking. shelves . cleaning. the contents covering up for of sweeping. No be given except to suggest that three the Make better. seems to have skewer. and are used that work part of for pieces special size generous be used may furniture of sizes and various can Fig. greater power a in the to remain broom or closelyas to prevent swinging. is the distinct a color from lin mus- other some or with and thorough used. " Tools large piecesin each and book material those for Smaller roOm. may be to for .120 HOUSEWIFERY of hot water. the hold which it is a and handle broom until water of endurance. a sidered con- Unbleached cleaning. 84. they save extra much carrying. bore string with allowed and hole a which into to the the hang With broom. but checked be gingham. or cause good cleaning aids.especiallyfor frames. while room a wall.

though it does cost about double the price of the short-handled even will be a great saving. if child's a used in broom. Bare easilyswept with these The oil takes floors such different as tile.are aid the reduce in packages ten dollars. small a great back as her saves saves they bought about fine sand as the floors. into which material most is of amount in much very dusting. as far as dust one. " One worker other the is concerned. sweeping . the cleaning These rials mate- twenty-fivecents. swept along. Dustless process.entirelycovering the portiere. by means by pins. Long-handled housekeeper will find that the long-handled dustpan (Fig. The 75 cents. Cost. called often broom.121 APPLIANCES LABOR-SAVING AND EQUIPMENT of drawstrings and dropped down into the bag. materials sweeper because may 86. back. Fig. It does as good work. money. tion conjuncbe will a saver. tools for sweeping. 85). 50 cents Dustpans. or in barrel They are usually finely ground at oil has been worked. this pillowcase covering is brought up close to the curtain poles. with he quantities at sawdust up or or the dirt wood short-handled the Three " and one. be - " Fig. 85. and then.

carrying with it lined with a soft woolly material are small. takes up threads. and these excessive. by using have or sand or the dirt. are the Their vacuum sweeper. they have the Cost.but require a great deal of work The suction more piston is like a water of the plunger leaves a vacuum into the dirt. the be divided into hand and may cleaners . these dirt adheres. Vacuum Sweeper. is Sweeper.or tea which by tearing bits of newspaper water. A moistened broom is sweeper. in are over savers.and as they are tossed ahead of the sprinkled with the paper of the materials housewife The left-over been in most sweeping. rug remove. with satisfactory. 88 types. (Fig. As or are they machines machines type. so-called The vacuum Cost. and machines are passes chines. Carpet $3-$6. $6-$12. sometimes the brush of " carried. This brushes Fia. This receivingchamber is to which bellows fatiguethan with the carpet sweeper. is easilyoperated. that but are dust the drawing up which air goes.122 HOUSEWIFERY materials. in The carpet hard to broom the on carpet they gather because makes them it settles in the make may dustless inefficient carpet and is material sweeper leaves. 87) cleaners. removing sweeper surface dirt.and easily on divided not have some may bristles . inexpensive. cleaners (Figs. 89) are divided into piston. It dust. Sprinkle either the tea leaves or floor. most Vacuum Cleaners. ma- power again to as part of the pistonand bellows types may be bought are not These truly labor shotgun. As washing is not cost a operator is a labor in the hand the big The saver. into fan type and bellows of brush. " which pushed makes small a box on turn the over the as box floor. . and is no for excellent Vacuum is Cost. power may brushes rubber. " containing revolving wbeels. $35-$125.bellows. and the question comes vacuum may hand tool which involves so much work the on so whether and and sweepers the part of the operator. and fan no The savers. but hard of the carpet or on dustless a the colors on the polishof the floors. " These combined and vacuum carpet sweepers revolving brush of the carpet sweeper. 87. form they the rug are flat in the Sometimes revolvingbits same way that of the .

it stirs up to receive their work. powerful machines. if the dust These they cleaner. necessarilyvery expensive.carpet sweeper for the suction efficient in does. Vacuum it. it back suction. and throws machines have The ordinaryconditions larger and more need not are Courtesy ready easilyoperated. The bags into which they usually about equal in efficiency. while more efficient . up are under 123 APPLIANCES LABOR-SAVING AND EQUIPMENT the are dust dust is sucked proof and be washed. sufficient are not Franz-Premier.

which advantage in any machine. is best for either slot is not not are type is the broad held the collectors washers. in this flat metal clasp attached mop mop. keeping the slot on floor. the for . can machines What so than question size. The cost established basement the several floor. a The use polishers. There test. are hundred of the suction.124 HOUSEWIFERY from the point of weight keeps them view of close housewife difficult for the the to operate. movement to is substantial motor are not a when cleaners and one. wrings better than by hand. and the final dust. but scrubbing. it should the various pipe weight of the machine.because and in wood close kept clean.so that it is always close to the rug or carpet . in mop a of to $1. of loose dirt. stooping. A circle second cloth so-called whether suction cleaners. . the end. connections be made in the baseboards of each room. There one plain deck mop. two are whether for types of mops with strings fastened a good dry dust mop. lead and may cellar. back for to the desired room type of machine house is built. so the consider should which with ease when housewife The If this built are it size of slot in the be can cared the that used. are it eliminates a should adjust itself to to be cleaned. and the beat to be raised. is left in the rug after cleaning. and suction is to be convenience facilities for in the oiling. how much the is better no and how see cheaper The smaller motor suction. besides.50. themselves Mops. since their better a to expensive machines in producing heavy that they are powerful and most so most dollars house and with to be pipes extending throughout be planned the house. is wide and of to whether the Some of the seems fabric dusting A This a in for or be must Cost. is still not of . wooden of handle. " 40 the have brushes brush a not or hardly worthy are is whether important nozzle the irregularitiesof. the latter settle this to way much wringers to it or a wooden handle. in machine more as the that fabric to the used rug usually lighter in weight and have a should have good weight. swivelled Eemember They the are worker. makes flat mop . good but dust decided. and question as The the name. affords around type of round is broken Vacuum cents bending cleaning. if any. good the better machines is an longer slot. the stringsor pieces of scrubbing because patented a great saving of strength. A flexible hose then connects the cleaner in any with the permanent pipe opening in the baseboard.

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complete scrub Fig. polishing cloths are powders that make most knees. is its ball-and-socket adjustment. good floor cloths. free from scratchy material." for as to MISCELLANEOUS Sewing to-day which made. and may The disappearing head machine should in be which . and non- may cloth and lmtinsr. (See chapter on Supplies.) page are paper wrapping. cloths. that a brush. A flpnnel Outing makes B). brush. " with In these usual or a unnecessary used cost is at least 134. The first requirement is that the be clean. prevent their be getting any kept in extra a box soil. so found in machines every home. 92. mix- or Their cleaning silver and other metals. special and chemicals with cleaning powders tures. when These The 91.126 HOUSEWIFERY the outing flannel for polishing furniture. wall wipes. a not should in use. and mop need woman wringer scrub never means on her for more treated are other rapid work. absorbent. and be used for polishingcloths. twenty-fivecents. EQUIPMENT in various be had types. demand the to response Fig. broom bags (Fig. scrub The long-handled 90.

" various of types Domet Small who are pronounce motor is Electric working them should be purchased needed. the bread must Efficiency students for use. and wheel and for the the belt use. may below. may bags found cloths. electric in motors their for individual the work have a household serviceableness." placed with ready made in stores. floor able avail- now are specialmachine suggested operated by attaching a belt from the wheel of wheel of the machine. although speed adjustment small 127 APPLIANCES LABOR-SAVING AND EQUIPMENT could Cost. A. broom bags. the regular sewing machine attached motor Fia. and leaving a compact motors a for about be had $40. flannel with machine. motor 92. Such are a one not sewing washing which in . it will be of most freezer.the flat top cabinet. the mixer. Such small almost human Each where separate motors a motor machine the the With be may motor the to be difficult. makes good broom Motor. $15-$40. Electric ($15). is to the folds mechanism sewing run electric desirable one machine sewing any down into type. the ice-cream machine. B. when appliances coffee mill. the case.

Cleaning Systems. appropriate principlethat the an circumference careful be very that the The separator be SUGOESTIVE 1. What care 3.. " use for that current Lighting. so given vary "separator" by QUESTIONS increase the would you ways be given to a vacuum should machine in the heavier in all. and Modern science portion of the house.) An electric fan gives great service laundry during hot weather. a is used fan vegetables. same of the out separators throws revolution is the passing to are an electric not motor operated on by a a machine a be service sewing used in ? ? motor. S. of MacLeod. hot-water in use motor Cost. Sarah. the on 60. M. Ventilating .and a supply of tin cans. What 5. electric an Milk Separator. Cleaning. Were an electric or making the 4. Century Co. $5 up. Parloa. part or cylinder containing toward the and the is thrown out light part or cream circumference.and be must more of A room. is to be milk pensable. or by air currents oven. and Cooijey. sweet-smelling. L. handled.or quicklywarm drying fruits and will latest method in the have must rest cool keep we be must kitchen in the us. a soldering outfit.each the While outlet. or of glass rubbers if preferred. Laundering. for surrounds the On cold a radiator do to power (See chapter considered. separator is indis- milk a a tor separapower The separator of a bowl or centrifuge in which. L. Phila. the the liquid to housekeeper must. Magazine Handbook ". Vacuum Heating Co. farm operated either by be had should the In " needed utensils small regular. if much of can be course outfit. by rapidly changing the layer of air that day a fan directed against the steam. page Electric not the kept tight. efficiencyof cleaner washing a machine? ? gasoline engine to be attached what must special care to get the most economical as to machine. Ray. Voltage and and Heating only but also shows Fan. In what 2. hand by power or .128 HOUSEWIFERY turn work. Maria.. of kept clean and outer course. Fruits and vegetables are with new now cans also preserved by drying in an by the sun. 1224 Cherry St. Ray Balderston. The outfit may consist of a pressure cooker Canning Outfit. REFERENCES Balderston. is a is held toward center. " from from taken fan. Harper Home Economics. Bros. ($8-$10). kitchen the It is The home. by the rapid revolution milk heavier the skim. whole the milk. List care five a motor washing connections should labor or be savers a that construction.

up . sewing supplies and polishes. the the 'phone the over and store or the Know return the when regular price and what is needed shelf until and can special sales offered. It is not a bargain if it deteriorates. this will be the best be Choose " fast means Check but all to catalogue. until Buy only on . you considerate Do weight goods personally. ard stand- the falsely. standard coarseness. applicable in presents neighborhood. hence reduce delivery sen ice and service.. consider should : quality. its tasks. All " make must starch. fresh stated as to the go . where etc.soaps. be used. rightly be called the working equipment. size. study towards the necessities standard to know not 9 selecting store. and desk home individual an complete any supplies. standardizing Supplies. so with hand in the that together two In buying supplies.meas- . and the price on returning becoming an expert buyer. by experience Learn over and problem. the regular sure it lies colors reliable a high to the amount. a Buy for standards too and goods. and there is always the question of the kind of supmay fitted to best for equally good given a selection. demand what quality. are regular quality. buying. 129 inate elim- . in selecting tools. blues. the housewife as and plies quantity . wanted. not buy knows store to them keep where store do the and stores know you. ure. personal keeps housekeeping will supplies Rules standards then and the for for Buying are good count or this seems Select through which sell Be are best your paper . .VI CHAPTEE SUPPLIES HOUSEHOLD Supplies hand go tools.that or for reason no chapter presents general rules household goods be be two may housekeeper the that so there cases many may more always prevent This and use There except likes and another In task. in the new are of which accurate. a is impossibilities. choice one a home. percentage of moisture. price. cleaners if you less three or large personal equation which dislikes. of clerks.

well good oil is the or of floor same wax. e. Laundry supply houses are established in all is quite assured. sene. from treated the in such as seeds a way be may raw or without as chased pur- boiled. distillingkerofor excellent ishing pol- turpentine and on light woods. wax as for place crude (see chapter wax is used wax but the wood.130 HOUSEWIFERY pay cash or settle the bills promptly. if this stone as be of many amount either must is either plainly (a on for small a storage by buying plan in containers at perhaps by purchasing supplies matter in will great deal of the renewing a will need needed amount to do plans of woodwork renovating POLISHES AND pressed been It is sold wax. stores demanding sell more for the privilegeof chargcan cheaply . Beeswax Eenovation. the laundry supply house. yellow wax The be little shellac work. is wax is is the less but the at yellow or as wax. sup- store brushes used closed tin pails or in the laundry crocks. account white is distilled oil Paraffin the store expensive. stores CLEANERS The or housekeeper who As the she will have or to of containers of material from away the often less than considered poisonous fire. yon pay more ing the extra cost. for after using any supply. the oil oil has for linseed. from darken mixes It color Linseed made non-fatty oil.and pressed from as and petroleum. will the assure Eemember not much be must The of this kind everything sticking) and cloths and in stored buy.. the paint store. Beeswax is purchasable house. Label labels the even washed. the boiled usually is oil white for waxing yellow. Parcel large cities and the quality they handle it possibleto send an order . but do your be worth share by paying it may Either cash " bills promptly. because extra inflammable. is not only best Paraffin white likelyto It is a of at raw them is the best same oil is the . page supply It is sold irons. ing warm- to increase .and woods. post makes it can easilybe obtained again through its number or size. which It is also used is most therefore with alcohol or is goods after-product in an in often sold because the laundering. Patronize for specialsupplies. or she suitable plies. can containers cost.g. is the It paint foundation and 295).

page 235) . floors. Gasoline and With no is benzine. lamps. oranges. affordingless opportunity for it to gather dust. or stoves. Like and oil .because it dissolves cleaning machinery. to be used for the oilingof lightercolored woods. and materials. cleaning fabrics.growing darker.its . It is useful Kerosene and all household almost furniture. floor oils. not in use. This oil is volatile enough to dry and are often used as almost immediately. oil obtained from pressing the rinds of used finer qualitiesare The tangarines. chapter on it dissolves fat for and is used Storage.pages 312. The volatile oil or spiritof turpentine passes over and the residue is rosin. turpentine is almost colorless and odorless. When in the distillation. have all windows open. so dark to make as stain of its own if used it so often is to remove a as paint from with wax (see chapter on Cleaning and Eenoclothing.or limes.wood- oil is used. they are gasoline they are derived from mineral volatile (second only to gasoline)and give off inflammable vapors. dissolves rubber and is used like kerosene for Naphtha the of rolls clothes rubber cleaning wringers (see goods. fresh. oils which are lightpetroleum products may be purchased in paint shops or housefurnishing stores. etc. open fires and should be closed no or when kept tightly open light about.and any flames one nearly should of the present as volatile be used three from with and inflammable the utmost care as to naphtha prevent fire. and after its . excellent vation. Brushes and cloths used with turpentine should be washed in closed or burned. 314). it is used wax way a Lemon as for lubricatingoil oil is a use's such as work. and benzine are sold as one and the same. Combined floor wax. rusty iron. 131 SUPPLIES HOUSEHOLD a like volatile a machine rosin is in oil. crocks after their Naphtha kerosene use. or kept cans or tightly lemons. ants. and fleas (see chapter on Household Pests. it dissolves varnish and a drop on the rubbing cloth will often restore wood marred and is one of the insecticides by heat . while the cruder added to for perfumes or flavorings. it makes an Turpentine should be kept away from fires and should be stored in tightlyclosed containers. page 295). it kills vermin most used for bedbugs. matches. should be used with with windows and They always great care. the pitchfrom Turpentine is a distilled rosin-like liquid made first pine tree. linseed cleaning oil. the boiled and no For drying power.

Maria. Home Economics. But apply no heat until after thorough airing. turpentine y2 pt. 1 a named: y2 Wax and Parloa. or any gum. or other household machinery.as heat will drive off may the last unpleasant odors. sewing or sweeping machines. 333. It is a little more a preparation. contain rosin which will in time Cheap varnishes give a sticky work to make finish. iron produces Pressing with a warm the same result.but if one to use has the ingredientsin the house separatelyat various times. " 1 lb. Polishes. for Polishing Furniture. why not take time to combine * directions Parloa Miss for the two gives standard following preparations: machine can used for " Cleaner Furniture order the Polisher. added . and too often contain little varnish which if a used quite too frequently will result in a stickygum deposit on the furniture. alcohol. in oil turpentine naphtha strong solution oxalic acid alcohol wood cold water which to has been tablespoon of sulphuric acid.132 HOUSEWIFERY allow use article into time of plenty service. Furniture furniture Prepared polishes may be expensive. furniture pests. " Put into cup y2 cup Y2 cup y2 cup y2 cup y^ cup y2 cup 1 powdered rottenstone cold-drawn linseed quart bottle. free from proved because rather than rosin gum no lubricate. residue will Good sewing oiling washing machines. pages 332. Clothing that has been gasolined and several hours be placed in a warm place. Machine and its form to oil should quality will hinder the oil be be of the be soon action best. them. Such for This that may material thick thorough airing before bringing the is especiallytrue for mattresses or holstered uphave been gasolined for moths other or would be slow allow to evaporation of thoroughly aired for gasoline. beeswax 1 pt.

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) These cloths are not washed. cleaning pans to one outing flannel. pastes. and cloths. should and dust. another no advantage lies in the fact that the careless worker The cannot are possibly avoid washing the silver afterward. it rests on electrode. or a device to be put into a pan. This disadvantage may by moistening the powder with a few drops of water or alcohol. Various " " Their the market. for or hole. more names. as after all other cleaners. use the powder into a thick paste. The vantage disadParis White/' -costingfrom considerable of the powders is that they create dust. which as whiting or calcium five to ten cents a pound.In a the action is chemical. the cloth. page 118. but are no more " as cleaners. may is sold in packages labelled carbonate. or. zinc and aluminum . baking soda. Owing to the only enough to make of the former cleaning powders have objection to this dust. so much action that the housewife so question may the silver. While whether there is not possibly a harmful effect on in the nature of electrolysis. (See Cleaning Equipment. They the large household. because a rouge of nature satisfactoryfor very to the mixtures). it is more cleaning pan. are powders. (frontispiece).and chemicals. salt. many the converted into pastes. trade Powders be bought under cheaply. there are usually hot water two metals. so that now been by the manufacturers housewife in a form have her favorite cleaner all ready to use. The .after having been but them. may The they create pastes and soaps are both satisfactorybecause dust . and are an the reagents used aluminum action silver takes base . should washed thoroughly. be cannot cloths are renovated. be cleaned with the silver. now on are cleaning pans is very rapid. which necessitates and is disagreeable for the worker extra an dusting be partly overcome after their use. when which place fhe is to between a the silver is certain metals put into the extent and like the an pan. They one having only travelling. soaps satisfactory probably less wasteful than the pastes. and bedroom to and silver for use a of the too much adheres clean. which into wear soon five groups: into (prepared are cleaning expensive are divided soaps cloths rouge into a involve not use.134 HOUSEWIFERY should cleaner and labor Silver free from be time in its cleaners The dipped effective are jewelry or small very soft cloths mixture cleaners.

citric had to acid. using used them. brass. a a making liquid as indicated paste two-fold The liquid probably plays a part. care. a slower Ammonia. that seems silver. cleaning " less silver will not It method a silver under be much to the pans. after such cleaning. page Cleaning Care. whiting with dilute acid (see below) (kerosene be added) for metals : aluminum. forming the powder into solvent.) is in Whiting conveniently bought pound packages. hence of pans. and Acids.and used in labelled so so cooking and or . As it is of most the foundation much be done by buying whiting cleaners. ammonia furniture acids are that they will and serving. is the not " The such a than loss soft by satiny method a detrimental more any magnifying a have be may irritated polishes.The old bath brick was be pulverized as needed. a paste. ink (see chapter These lemon or pots and home. with poisons. However. will be children where soiled polishes and These every but " cleaners that stored way as the iron as dissolvingthe cleaning kettles. It is the best steel also be used can in put up now 1 to part buy centrated con- ammonia . and supplying a dirt. of are Eenovation. page 275) materials. the do as of all dishes be reach on with be for mistaken to oils and cleaners. nickel . page 263.whiting with ammonia for nickel. and brick is brick Bath is much more form. The trace without the housewife and dilute salts risk will it with of when mixed oxides dark be not and such can not juice will form as should out should handling thing some- properly same For work poison. dust. by The is weight appearance rubbed other with some of one negligible. Oxalic " package form as a powdered brick sold in satisfactory. copper.HOUSEHOLD to whether question as answered glass. a it economical water. vinegar in in clothing such abrasive any as special service spots from remove the grit to clean acid. hydrochloric acid. whiting may water with warm for white enamel paint. over-used. as cleaners for metals exposed with great else. in in metal. if not method of these found such injured by of the cleaned will be surface of silver that the silver is examination an 135 SUPPLIES with than also any chapters on Equipment. They are used rust. can into and it with below. and cleaner. and Kitchen and for aluminum. grease or metal Whiting with alcohol (wood or denatured) for silver. whiting with steel wool (See 97. and washed acids find lemon.

this and delicate often is forming. which Rosin does produce a suds.136 to HOUSEWIFERY parts of 5 The water. and finally or and potash) dried from any the feeling of hands of moistened piece (not by be the If there blue. soap cut no pleasant un- Extra scrubbing soap is a great advantage because it cuts the It is an advantage in purchasing scrubbing soaps. is ammonia cans for all purposes. by the decidedly sticky scum water a use clean soap to preferablyin the center of the lay the paper present. which It is also possibleto recogrosin if the soap is lightor white. be detected adulterant an a its paper. scouring. to the surface it with likelyto contain little or no rosin. and soap. from nize the presence of alkali by the shrivelled. provided bought at soap price. " good is soap in diluted SODA SOAP. is by the housewife poured into molds. is used it is to be in the form of washing soda. the red test hindrance decided Ammonia. turn mouth the to Rosin which forms housewife's because an a reason in the for the an in grease. action soda Alkali clothes the more or because dirt. the on they quality is cut alkali excess advantage for that and fresh test is to surer Moisten and mouth). It is to white the soaps. soda borax. cannot be detected Alkali come can by a pungent odor. A use. to weight the soap.choosing cake. be said to aid in the cleaning. ingredients mentioned alkalies of have colors. of buy to home-made general heavy has line water the on paper by holding tongue.which is nearly three times that of a . it is not soda. but its sticky may are adulteration added salesmen gummy. so-called the of will bit of soap stickiness character.drawn. and used. but of are and the mild will as the For mops are soap affect scrubbing. soap. if it bites the see can by the and is Soap litmus of the saliva tested. brushes where work Ammonia and on it is in the nature in addition and soap advantage. SCOURERS AND (eithersoda impurities in the that is free from one ammonium as is best For cloudy. alkali coloringwhich could hide if the soap is made Clean fat is light yellow or white. as red after the any borax skin. of the soap. from clean fat it will naturally be a very light color. ammonia in best quality of form solid is sold carbonate. but the liquid ammonia A Soap. a quickly in is caustic. before and for alkali by the odor. in resinous boiler.

quarter. and several raw pounds have potato cooked with through soda. fat to make To in in the discarded alkali The form those unwrap things necessary two Prepare the fat help to clarifyit. Warm the pound caustic in soda water. because The with the volatile oils from these flowers. the The " suet. In the first place. and cake should is double a that least at a soap is molded hold of better house- equally efficient as toilet soaps. toilet soaps are often colored violet or rose.Coloring that materials in matter laundry acts as soaps . Make which cakes strain it is soap.there is the usual grocery saving like six or three cakes for a There is a larger saving in larger amounts. large families. It is economical to buy soap in large quantities. to melt becomes . the pints of water. the soaps are scented The of scented cost into fine a small very a toilet soaps colored fat and clean good and its cost warrant such Usually perfume. it is wisest in as used to be are All used. Prepare To cool a drug store One pound cans. add into Fat other fat will at the bought in 5 (1% it. for example. a is sold the soda soda creamy Solution. too. or lye may be combines with 7 pounds of warm caustic chemists' or as machine.and where which soaps.or for scraps not last. fat fat until and just enough the mixture 14 oz. cheesecloth. Drying soap is a saving. to the housewife to allow time for it to dry before use. to for the soap solution jar.and the housewife's lost time more saving. clean pound lye solution. bought in supply house. and should of soap boiler. with water. lump remaining be obtained may Store fats. and as a Soap Making. a cups) Stir smooth the in use fat fast as of this soda the Put soap jellyis soap are of soap. In small families where soap is bought in box quantities it is not used up so quickly because it is less expensive. and sometimes of having enough soap in storage the advantage. white soaps false constituents are 137 SUPPLIES HOUSEHOLD a curtain are to be hide to preferred. and and trimmings for be saved to the water more alkali. in the washing scraps place until by melting. to make still When dishwashing. but if the soap becomes it fails in economy so dry that it does not lather than offsets the money quickly. accumulated. kitchen from fat by trying out meat deep fat frying. solution 1 1 the fat warmed. scraps clothes these are or 1 " or lye in can Soap. then quart into mold. Dissolve " One mass.

" In the where same is " its cost bill. and it is cially espewhere is very the water that by using soda noticeable pound of four gallons one to every if the measurement prepared solution is compared with the solution without soda. Soap powders or washing powders are usually Soap Powders. Before it dries remove after taking from the oven. the fire.138 HOUSEWIFERY Mold. has used for use One enough soap solution the when The suds of the cups and above does scum a soiled more or greasy two remain clothes solution to will form not need the more seven-sheet a in soap.because serviceable hard. the brands or twenty-five-pound may in barrel One of or packages quantities. These small in packages packages from purchased It is three from to possible. for a parched dry skin also. pound soap chips to four which is especiallysuitable a gallons of water makes soap solution in washing machines. The proportion of soda Yery few soap powders are pure soap.may be purchased from all soap manufacturing of Most laundry supply houses. Ai soap powder containing soda may be very extravagant if one " . Often enough.they readilydissolve. like soap chips. varies. companies and from be purchased in ten-. enamel an (likethe box into box the and box waxed with paper in' candy let stand until soap is well formed from cake as a warm the paper (24 hours). a saving in the soap Soda. To into cut paper Line " the soap of the mixture cardboard or pan strips the width Pour boxes). remembering that soap enough has not been used in the water until suds than water produces more a lasting suds is produced. washer is washing. of water.when a yellow flame characteristic after the effect on the skin.however. These powders are much because. place purchased a type of soap powdered washing soda especiallysuitable for laundry purposes can acid be bought.but its presence is easilytested by sprinkling a few grains in of soda will appear. the grocery. to buy one pounds. This soda is sometimes spoken of in the trade as of its astringent it is the washing soda with some alkali " because This soda makes caustic propertiesremoved. The in doing laundry into be made to two one-third is about a pounds saving will of be soap work solution prepared very of soap. fifteen-. It may and one soap. weigh used these powders in barrel quantities. Warm of this cold.forming a suds. so-called. Soap chips. watch washing and a much puckered skin during washing indicates soda.

give certain a body keep the fabric possibleto the fabric. wheat desirable a as give cleart There of more the garment well laundry. this soap as needed. rice water as as several The usual starch. furnishings after bought cleaning. fine woolens or colors. or methods will be one to have sure cleaners.at known two it is to be used as and huy soda as soda and and as supplies when to bought in laundry supply houses quart of wash one the use or be may be much bark Soap mix and soap. for the starch. In greasy material risk some which may substances. . bark to is to wash value of soap former cottons. larger.to say nothing of and probably the linens . cakes. boil with never often too wash washing When it. fades shows water. where Do colors. STARCH The essentials degree which of is stiffness which are the but lasting as good color as are three good as garment. special cleaners discount is too some with these to the air. Scourers various the metals. all of which always if used rates. of quantitiesbecause many in The quantities Workers small of jars them dry to should house. injured by be in silks. hetter it is much why yellows silks Soda clothes. than the will not Potato other wear substitutes starches starch starches so well. in when buying one the in buy and the deteriorate to warrant utensils mixtures for sidering con- pastes. colors.wholesale quantities. it is advisable three or dark do may from cheaper least two quantity. it will and indefinitely. and some scouring or allowed about two or one or small in institutions soaps.bu}Tsit at gold-decoratedchina will dissolve cottons and and wools All stores. and that are it shall that give a pliable. resist moisture. or soap 139 SUPPLIES HOUSEHOLD light or fabrics. white except for use never used. quantitiesof in pounds silks and harm the water. the different of different the as be should Scourers " of small such exposed supplies much waste. together soda contain be to enough Buy packages. kinds it absorbs so starch still especiallysuited cornstarch. and well as gloss and finish. it in or place. well as this way abrasive Cleaners. in if used or carelessly. the to one not of soap large special Its alkaline reaction for white use keeps it in to the drug It cup buy weighs light. of starch. are is not when in .

but it is serves obtained of this work any purchasable laundering blacks with ordinary starch to the rinse water be is in purchased in soap enough secured attempting starch tints are be may quality of paste. according to use singly. pound the same and as a not purpose. while two-thirds to be may bought modified. by using the water rice is cooked. It has It pliablenature.use wheat starch. packages. most for lingerie. Starches. It is of especial be will bleed be added of color may pinks make by combining various colors. lars. one laundry and hospitalsupply houses these materials advantage if Mourning of service as tea used Color such as is one used may for color in obtained be to do and in coloringcandies form. Corn combined and wheat starch give better results than if used two-thirds to one-third. For this mixture stiffness d esired.. in pastes dyes may of crepe paper this water may Almost business.use petticoats. makes starch paste from adapted a baby a the to finishingof dress.. or in which so starches houses and blended small very may at cornstarch dresses.etc. a in browns.from which by parcel post. soft finish pliablefabric. color pliability two-thirds cuffs. form or Some any shade Blues and and is necessary. Starch substitutes of great value in taking the place of are starch in case of an emergency. turns pink to an violet. There are in all large cities. Voiles dimities or . Mixed laundry supply Eice a starch is used be cornstarch under often most for fine French starch of a very be obtained may . Boiling the garment in the dye usually assures the fastness of the dye. or lingerie.etc. powdered and icings. Prepared the one-third wheat one-third for the purpose the name of blended grain and makes bought in packages.and brown apricot shade.140 HOUSEWIFERY Cornstarch is fine a starch of making a stiff. the For example : for shirt bosoms. for doing fine lingeriework where or the penetrability of the stiffening agent is the chief requirement. Cornstarch brittle. This in standard recipe. rough and starching of cuffs and power fabric grain starch Wheat which collars than which corn. using twelve pared pre- proportions. of starch ounces to a has a standard gallon of water. has the is better to the special It makes resists moisture. for at a A " speciallyprepared starch laundry supply houses starch has paraffinand that with a standard in household borax mixed be may bought quantities.giving a smooth It is suitable fine and a good gloss. Borax is usually bought in powder form. Various or to starch water. shades quantity of water.

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blue or by number. is of iron iron and cloth with is not SUPPLIES! being at hand. it is as cheap permanent time to buy at one as another. when moment. put a teaspoonful of liquid blue. or of the ball or block blue. potash soap rust develops on formation ironing.use this Aniline an and water warm For is the standard strong. one goes to a store. and certainlya needle and thread. the tint kind blue and the not needing buy one whether household Put all will solution. a der. in experiencemay be gratefulfor a suggestive but those younger the such requisitesas Why not buy followingthe very first day The list. which acid is needed to develop the color or not. little time needed the and in is used article ounce is soluble and the laundry will sell in without be purchased as may of powder into one bottle and dissolve. It is a chemical and be overcome either by a better choice of blue. called one an purposes. into a tablespoonfulof water shave off some and to this add a strong solution of soap or soda. and if iron is present the bluingwill change to a reddish brown. put a few grains of powdered blue in water. of water. teaspoon for an ordinary washtub indicates color. Heat this mixture. blue blues violet. and shake the let stand and dissolve. experienced housekeeper requires little help in this economy.142 HOUSEWIFERY bluing The will often soda show. streaks of the has or combined spots of iron rust. and comforts. Aniline It is very blue to be dissolved. anti-sour. not being diluted. supplies.and ready Of of the will remain.but is true to even These sizes and quantities and of supplies are usually of standard quality. or by thoroughly may rinsing out all soap before bluing.and sold are acid. and greatest variety small quantitieslike one ounce. To test solubility. upon ironing. To test a bluing for iron. as far as cost is concerned. or blue. SEWING So fine or store iron. to if soluble no residue Filter through filter paper Bluing usually bought at grocery stores. needed is most and hook at the or a urgently needed eye. by being on then hand certain when necessities needed? will have become . forehanded This and is true so much with lost when regard to all a greater extent with sewing supplies. but houses have the of supply blues. so. pow- gallon for use. filter.

drawstring. ) Sewing needles. (Separate bought. Spool silk. steel is expensive more but has needle point. spool or skein. English twilled Linen special bindings fori shoe bags. pair short color usual match " both of short belts. white black. A. size 60. 00. edges of seams. white and mercerized. yard house. 2/0. Hooka. 2. for mending. light blue. ones. sizes 3-9. Measure: Tape measure. expensive Neither stick Tapes for .) bias and binding able. Bodkin needle.HOUSEHOLD Thread 143 SUPPLIES : and Spool cotton. 3/0. the especially good tape about measurements accurate the for and sewing. sizes 4/0. white. O-A-B (2 size spools. 3. light pink. cotton. Spool silk. Basting cotton. and replace Binding " the in broken for underwear. 5-10. but of sizes Two are box the if one . black. ) . for drawstrings Stitoh (All Corset " in 2-8. Belting Shoe Tape good to replacing to Lacers Ion? black. 9. Eyes. or Large sack needle heavy darning needle. 1/0. 7. 8. arid Peets: Black and white. 10. Yard stick. y4 lb. non-rusting. Snappers : Black and white. is bought size choose one not a good large. Steel three nickel or sizes. Bindings or " " facings. tape of papers size one may be " Pins : Paper box or pins (cheaper by convenient. 2 inches and worn. of rolls cheap cotton where tape for broom bags. finishing where to replace shrunken about belting shrinks Lacers Color One tears. black Darning Xeedles small). Spool silk. large and Spool silk. : Cotton two " three or loops. " for or mending sizes (Several Ribbon Binding for Used rough " " Most useful Lingerie Feather be " black white. The plated. A. sizes 6. sizes 40-90. ) a serviceable plain used. : Darning needles. O-A-B (2 size spools). the yard. to long. " a lace. best quality for bindings. too Safety pins. wash- could . Heavy linen thread. for sturdy bindings and Bias for finishing. hanging firmer than places tapes are string. sizes 1.

into the in either surface smooth a large item Tissue is sold a use rather a have sheets into package where should paper SUPPLIES PAPER odd fragilematerial. too.144 HOUSEWIFERY Edging : Narrow embroidery Narrow lace Coarse Muslins into tiers. Ball: Emery For cleaning For waxing needles. hundred one The inches fragile or size. it will be found house. This it will rolls of 7 kitchen. and this is recommended of such paper is likelyto be extravagant. with is a Paraffin paraffin light-weight tissue coated paper foodstuffs. or by the roll of about twelve yards. for they make wipers. 2 widths. The . an emergency mend. 3 Needle: Crochet For an emergency mend. It be which is useful for wrapping purchased in may packages. for mending. towels are purchased in times' so a that day. heavy. Stiletto: For HOUSEHOLD Toilet It purchased be can The of sheets. is always valuable for packing. for darning foundation large to for net to set into set tears. readily. pound or quire lots from a wholesale paper padding Paper towel for towels is needed are used sometimes many really a blotting paper. : lawn. It is decidedly economical patented holder. If it is used very economical to buy in more freely in the home. and is so soft and it crushes a good light that it makes by the quire or window is forms of two and carelessly. tiers.or the : soft package is less one likely put the to for places where or it fifteen wrapping dainty for by twenty-two sheets. Batiste or Muslin. Tissue paper. Wax: threads. to the use the is latter because economical more of expense. heavy Collar: Bones wires or " sizes. for mending. light weight. the roll.and in pieces that come excellent house as wrappings should be saved. where in the yards paper absorb each. is especiallyuseful It about comes because texture. for mending. should water be clean a rough. 2 widths. paper materials.

trunk Mending tape Sealing-wax. WRITING Paper business " size. Glue. save wrapping papers that into the come house. as envelopes 400 to 1 of ream paper. Key tags. In several things carry to paper like that or the fat papier-mache even or the be cleaned must rancid. of paper. 24 to SUPPLIES 1 sheets ream. for like yellow including is desirable special delivery. clips. 500 Correspondence Envelopes sold business " Letter size. to have on It can Wrapping paper be purchased either in sheets by the quire. music Post. pad " pad paper labels Elastic paper. of and Box of Pad of printed " " various to denominations for copy not too household Parcel those who small. Letter size Small memo pad cheap for pad " catches the Postage stamps Blotters large " Printed stickers Laundry Carbon list " eye. Paste. in the it is tray-wagon kitchen and possible dining-room. For clean economy's sake. two labels. color small. package cards. 1 pack packs 2 Post sheets size. 60-75 sheets to 1 package pound). grow of galvanized iron tray service untold a The " which brush the at been is of of absence The once. Ball of string. Newspaper wrappers. Shears.HOUSEHOLD 145 SUPPLIES have toweling is excellent for draining foods which For fried in deep fat. for " decided A notes. Thumb-tacks. send clothes lists. " Ball of Paper twine. greasing cake tins and molds. 10 tags. to 1 quire. sizes. as it .or on rolls as one it sees used in stores. size. out to a laundry. Correspondence cards. work-tray makes is a great convenience hand. the scrubbing of a kitchen table less necessary. or paper collected on it would from a Tray. (Formerly DESK to 1 to 1 quire paper. toweling is far preferable to the piece of manila paper Paper to the bag. bands. " or books.

93. Bureau of Standards. D. tables. Measure: 2 8 pints quarts peck 4 105 pecks dry quarts = 1 bushel s= 1 bbl. Measure: 12 A AND 100 2000 pounds 1 cwt. C. Measure: 4 gills = 1 pint 2 pints = 1 quart = 1 quart = 1 4 quarts 31 Mi gals. yards 30% Fig. Washington.3 grains r= 1 dram 16 drams = 1 ounce 16 ounces = 1 pound Liquid rods 320 Measure: Square Dry MEASURES. vege- etc. " 1 square foot = 1760 yards =1 mile 5280 feet =1 mile 160 = 1 square yard == 1 square rod Every-day kitchen 1 36 mile 1 roirdupois Weight square rods = 1 acre square mile = 1 section square miles= 1 township Courtesy measures. pounds 1 ton = 1 gallon = 1 bbl. (fruit. : 27.) .146 HOUSEWIFERY TABLE Linear WEIGHTS HOUSEHOLD OF 3 inches = 1 foot feet = 1 yard = 1 rod 5% yards 144 9 square inches= square feet sq.

70. M. 75. Household. Materials of Standards. Little. Make in should " 0 QUESTIONS suggestions practical supplies such \~2 soda SUGGESTIVE 1. Compare for 5. Press for the Circular Household. List 4. list a How supplies prices as produce may paid by " economizing soap in quantities? for bought be ^spoonfuls t ^ u ^ " j baking powder if waste in bought and housekeeper one by be can taught? List. Housework. Teachers Sadie B. 1 1 lb. 6. Attie. Safety Brown " Co. Tests Bulletin Circular for No. quantity. batter batter molasses cup of cream teaspoonful 2. Agnes. U. the 19.rice ss cups oatmeal = cups cornmeal= cups 2y3 2% 1 of liquid to 3 cup of liquid to 2 of 1 cup 2 teaspoonfuls 1 teaspoonful Vv 1 lb. Notions. Ronald of Standards. College Physical Bureau and of for the Chemical Publications. Parloa. Co. U. Bureau Vanderbilt. Housewife. Bureau Marketing Home Maria. MEASURES: HOUSEHOLD MISCELLANEOUS 1% 147 SUPPLIES HOUSEHOLD the that be may used as a purchasing list for cleaning supplies home. yourself and find reason differences. S. and Economics. S. to liquid cups flour ss a dough cups flour ss a thick flour = a thin 1 cup soda pint 1 to soda teaspoonful lb. cup 1 1 to milk sour 4-11 tartar What What 3.. Century Co. No. may the of quality and soap blue be in tested the home? REFERENCES Donham. . Souder. No.

dining-room. this 148 for it lines. if spent hundred necessities kitchen. floor furnished spend. poor a so every precious evening her had and rule in is that wanted. poor thought lives one have to tendency one so couple usually have. to necessities they that all complete them will in is to furnish purchasing. possible. hundred Two As put under twentieth and added. are its buy hastily.beauty. complete bad buy to is available money is like utility. the house. a house.and considered planning for room. results be may In the best it furnishings. needed things many that they rolls less use adequate quantity. to To the of appearance FURNISHINGS for a bedroom. for daily it the It that use who housewife upstairs to carefully. takes for century. details. is not so pillow is and fifty to buy the bare a to are her up not necessities chapter there are are three the of source a of matter solid silver American is anxiety material have pensive ex- which to things concern. ? later equipment The plan approved to bought be may results material. new the sum helpful together. living for to moreover. reasonable which to is are be may replace. more expensive not background. constructed best as the with furnished serve young desire their for not the represent power. ceiling. of however. In only absolute be and buy cheap to and construction. most furnished Even then. act as With a hindrance a limited limited wearing according and what and desired It be may seems a too the housewife.CHAPTEE VII HOUSEHOLD In considering a obtain economy their as ideal. and standard one dollars. house. standard. presented in turn standards for various . built the things what sees of first. perfectly to Instead. empty which picture. may begin to when room background. by causing their standards. may home. small and plainly bath. and best to which the home. why the the enthusiasm Their furnishings for their the is walls.made with harmonizing in the often easily cleaned.

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A " $ study the showing Put Wallpaper On. flour. "Recipefor paste: " glue. are " cream. 96) tinted. Boiling water % some $ lbs. and plaster or cement. be desired. as classified (Figs. paint. paste.50 per roll of sized same Hard laundry. in use like rooms best finished with In hard If bricks.20 per roll roll Pressed 3. In patching. which the can wall to imitate light by wallpaper. Cold per roll Stipple 1. and 95 . 2 Save approximate . like Walls. finish case off .00 per roll roll Japanese 4. kitchen. it may then finished a the hard either first marked in enamel cellar. the walls be same lb.150 HOUSEWIFERY Papers be may follows prices.60 absorption the To with : Cartridge Fig.15 per roll Crepe Oatmeal 30 per roll Tile 30 per Engraved GO per 94. pieces of wallpaper for future Plaster The burner. and water to make thick make to or Cement may tile produced by be or sized room.

95. Tile Samples " Crepe of 96. 151 FURNISHINGS Pressed wallpaper. " Samples of Engraved. .HOUSEHOLD Oatmeal Cartridge Fio. Stipple Fig. wallpaper.

which and rub cheaper water-proof a this enamel purchased both cloth freshen to be marked can a enamel pasted possiblein are water. wainscot is metal. gives porcelain a tile. with whitewash and finish tile. use woods as are floors. greater Ornamented hard paint. wall finish. but are renewed kitchen As " form. hard for This of room where finish is most any ease in cleaning usually tilingis tile in the wall of the be tile. or way finish as painted Good water. and naturally less old is be For like plaster is still This firm. often with one or two or Calcimine and can be two coatings of of coats has. advantages and prefers to choose it is in an the economical local serviceableness. makes floor. odor. finished enamel with hard a paint. tile. and wall for explained above.for it is hard to sanitary. wears be makes off to imitate wainscoting Tile be may Walls.may plaster relativelyexpensive. FLOORS Kinds of Woods. Calcimine will frequent renewal. and flat house impervious more Ordinary plaster. satisfactorywall most may walls and cloth Tile-like and then off bathroom good finish. suitable most tile effect The plaster that cheaper especially an enamel good a the durable.while is set. given with Sometimes their one often special qualities.and used an well.with from above finish attractive give to feet is.and painted walls for an cost. and in sheet enamelled first at easily. need with and soap Oilcloth if Avell good Tile it makes makes enamel be easilycleaned for for wall finish the fails in the clean. and spotted by washing covering. and for impervious moisture.152 HOUSEWIFERY Paint used.but more that is relativelycheap wood a use its to provided it meets the requirements for . the Walls. marked over may sanitary walls. The " following for disadvantages a wood for advantage market. a and this. ceiling. purpose Avails. very and more set in before rather put five grease or A finish.such " easily more cleaned. surface moisture to the Naturally then covering applying the one wall the coats more it is and is most as first by paint. curved of the covering. with baseboard use a than present.

153 FURNISHINGS HOUSEHOLD Disadvantages Advantages woods: Soft pine. Does to which soon Shows wax Possible ridges wearing at Splinters Stain well kept fairly polished with curl to carpet spruce as be through tend Hastens pearance ap- tacks stain Takes in fresh when Soft show forming agreeable and appearance staining soft Boards free Nearly in for Knots Cheap Spruce knots many Unattractive Unsuited little Shrinks Maple carpets tacks for Lies Contains for floors and not agreeable sliver Liable grain to shrink Much waste have and knots work in which loose laying a floor . in places comes Limited white sapwood market closing en- heart beautiful for Varied Does to covered pink Oak that hard Contains Very and door a be stairs covered. of out Avears sapwood. quality White 2nd Moderate price Excellent floor Soft Too flat permanently White from knots for Hard woods: North lina Caro- Cheap pine Can Georgia pine do Next show Carolina and with polish wax Grain If slashed parquetry floors to be Not often floor pattern used to are doors May make Very frames good floor Best for used in tinge Unsuited be for cut narrow" severe do rings floor where entire 2" or Annual for home must and that bluish slivers wear wear not adhere. apt acquire at Boards Ash if monotonous of in oiled or carpet boards" Boards desirable the take not splinter Tough make injures appearance cost rift boards Whiteness which sapwood hardness good use off boards North in Takes Must select not above pine edges. and is to Birch for be "rift ends 2%" May tacks boards.

good lumber. heart sawed. slash the will have give short the grain B In cut the annual as boards are wood. and redwood used only where one are may pay large prices. Mahogany is not pliableenough to form curves. and usually takes the curved or bent lines of and chair backs arms. its organic material for decay is eliminated. harder method or according boards called the as comb. A-a. 97). Fig.rift have slivers and cutting is in such again. mahogany.giving such layers or rings slash. bastard or drawing (Fig. immature. to the cut are boards small or first. we The log or one two the to wood The a is cut broad wood so log. or sapwood is usually separated from of mode The with floors. especiallythat The young. walnut. 97. wood. heart is wood very close that the chance grain . Slash according sawed. with amounts This The mature or much organic A. type boards. From easilydecays. d will is all cut is bad for across floors . do to sawing and the part of the log used have much used for the wearing qualitiesof wood. a matter c and " e. that Mode " as of sawing wood different produces Parloa's Home showing layers. Co. then the log is which filled with and it is soft this way and long cut annual rings called shows. Cherry often is used with or as mahogany. and a place from is wood which second. beech. rift. Century Economics. B.154 HOUSEWIFERY Fancy woods like cherry. darker.

Wood. hence floor may warmed be oiled work quarters easilycleaned. Several coats of oil on the will give a good finish. and shrink Boards should that so is most hard have resist woods into the or of the Such is to of easy will maple. a oiled. exception light oils. soaking or resilient.very shellaced or hard-wood care absorbed is of excellent layers. in width thoroughly be so splinter.if wood to be as and is smooth that The depth. it grain wood givesa board soon 155 FURNISHINGS HOUSEHOLD is the wooden oil.like that has not lemon been varnished rest of Oiled the to or service before Whether get the oil into the wood. Oiled. but . a paraffine or penetrate the wood oil will oiled and into may laundry unless stain. be should forming warping and are grooved. be soak the house used because decay. but rarelyin length. covered wears in size and permanent and of like wear floor. and For for chosen. if used. or " matched usually tongue tight joints. wood. Maple and dried chance the prevent Floor lumber. wood wooden floor pattern. thoroughly so The that future plain oil oil stain or The first coat will be with than the the A first. floor grease.each coat making the floor floor darker the color will almost stained is used a so far as appearance is and general concerned. or wooden grease spots are less likelyto be made. a be the of the plain laid the For grease. Oil and color together may be applied by A linseed oil it and floor house. cracks. in flooringis the pine. and commonly most should pine " much be washed prevents moisture makes and moisture and rosin the to are Yellow rooms. quality floors and recreation are most floors it has them thin. Any of the woods with without or Waxed. house. and rub had time to clean.the objectis dye. Use off every bit gather dust. Varnished or least expensive. satisfactoryfor living rooms quarters service give good keep to floor is very (free from life is very Waxed needed paraffin. wood a recreation the shape. They and so covered. often most warmed with A " found. probably all go in so that in a few hours there nothing to wipe off.but be resinous or kitchen good to moisture be stained may a Wood be to have non-absorbent used.and if well seasoned. glossy and unless rosin) and put on the nish var- in thin short. floors that school standard tread. oak or is rest this part made or parquetry floor. or or so-called a varnished.it would as comb quartered or well.waxed. will they make boards lasting.

and free Water care. resiliency. 5. a vermin. 4. be mouldings make in as baseboards walls joining between a in A gives unfortunately floor which the walker is easy baseboards are be or or some easiest 98. to a rub a The dark spot best it with keep it heavy polishing a bought for the purpose may scuffled the and feet to the feet be brush over sometimes or waxed a is to care carpet is fastened the floor. (See chapter on Cleaning and .but more Types of flooringsare shown in Fig. 3. are sent repreCurved . The weight of the body increases the the polish. and causes dust from have and brush.. terrazio.e. 8. Interlocking rubber. asbeswith 6. Tile makes or Composition Floors.) page Whatever Fig. the Types " tolith. it to grow water. on of producing ease Kenovation. it set Curved floors carpet. sanitary most it lacks iency.and may the not special (Fig. colored of tiles for floor. bought the is said to have of tread impetus an interlockingrubber. marbleloid sanitary base. resil- i. 2. spread with a trowel tile. cork composition laid in sections.be flooring. 98. 9. 7. dreadnaught. borders. Such leaves sticky. linoleums. usuallyweighted. of of forward the " possiblewith in different all these tread. parquetry floor. tile. linoleum.156 HOUSEWIFERY floors must waxed oil floor.or floors not room Tile the and only easilycleaned. for as These colors and floors. will easily cleaned. 292. 98). likelyto prohibit " floor. which floors often patterns. sure to it very have smooth that so it 1.but tile.

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The grease. this is If It makes should floor are grease with close grease.158 HOUSEWIFERY will pores closed. service feet. lino- floor. such spots. To will use the oil " Allow the oil oil that be time remains with floor if much washed. easiest seems and. purbe put may potassium permanganate a the the for easy be in any medium] over or may resist soil spread are should hindrance wood a into most easy of tread materials most pervious im- worker soft to way expensive. floor Oiling a wooden Often.) makes it less likelyto show spots. old floor which an foundation.it will be on and be its various are grained enough latter the is oiled in floor.Waxed less it is necessary a kitchen floor. may worker. an Apply and pine have to top on obtained finish . seem . planing is hard work cheaper there it to make and old and level as houses quently conse- possible as then covering the whole with (See page 157. Floors. will soon hold the apply wood with and paint brush. and housewife oil and soak into on the surface.it should a for linoleum good enough is used. is not cooking for linseed to slippery and will be gummy A waxed Every warmed a that satisfactoryfor so is to be reason feels that done. close grained and closely be planed smooth. it Avood If the always resilient not which materials These still be laid. wood a to for be as be chased. by using yellow pine or kitchen moisture to to moisture the to the leum.especially floors cannot suitable for to wash the the be wet or kitchen. if well chosen. grease oil stain. as over or1 spring well as of board a be soft wood of some moisture floor. as splintersare In cleaning process. finally wipe off If this is not much dust so a done that the the floor whole dirt. kitchen floor . much proportion the as easilyand more wood sink is hard thoroughly than hardwood. Kitchen or floor. and has it resist water. in order or and soft a " forms. making be sealed waxed. white a enough to make as that old cover floor. a hard.will give excellent to the resiliency to give comfort satisfactorykitchen Medium-priced with a lasting in soaks dye (page 281) may Either will paint brush. and impervious The " worker's Such and floor a as covered spruce the composition and still be and and oak or old an dangerous and which where floors the one to serve is hard so bit here by planing quality linoleum.

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and ?ause " have been stripped housekeepers' used to together into carpets. a . economic to the be to a the of rugs size of harmonious whole when factor all-controlling are a shown single on rug pages for a The the rug pattern neither in color are design are lie and should may so be nounced pro- of the good general rule 159-165. The same. the material has efficiency much ire cut made into small in about into rugs a " is the ip. and substantial enough to floor. room. easily cleaned. sanitation and home. Some been the of stripped. foundation of the room. 155. but will neither with )vered floor would give greater satisfaction than the waxed the floor or give service of oiled an a floor linoleum.fringed. each in size. and the color and as to Types As The that said to contribute room.) mge A varnished loor. The it be mt lat essential on the ittern and be the requirements of a floor covering durable. "tiU WOOD Fia. Rugs 99. except that has been by way of only in the average and sew other study called druggets. carpet unusual floor covering. since rugs Carpets have been handled. them carpets have rugs. or squares the reverse proportion that brussels like rag All this roven linoleum differ from These buy stripsof carpeting and ingrain and for attachment easily cleaned more up wall Proper Carpets. and renap in weaving has been forced getting rugs into the house to replace carpets.HOUSEHOLD of chance because it times 159 FURNISHINGS spots and grease floors. artistic requirements good are the rug harmonize with the room. (See waxed soil.

The is woven and held warp. it consists the locked be the to the finished. like cloth. and to wires be drv-cleaned are Brussels in rather the is better. Its weave is like Wilton. 101 (2) ) has only one usable side. is reversible both that is. to as finish a warp colors and : Pile carpeting includes Brussels and Wiltons. with cloth woven and woof. Diagram " Ingrain Eugs showing of carpet classified are BRUSSELS W"M" CmPET weaves 2.and of the to the opposite sides on larger rug better with to be used.160 to HOUSEWIFERY for use if there is one. thereby locking and which to of would left both than have . and small to that feet 12 x the the come rug margin looks are the cover main best the usually best follow unit lines well up with floor a 18-inch an the spaces. the constitute the looks pile. W"fll/" COT AXMJNSTER Fro. A 9 rug inches.and as tufted." as to stitch pile is weaving by stretched constitutes during as a next. Brussels). and brussels steam-cleaned. Axminster weave. ""if""" / OWPET B/fL/SSELS /S A W/LTO/V of 101. in various a rugs room is that measuring the rugs the will room. and equal. that is. it may be used either side up. 1. It has a pile like velvet. C/l/?P"r OF WGftM WEAVE CLOTH the (Wilton according different is to cut a the types of carpeting. Brussels (Fig. "tapestry brussels. Brussels carpet. When the fabric out. fireplace. drawn latter than which holding looped in But wear. 101 is (1)) fashion. ingrain. Cloth weave carpet weave. 3. Ingrain (Fig. of the margin be room 12 arranged about lines of 15 to If several margin. sizes.pile. and.but the pile is uncut. " is better sizing and loops is about the middle much over woolen the only a " body has thread one wires. thread in loops thus grade carpet.

the rugs are sheared to make the filling For tufted rugs. 101 tufts Axminster is not in type. Because patterns. and and are Oriental thread in of color. Wilton comes and less -from the is like Axminster in ance appeardomestic of expensive It is the most weave. they hold dust on their surface. and Grass kinds Various of hemp and Hemp Rugs. view those sheared of that the threads are cleaningpoint are so are not too long (Figs. The " of the of the nature in in woven third rugs.as the Cotton rug. whereupon it appears like is especially lay it with the good for living rooms. Chenille carpeting is This hooked (Fig.and more with a pile like Brussels. includes group or Orientals. it Wilton pile against the with light as backs. although pileand kind. tufted (3)) is cheaper than a lint Much easilyloosen. which Hartford colors. heavy. and then looping in filling(Fig. the carpets.because the nap may be pulled out. Tufted. 102). Because they are light. Oriental kind Cotton like an Oriental it is often is determined Chenilles are used by rug to the but save depth reversible and not so costly of the able. there is only one For limited incomes closelywoven.103. than when is cut velvet. cost of Chenille richness where It is reversible. but not so Saxony is best in serviceable. Axminster and serviceable. used rugs the Axminster. It is more adapted to hard wear. a " 11 . Before finishing. are or sun rugs. like Wilton and of old-fashioned tufts.is Wilton durable carpet or rug velvety. Wiltons Chinese so are grade. more a Brussels. wash- for bathrooms. Saxony is a Wilton with a longer nap. Velvet for a cheaper quality. most is the best. made by stretching the warp short or long lengths of wool frame. European carpeting. woven parlors. the most economical from the even. braided. and easily lifted to be cleaned. as it gives the longest and Wilton the French satisfactoryservice. 104). fillingis Chenille. have patterns. are hand-tufted. grass much used for livingrooms. and where the income demands something inexpensive.cool looking. is of the tufted The rugs.they are much used for summer homes. and cotton 161 FURNISHINGS HOUSEHOLD Oriental Wiltons colors and in Oriental usually woven are French rugs. but the pile It is made is finished and steamed. and on porches. Wilton Royal Wilton is a trade name in plain is better in figures than is a cheaper-grade rug.

95 only wide 14.50 8. Turkish " Other are weave.000 for larger ones.00 widths Note $25 for " a Oriental very small not one usually to made $3. oval Ingrain. Persian of Country Courtesy Life in America. " ABC Fia. 20.00 $7. Diagram rug knots left twist. 20.or strips effective for this work.00 It. C.000 and sizes. such as flax. stripsof cloth and sewing the braided stripstogether. B. plain wool. 44. or by weaving Denims and cretonnes stripsof cloth as a woof in the warp thread Either of these materials. vary Price Kug Width Flax. 1 yd. yd. 105).00 1 yd. braided. $1.50-9.56 . produce varietyand various degrees of cheaper rugs. in standard range from . grass Rag.00 3x5 3-5. figured Body Brussels 3x6 ft. linen back back wool 6-8.162 HOUSEWIFERY other Two types of rugs are made by braiding Rag Rugs. (Fig.00 3x5M ft. 4x7 ft. materials rug also used " to of values Comparative of following table. Wilton l Hartford l Saxony . woven Rag.may into rugs. prices $4.45 yd yd yd 1.00 ft. .00 4.00 j| ft. .60 3. 7.jute. and wicking. Axminster Chenille.75 . 3x6 ft. most are into burlap or crocheted be hooked of ticking or silk. " " twist. though rugs course carpets pricesmay Price Carpet Kind and by the shown are greatly. 1 1 1 $1. " " center knots right twist. Persian A. knots " of Oriental 102.00 3x5 K 3x5^ 2-4. yd.

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. Fig.164 Propeity HOUSEWIFERY of Mr. A. U Dilley. " Hamadan rug. 104.

and brocades folds which give artistic effects of light and shadow. to often cheer. Cloth clean. The contrasting touch shield to Rat. as in a need They their backs universal supply close or Coco to woven. be lined heavy a of room. they are and are color. which thicknesses of cleaning. soft fabric and usually two of material. or room. with a of cotton are attention suitable and to economy artistic matting.add to the cost of renewal curtains from being as clean as they should. however.velvets. soft furnish but a warmth. rugs. . hard to keep free from dust. have and different often sanitation draperies which The has are possibilities keep the resulted washable. and The window. used a heavy velours. introduce CURTAINS AND DRAPERIES Draperies 165 FURNISHINGS HOUSEHOLD and not of harmonizing attractive. and expensive Klearflax. plushes.color into door. inexpensive. high priced.

166 HOUSEWIFERY .

provided it harmonizes a lining introduces the drapery material.HOUSEHOLD 167 FURNISHINGS Cretonnes to resist dust. but and paper are plain. fabrics meet Often a plain or solid color as a richness with of tone. non-fading. Dining-room lightweight so as and to bedroom be draperies easilyshaken and should be aired.select must often as to prevent much in cutting waste patterns. "and various silk and wool this requirement. Sunfast fabrics " serviceable because If strict economy be practised. Ups poor advantage. " the light.in patterns cut to a large patterns which spread over large space best repeating. so 107. Usually plain hangings are (Fig. a nature as (Fig. denims. 107). and rights and of fast colors. and furnishes the increases lining which a weight and excludes Fig. a figured hanging introduces light and as do contrast. 108). and of such. This washable and is necessary . before if rugs and downs. 106). sunfast (Fig. pattern that repeats lengths and matching lefts.

Curtains " have gone " " and the cost in time either of renewal and that the curtains suitable find dotted that About material washable should so more. They are shorter. dress of finer are regular curtain the of swiss be fresh may for curtain use or are should be Braid full to allow allowed a on gimp or for good facilities for laundering the material. crepe. monks' cloth Denims Velours Velvets and plushes .65 50 to 1. but will not bar which will shield the room air. sun. and Most of these and the window materials by washing in the home. enough must shrink the whole designs. The cost of following relative pricesmay draping the windows : be of service in considering the .50 Linen 40 to .35 Sunfast 75 to $1. be most If one yard even has practical sides piece before cutting into curtain lengths. crash $ yard .168 HOUSEWIFERY for that rooms The direct a of material range of cost. Beor allowing for shrinkage. or much cheaper than prove sold at the drapery counter. enough like each shrinks this.lighterin weight and pattern. find filmy pretty patterns and. in the following : Materials Drapery Cotton individual. it would to voiles.00 to 6.00 Cretonnes 25 to 1.00 through the same changes as the heavy draperies. (Fig.00 to 5. the order such play part in is very used the life of the extensive.50 Poplins.75 45 to 3.00 3. she can from the passerby. including. to be put inch one for on is not so great but money The housekeeper will often materials and weave which materials inch one-half crisp. if the material has an up and down for matching be purchased to allow large pattern. 109) arc easily renewed Curtains. if the housekeeper desires. shut out the light. Per like fabrics. shrinkage.

Monk's cloth. Burlap. B. " Cotton draperies and upholsteries. 108.Fig. A. .

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a make eight inches. against the space actual whose space top surface than shelves. view.or which of means uprights. of not work to between should be considered page 128.which may and has the advantage by electric have ones With flue- slides. Shape. cleaning should and cost dwarf to size use. and cloth its way Equipment. in sold. combines bedroom the used are in book extra so article of furniture. mental funda- as comfort to space appearance to deeper in shelf. substitute a temptation a account. for instance. likely to be oak. tages. the style and the possibilityof the Selection. of drawer cupboard with an be but room. and renovation They " three service for Size. to as chosen the latter. and that drawers In " in certain be taken must the manipulate and offers heavy to pull easily. not furniture. style may " hard are home Its suitableness large pieces not only feet. must small seem furniture the room. one A it is its with a serving extra sumes con- only lower table service-leaf article. more underhung they to and into the in overcrowd and piece of any and portion. for to every difficult.170 HOUSEWIFERY window frame. and causing air creeps is made which fly screen. than it too making Service. is with birch occasionallychosen . return usable saves in the for a A room. in relation " considered. be wider larger than over-crowding. and like the filters the different two of is sash patented ventilators One set at lower displacement of in so gradually as a Various the air the ventilator fan. walnut. Woods as in give . they been weight. its measure usefulness. can lem prob- Miscellaneous (See FURNITURE Furniture should be principleshave and shape. to have all these to after appearance. as library table function of the space frequent move. cause are down brought sashes angles from off the shutting pipes. consumes the a than choosing storage space. Maple mahogany. Very if also thing are else. special advanlike frame a is of metal be glass.) two the one on the sets of have fresh drafts.nor this is hard to as each massive The the considered. only holes that so annoyance an it. the from extension window.thus to meet middle many another Other have some no put air.

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waxed of bird's grain. with a wood prevents panelling. and at has has It stain. for leaves In of are staining is than made of mahogany. it is the lost it dark walnut.like chair. scratches Walnut is the needs of first choice for Bird walnut for has and where roots. black. simple in maker's cabinet- though even The all of these drawer-pieces. so close itself and cabinet styleof beautiful a roots. finish. is all imported. a fine. and strain. native beautiful most wood the preserves the joining leg-postsin It should it should be a arranged set should braces of seat and be that back cabinet. and using red a back only the for its finish own to-day led to With a stoutly built with points an every and reserved its the of natural use.even. eye before piece is lines It important. brown of birch texture in " prevailedfor which and dark exaggerated great beauty as it starts the color of native inlay has beautiful very expensive furniture. convenience it ings. of pleasing grain and texture. has been replaced by the dull lustre of the "golden oak" Oak is very " waxed or oiled surface. and capable of taking many very " fumed (treated with or quite yellow in tone unless stained to darken fumes ammonia it) but it can be colored almost any shade. browns and The from even highly varnished.where many it Construction reinforce so make glaring lightsfrom any " branch. that the The substitute. color. is used Mahogany fine grain a and veneer true so the color. are and this substitution a crotch cherry wood. the joining of body and of the are to tone dull. so as to absolutely firm or mum give maxiand solid . no is used horrible of the prestigebecause most popular. and surfaces has is was that work. pieces. very that give strength.bureau. trunk furniture-makers better excellent our the It to cabinet a as with oak. as sides. as woods. disregarding birch latter surface does about strong ture. finishes.strongly marked a are not choice the like or and that structure carving for most experts it has many rich and in which period grain. the reflect not wood ugly angle. It is different durable.171 FURNISHINGS HOUSEHOLD satisfactorywood.or unexposed parts. stained. which from showing.but It to-day pieces of many the veneering.close. shiny greens. furni- birch. mark- maple.rather years. to stain prominent sake. fine. grain and unfortunately.

and head low " for modern excuse by modern out lightappearing and places where modern no circulation free the With " lightweight a come allowing and up. Even line.instead above hang to of drawers chest dresser bedroom a it is a and woven frames. A plain. of air to the the and house which is of paratively com- papier- fibre. the get bureau a separate mirror the dresser. with odd here cretonne or as a almost any pieces. It is made in passing be may bungalow four- sanitation. summer furniture frames on woven footboard.has no justification space of beauty or utility.twisted . for the of at least five inches clear space a to the nailed front. sanitary. free in such a and decoration so-called from they will harmonize that way or " " them finished and dovetailed sides board makes line give with scheme any furnishing.such stained that reed types to-day. style. lady's desk. or and braided and in cords woven on frames. . not proportion.records. reproduction. Any should tracks. willow. flat' top office desk will give The Style. is furniture Willow substantial sprouts young which more are a plant sent kind of wood chairs. is well the is the is barked which attractive most needed. since bed hangings are ruled bed of simple lines. which types. it should between its bottom drawers should with the of their on of ease cleaning. with instead Choose a easy plain a it. " double For and satisfaction. and with no for keeping letters. and wooden on woven harmonizes so beautifullyfor It scheme. the room as painted cushions may to tonne cre- need. be of chest in many used poster bed. as " " to good plan a would buy be can " to make Furniture. durable. regulation of the The impossible. has drawers. A protecting the drawer-space sealing completely closing or inexpensive prices may be simple in dustproof. and giving just can be with the tone and frames. on Then made there of the or rattan in America. that harmonize that are with is often so any useful it fits in often color in China from in is made strong. or supplies. copied from Colonial models. harmonious in smoothly run floor.172 on HOUSEWIFERY surface plane a . Light has and new twisted mache. set on four spindle legs. of grass braided of cretonnes or sleeper. and built be glued. firm.

and "lean and oak or the frame feet and the furniture of which upon the pine. three rows service In than choosing two.and its service ?he cowhide will give it frequent rubbings with oil.173 FURNISHINGS HOUSEHOLD than costs more carving. or except the high lights is soft in color. the most are upholstering. even [and housewives Some md If repaid.plain lines are always acceptable. Use a light-colored will do a bit toward darkening the leather. stylecontrols get the best for the money will find at certain times. the serviceableness considered. out. of course. usually either cowhide is very expensive. Avhile real antiques are.rich in tone. " "luded and A the but silk. pattern this kind good wood. sides good upholstered furniture.and. The picture. Sheep skin will peel cowhide. Cloth. it needs care to keep it moths.like linseed. of course work. usually combined Tapestriesare wool some other the with be to are is that furniture all sufficient number. store and durable. couch and is satisfactory important week in most partiallyupholstered.as every dressing vaseline. one must of springs in For example. tips of wood that no the arms is a In simply strong in set steel in length will give more Furniture Coverings. the price is by the whole skin. color. but let her controlling dealer or value. Enamel cloth is only an imitation leather. some is without depend selection. including hand often priced very lachine work. what are most but can one is well is informed who woman in that be thought the to she Avhat many as to be spent . it is a thinner "r expensive. but should be in- they fabrics " and cotton silk. cost. while the is often so entirelyupholstered library furniture of Springs are well the quality of there reliable is shows. ligh. fine antiques. and is not one this been are of differences by through the stage of the painted style. It large part wool. and bewhether consider the spring. $8 to $30. md are a in silk. and week The trained. informed regarding these differences in style antiques have )f the real harmed be will not mahogany but paint them. are is built is chair the in wooden difference noticeable living-room and leavy a upon easily cleaned. The present styleis to take old furniture. if one is increased thin oil. Leather is very skin than flake easily.or lemon oil.but very serviceable. " Real leather " is . tapestry is all wool real it is such because while requirements. Enamel Leather. covering. and. free from or sheep skin.

cotton repp. A. cotton repp. poplin. D. draperies and C. .174 Fig. B. denim. HOUSEWIFERY 110. " Cotton fabrics for upholstery.

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qualitiesthat make linen so smooth texture. will make excellent stuffing longer good enough for bed mattresses for upholstery.) LINEN very desirable for many and give up moisture with which it ease brilliancy of appearance.176 or HOUSEWIFERY that woof. or curled hair. like pique (Fig. page 189. not expensive for renewal.easilydusted. that it takes however. proof against fading. All kinds of material be used for may be filled with such material as upholstery cushions excelsior. : uses are rapidly.serviceable. are are Cretonnes most are attractive in their easilycleaned. Purity of Linen. suitable for light decorations. silk floss. and because of its Denims but few mohair a It is weave so wool or soft a pretty color effect and sadly material woven serviceable. (Fig. 110) expensive than denim.and Tests its for of linen but there may make are. produce the as greens the old-fashioned Repp is a cotton with deep ridges. anyone .more much richer warmth lacked. and these may The curled hair no goat's hair. some an " There expert simple are to so many prove tests for that linen clever adulterations it is not which linen.cotton. in appearance. Ill). abilityto absorb The its freshness its and soil. patterns and and most colorings. (See also Mattresses. inexpensive cotton fabrics. gives up durability.

due of the public for alternatingstyles. Beware of over-sizingor starched linen broken as this is put on to cover pears up the poor quality of the linen. of appearance. out threads. has the greatest wearing qualiies. the sun and grass bleaching being far less modern and ljuriousto the fibre than the more rapid chemical may jleach. linen The Scotch inen being is not varies the the according cheapest. the linen must To give these qualities makes the use of a single thread a single light and of play qualitiesdesired The " The threads. Scotch at a low highest grade. there Select acceptable. the There directlyto in the fashion table in weight of fabric sufficient so that time soft and qualityat the same be pure. The square yard. desirable.however. the snowdrop and less.but a yieldingin the folds. Irish linen comes cost.as the long overshot make threads which likely to be pulled or pattern are in ironing. silver deached three-quartersbleached) and pure rhite. The method of bleaching modifies the wearing qualities of the linen to a large degree. The unbleached. average and A quality of poor good double damask. but turns gray Union means The aer )r firmness square weaver's weave inch.and the pattern stands . Medium quality 220 warp rery fine weight is four irmness of the are and a half damask of the some like cotton. then to its national Irish. leaving a flimsy fabric with no wearing qualities. half. but it gives long wear and grass bleached. of threads depends upon the number easilycounted with a magnifying glass quality linen has 180 warp threads and threads per ounces per controlling characteristics jualityof single It has cotton. In weaving linen damask 177 FURNISHINGS HOUSEHOLD is distinct a the to demands patterns permanently are " all-over pattern rather than stripes.because it is mostly sun in both poorer and higher grades. of course. evenness 12 . the table. is better than square inch. large pattern. a double damask. then French. 112).and disapin the wash.of Essentials linen freshness are it will lie flat on Table the more shade on patterns of table linen. " small a double damask weave due distinctly. which are glass. with a " " very wide the large satin half half linen and qualitiesof linen. and origin (Fig. Tt is noted for its whitesnowy of texture. Weight not " a stiffness. Linen be purchased in (quarter. and beautiful designs. and the natural color (unbleached). two is the Linen.

.178 HOUSEWIFERY Fia." Table linens. 112.

have lapkins to 50-75 cloths charge Allow " only each cents one one variable so of yard the in come is made hem to each with woven these cloth. the than more handsome in. as America the linen industry. )e soft. to 32 in.x80 in. 20 prices of table linen are quote prices with any degree pard are the cheapest . Towels.. 2.. the napkins on 5 yd. 4. wonderful It excels in design and times that of Scotch. shamrock are Sizes of unhemmed: "Sizes of tablecloths in Width Linen. in.and leets these " The should greatest essential absorb moisture requirements. Eound $2 jutting. 113) are best most . extra Napkins. 72 x tablecloths: cloth) (tea unhemmed: of napkins of Breakfast 19 in.its cost being almost finish.. 54 in. 5 yard squares lemmcd iizes "size scalloped or 36 in. 72 in.x36 in. 2. in. and to dozen it is not that accuracy. 4.HOUSEHOLD 179 FURNISHINGS linen is made only in typicalIrish patterns. squares for cloths. x54 in. x90 in. in. cutting If the housekeeper allow to harder two wear than dozen the Sloth. and is very expensive. Dinner 24 in. to 18 in. Table yards: in Length yards: 1 1 to 2 2 to 4 2y4 2y4 2% to 3i/3 to 8 2 V. in. receive border a sized cloth without same it is wise set possible by the Tablecloths 1. of a towel rapidly. doilies: 12 in. to 22 Tea 16 in. for its good quality and modBelgianlinen is highly recommended veloped has not dedomestic is no There irate cost. 1% " 3 3 to 6 3% v/2 to ey2 for 1. 24 The is to round. 16 14 in.. cloth. a cloth by ill sides will cost the border. 90 in. damask. French three the higher grades. Huckaback towels An is that it should all-linen towel (Fig. 80 in.

. " Different weaves of huckaback.180 HOUSEWIFERY Fig. 113.

but are are absorption. (linen and cotton) are much surface not their for . 114. used. because roughness and looseness of weave makes a good towels beautiful.FURNISHINGS HOUSEHOLD Fig. so they do not absorb moisture towels union Cotton or cheaper. Crash towelling used mostly in the kitchen. as efficient. Damask very readily. " Showing different weaves of towelling.

often disadvantages: they they gray constantlydirty. Wash cotton of and darken cloths and are less with bath called glass towelling. absorbing.182 HOUSEWIFERY Fia. towels making often because them illustrate of look this. two " Samples checked towelling. bat the have 115. and wear. .

.

to per Buy. glass towels per 6 6 crash 2 oven cloths towels 7 hand towels Linen size.it would Suggested 4 sheets 3 pillow 2 blankets cases per if beds or are is be wise of all of spreads per towels 3 bath towels 2 bath mats 1 6 table cloth. To on occasionallyto change the folding.and because it ha" no checked (Fig. red blue. 115) . for bathroom. " " should be makes them of softer " and from towelling varies in width pricesrange from thirty for cents finer cotton Dish from twelve linen. used. face bed. pillow. Usually lines Crash it is checks or towelling is a cheaper. seventeen to eighteen A cheaper with bought in to cents linen the a pattern that kitchen. spongy be may other towels weave. " . per 6 3 and trade. and are often planned to clear the shelves of patterns water or " " that times on the Too much restock ahead will turn yellow and prevent cracking. have At these linen reserve planning as none. The eighteen to preferable to a to towel is be chosen one. 116). housekeeper may hand. if so. For economy. hold to be dry (Fig. easilywrung in Buying Linen. cloths wash and rather weave. Always buy linen of a reliable firm and of a salesman who knows reliable house has quality. bed.184 HOUSEWIFERY best power of absorption.and no better than the plain towels. per person. These business a propositions to arouse trade. sets else are is used. per person. per per per week. An Suggestions to Guide understanding of the qualitiesto look for in linen is the first essential of a successful buyer. the towelling with will keep the color better than that with lint. distinct " cloths rough. but should always so spongy as with a either to soft. because folds if kept too long. if luncheon everyday table if nothing cloths everyday week. large dinner changes of napkins (at least) per table cloths. The towel with dish towel the word into it is one of the or woven glasstowel most Hand towels expensive. linen in not are week. week. week. buy when some " sale sales are of good linen. twenty-one for cotton Kitchen inches. 3 sheets same bed. sturdier quality of linen. poor the Household 2 3 shelves her as crack Quantities bed per Style stimulates style at the time. and is better suited to the rough work such as drying cooking utensils and knives.

Marking " 185 FURNISHINGS HOUSEHOLD Methods of marking are of general two marking. 117). the bonnay and For linen embroidered that is to be letter will be ironed the least MCH Fig. The monogram lame much put in on sorting laundered clothes.but the standard place here given : Tablecloths should show the marking when the cloth is on the ible. The place for the mark varies with style. . and thread marking. No to be 117. Eapidity and cheapness characterize of application.and the ink method. regular place for the of linen article. stencil. A cloth hangs from the table 14 or % yard. but considered lore legible. machinery. " Different matter how each ways of marking it is personal and done. such as bonnay tapes.Linen. such as pen and ink. and machine larking (likea typewriter). woven land embroidery (Fig. choose individual kind a household linen. and embroidery (chain stitch done by a machine). lasting. Serviceableness. ease good rinds: Ink the styledescribe ay thread method.as it does The to help accepted color for embroideries is usually white and separate initials are not only better stylethan monograms.

because there be marked may be folded If marked " in the corner. usually full feet two feet six inches feet six The three couch of selection the used be being that a upon. a are the case the on right of woven Napkins which be a one to represent bed and Brass . problem a middle in thirds with BEDS Bedding is thought. in the center. if with and pen towels from the be large well considered. should special dimensions. wide and the embroidered inches. napkin . hostess. They must end. which to first cost six feet three for width special a of the when marked are AND the materials of the because is from ink. spring has Metal by four the than easiest that harmonizes the hem. The Bedstead. in ironed. for three-quarter beds. four length and beds are feet six inches couch a bed. pillow-casesand hemmed six inches mark. " feet end. the are to in which bed. two serves Special care a three cribs in cot or such be must the as day poses. six inches Handkerchiefs. attractive that unless feet six inches is that are middle letter.and renovation bed bed with at for. rather rattan. three night a serviceable. and feet about are two length. unless or in the marked Sheets.in should one couch is the beds The for Strain bed. while bedsteads wooden care a of only word being stretched quality iron is the easiest to wood.186 or HOUSEWIFERY should initial the the edge. making one is of best from of the wide. in the purchased for possibilityof strong springs on strain the often to day the feet expensive bed least a six wide inches are inches size. Larger beds are bought less likely to have the strain of keep bed may a mahogany the and in white than a the as such hardest sides are by to or walnut a be use person mended recom- special types enamel brass institution furniture. of sat sittingon in sittingon night beds and as to be read as square center. four and so in the BEDDING Bedsteads. for single beds. the ner cor- give considerable lastingservice. pur- given to couch has springs. as makes bed. and also be enamelled cottage and use on or finished Iron to clean less cost less like and . at medallion produced by for top of the table about the host the final fold.

of the statement help classed be and cots springs (Fig. firm common cannot boxed bed size.the springs may . springs A may may be B. The to little makes stretch finally of possibility are being reinforced strengthen edges. woven and b) may be not and most should welded have in be These renewed when end . national wire spring which coil springs at each A. ittractive lers. and they require care the better expensive. cheaper spiral. weight The tightened. four ider ids A " " or and wire. The to sag. and springs. cor- joints. too. are to and the made by ure structof a . the overcome of wire all causes has better regular intervals stretching. 119) end.as and a heavy are 187 FURNISHINGS HOUSEHOLD the vantages ad- housekeeper to choose. woven spring with iliicli may a metal the what matter types good being seamed. brass in appearance. tube a No " (Fig. 118. 118. cheapest To reavinggroups so tbat of the body en-wire wov at it will resist springs spring this. quality requires a good metal founto keep finish. wire woven renewed. disadvantages of each kind stretched.ids ition sign of no Springs.

and warmer being the is the a in If like a most a springs thin ticking spirals are spring. springs with and or may by is made laid This on spring but spring.188 HOUSEWIFERY roll of edge wire. being strong springs at the end of each built of sections of wire with up line of wire to give tension. individual comfortable most the replacing links. 119.it is the most is tabulated. the national will give excellent service. comfortable in ticking. and mattress cover. woven to The or even steel rod a be may lengthwise run of the prevent stretching. The spiral spring is a set of vertical wire spirals. wood replaced. but each at end broken. new national and in repaired by be putting base. may be renewed For medium a by replacing sections. priced spring. national springs. keep difficult to up of the spiral spirals makes because clean.- which spring national -A or set upon they to can clean The a metal be than box the whole enclosed relative cost It is woven spring is the a padding enclosed bed. the individual used springs being Fig. a of The . expensive. difficult more types.similar to those in upholstered furniture.

of springs depends on of wire amount rather than kind. department that regard to cleanliness of store or usually sold by the same The composition of a mattress. 3' 3'0" bed or Brass or Brass or Brass 3' 3" food Iron [ron Iron.50 or Brass 8. Brass.75 6.75 6.75 10. * The Wood or price $20.00 . Brass.00-$40.50 7.75 $5.189 FURNISHINGS HOUSEHOLD BEDS Size Kinds Width 2' 6' 3rib 3ouch [ron 2' 6".75 10.75 or Brass Wood Iron Iron Iron. is sometimes controlled by state or . with material.75 8. 3' 6" 4'0* or 4' 6" Wood SPRINGS Price Kinds Woven National Box * Wire "ib Couch Iron bed $5.75 or Brass 7. MATTRESSES Mattresses and pillows are sells springs.

8. short hair like goat's hair. or good horse the hair. ticking. which mattresses. with adds much to the grass as long it does as one-half or husks of in the a silk not tress mat- other comfort. if clean. Corn 2. wool or cotton. 120). mattress which will give service pieces. " Mattress floss. The corn husks. will Fig. which materials. the be corn fillingmay husk. arranged in diamond more shape. 4 and 5. have cotton mattresses Tufting. mattress 120. may vary widely in quality. The in the used mattress cost varies according to (Fig. or grass and hay. Sometimes up into small of a layer of cotton. must be of good quality if the filling mattress does not slip and a " . 6. and is commonly used in better latter. excelsior. curled hair. mattress grass. Kapoc horse made in classroom. The plain tacking seems sanitary. grass or hay. 3. 9. 1. 7.but does not well. Some Such wear so prefer no tufting in the mattress. goats' make a lump or cheap break is made half. hair. husk. Most tufting.190 HOUSEWIFERY local legalstandards different The materials or inspection.

.

to 30" 3 case pillow. the part of the price depending upon feather. weighing not 2y2 lbs. from $3 Often be may Mattress " easilywashed so all beds.or the housewife them muslin. $5. used feathers goose spring. and . and or in tree for bed suitable Feathers procured size furnishing cork-wood the . is much The feathers pound of feathers. the chicken in the West pillows. than a folded purchased tress pads protect the matsort of pad should some cotton or quilt is used that blanket which standardized are to fit mattresses. the place of the bolster. and is expensive.called is the for from Kapoc. on Covers. cheapest . box-shaped bag large enough to enclose the mattress. tapes. and to quality of filling. and soil and quiltedpads various home. to make make all a for seams cotton will have braid only a single fastening with to be is used seam. in are kept pillow is hair 30". source chicken : mixed goose. leave case and one button- . and sewing in a five-inch strip the length and width of material to make a shallow. is not be white may the live bird from the pound. Mattress from but Pillows Pads Dust In sometimes are hotels.50 on If seam. it couch pillows. used are weighing of sickness.about are splitfeather duck. the one way the down. each by using two pieces of unbleached easilymake of the mattress. mixed and best Indies.. . pillows. duck and splitfeather will had the pack. size and be used x feather in regular in 30". weighing size is 22" x 30".192 HOUSEWIFERY floss. mixed. Hair pillows are cooler and firmer often while used not regularly in the used by used. according to x average cost. covers it free from entirelycovering dust. down will on hand often for in use the bottom Pillows lbs. mixed. goose give good service. These at about covers the may mattress be are desirable bought when keep to the mattresses can single bed size.but The gray. and the upon whole the the feathers six birds which has feathers A down. or allowed for In a any buttons in bound cutting seam. the are quill removed.varying from 18" vary An 5 lbs. The edges may be finished with a double seam by sewing first on one side and then turning and sewing the other. size. sold feather parts the are of average are The quality differs according to The down. are ordered An extra half for this double one needs then end open and inch $4.

ror old-fashioned bed coverings.hooks loles. is called of and warmer. dimity. crepe. The purchase of blankets requires a great deal of experienceon the part of the purchaser. costing x The best avail- now is little reason been torn before hem-stitching costs sheets Torn money is selection have the sheet.and is leservedlypopular for a simple but serviceable spread (Fig. The quality ind percentage of the wool is the first important question. Bedspreads.gimp is a pretty. covering Cretonne. it is desirable to go to a store of good standing and be advised. two cotton for best are before quality and difference the fundamental ^he linen in widely vary Be snappers. easilycleaned. while the dimity is light in weight. better or eyes. that there buying sheeting sheets 90 cotton. 121). to twenty The it home has sheets Buy straighterthan cents more in saving little the housewife home. 122).in standard sizes. French )lankets are Scotch blankets harsh beautifullyfinished. per advantage from to have radiates the best cotton percale. the bed. fringe is pretty on spreads that are not to be tucked in. to turn that is. sizes (see table on varietyof standard page 196) but the one most carefullychosen is one enough larger than the lattress to allow twelve to eighteen inches in on all sides. made spreads crocheted cotton choose may " the is all are used in mus- making variety is limited to up Mar- heavy and usually has a raised mttern. for the ice The housewife bed. but does enable making precisesize that she prefers. of the and heat great a 100. ige . and mch serviceable more trimming than fringe. some use the on times to three sheet is that summer expensive. and are " 13 . twenty-four to thirty-sixinches longer and wider than Size. 193 FURNISHINGS HOUSEHOLD stamped are the sheets side. or lace.or and Sheets from the leal more from body . If one has had no experience.but linen sheet. Blankets. but the tangling and tearingof the thread increases the work of laundering. eilles. " color.so finish. the if cut. " There are a . unbleached or heavy buys ready-made. cotton ible of various for making sheets at lemming. quaint. the muslin shrink still. if she has over in tufted )reads. as they are ibout is ten such. some Linen wide that sheet. There is a grades. blanket should be soft and warm but not too heavy. knitted.thread with If one the thread Marseilles almost any (Fig. double as shrink- for linen are contrary is much as elaborateness because standard a allow to sure cutting.

and into the warp will lose washed when spread -woven blankets English fibre and irregularityof length of wood fluffyand woolly. 121. qualitiesappear poor fibres have wool tightly woven. not large a Jessie H. cent. per cent. much with of any is due blankets Some the weave. the cotton wool cover N.194 HOUSEWIFERY have are finish. washing. Domestic in both of the others and warm a weight of attached blankets per cent. but the short the of the Such amount of wool Fia. The manufacturer and great variety warp. wool grade is about 60 100 larger percentage of wool adds . Woodruff. in honest an all wool range from all cotton to blanket really does not exist. ) good medium the are Y. quality and exact ticket The statement. to the blanket each in cotton should give to 80 per necessary wool. The the favorably compare finish. the and by the Mrs. blanket (98 A Made pillow. per cent. to the care made. A . to durable. grade and percentage of wool reallycontrols the knows sellingprice. -A hand and and blown been blanket a blankets texture The finallyleave only to long enough Dunkirk.but are poor like the Scotch.

1 and 4. 2 and 3. . dimity. Marseilles. 122. " Various weaves of counterpanes.Fig.

imagine. 72 in. one it is desirable binding and blanket are ruffled used wool best without are at The case. cut gether to- woven save for this purpose. but elaborate more wool The in.satins and silks make warm " sheet wool.e. 96 X x 108 80 in.and full-size wool washes The comfortables. or For appearance for the border important is more border. it will make and easilycleaned. better. : 60 x 100 in." Three-q ter hang in. light.two in two and bind to the the blanket. x 36 : in. cover. is considered cleaned.challie. but what is of the same made quality wool to the the across than color border often so important more are but batting fillings. 25 in.. bed 72 in. i. x 90 in.^-11") Single I 100 72 washable a "f PiUow-slips Size Size Size in up : S^1^^ in. Hospital then sold them cut Comfortables.'}Single ( | Three-q x 82 in. better are made cheesecloth from from cheesecloth and purchased in stores from the bedding department just the size for single. an into fine cheesecloth. x Double in." in. 06 lo-"^. 100 97 in. uarter bed j / bed down Comfortables. x in.196 HOUSEWIFERY of blankets Borders The variety of that the is as is the is due washing blankets Blankets to ribbon cotton and not which is handling. and of ease blankets double. double 90 36 bed 6 in. would one plays little part. 80 x 90 in. a usually end." the of having desirability puffs wash Down of Sizes of this 90 in. / 76 in.x 90 is most what 282. and if tacked or quilted excellent comfortable. Comfortables be made may " after seen bought be may of cotton in lengthwise being run shrinking in length. heavy bedding well.n )in." is Solid classed or under the two sterling silver. of Bedspreads in.x36 22% in. if made very be to Bedding: Sheets 72in. u a in.which headings means " " about solid 925 " and parts of . Blanket edges. in. x 84 in.) (Seepage Size be can comfortables. SILVERWARE Silverware plated. x 27 in. Silkaline. three-quarter. of Blankets: in x 80 ." 116 R e g lation u in. " Extra r bed - or not in. size x size: one 78 in. 72 in.

will equal teaspoons marked 10 dwt. likelyto be composed of solutions of mercury is deposited on the spoon. plated ware electrolysisupon a 197 FURNISHINGS HOUSEHOLD suitable silver for expensive. giving a bright silveryappearmercury ance. In this case." because the area twice of a tablespoon is about that of a teaspoon. but often the most-used silver is double or even singleplate. on is the plate silver. the The has base. silver to 75 the outwear and best The copper. dent. even For household. instead.are ornamented. and spoons. The will be plain patterns more easily cleaned..i.parts of copper. simple patterns are always in good taste and are permanently on the market. have the coating. making A extra an bowl of each finished made of two piece of pieces costs si?e and weight bowl will cost if made Sometimes handles. Triple plate is the best plate.and is much less expensive.. Tablespoons marked * 20 dwt. itself to the recommends plated ware better plated silver on the constant use The market average compares very and favorably with sterling silver in appearance durability. if given any hard use. slightlymore Silver-platingsolutions advertised for use in the home are very salts.g. and mounts. but the same housewife must remember that mercury salts are poisonous." which bands or are finishingsections. but will show very scratches more In readily. because wear. sterlingsilver. the "mounts.e. most steel on for Britannia on knives and for hollow metal In ware. The bright finish costs than the frosted or satin finishes in silver..and will solid silver is an alloy of silver a coating of silver deposited by best. For example. the as able.the heavier weight is the most desirlighter weights. Patterns and silverware from shapes in flat and hollow vary time to time to suit changing fashions.. thus increasing the cost considerably. The idea expressed in these terms leads one to think that silver is dipped or coated so that a certain times. German forks." meaning that fifteen pennyweight has been used in coating a dozen.but plain. up of several pieces. Bottoms of bowls and they receive The backs of handles the should of greatest amount number of silver also controls about half what the pieces in the cost. it is better knives forks stamped "15 to have or dwt. it means weight of silver is many allowed a as coating to every dozen pieces. or break. selectingthe pattern it is therefore well . e. bend. spouts.

see Household baked the at surface materials in care GLASS AND household pottery. 123) (so-called earthen table inner body. The China or has china hard the which the earthenware ware. is available in the two Table ware general types of glazed old-fashioned oven "' To or white than in table the called often ware soft inner and or if in two chipped absorption. cooked Someone said has the much-used that porcelain pie plate needs only to be placed in the to produce a juicy. or or then of economy in terms and clean as 2G0-262. and of in the porcelain and molded pottery the household high temperature. porcelain cooking utensils are also now is given a hard available. whether earthenware general types : is made of earth in the inner the types mentioned in differ degree of hardness body is soft. with a glass-like is covered glaze which two for and products for and and earthenware pottery The pottery. porcelain. Cleaning Silver. Secondly. entire POTTERY Pottery. is less which heavy and institutions.well-flavored not canpie. if in time the glaze crazes discolored and or possibly impart cracks.which white-ware porcelain in China) with is the familiar ware a the body. the dish becomes may Kitchen cooking or is ware " " a flavor to food in it. non-absorb- remains because lucent. as For it will take labor is fired upon the constituent inner porcelain In body. table use. This cooking ware articles. and first made "stoneware." accordingly finds porcelain and restaurants even of the because (Fig. earthenware. pages HOUSEHOLD kitchen select to it keep to of appearance. it is transless likelyto chip than serviceable. but it is more brittle. .198 HOUSEWIFERY the consider to attractive well as when as and time and new. is stain earthen - ing.and cracking of the dish. is and ordinarily earthenware produced in various colors . metal be subjectedto sudden changes of temperature like " cool it suddenly in cold water crazing or even cause ing peelmay of the glaze. glaze broken used showing light through. more as a Porcelain from glazed and no test. it is hard ways. it china or is hard.differs more First. glaze to prevent Ordinary cooking ware surface food getting below the surface . Ink is and wide expensive in homes use so and the may be is expensive. All " is of two All china.

200

HOUSEWIFERY

qualitytable china should be hard, compact, non-absorbent,
is made
of flint
highly glazed, and of fine grain. The finest ware
or
feldspar. The higher the glaze and the more
compact the body,
The

the

best

more

To

brittle is the

produce

fine

china.

china, the materials

be

properly proportioned,
be exactly right
mixed, and prepared, and the baking must
duration
of heat.
To
to intensity and
as
get this perfection of
glaze, great patience and skill are required, and as a result china
or
porcelain is expensive. If the glaze and the body are not suited
and causes
to each other, the glaze shrinks
crazing/'
"
two
There
firsts,"perfect in shape,
are
grades of table ware
:
are
design, and glaze,bring the highest price; seconds
imperfect
in one, two, or
all three requirements. One
select table ware
may
accept a piece
imperfect in either shape or design, but should never
imperfect in glaze, as the glaze is the protection.
must

"

"

In

selecting there
"

linen, such

old standard

are

"

patterns available

as

in table

"

madras," etc.,and there are new
designs.
Two
types that are popular are the band of colors, either solid or
colored
bands
of gold. The
broken, and the band
are
always in
the design is simple and
sidered
conpleasing when
good taste, because
in combination
with
The
flowers, linen, and food.
single
bands
but
most
and
less
durable
attractive,
are
more
expensive
gold
be fired to such
Avoid
because
a
gold cannot
high temperature.
ridges in patterns ; choose handles that are easily grasped ; and china
the
must
in general that is not overdecorated, especiallyif one
use
to buy what
set of dishes continually. It is greater economy
is
same
stock
known
as
pattern, so that any replacing of broken
open
and at little cost.
is possible
at any time
be done
This
dishes may
in expensive as well as in cheaper dishes.
for
China.
and
Oriental
Suggestions
Buying
European
"
biscuited
at a low temperature which
makes
this
porcelains are
kind of china superior as to glaze. European china is bluish white,
American
while
china
is cream
white.
There
is no
special value,
as

willow,"

"

"

"

"

however, in the
Oriental

china

color
are

the

as

far
more

as

wear

is concerned.

fragile,while

the

English

American

has

and
the

American
china is giving excellent
stronger body, resistingshocks.
are
service,and many
equal
good types have been developed which
to

the

imported porcelains.

the housewife's

consideration.

American

china

is most

worthy

of

HOUSEHOLD

rolled

A

edge

service for hotel

Decorations

lpon the
3y hand

; it does

put

on

by hand,

a

Six

for

process

by

the

decalcomania

of

(Limited).

plates
plates

dishes

soup

breakfast

12

tea

24

bread

"

cups

12
6

(plates

cups
and

10

in. dish

1

12

in. dish

1

16

in. dish

cups)

or

and

saucer

glasses

1

finger bowls
pudding dish

1

creamer

a

saucers

1

sugar

plates

butter

and

1

be
might
silver, if
sherbet

in. dish

18

1

covered

1

covered

vegetable dish
vegetable dish

( round

(oval)

)

2

platters, medium

1

soup

1

sauce

1

salad

and

large

tureen

bowl

or

be

can

"

6

after-dinner

1

chop

peppers

1

vase

used

for

6

24

saucers

cups

and

oatmeal

12

sauce

in

knives
bread

dishes

and

butter

knives

tablespoons
teaspoons
dessert

1

sugar

1

butter

good

platter

glasses

forks

6

saucers

12

china,

Silver:

4

and

cups

not

salts

2

12

vegetables
tea

2

12

boat
bowl

in

glass
12

12

or

:

dinner

12

1

not

china.

Service

12' breakfast
12

china

special
necessarilymean

transferring designs directly
is the process
To
decorate
commonly used.
means
very slow, detailed work, all of which

is,of course,

Table

are

is

china, and

expensive

12

china

on

Decalcomania

"rocess.

China

institution

and

is of

so

china.

thick

"rery

prevents chipping, and

china

on

201

FURNISHINGS

spoons

for
spoon
knife

"

bowl

round

soup

or

fork

dishes

dishes
of individual
regard to table equipment, the number
is controlled
by the size of the family, and the kind of service
lesired.
Most
housewives
would
choose
dainty service and good
and would
dishes in adequate numprefer to have convenient
style,
and
if less expensive china
silver
and
it
appropriate silver,even
md
For such a standard, which
is strongly recommended,
glass is chosen.
individual
twice
of
all
as
dishes,glasses,and
buy
many
makes
in the family. This
taining
silver,as the number
possible enterWith

with

feelingof

not

much

less worry

having enough.

and

work, and

relieves

It is

certainlya

reasonable

one

of

the

standard

202

to

HOUSEWIFERY

china, glass, and
is, therefore, not

choose

silver

which

is not

expensive

of

to

the

by etching with

acids

to

place
re-

housewife.

anxiety
glass, for in
people appreciate beautiful
it. It gives a finishing
table service particularlynothing can
surpass
of beauty and
is known
touch
as
simple elegance. Glassware
A
lead
lime
of
lime
and
glass
glass.
preponderance
produces
pure
while
lead
that
is
brittle
and
a
wears
glass,
gives a glass
tough
very
well.
Of the different grades, rock crystalor pure leaf glass is the
finest produced.
The
clearest and
determining qualitiesof glass
freedom
bubbles
its smoothness, brilliancy,
from
and cloudiness,
are
and

Glassware.

"

whiteness, and

transparency.

Decoration

glass is

of

wheels.

with

emery
changes of

source

a

Most

done

Cut

temperature

glass

or

needs

very
knock
are
slight

a

great

by cutting

or

Sudden

care.

break

likelyto

the

It is therefore not desirable for constant
glassalong the line of cut.
Pressed
less expensive and
of the
some
glass is much
family use.
products are almost as beautiful as the more
expensive cut glass,and
for everyday service they are
much
desirable.
The
more
poorest
and
the
the
halves
show
where!
are
seam
heavy
are
joined.
qualities
makers
like
of
makers
of
their
name
china, stamp
Many
glass,
of the piece. It is a great advantage to the purchaser
in the bottom
and
of these trade-marks
the quality which
to know
some
they

represent.

plain lead table glassescost from $1.25 to $1.75 per dozen.
of
glass varies widely in price according to the elaborateness
design as well as the quality of the glass.

Good
Cut
the

QUESTIONS

SUGGESTIVE
1. Given

2.

room

for

to

what

4.

What

5.

Why

are

may

rugs

side
and

of

the

colors

what

house,

would

draperies?

those
economically, with
rugs
compare,
be
the
not
housewife
extent
or
may
may

her
own
making
List
inexpensive

curtain

north

the

on

wallpaper,

home-made

do

Show

3.

living

a

choose

you
How

purchased!
in

justified

rugs.

might

which

materials

be

used

in

place

of

regular

materials.
the

advantages
willow

not

of

two-tone

furniture

color

always

be

materials
an

for

economical

furnishings?
purchase?

REFERENCES

Ball,

Katharine,

Lippincott
Cooley,
Anna,
Josephine,

and

West,

Miriam,

Household

Arithmetic,

J.

B.

Co.

Cora,

Mitchell,
Teaching

Home

Sphor,

Economics.

Wilhelmina,
Macmillan

Co.,

Marshall,
N.

Y.

City.

Lippincott,
Farmers'

Pliila.,

Bulletin

of

Period

of

Furniture.

Selection

Care

and

D.

Clothing.

of

U.

S.

Dept.

C

Furnishing

Practical

Artistic.

and

"

Fred

A.

Co.

Stokes

[jnne,

Home

Book

1914.

Washington,

Alice,

Practical

The

1089,

Agriculture,

2LLOGG,

Co.

Donaldson,

Harold

Cberlein,

Macmillan

Pottery.

J.,

George

jx,

203

FURNISHINGS

HOUSEHOLD

Helen,

IcGowan,

Cooley,

and

Fllen,

Waite,

and

Clothing

Anna,

and

Charlotte,

Macmillan

Health.

Textiles

Co.

Clothing.

and

millan
Mac-

Co.
1

Lane

Economy

and

in

"

Page

Household

Co.

Decoration.

John

Co.

Juinn,

Mary

Iolph,

Amy,
M.

"iouDER,

J.,

^hompson,

Eliza

Notions.

Rensselaer,

Holst,

Voolman,

Lippincott

Ronald

B.,
B.,

Textiles:

Silks.
The

V.,

Co.

Harper

"

Bros.

Linens.

and

Ronald

Manual

Press
of

Ronald

Press

Co.

Co.
The

Home-making.

lan
Macmil-

City.

Modern

Schenck,

Mary

Home.

Co.

Press

Cottons

York

the

Co.

Macmillan

Textiles:

Martha,
New
H.

Furnishing

and

Decoration.

Attie,

Thompson,

Co.,

Planning

Home

Eliza

7an

Doubleday,

Decoration.

Art

Mabel,

'riestman,

ton

Interior

Frank,

arsons,

American

Clothing:

Homes.

Technical

American

Choice,

Care,

Cost.

Society.
J.

B.

CHAPTER

VIII

STORAGE

Storage
should

is such

begin when

architect
may

the

should

suggestions
in

be

on

express

important

an

house

the

paper
be

may

each

stand

housewives

utmost

with

Rural

is

the

feature

of

important
had

on

of

much

a

vary,

ence
experi-

furs

or

home

charged
of

placing

storage should
204

planning

for

the

not

to

bin,

contents

of

as

times

is the

inadequate

storage

they

with

out

Each

panels,

even

are

may

be

city

per

room,

or

and

security

learned

of the

cent,
the

the

may

per

van

limited,
are

For

for

cares

them
them

returns

for

by

be

cubic

hired

load

warehouse,

the

at

; the

in

one's
advance

goods

while

so

prices

higher prices

absolutely fireproof buildings.
upon

an

valuation.

goods,

charged

is

storage which

desired, and

much

of

the

section

companies

woollen

storage
so

southern

space

storage

if

Furniture

the

where

for

year

house, because

provided.

fur

sends

entire

in

homes

the

usually will have

town

except

commercial

storage in
be

of

home

smaller

of two

fire insurance
also

the

stairs, and

storage is sometimes

storage

of

does

last consideration.

a

rural

; and

In

"

cost

an

the

The

"

includes

a

as

usually

from

occupied.
per

in

the

storage company

General

month

at

"

under

will

This

season,

space

definite

Storage

storage.

too, according to the

being
cost

for

order.

foot

whose

her

on

he

way

housewife,

houses, and the demand
'closets be thought
and

tucked

a

rented

factor.

the

during

such

Storage.

price, the

this

"

Storage.

cellar

a

facilities

be

The

skilled

based

taking regarding

storage than

Commercial

can

of it

architect.

his

necessity.

means

country

for

and

country,

storage

it

corner,

utilized

Home

a

in

not

every

commodious

attic
of

and

space,

profit be

more

the

valuable

real

a

shelves, cupboards,

care,

available

are

are

and

city

in

that

making
the

of

systematic arrangement
everything. One of the signs

for

both

space

in

the

place

a

definite

boxes

hoarding;

closet, and

or

"

and

the

that

ideas

practical

consideration

housekeeping.

unnecessary

box,

so

the

with

planned

cooperate,

definite

most

Closets, bins, and
mean

is first

to

eager

that

matter

they

by inquiry of

an

The

are

in

insur-

STORAGE

broker

ice

Eset

by

a

Carpet

saving in

; the

and

in

storage

rug

also

clean

torage companies
rdered,before putting them
The

of

and

silver

is sometimes

rent

the

into

goods.
a
specialty,and

upon
cities is

many
and
repair the

other

than

more

floor

the

coverings if

so

storage.

in

special vaults is provided by
storage companies, while valuable papers as

storage

mks

storage

of fire insurance

rate

high

low

205

certain
stocks

NORTH
ia.

124.

id

"

A

plan for

an

ideal cellar.

Courtesy

bonds, and

)xes

cared
jewelry, are
provided by banks, at from $3

CELLAR

The

cellar

or

basement

torage of food, because

OR

it is cool

the

in

for

to $10

a

and

Ladies

small

/Tome

safe

Journal.

deposit

year.

STORAGE

BASEMENT

is the

White

of CharlesE.

place

most

often

away

the

for

the

light. One
roblem
of the cellar is to keep it dry; its drainage will depend
the location of the house
there is natural
where
upon
drainage,
and upon the question of whether
there is a good concrete
floor. The
to provide cross
ventilation
provision of several small windows
and

from

chosen

or adjoining the stairs the The be any latter. the well-lighted passage For viding pro- the age. together partitioned off by themselves. then and this much as above the they the floor wise other- other enough on to The fronts permit cleaning beneath them. one window. dry part of the Preserve closets The shelves should be cellar. of these bins may be hinged to let down. because it was account planned that the shelves should hold so many of gallon. aid ventilation.206 HOUSEWIFERY is important. for keep to placed coal " window floor. and rows .thus of the rest Coal 125. and of convenience vegetablesmay sweating prevent their best. current the Fig.quart. easily opened. stored kitchen. from compartments or with Courtesy the but of air. to keep the bins the and also from the food.if possible. 124). extra of away furnace Journal.and the space between allow for height of jar or glass. convenience heat bins in close be may cellar clean. page 216. to empty and (See also Vegetable Pits. into two of the If a ventilation parts and window for a If the part of the cellar used be can secured by building an to within few a as box or of the cellar cellar is divided into rooms heating apparatus. lead upstairs The cellar directly by a to the kitchen.and should have plenty of shelf room. or pint cans. It is told by a large canning company that they are able to take of stock in less than an hour.because coal. be and Ladies Home fruit and Vegetable Charles bins the that the should be relationshipto to the cellar stairs for kitchen for wood.and to planned by reckoning the surface area required for so many jars and shelves should be enough to glasses. 125). and in that way it is easy clean them. by good-sized windows.) should be in a cool. the coal housekeeper and the coal man. These bins uprights (Fig. has room by dividing air flue inches food a may may of trays with deciding have a molding wire bottoms are circulation of air. should will the in is too the form the " " would. fuel wood should of part one (Fig. dark. stor- White E. to involved bins Vegetable furnace the Consider cost should and and connected driveway. This as be mounted one raised from be before great.

.

127.ssiai^. It is better to stain-removingoutfit. closet in and room. com- may and shelves with half other the best that one-half so its The " laundry is two large into divided such at rusting or not Laundry be to insure as and papier may painted or intervals of or chute of the these divided have to place for all largeequipment. equipment take the the basket take a nor stood in other section an droppers. hand-operated one tools ready for service if they have all room board frame.starch. " One section laundry closet. kept in part of the equipment idea proved one parts. and . laundry closet (Figs. jars of salt. in closet Closet. will help decide Available space a this whether be built a into division shall be isv"w. will appeal to the study efficiency whose housewife has two with ironingequipment whether latter singlecloset a as storage should This to her that each tool Baapaasaam is best stored its near working center.such the shelve as the bottles.paraffin. which. the throughout clothes clothes house bin necessary be of metal closet may or container at the with not are bottom enamelled of time being clean mildewing. if allowed to remain out becomes in the dusty. and skirt week. or one washing in another. whether not. deep and curtain enough to basket. a the boiler wringer if a wringer are open to small hold the bowl. besides Neither is used. the be arranged partments.208 and HOUSEWIFERY baskets conditions. should be high enough to A Fio. and the and broad the clothes placed on end.127 divided and or 128). This The mache. room.

may the as make The cheesecloth. shelved need compartment other. SALT BOARD tVASR BOARD fwrwG/Rom BOILER WR/MGER /ROA/S Fia. is better just deep enough largeststarch cooker be not hold to so the bowl. )age 104. Pantry Closets. For 128. a be planned to hold icks. and strainer and stirring on one shelf.209 STORAGE possiblea grouping of soaps. in fact. cremcms BAG STARCH. felts and deep shelves Other "rax. KITCHEN STORAGE sign. Laundry " A laundry Closet closet for the small Equipment. or evr yroms papers /ro/v roiosrs "tf"Jd(//?//VGCVPS BOARD 3LEEI/E CLOTHES P//V /RONMG """/". home laundry. jrosene spoons iron be kept the irons and lower shelf may On another. They are alike in general deUsually they are divided into an upper and lower section. Kitchen as rom le and " utensils such to divide the heavier the lighter pans closet is deep are 14 and bowls best as (Fig. as boilers wide as Special .129) in these lower heavy kettles and Shelves half . compartments. WAX. soda. Laundry see Equipment. A drawer ironing-boardcovers.and starch kettle.

so drawing out as be built the barrel . cupboards are usually made may all-metal closet (Fig. but one now an secure may metal. which may be purchased in sections of white enamelled Glass doors cupboard In narrow to which the is upper as quarters part of cupboards ensure as shelving.without open open it is better to have the closet light. 129). . Such be put into these closets. the The side. barrel swivels on which to swing the barrels ijffip YWJP Fig. of wood. a doors slide. 129. " Good type of kitchen closet.210 HOUSEWIFERY large enough to hold barrels of sugar and top of these cupboards opens on a hinge. of course.clean having the dust. as well as the top of the barrel easilyreached without to make cupboards should of flour.

preservation from storage involves by fanning. temperature of about 45"-55" In order that the refrigeratormay of in be also food storage for food an ice-box kept at a or more air containers at a low refrigerator. the dish drainer. cloths. for pulled out easily. solved small a jar of diswashing soda. cellar food or Refrigeration represents means F. the sink About to the of waste less unused and cupboard slantingroof the usual than of the counter This reach. the knife-cleaning material. or less even . A " either both in sides. they give be these plumbing.so to as shallow. a jar with soap scraps soaking in shelves be to water washing. and perhaps and bottle washer.a case of drawers may the is L/N/NG for storage of current the refrigeration. FOOD Food view sectional a draining board. or rollers. If in closes way no the classified for storage space these towels. 130. hook under the the dishmop On a EHAMEL drain-board A/ff be may built EXTEMOR FELT WATER SHEATH/NG Fia. shelves small are washing the dish- best stored row nar- directlyover the at sink provide a place near hand for the scouring powder. limited.211 STORAGE shelving should be planned to be within possibleif the housekeeper is careful to plan less The so-called the on A the shelves. preservingby STORAGE dug-outs. and This be on of wall one of refrigerator. the shelf may hang the shaker. drawers may drawers are aprons. cork a knives. cleaned flat of by means sink-cleaning and One necessities. on PROOF PAPER the under WOOD SPACE WOOD hang the dishpan and If space draining rack. two or space tween be- space closet is much is easily more top. and From soap in used a for dish rubbing silver cleaner.and supplies.

conditions influence Various the possibility of not maintaining noted the temperature above. 130) placed The o in layerswith air spaces between. and the bottom through openings. Someone 1" to 3". is refrigerator. occupy while food having a strong odor should the air is just about be placed where the ice to enter chamber. The refrigerator exposure on an outside " temperature is higher than therefore. has aptly is opened. Fig. such as storing in a damp cellar. which is at capable of keeping food 34" for F. usual of air in two Diagram showing the circulation types of refrigerators. it must walls the the of heat from outside. putting in hot foods. the temperature increases the refrigerator out before said. milk. and too frequent that each time the door it being found opening of the refrigerator.212 HOUSEWIFERY be so constructed to prevent the entrance as temperature. and space. meats should the cooler Butter. 131. Air entering sinks the ice chamber is cooled. drawing in the warmer air at the top. It might be more costlythan to lose the left-overs. time as cold storage. not cold storage." In a refrigeratorlarge enough for a family of four or five. efficiencyf the refrigerator depends almost entirelyupon the perfectionof this insulation. This is accomthrough plished any by the use of non-conducting materials (Fig. as and long a a . " porch.the ice capacityshould be 60 to 75 pounds. Do not open the door and camp while planning the next meal.

132. and readily be secured Fig. arrangement. of good the Low ice in interior temperature the can refrigerator. ventilation. and no "od drainage to carry away jveringof the ice by wet cloths or papers. the ice when melted into water. by " the : preservationby refrigeration economic melting Refrigerator showing dryness.213 STORAGE Three low conditions control temperature. 131) . mtilation is . of the refrigerator. the dryness depends upon rapid change of air in the ice-box. accomplished by the construction that it will allow circulatingspaces for warm and cool air (Fig.

removed connected to is necessary and the to scrubbed avoid any that in drain house sure a than that they cleaning. food the more interior The iron. They should be so tight that not even with which the doors a the door is thin calling card could be slipped inside a door when fastened. subdivide and that foods such butter. milk be kept by themselves sensitive to odors. by putting inflow of sewer then. convenient detached other or houses. The wooden refrigeratorsare cheaper and serviceable. drains The " the elbow be can The " should and cleaned brush. to use. supply of farm. a drip pan cannot The gas. enamel. should be of the best quality. not a necessity.but or of tubes that wire.the reserve perishable foods " and can be sometimes " stored in the ice house. made easily cleaned. galvanized be smootb. so close together as cracks.214 HOUSEWIFERY The The refrigeratorhelps in separate from the food.it should may whatever impervious to moisture and odors. or refrigerator is enamel be will care no cleaner Be easily cleaned. it is. as so compartment eggs. where there is an icehouse. be refrigeratormay in a water This trap. button tight about the food cage . is not connected even by a continuous refrigerator. may (Fig. and of the box construction so of material tipping and spillingof dishes. pipes are so arranged and open in the drain a The without be bends with odors. The hardware especiallythe door latches. but drips into a metal lined open cup or box with the sewer which is in turn connected tion pipe. be made the racks should For general efficiency smooth to be easilycleaned. of the refrigerator. 133).but more important is the tightness fit. they are kept moist by The iceless . see chapteron Cleaning and Care. but the metal lined more are easily cared for. of the window For ice ease cleanliness compartment. made flannel. If such a connecunder the refrigeratoris safer be arranged. The closet made of canton food curtains. depends for its cool temperature curtains in moistened the evaporation of water hung about a upon of wire netting. pipe into the sewer. free from porcelain. 132). for the farmhouse refrigerator (Fig.and the cheaper kind. or be of wood. and of construction proper types keep the ice best the its care. small or To clean On the door so from that the a door is often built in ice may be put in wall of the house outside the the back through a or porch. refrigerator. as the metal ones there is little chance for and naturally resists moisture luxury. page 269.

.

6. 9. 10. porcelain flour jar. will cave straw dig food the varied for demands housekeeper's demand The . often A down the to contents are To food. 134).turnips. away operated in the best fashion exposed in rural box. As the study of housekeeping advances. large part of the United the outside to provide a cool box built on wall of the house.for be large supplies. bread bin. furnish for 134. waste 3. glass stow to way often that of both they be odors attractive and various food to-day is that grease. dug-outs or caves food. papier bag. 8. order in to that help tainers con- food they make . It is over must one top of the the the remove too Containers.etc. ground glass-stoppered bottle. In building a house. papier for the house. mostly vegetable. is buried Fig. storage. 2.216 HOUSEWIFERY Window and food be used can boxes as serve substitute a about satisfactorily for eight months refrigerator. not the non-absorbent easilyhandled communities housekeeper should take out enough perhaps a week's supply. often. " mach". (See chapter on Equipment. box. Food merchants (Fig.) Food where pits. garbage. page 99. 1. wooden flour jar. paper.. 7. soiled mach6. soiled clothes types of containers basket. with a refrigeratordoor opening directlyinto the kitchen through the kitchen wall. feasible Variou3 clothes flour covering put open. a in the year in a it is well States. containers be " meeting are the most the top covering and when husk corn or prevent freezing. 4 and 5. therefore celery.

market decoration of some They dishes. which are pasted on often the is likely to amount of the able consider- to amount may light in in energy. to store away the food To accomplish this.and for food shapes. priceseven it is not Crockery. Black the names case.bottles. the labels are tin.paint. and contents. " containers. jars and crocks.the principleis it will be free from bacterial action. the in color containers. in which color a tiling. Large wooden may Fruit jars should be examined for clearness and freedom from any dimming. is is tents. them containers are the and expensive.but weight but the rust there has It the best or breakable. Fruit leach out from inferior glass enough juices may alkali to interfere with the preservation of the canned material. the of rooms color.217 STORAGE kitchen the housekeeper may containers the If the of one plan even match may glass containers Tin. this may for some otherwise account mysterious spoilingof canned " fruit. and held at that temperature all the bacteria and their spores (egg cells)are killed. in that and looking of range easilybe uniformity of the a that can attractive same is two loss in time Earthen used. or disadvantages. the on Earthen " makes sets also hide is as or crockery food to-day. and Glass.and linoleum. or are paint lettering. perhaps It is obtainable non-absorbent. containers be used for pickling. salted.and glasses. and glass preserving jars. are very helpful. or dried foods.pickled. Earthenware Canning and Preserving Containers. will be found labels which shellaced on. preserved. air-tight.especially Some those for the medicine with etched into the glass.are used for the storage of canned. and this see cheapest is Tin moisture possibleto that seen the are in these.With glassjars this The is done jar or container is then by having tight-fitting . since cheap glass products of this kind are not always insoluble. In where food until it is made canning or preserving.and then put into hot sterile jars or bottles. painted Tin " with her kitchen The house. quality. used Paper and tin can containers are increasinglyin the private household. Glass japanned. scheme. the is heated to the boiling point. particularlyuseful because it shows the conof the jars and bottles. the introduce attractive most the most in various sanitary material sizes.prices. them They are having easily cleaned are attractive. the contents.

Heavy galvanizedpails with tight covers. before covers rubbers chief the tested or fold. but they will never pailsare sometimes or freezing. fitted the most and. are common. of expense purchasing containers. which as GARBAGE Garbage Containers. in. and A seals. the large as used in the preserving makes the growth of bacteria amount of sugar ing impossible. to covers time save wipe dry and become soft fruit test. water- that it is winter it is this reason. Wash fit away.218 HOUSEWIFERY which covers down fasten made tighter by using the leaks liquid with rubber new will out screw a leak rings for air lever or fastener. Containers salt medium.and canning season. are which With tin used sealingwax for made not air tight.and impossiblefor dogs and desirable to keep " STORAGE have cats to the contents containers Garbage should such covers tight-fitting push them from off. for the be tight. or liquid sodium eggs must Water glass is purchased in pound bottles as a syrupy liquid. and are more Some service. wooden 1x3 proof against leaking used.Salting and pickling preserves the food without any sealBacteria do not grow in a other than to keep the mold away. In freezing. the cap is soldered or sealed tight.and used in the proportion of one pound of liquid glass to ten quarts is poured over the eggs. they chip easilythey are not suited to hard outdoor of the more modern enamelled waste containers are made with a foot . The be clean. of cooled boiled water. The for catsup bottles may be used for cans. This use of paraffinis satisfactory. A crack. are serviceable. then will not reduce all jars.so away often of causes To ones. in the stretchy. press exactly the to as same spoiling. vermin-proof. dry much as possible.and have many disadvantages. but unwashed. are jelliesand preserves sealed with paraffinto keep mold but are from forming. Stone glass jars or crocks are used for storing eggs in water silicate. as they are sightlyif kept in the kitchen . and is all that is necessary. the best indoor Enamelled pailsmake garbage cans. and ones Always use new and into rubber good ring To food a empty glassjars and put them the are the of one Old old fold reverse in putting together. jar from let bacteria and containers. but as easilycleaned. the ring of place.

ants.but they are especiallygood in the small housewife le for does eliminate effort in back porch or with every It is unsanitary in uncovered be emptied. made it distasteful make to several with of the put jar of shakes into or the on little a contents to are lids. where it will wasted much and The work. such is to to back little bit a time walking to the It is kitchen. For the housewife Garbage bags are made who is doing lighthousekeeping and has only a little waste this will be satisfactory. keep waste waiting to storage of hold house- flies. The the same material bags are of somewhat those for paper bag cookery and for laundry bags in hotels. as They on of the a garbage . for garbage containers. and empty the conoften. which 3ver leaving the hands free to containers first made for were rbage. because the an her empty the hospital waste the the cover powder of the can. such the have to a pail the gate waste. One type of tainer garbage conwhich is non-freezing in 135.making it to the A container. as garbage is apt pan. well cement lever vessel raises is the always possibleto lift the container to empty without any contact with the garbage. on It better principleto keep the tents clean. Underground and proof ordinary weather against animals is set into the ground (Fig. Fig. These divers. or ing attempt- vermin.219 STORAGE will raise the cover. A foot " cover of the the outside well and bail handle attached pail. is built to receive the garbage container. fecting By way of disingarbage. own house. putting out to the cans sifters in their disinfectant is can as good plan roaches. insecticide and cover. and a of draw to pests. 135).

being careful least possible from in garbage. in houses (Fig. the bag in place in the sink. of creating very intense heat. After of its great the be used small Fio. A the best fuel because has a bushel capacity. or a newspaper out opened out and put in withthe cutting often serves They keep the can purpose. " One type of incinerator.220 HOUSEWIFERY oe may to hold holes Hacks or bought by the hundred gross. 136. to set bought ready stove of amount Incinerators a the carbonizingthe slowly dried. odor garbage charred. and the off into the drains water sink. as are the or and considered common fuel. a of disposing of way household represent most cient effi- without Gas is quantity of garbage at one time.it could have to hindrance then housekeeper because moisture up slowly evaporate the moisture the the that was it as A first made was fitted pipe. and or large institutions. that its cleaning amounts so to very little. The are Cut put into the circles of paper of great are garbage cans advantage.and as they burn size of incinerator without smoke. purchased with bag is made the as be may bag and contents disposed of together. built in may be up like kitchen of apartments The types burn. a . incinerator which hot air through into plan The small stove a passed the flue would the waste. 136). Incinerators modern garbage.

iving of fat. In old houses suitable and if some when standing to be about. because good order. collected be to fertilizer for the If it is lime. The idea is to have may specialplace for the various kinds of equipment so essential to good closets two ese leaning.arrange he shelves sweeper ikely to be kept in closets ould have closet drawer a ought be to cleaner. its to districts. other cleaning closet (Fig. 137) of the closets small. the a two or it desirable.00 from ranges used Sufficient stress. even loset will store those ay.and brushes where was such a closet not not on each The needed planned the floor larger every in the . a its recovery or greatest importance in the economv. and so leaning outfit Plan or a new such unsightly is not a broom house.and The cloths. the loset. as bushel. things.221 STORAGE quart a or well In mts as in lg cost for mintenance the collection the a large Utilization.boxes and bottles. STORAGE SPECIAL Broom Closets. be arranged separately.too. and If classified. the Broom as will be hooks for clean 'lanned take and things be and high hooks.the garbage for the pigs. is lin is is all that day per utilization and is home smaller is not Garbage ider kitchen the the incinerator difficulty.00. is of itional is garbage container a solution. with its contents or vacuum should shelves labelled. In rural " sanitary control. of coating of one laid best the on garbage disposal. This method.cloths. housewife. a places where a of burning one incinerator The necessary. cleaning closets makes space be may just deep enough deep closet is less and narrow.covered with a for emptied into for left buried fertilizer excellent an $75. shelves apart to hold will be a hook -he jars. it becomes been not garden. value of garbage as a a pit. and lonths. are solutions. them. put in with Besides. has for the two three or The garden. the whole the garbage preIts purchas- urban or food as of $60. and literallybuild the closet around with he result will be that brooms and brushes will long handles will be a proper distance ave a place to hang. proved a expense. There for every brush. Measure. often garbage garbage burner. Cleaning and CLOSETS To " for plan building broom a they are to be stored when the closet is ished. either by the individual rom garbage by the community.

" An old converted wardrobe into a housekeeping closet. brush be purchased for broom and may kitchen facilities may be purchased from closets storage closets. Linen Closets. painting them enamel them White easily cleaned. building. HOUSEWIFERY 137.222 Fig. old wardrobes white enamel sectional Such paint to may make be inside with used. " Linen closets should be planned with the . Courtesy of Cornell University. cabinet makers.

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" Linen closet with good a than the bathroom. HOUSEWIFERY 139. in a specialplace. is a shallow closet off the it is of service to hall all. near the housekeeper's A of drawers arrangement good place Here room.so medicine that the case. and shelves " very suitable for hall. a shallow medicine case closet with can be narrow like the shelves is apothecary's . so that there is less likelihood of runmedicines ning the risk of using lotions for medicines and vice versa.224 Fia.without It helps also to put disadvantage of being in the bathroom. the For the desirable.

it wise to get a set of standard gists' drug- keep or (Fig. best in the housekeepers think display bottles. 140. Old dropper glass douche linen sizes Piece of clean clean bottle bag flannel sizes Safety pins Surgeon's plaster Syringe " Tweezers 2 with emer- small efficiency.and will givegood service. Fig. with a rough outside finish. scissors. permanent etched labels. It is wise to a keep poisons like carbolic acid in shelf by themselves a on unusual bottles of an shape. and the various needs for bandages. the door of this wood panel rather than plain glass.with glass stoppers in them.225 STORAGE lop with of bottles singlerows As sight. attention would be Also have instantly attracted. mcies. in the prescriptionbottles in large which may accumulate be not families.and keep medicines They Some and give ance very attractive appearto the closet.small and larger sizes. Emergency cases or kits are prepared by being fitted out tweezers.gauze. . a shelf for houses In sion toset. medicines many have loset should mirror a with each its label dark. screwed to the wall. They range in size and corresponding cost from )cket to wall cases Equipment EQUIPMENT MEDICAL OF LIST closets of the medicine closet size and Graduated glass teaspoons : Absorbent cotton Atomizer ounces Bandages Corks sizes Medicine Medicine 3-inch Nasal " Eye cup Empty Gauge Hot-water Icebag 15 2 " 1-inch Clinical SUPPLIES AND thermometer different new. " medicine A closet. 140). they should ke kept indefinitely. where was either closets These for made wooden or be may be can a no promedicine metal purchased. or so that if to the closet went one dark.

there be for glasses. a glass shelf . Equipment : Bath brush Shoe dressing Bath mat Shoe polish pad Sponge floss. of the Tooth. a soap . hooks for brushes tooth Equipment. closed .226 HOUSEWIFERY Supplies: Laxative Arnica Aromatic Boracic ammonia of spirit Bicarbonate Menthol soda of Oil Camphor acid Salt Collodion Hydrogen Witch peroxide Closet Bathroom. extra as in the washes such wash and eye family air. and its these. a tub a Rochelle hazel Zinc Iodine as or Vaseline Glycerine sponge. and A crash stepping from bath Closet. and foot bath . and and and ointment should it so. If " bathroom should be make sides Bemirror. Toilet Matches Nail rack Sponge brush bath outfit hand razor strop Wash cloths. con- just when condition is placed in some closet may then be shelved part of the house. listerine. in racks for seat slipperchair. a stool low enough to be used mat will The " is rug which for the bare a the bath Bathroom other a comfortable by water.so put the holders outside closet. Epsom " Smelling salts Turpentine cream complete plenty of tube of peppermint Preparation for burns Quinine acid Carbolic Cold tablets Listerine or a cork the oomfort feet. PaPer brushes Tooth Scissors Towels Scrubbing Shaving . for clothing. holders to towels. Dental Drinking glasses cleaner Flush-closet Surgeon's plaster brush Hand _ brush . the bathroom toilet closet ready to hold such toilet articles divided a more as soaps. tooth could be There and perhaps and the brushes a small a shelf for various home remedies usual better are toilet paper. not be to in better closet used and venience. towels for nasal compartment pastes. add mat the rug medicine keep injured easily cleaned.peroxide. douches. as all the which and cloths use. and furnishings..

a daubing brush. emery paper . screw driver.several sizes . brass rings .punch for leather.227 STORAGE Supplies: Alcohol Pumice Bay Scouring powder rum Shaving soda of Bicarbonate cream Hair tonic Soap lotion Hand cream peroxide Hydrogen soap powder Toilet ammonia Toilet water fodine Talcum Listerine Tooth wash Witch hazel Porcella or Soap Cold whiting or Shoe-cleaning Outfit. heavy. lammer . glue . several sizes and kinds . wrench. enough. may lade for coats and dresses by rollingnewspapers tightlyand tying the middle the roll with of a string or tape. that may the time required to clean shoes may of other too long for the comfort use A " bench.wood . shears. " Cleaning powder of shoes is often done out of they are to be cleaned and polished at home. and a polishing brush. may should If the bathroom where this cleaning work be done. saw. eyes. because is in bathroom of the Tool if a houses better that . some be or ravelling. pliers. sandpaper. teel wool . picture wire. closet A or chest of list of desirable tools items should follows: be provided Awl. wire . several :rew sizes. These are bulky enough to require a box. gimlet . one needs an outfit of a cleaningbrush. but seem mean bers mem- family. If one is is without sufficient hangers for coats. paint brushes " looks. work hallways are commodious. tack puller. hatchet . Closet. wire cutter . where back choice. and the house may serve In a as the with a seat. garments which are in frequent use will keep leir shape better if hung on skirt hangers. The coats coat and lould be buttoned to keep the fronts from sagging. nails. screws. upholstery icks . or in an emergency " . tacks. CLOTHING STORAGE Those Hangers. it has a carpeted top. chisel cold. brass looks . oil can . there is no reason If the box is the usual blackening box. is large why the cleaning should not be done there. picture . which takes up considerable There be a difference of opinion as to room. Skirts will hang luch better if clamped by the band in a skirt hanger.

percale slip.will or suitable have cambric a The soft laces and protectionif should dress women. To Put Away is cleanliness from woolens. and when then safe. is in each Half loop to go over the hook.and will resist a in should use. Clothing. .camphor. to tar-paper bags and cedar chests. where of the be to put in cold the cold storage of storage of clothing temperature so low (34 degrees) that bacterial life is inactive. not be The rolled. Newspaper caps tied tightly one has a Packages. object of these materials to keep out moths and other insects. and overlap the wrappings by interweaving be fitted can in houses trouble especiallylimited large pieces such as furs storage. such as is sold in packages. be packed in moth-proof containers. which all the from tight newspaper wrappings. camphor. range way and sheets of tar paper. The other as slipped into that sleeves its for the will not weight be may special dress. wound tape in the middle. circulation Leather when of not air. strips of This paper. Two safetypins end of an folded a of a skirt band will hold skirt in the a with ened fast- good shape. Shoes. possible should should starched. 141). sheets of decidedly newspaper roundabout. especially be be in washed. therefore Muslins left and The " all spots should and linens Silks rough dry. tar balls. needs to be dried .as they are pungent ing and irritatto the In air passages wrapping clothing. Pepper. a barrel wooden a Make hoop. essential This the there is much The " the is to be done journey for of the bundle moth with which In to ends. thoroughly clean garment first essential when should ing storing clothremoved. rugs the may where. sidered con- with some known un- city homes advisable seem away is like cold for be be be sealed moths. purcrush tissue paper. are usually enclosed with garments extra The an as is precaution. and even reason. cedar chips. Dress garments for both clothing.or or material and men be light fabrics. with stripsof cloth and suspended excellent hanger. point may is advisable is one send food that so insect. night- old an made bag cover so well as stuffed with pose. and tar. boxes.or a combination of cedar. it may would over closets.can room. should certain be be put away amount stored clean where and of water. but there is a dry (Fig.the to avoid having cracks.228 HOUSEWIFERY with handkerchief.

and so needs with Keep to is so maintain shoes done often pliability.If 141. the leather with parched beyond repair. hardened and as Fio. " Clothing that in have storage. oil mixture. or by using a shoe . redressing with shoes its dries Leather in too becomes the air. some hard with it is dried shoes. special place for shoes.229 STORAGE order carefullyin close to heat. This is especially wear. shape by stuffingwith paper.

and best stored and near marking are and for needed suits without heavy coats.. o" steel will make corset a shoes alternatelywill worn consecutively. housewife Every shelves excellent an demands This than box. but own ideas it would hinged drop-fronts(likea consider bags. may in storage. furnish all or affords the trunk because trunks travelling. This for use old in articles these stores summer entirelypacked it is possibleto seal the door and thus insure None of these closets can make an air-tightroom.when first disadvantage the but to be tight enough a of a cover into a has closed a such in Closets attic lined. blankets. pack tightlyin trimming. and them as even has her material.have cedar have satisfactory seems locking up the their served material extra . and and better. tapes. than if they and Moths " pairs Two worn are other small do great damage pests. buttons. robes rugs. but room. room extra best but nursery. top floor or often are planned on large a These sometimes are storage of woolens. or substitute. either cedar line5 is that trunk of means the cracks in when They are virtually sealed. and the closet cleaned be a good storage if without well-made cedar. Sewing materials. may closet. for they can an so when that large garments. a bits other the set room of thing? sewing in the be place may odd wife's houseaside planned that really sewing work be so accommodations. are place puts the contents box. be it may not Special chests.230 HOUSEWIFERY tree . so heavy molding and and perhaps of means usually tongued and The that kind vermin-proof. the clothing thoroughly clothing care Under these conditions and properly sealed. Clothing Storage shoe-tree good a longer wear Closet Boxes. the or sewing-room. to many eyes. Often the housekeeper to clothing. proper is first unless the of cleaned. for example.and the door closes against a molding. hooks bedroom. especiallyfor scale storage better much sealed the of old an grooved. etc. such as silver fish and buffalo bugs. This center. guest of all in if necessary. a it makes its left-over would own bits of with not fold to such as extra pieces of goods. It is far folding. may. a mending and its working machine hang furs. she whole contents . storage. sealed floors.even any takp Closets have closet. about that seem linen too storing patterns had she closet)or often the ever and tried drawers. advantage over trunks. cedar. With bags.

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or perhaps off the vestibule. TO house The is there All should for chance portieresshould moths. but whether stored there Silver. be bought or made Music cabinets for storing sheet music. the avoid scratching. attract to from put away should curtains starched. brushed or net over.232 HOUSEWIFERY of the daily work of the home consists of putting problem. to find in a are book-binding. with in albums. silver in to they keep or dirt and dust down. Bureau from put away and moths. woolens and and aired and clean so that vermin. drawers and should Store To in the house. storage of silver is spoken of. stretched be washed finished. Two and athletic storage problems in this field are presented: music goods. can is music phonograph records. convenientlykept Sport or athletic goods are usually to be used out of doors.to put things back after using them. and and small drawers or boxes balls and to hold other small articles. because silver. the other is training children and older persons. as far as that is practicable.whether or specialprecaution to silversmith bags. When " should housewife Of in these offer in the thoroughly clean. Have for apart. Many sheets with twenty-fiveor more music index an Phonograph records page. safe deposit vault. music many then is easier according to kind. and player piano rolls. So much suitable than with only a paper back that shelves seem bound more racks which on close shelves sheets fewer find. Much There these things in order. one has It behooves of the it is delivered the keeper house- great protection placed in the side- . the first floor it is better to plan a good closet for such things on so in the basement. shelves to lay gloves rackets to hang tennis cloth nets. and the space should be provided with hooks and special clothing.and the be stored may be classified can sheet up stand must than together rather to bind it wise music two in each fashion. and dust left no itself to be be gone left in order. usually pictures a cases taken lace The rough dry ready be particlesof be HOUSE THE CLOSE recent canton cases and storing of years flannel take the some bags. or They need to be kept dry and clean. book three or far The section. two are parts to the solution of this problem: one part is to provide a regular place for keeping such things. or to author.

lined canton made piece. rarchased Fio. Storage " has special bags (Fig. squares jewelers use of silver. with not cases.233 STORAGE "ard from lest housewife silver. chest. used a of canton flannel. form drawers so be canton has soon. with tape sewed easilybe can are that small neat. the be may or gray. there to is the a for will not The layer of case. or one piece. or If the each special function one that flannel possiblea in it a few . or the tarnish different fit the separate pocket sections pieces are rolled pieces. If camphor. storage white. compact piecesof chemical the causes bags canton there to which red. or has bleached darken. canton the Cases made pieces of wrapping for green drawer. because flannel often for flat silver when the between stored or in away with the silver to gum roll. so it makes bag are white should each or flannel. another. to vault. 143 no cut may The such The . 143). flannel velvet.

White E. made. aired. screen . they may are convenientlybe wrapped and left on many the floor in one of the rooms. should have Upholstered furniture a thorough brushing and beating with a soft beater. Home and be sheet.may any very bedsteads.so it is often considered to have valuable an by the expert economy rugs cleaned cleaner 3nr*T"ro and placed in tut cleaner vacuum method. a fireproofkind Windows. paper. pillowscovered and with usual IS hardening forming on and nets gilt chandeliers the over the shellac rust have the with ered cov- Ladies Journal. fine rugs. metal. but a window the be left with is made the windows or coat of black especiallyfor siftingin shutter a before of dust.234 HOUSEWIFERY should Rugs be cleaned. This does not afford any specialsafety against fire. storage. . The with for " Charles and of Pictures fine that have those that be wiped no a from spots from Cereals glass.and when short pictures and thin such out Place " the over If the house " to a oil oil. closingwill A exposes little light wallpaper. clean a should left well be window Courtesy storage. it is wise containers too. Put candles time over oil. in fireproofstorage warehouse. muslin or Lemon Containers. and if they are not to be in use for time. and scalding and leave for the airing. Should is closed.or unprotected the with empty thorough paintings. shade enamel stoves. without carrying up or downstairs. Gas stoves should which stove paint.or and Chandeliers. the with oil. is to be closed foods. Papers placed in enamel " tighten the cracks and prevent with no is good . some as Rolling rather than In homes where there folding will prevent creases. they should be rolled.sheets should and Racks a thorough more furniture dust Beds " a " specialprecaution against a as 144.be sure the house tightly closed. un- after a are and brass cracking. be well blackened. as gilt frames be cereals that empty the tighttin kept for containers moths. cold and matches in boxes. Food long period.and put away woolens.or may be treated may well that the blacking becomes should be done so really an Stoves latter coating. or should be cleaned with a Fig. as it prevents perhaps peeling off.

and should steel liquidoil a like kitchen should are wiped rather with over lard than and best cleaned Motors. heavy paper is to pour cover about Another over one-half to prevent evaporation is to way the tops of the basins .as in the heavy them out of handles. other the where Motors that part of the house. cleaned.vacuum it is very dry. Window and Rubber as If oil has should been used the rubber. This chance will prevent any of a flood by a sudden the forcingof jaste ray a the faucet. It is be used in the proportion of one to two pounds of soda to a gallon )i water. before Tf this is done leaving the house.and to overcome that may will have to be sent to be rewound. " waxed. if used dissolves wringer. not should A grease. the kerosene Flat-irons ten oil with he Kerosene using always grease be deteriorate they tire. of it has some trap under the or hot remained basins in the may not traps. it all mean has not only gone down that this soda water the pipes. at the last. possible.but carbolic that acid water. and found on be stored cellar a or or basement have the cost more. newspaper. a in rapidly very must rubber. the stoppers may be put into the waste openings in the do this unless the water is shut off at the main tsins. Soda is most washing soda solution. moisture will spark and cross absorbed circuit.but never inlet pipe. 144). take immediately. . and dusted with talcum thicknesses dry in stored goods therefore case an should screens kerosene as to sunlight. salty be used. should even as off kerosene or and mobile auto- or soft a be washed fat wrill produce rust wrapped tightly in Electric be syringe bag a rubber. but the best cup of sweet oil into each trap. Where of rubber are likelyto stick together. dark place.they should be wiped powder.it then from fading unnecessary two kept in a cool. it is wise to and in the upper put them spot will form in to clean it. All motors such washing machines. a renewal difficulty dollars oil.235 STORAGE all and rugs. or with heat and sunlight. of the or furnishings " All should fixtures closets flush be and traps under thoroughly flooded with wash basins strong soap and suds. merally used because the housekeeper is familiar with it. Plumbing. ironers. wiped taken dry place (Fig. In order that this water evaporate during the absence from house.or hung to dry. be may sweet or to their sweepers. of a Iron the effect out. whether be entirelyremoved.

This will float on the is in the trap. . larger tags for jugs and boxes. whose shellac with and contents obtainable to the in the It will be found the greatestsaving to purchase the best kind plainly. of labels kinds needs. all containers. act as a seal. and especiallyevery medicine be bottle. STORAGE Food Tags and Labels. and even which market. closets. and prevent evaporation.236 HOUSEWIFERY Oil should put into flush closet traps. Fig. shelves. little metal to of tags. names and then label all containers. and save names. Key tags for closets. It time saves and insures of lack use. write preserve them. 145). off and or by the faucet no that so might could broken flood the main. as winter. The housekeeper stationers' various in will find stores labels and tags of appropriate often and size. the ORGANIZE open the in occur not TO a pipes be forced from pressure and house house. of household Books a labels are because convenience they are writing the printed. proper labels with medicine lead may to serious consequences. that water Be also be that sure drained. so the that house no one inlet pipe draw can is turned water. packages whose contents not are self-evident. pipe.cover are holders attached be can drawers. 145. can be better controlled thereby. -Various for ent differ- to and take time the to names organize drawers. should carefully " labelled. and shape speciallydesigned for various household uses (Fig.

recipesare well arranged by divid' . in hundred tabs. kept this way.one Addresses lots.237 STORAGE Filing purchased Boxes. in Filing.photographs. pamphlet. Fig. receiptedbills. " various sizes and and shapes. Card Catalogs.and may are have best Tbe 140. and storage boxes are without may doubt be the classifyand tabulate all such things as business papers. " is most convenient. " card The Housekeeper' of filinginformation catalog method cards are quite inexpensive if bought of several boxes with thumb index by means an effectively organized set of helpful references.and specialcopies of magazines best way to and newspapers. clippings.

etc. Desk. machine. the larger 5 x 8-inch cards are both with account cards often even of type take to serve small The on materials. may in the mending cut to better wrapping placed at or sewing paper some room. blotters. so convenient or a kitchen your kitchen. woodwork a The writing typedesk been wanted of the library. Slips of order and group label the card the on record for The " business a in envelopes with a inexpensive way of using groups very housewife well as should place a convenient most closets. box.and of supkeep account plies cost. glue.arranged point in the house. writing paper. large kitchen. labels be attached list of contents to to be glass and put on door tin of containers? the closet containing tools. table may be made into closet. panel a excellent hall. of stock in large supply closets. papers. QUESTIONS how home your pretty matching of the pattern. suitable for the needs of doing up bundles. Any advantage and will allow bag. Instead of making paper the usual bag drawn up with a drawstring.238 HOUSEWIFERY ing into have who and sections various the used storage together also the . a and string bag has proved very satisfactory. as soups. but a have not may be in a string. a in system. 146).arranged in alphabetical books. have storage (Fig. and Wrapping string are paper that it seems wise to plan several small parts of the house.ink. decorative. yards of cretonne only make such if the even but ball of a for pattern is large. together and cards cards with meat. Plan 3. it is a compact way. as will furnish Small den. records. drawers in envelope. her inches 3x5 either kept Business desk about paper in so places many storage places in different used but because successfully. salad.perhaps in Drawers business-like a and perhaps sit and to in the write. a shaped bag is more and one-half One will not convenient. some 3 5-inch x Housewives their arrange list the winter and budget summer article. catalog method card records expense such and the desirable. Draw a kitchen 2. for storage space pencils. SUGOESTIVE 1. Make a may a diagram linen show to cabinet for plain material as as in A will roll of be stores. How 4.etc. a . will make or in or make size. purchased in a year.

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good as accomplish hand of study labor-saving tools give the piece The method the their a soft. of better the much to real cuts sometimes half spend her not department of this great joy. BATH- METALS KITCHEN. getting housewife until the own. spongy. produce Everything dish good tools. tools than only Equipment discussed old cloth. Under in It mental willing dish better the perform. on bright. and she Cleaning the material really little. OF house clean credit the on she and effort the are short many time. is a housekeeper. by studying mechanical metals. finds often a work housekeeper are to are a Let new her reflects strength doing and way.CHAPTER CLEANING IX CARE AND ROOMS. A Time makes not do organized so it. they or they no she business. the round is in worse to try than her Cost a work by in and cleaned. and work Cleaning. cloth is great wipes better. investigate. It washing dirt. has page is poor? . grease. on and Cleaning many and things Renovat- .but involves the which towelling. shiny house Appliances.and a When method than mechanism. and what But save heels of this with ease is the saving the problem tarnish of spreading holds materials to the " finallyto 240 the but round is a and in peg real the cost be it is better a chapter it . been have is hole. and results. the her in entire test. she Labor-saving reads task sanitary necessity. which fitted are washes that proves Labor-saving chemical without keeper house- read. or often oxides gathering means with 84. suitabilityfor dissolving of dirt. costly and time motor a to are more deal the or has possible. rubbing in be a the or renovated which tool they if the with must be may of their handled method methods rubbing. size. soap oils and and water with combined of metals dust into to cut polishes is as and a the seen cloth grease abrasive surface. exercise. will head of question with rough-weave smooth rougher in tools while tools work the necessarily work. which visits. The " that is the is money the and of requirements shape. A BEDS. provided does that is ROOM. be (see chapter cleaned.

be brush in dust to clean studied. In that or furniture. on bric-a-brac the be can small removed a specialday. walls. with large. brass and silver unless all are done questionarises. Wash globes. because less dust gets on the furniture or fur16 . Clean chandelier. and only floor. page cleaning of types of different or groups cleaning of the of evidences way is the best. and to cover after dusting will also save time. if small. base- windows. rugs.cover Shake small cover Dust for to consider efficiency.but of 241 ROOMS OF room one another. The and savers.Often of CLEANING ent differparticularly is not greatest time slackness. Dust closet floor. it is therefore from the CARE AND large. from remove the bags. curtains and hangings. Wash mirrors. furniture house the often experienceare not whole best may General put under Rules brush or pin or room. A tray for small articles will help a great deal. if and fold back the edges towards the center. be stay moved. Dust doors. If a maid has many to clean perhaps answer rooms in a specifiedtime. sweep Dust way short the the ROOMS Room. a articles and dust a and OF Cleaning how furnishings.CLEANING The 273. Polish Eeturn Polish The floor. from remove the room. Dust floors.in the way. covered. Roll up small rugs and remove from the room to clean .baseboard. shades. if sheet. furniture and bric-a-brac. radiators. she cannot take everything out. ing.Shall from the room. labor ceilingand Dust window Clean cuts and are shortest and Dust " remove or bric-a-brac. and other woodwork Clean to the floor and board. be taken on pieces of ? Time some cleaned furniture that allowance will the question. Wipe pictures. table or stand on or the things that all shall the dusted bed.

147) remove as from the room in the end much as possible. On cleaning the things that are left in the room. " ready Room for sweeping. various routines of work be employed. page 120. by moistening the broom ways shaking out all the water before sweeping.then lower taking everything in order. ones.it can be used to hold small ornaments. and the bed made up before the a biG. the bed brings in a different problem. 147. and the by . " " left-over tea these dust .because handling is avoided. There ** and dustless of sweeping.) In sweeping try to keep from Dustless flirtingthe Sweeping. eral sevare broom. In a bedroom. be- gather up floors . should be freely used during the cleaning process. For much thorough cleaning (Fig. but if the and mattress springs are brushed. but a good general rule is to may dust high things first. Dust covers (See Cleaning Equipment. as this throws the dust about unnecessarily. by sprinkling damp.242 HOUSEWIFERY nishings. leaves toss ahead by spreading bits or of the moist of moistened broom sawdust and on tile paper moisten or on and linoleum the cause carpet. and besides there is the handicap of having to work around things. and then kept thoroughly covered during the cleaning process. reallydusty work is started.

work. satisfactorymethod and dust weekly. .plan to use soft hair brush a long-handled. A soft cloth.and then tear into floor .wood on bag broom using a the over moistened The floors. from a duster for ones should it will make as satisfactoryas surfaces. the the no oil may mark. like effort cost. if clean. by hard outing flannel. page 121. the soon floor. of as newspaper scatter cleaner remove to be the dulls broom Sprinkle vacuum not.) A good duster is any soft.) Dustless Sweepers.may so some done " " shaken A duster. wood- from from dust in small daily is used films the over there eliminated. a To Wipe Walls. but they are are sive. 243 ROOMS OF CARE AND CLEANING ornaments. (For vacuum by cleaners see Cleaning Equipment. a gathers dirt without scratching.non-scratching and Dusting.) Dustless dusting is quite like dustless sweeping. hand. expenneed a great deal of care wash and to ciency keep clean.see Cleaning Equipment. old silk makes but cheesecloth. that be wrung out of very hot water. Either painted or papered walls need wiping. Cheesecloth the same time is a gathers the dust into the soft duster. Of wherever or course. even pattern. least wet. (See Cleaning Equipment. A good dusting stroke is one that wipes and at non-linting cloth. sprinkled. page 118.clean. much the whole over work. a good material for all kinds of dusting . however.will do as well. cloth. and little pressure. one wrings dry easily. expensive more the added will make to a dusting all wood used on wallpaper be an excellent dustless quart of hot water. or outing flannel bag on a broom. and their effiand because does not Wallpaper warrant may perfectlyclean stroke and " soft duster very be the time and easilymarred cloth. and too the to not quantities. it need Vacuum when dustless prepared some is used dampened harm no are shaking The or broom broom one or broom. (For cleaning cloths.but here and dusting have been almost no whipping and of rugs where sweeper but unless cheap. and tablespoonof duster kerosene is wrung. Wool brushes sold for the purpose. is very careful the which into mud is made floor. There upholstery and dust or or is less drapery. which let out to the oily duster make steam. rub hard with blurs Use a the a very soft. or is the rug or carpet. wood and does clothes the spread by paper is be In homes a will cleaners haze the windows from cleaning still and remains bits and a dust carpet mirrors. page 122. Rubbing rubbing.

as dough and insects that hard are blottingpaper better. walls and living room painted wall in soil quickly and especiallywhite applied with a small had irregular results. so the main with the vacuum them brushing with a hair brush. must and results wallpaper spots and on as thick a be bought to is using Putty fresh a erasers feed in draw may flour or wheat. cloth better very are laundry. Any very special cleaning with gasolene. is to put talcum even After twenty-four powder. is a frequent and care brocades. tries. a dough cleaners can be used. three to five tablespoons of powder to a pail of warm cloth and with one wipe with another. Wall Other Heavy. an and up and or . at vestibules. and and grease may not likely to wiped frequently.and flies. paper.and One method bread much inside be of starch time The begin.and in very painted. Yellow moistened time. whiting only a and soda washing powders. but unless one patience to do it evenly. cleaners on from remove absorb change the color way fullers' earth ants. iron that so paper is that paper used spotted or sooty by cutting away the hard scratchy crust. painted woodwork. often are be be found.244 HOUSEWIFERY wipes off gilt. but they will yellow white paints and may of colored paints. Putty cans. magnesium. or detergents. too. the bedroom space at " walls Painted one a room needs there where to be are with be undertaken. or moisture Any will finished with Clean soaps. and prepared has roughs the for part of the and often grease the of . walls when thought Use the color. besides. kitchen. fumes Dull cleaned very hot water. or A wallpaper. Washing powders may be used in cleaning painted and the one the walls are very dirty and greasy. one ought not to not very satisfactory. hours lightlybrush off the powder. will do rapid work on cutting grease on painted change the color walls. regardless of the effect on Wash water. bathroom. but or warm is that one paper. loaf the more silver fish. embossed burlap. or going over cleaner. changing for clean water Use clean cloths often enough to prevent streaks. all the cleaner The cleaners Grease or are removed. in that starch small may fast as spot results. as will stay on the upright surface. paint. tapesCoverings. will hold dust. Heavy rubbing will spread the Several applicationswill do grease that the powder has absorbed. " will end Painted least many in Walls. and. to one it will not layer of soft stale with it soils. in straightlines. much toward cleaning the paper if it does not succeed entirely. is to get them clean.

a is to be renewed include should by painting. and the on a of dirt . and moisten the cloth paint has in turpentine and then abrasive some cleaner. or tool institutions where or well the be kept tile. either oxalic or hydrochloric. soapy account. grease.use brush scrub of with by washing less omy. steam with be washed it cannot is much end usually glazed tile. and in the not may verance. If is hard to remove. As little of the lime a soon effervescing. like washed be painted Avails may changes of water only they require many 245 ROOMS OP stroke each sure Enamel streaks. paint on be soil 1 lb. the painter's estimate washing.using two parts any water to tile and the one part acid. produces a tile there will of the acid. it is may turpentine. but same to walls. and loosens it. this mixture If there walls. clean. represent econmoisture. to clean " clean action For that on and tile the In water. houses wiped even The because A not by combining made also the cloth does string mop and from less has strong soap a or water.streaks calcimine because used. the turpentine use material the scratchy softens the paint. Stains on floor tile are likelyto happen because of the lack of glaze. power places. leaves cloths. This paint.which Use only a little at one quickly with soapy water. to material.then action of the wash acid. by yellow laundry difficult of a with the is easy more wear allows with dried is leaves hand is often removed if very with floor tile is of the the suds with therefore and applied suds strong give. perse- preliminary supervision of the the their as spots easily. long-handled pressure for a by rubbing fresh. much and If the wall work. grit or warm usually it floors. of enamel that often are dish. after repainting moistened and soap a be may and is much ready foot the grimy mark.CLEANING clown and good for standard a overlaps the last and Calcimine than walls condenses heavy enough stroke Tiles. no be and motion CARE AND with water. No one wants paint will not stick. apply to the water not remove spot a dilute acid.as on a a the which work 1 lb. The clean new be acid dissolves surface. as.and tile is Wall first cost top of on clean. Should the soda and solution such a stain. and then it should be done under to paint on top housekeeper. an as the shows time acid the and Soap in the touches dissolving in will definite stop the . washing soda may of the glaze shoes on either mop. soap there case cloth 4 for gallons tile to use.

there worker. Any be used soap washing powders should no wiped with. but a the sweeping require daily thread. from This .246 HOUSEWIFERY Painted if soap floors should possible. When be wiped up with the following cleaning is desired. than more be may the for to short- but use. oil darkens .the woodwork may would water to wash as mixture. Eenovation. a Beat which with a marring better than be used may between dust. crumbs this. up clear water.whether Any hard-wood varnished. Whiting woodwork a Use " long-handled dustpan a or wipe Coverings. stays in the house. is the as a Metal. and excess be used. Ami three or will leave done lint. and cheesecloth. Hard wiping.dust of have we flat rattan will cut grease Bon or floors of The " articles if space platform. beater. stick To the clothes beater. without be free from must soda. dustpan which great saving to the For the weekly care of doors enamel of these lukewarm clear room. or cheesecloth drops of ammonia soap and 289. less dirt a or or on clothesline. must be kept free from dust and grit if it is to be kept bright and shining. for in the of the expense Both a out last two to clean. keep line. rather . page White Cleaning on means it is well to take less dust for the worker should does be laid face down not permit. handled is the pail of water will paint. A is a room a carpet sweeper and trifle been small a accustomed used The broom. so it is wise to keep the floor clean a more thorough by the use of a clean soft dusting cloth. of rugs. or the cut water Two paint. Moisture changes the color.one one washing pieces Wood. washing of the the dusting of the and Care Floor of which care. see chapter 3 other For Enamel with and soft a Wood which on in the yellows moistened a cloth. or perhaps fluff. and hang it wrong those then than brush side down be both over on hung a easilyhandled and the grass on wire sides. cleaners be may brushing up dining room. It Bugs fine rugs the rug. as grit scratches and clouds the floor. and " fast as the as mixture soils mix Mix quantity. using it much one use up a for of two Use for floor. oiled or waxed or floor. new a quart boiling water 1 oil tablespoons boiled linseed 1 tablespoon turpentine suggestions for Woods.

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cloth often are and of of the When (Fig. soft paper This come is economy into the house small on the Cleaning the registerlifted out . " catch in the screwed cloth. be are as easilyremoved wipe the fans paper various easilysaved Eegisters instead pieces for this work of . Radiators. to the and can because and moistened a for comes used as paper radiator. screws shutter and by using worker. wipe it with or recommended turpentine mixture for cleaning the linseed hard woods (page 246). these well catchers flat brush cleaning. under registersare and done it falls down. radiator. substitute or a construction.248 HOUSEWIFERY If the linoleum oil and is varnished shellaced. of their and situation this a Radiators " purpose. then the registerwith moistened a Window be cleaning may dust a dust flat stick as the open cloth. . 148). put floors but the a A folded be may Fig. to 148.

from the backs. prepared some cleaning paste on film of the tbe surface over a the there as window the on will be window is not sun 149. tablespoon of water. clear water of with 1 and on This to with either the paper or a pail cold be moistened alcohol. " the Washing room either in silver or surface. 149). a few and of . which the should idea and dry grease cleaned be may The the clear. and requires care do good work (Fig. mounted -window. choose a good cleaner but expensive soft and kept very ready one drops few a ammonia.because for water to get in behind cleaning there is a chance Whiting applied with a cloth which has been moistened excellent an drops of wood alcohol or water will make The whiting keep to small in the the with cleaner method glass. floors. leavbright and the by be to then powder. when is to windows before the used ing film.as it causes them and gives a streaked evaporation of moisture should be In cleaning mirrors. This is especiallytrue water mirrors. care Mirrors. especially dows Try to clean windirectly. Various cleaning mixtures may at the clear cloth. " great deal of dust a sills and hand a shining on about. but is sive. let these off the off windows is all close If uneven this wipe takes are it method Fig. glass. Chamois is choose one first to cost. the cloth may with be used washing soda. Should paper clean and free from lint. given with will not need an abundance of water. about water. to 249 ROOMS cient effi- most a cleaner. expentory is less satisfac- Soap because it leaves Whiting or windows. be or with or little dissolved prefer a cloth. wood last makes a very days. the celluloid. cleaned.CLEANING CARE AND OF that does not lint.

wash the lamp itself. . used. the Remove " with or warm only and Even on Kerosene full of with clear use water should one acid to no before tile. and turned down not by boiling Wash the in soap that spoon will be likelyto " If alcohol a wipe the wick. wood stains. and wipe the chimney like any piece of glass (see page 248). see . soda in ooze and water. kerosene lamps about three-quarters will leave no for the expansion room out of the screw soft a top. par- will and in two once burner in strong soap weeks. be careful Lamps. Springs. the strong odor rarely present.need in no way drops of lemon say use If the springs are enough to grease the mattress. " and lamps is then they after dark. as the enough to yellow the keys. if laid and This and wick wick soap. and can give a straighterwick than to cut with the scissors. the to keep use CARE bed in is . rub with a To Fill oil will hot. destroy the polish. With to all the remove charred ticles. choose leave to as done Mirror. AND considered at least water morning. rinsed. not the marble the by washing turpentine. it or little lemon cracking because too dry. in the alcohol. dry and paint for as way Piano be should Window " soda washing not windows cleaning of windows.so boiling water. To oil. and with water By keeping the soap in the burner when in use. on marble piece of polish. for it Attend is a To Clean problems which methods of The bed on must be the cloth as such . Acids of lemon kind of any juice or has take off all acid medicines any stirred unless them.250 HOUSEWIFERY mirrors cleaning dusted Paint with same Glass on Should many keys soap be household so smooth and drinks. Wipe the springs with a soft cloth and oil. work the and to kerosene in the such of care soda or common CLEANING The " cleaning rooms. oil. and wiped polish marble. or best cleaned are used. if of a of one addition of the the to enamel the shellac soft and special general wood. soaps will be Marble is best washed " be above. if entirelyfull it of gases. are ready. is room good white soap. and linseed or prevent its two mean box or three to use springs. a to the bad BED oil no water. being careful paper water. if will do much suds so lamps to do be kept dusted brass. it is best Marble. frame should be cleaned may plan ROOM" Bed.

Each day the bedroom shape and makes it wear be aired. 150). the back will This time. Turning day and should more evenly. wall against the keeps one mattress a 192. the mattress. spread it and soiling. it should often sheet holds the as Pad. for then A or chairs There is it is good way it To Make the on off except Mattress so. as wipe the foot-board. and turned Put bed the chair the to on each Two day. 151). at bedding the throw and layer one " the allow bedding and of the bed foot at the chair a keeps mattress a place (Fig. if wrinkles. cleaner it will give most dust. it in and house taken not is cleaned. Airing the a need likelyto to draw More two over " times three or 150. if one thoroughly to keep free from The satisfactoryresults. cover no air the the over so air off bed. Sometimes be stretched it the mattress mattress " is aired bedroom bedding off the bed. the bed can time at the same be thoroughly aired.251 ROOMS OF CARE AND CLEANING dust. springs should with beaten and brushed be vacuum a flat rattan a aired be every it in good (Fig. it is tight so large enough as to be just fits the top of the mattress. often enough to keep free from be dusted has brush least at beater should mattress The a once should mattress The month. Bed. a air when to mattress Fig. to free from and tuck in. in that case the . to keep it from getting on the floor to dangle bedding out of the window. " as week take side of the is to stand Mattress Cover. suggested on was all it up " If page very this is get soiled.

To and mitre corner 152) make the bed .the mattress (Fig. drawing it in both the of the sheet around the corners by bringing the corner fashion to the sides of the bed. make the better. If the suggestion that is will given in the chapter on Furnishings is followed.252 HOUSEWIFERY lower The right side the have sheets the top and to is sheet put To up. it in well tuck Fig. have to drop the part of the sheet up on the mattress Turn is mitred. 151. sheets accustomed makes not the always done. " with turning bed so much in the there wire woven in very top. the housewife to have at ldast a buy her sheets enough larger than the mattress half -yard to tuck in on all sides of the bed. and if it does even easily be used can to bed Enamel mattress at the on the spring. tuck in the sheet at the bottom directions until very tight. box of . then the top. and of the corners will be The edge mattress and to it is wonders becomes one so easy why and it has cover quilted hospitaltuck-in after sheets one enough below bed of the pad. been hospitalfashion. imperial tuck not looking. meantime "out of the way. home. only after the corner side down .be wear put the sheet the wide with on bed at the tuck the sheet with top and comfortable more to sure hem and also to in well at the straight. that better in. If a lower sheet is short.

153. 253 . 152. " " -First Second step Btep OF CARE AND in in making making ROOMS square a a square corner. corner. Fig.CLEANING Fig.

a This together. the necessary be liftingof the patient can done by two people. The spread types of beds. It can also be changed without liftingthe patient. blanket it will bed as 154). counter- up so that finish and pretty a that made different looks quaint attractive. use back The " as side is mitred blanket and the (Fig. it lasts. in up cases draw-sheet is strong sheet a strong enough the it will this draw-sheet sheet except that corners. 155). it'is better a to the at how see around goes of the all four at done are helps one guiding line this foot.254 HOUSEWIFERY the tuck-in part of the 153). mitred sick a has not is counterpane or Stretch this under it the draw-sheet with bed that illness. while the sheet is even pinned on folded tight and sheet becomes put other to resist patient slides come like any of severe . safety pins to the corners of the mattress. border of the mattress The mitred the the under corner next comes the cut pair blanket the to the sheet. Place heavy part of the body as more tuck takes a cover it well the under place to the of the the mattress. turn-back a good wide Blankets.one at each side of the bed. patient lies mattress. In lower and often severe cases the lower changed. while The wooden the cots and less of the bed brass beds look A valance it in such meets differentlyon place to tuck in the arranged give a beds shows. the by rolling patient first to one side of the bed. frame usually the spread a better when makes way the bed pane. down draw-sheet hems in the bed is are as so the in bed. Sometimes is placed because the Sheet. Put " sheet mattress down blanket border far side of the bring lower sheet the on the just as Upper The upper the then corner. separately.and on up to the fold of the about inches ten from sheet the bind them when it it is turned as head of the bed (Pig. wide hem the at right side up (Fig.when top of the lower in half with hems sloughtearing and ing down (Fig. comfort The draw-sheet is easilychanged. finishingthe sheet under the while corners. the fold the foot brings sheet the the that right side turn-back fits the bed down and of the sheet well will have protectsthe blanket. and The bed for the patient is quite helpless. with less disto the patient. like the sheet. with on which top. mattress. 156). These is made person the sheet. and economy of blankets apart. making the sheet like a hammock. that teaches and fits the the over A which to Put come blanket.

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Also. " A home 156.256 HOUSEWIFERY Fia. Fig. draw sheet. 157. invalid's bed stand. bed " Bed raised made on with blocks. .

bath- of care. for CARE 1o8. them. night use spread over Care wash If each 17 may CLEANING OF of Porcelain and BATHROOM FURNISHINGS Enamelled Iron. porcelainneeds the with it is used. sheet or light Marseilles spread the day-spread. Turn down the sheet and the blanket far enough so that by turning back the corner the occupant need not feel it necessary to pull the bed to piecesto get into it (Fig. take out the casters so If blocks that so . 158). 157). rinsed. suds. blocks nurse that the bed used are 257 ROOMS OF the bed of wood will be without a with steady hollow possiblyroll cannot a are in when the blocks.CLEANING blacks. to go back on the for night. " washtub. upon To take it off and for Bed Prepare fold bed in the Night. making it much place hollowed AND easier for the for the casters out satisfactory (Fig. " Preparing A under bed the save it will be morning looking fresh. and . It quite pays to do this as the blanket keeps clean much longer. carefullyso Fig. it is washed soap basin.or a sheet may be the blanket at night to keep it clean. be made To " ready good day-spread. or time up Whether same in kind a tub.

of tiny scratches produces a multitude Scratches off rubbed of too not water. 159. scratchy cleaner No a (both poisons) and the porcelain with dissolved. like dirt and As cleaners. flush dilute To toilet.applied with a which off taken scratchy cleaner gritty or a look soon porcelain. provided the stain is to be a more standing. is closets but or for be can metal Soap and occasional dissolved done forceps water special soda. 159). chloride . pour into the sene.wash has with of toilet paper wad in it slowly discolors porcelain. Leaky faucets a leaves cannot be porcella.washing powders may be used. with lemon juice or vinegar. then The when or it that paper closet. good Water if the water iron has These stains may produce iron rust stains. cleanings. the put into or of acid amounts it. been used acids. good sterilizer for every-day work. " be can equal Metal few from stains wipe be and whiting or long stain. cloth. Flush by a which ten-cent have A daily washing string mop. it can by making wiped stained dries it leaves be in kept marks. moisten stain. For what seems permanent small hydrochloric acid is Fig. or by soapy Closets. use The water. will clean off with kerosoapy water enamelshould be used with porcelainor soiled of The use plumbing fixtures. the the acid water.as it drops of dilute oxalic acid forceps for cleaning burned. and water yellow tint which a condition. soapy lined wear.258 HOUSEWIFERY dry. will give the best damp results. been " made for the purpose of flush water a in the (Fig.

are market. be careful are teeth to of the comb that see the they to which dry with BRUSHES OF strong soda soaps yellow the bristles of brushes.CLEANING of lime. it used it flush disinfectant. to- the directlyfrom water (see page 138) Potassium carefullylabelled. and " us disease comb After nail knobs should added.make to sterilize flush will be frequent cleaning. or AND by shaking them drops of ammonia brushes a and few shake bristles out down from out of the bristles away better be hung with bristles spread under the weight of the of cleaning appliesto every kind all the in such the back. water a up have in will brushes bristles would This method in the house. stiff brush by a on the which clean. Einse be dry cleaned may or by one of the little cleaners that may be found One is made of horse hair. or thoroughly. a using potassium permanganate solution in the proportion of one a then and soap the down used making* Javelle In up of them any introduce be may 259 ROOMS minutes. will clean less the in cool water This CLEANING As crystalsto purple color. as if stood which to and been the dry. the door Combs. in the turns a Clean of have discolor the brush like wipe dry. . them. of the back and be worked forth between may third is a little fine steel brush which a comb. comb. it oxidizes Handles. be regularlycleaned will soaking have the that flush to which loosen the the few a dirt one-half about a drops and hour. another of white cord. let stand The fifteen quart of is to be The water. tells Combs " by soaking the ammonia rich a bathroom handles. and twenty or lime of left from the sediment as OF Put washing powders chloride the be used CARE potassium permanganate. clean. flush closet. solution should kept. wash in cool water air to ganate permanstain . closets. down back to of brush that way Very dry. The scientist important link in the transfer of not gether. been a In If any kept hot water soften cool water the run had as specialand hand is most a germs. proportion makes an excellent floor and All " closet. Stand water soft-fibred the in down possible. may brown. teaspoon rich in the handles sanitaryway and can. is used added. a of these and sanitary way cleaners comb a the brushes used. comb in will nary ordi- an finally.the faucet To soda be same dries. and Einse one if it of the pull should " brush.

it is easy than enough water to stand the crystals. the with combining Metals metal. and to remove the metal. buffing for deeper discolorations of the wheel. rhubarb. Soap and water. The such furnish enough acid and great cleaning should dish a hot a hesitates to cooking and be rinse. Polish recipegiven below are poisons.to housewife safe to everyday an remove of is quicker acid foods. as use thoroughly washed oxalic Concentrated the work careful most mean by One care. often Oxalic acid is a to be assured be may solution the by that no with at the bought in acid little acid remains. such as rubbing with a soft cloth or a chamois. chemi- aluminum. grease films from the air.such as is secured by a as paste of whiting with alcohol or water. is needed dirt and grime which have adhered to sturdy metals. and the which least expense means both as . Dilute for use by adding a given quantity of acid Metal to an (The acid and Housewife's equal quantity of water. the last trace prefers to buy concentrated Some way poison it should be used with have such things about in any cleaning. the friction or saponifying method as tomato. followed soap and of the acid. producing oxides also discolored are by other and cals. or sand. or cream than and is and dissolvingoxides a chemicals of action solvent drug store. a serving dish with a poison should it is in order acid method cleaners. of tartar. are the two agents commonly used. salt discolors as spots. lemon. Friction. pumice.) of things in cleaning consider number should housewife The a to make metals. or by the oxygen water charred food. will will assist the soap and water and just remove light discolorations in any dish washing. and from or discolored are that kind of Saponifying the grease film is an easy way to remove soil. the liquid from It is always a conto dissolve. Heavier friction. the least a All metals loss. are because stronger acid. but The quite The sulphidesof the metal. or if crystal form. use centrated in the solution as crystalsremain long as undissolved bottom of the jar. alone. ashes.the should least be a cleaned more by the method roughening. of the air food. water. Allow to cover long enough for the crystals this mixture. vinegar. rottenstone.260 HOUSEWIFERY METALS Metals by sulphur sulphides of and fumes the metal. or dissolved washing soda and water. soot.

to time leave to the apply metals expensive for true a as flat. as in hot to in silicon polish. suggestions given concerning the cleaning of all metals. brass.and and CARE AND CLEANING one may should at its best the surface does not last so means cleaning long. the directions following be may used for cleaning the special of metals. in remove electro-silicon the dilute Boil " for Brass acid. add time before strong lemon plenty dry with its with tering. With the to the destructive is the most method that often metal. sput- the hol. in hot Aluminum. kerosene (1 pt. and oxalic Metal dilute solution soda : 1 to the Mix solution 4 1 Add in soap a a Rinse soda (use in hot soft cloth and water newspaper water. the acid Clean and or with metal Copper. Agate. =16 Same to wood recipe by putting fine abrasive with Polish oxalic box oz. Polish to remove instead while of hot. and and with water. with whiting moistened (page 94). dry. Wash a each acid.use a thin rub thoroughly. Wipe with and liquid oz. Alkalies darken wool. Wash Wrought oil as " of the in or Iron. alco- using. especiallysilver. acid. housewife's with Housewife's 2 oz. lemon Nickel. in Boil " soda Wash " in remove Rub grease. Dry lint. % cup alcohol. badly tarnished. Wash abrasive. Rub with oil. strong solution vinegar. juice or Polish of water. clean good soapsuds. like rich 261 ROOMS OF gold and bright glaring metal very term best color the effort.or with of abrasive any " Copper. hot and soap alcohol. wash If " Clean grease. grease. .) water well Shake oxalic acid. Iron. devoid of prepared mixture. kerosene. rottenstone soft cloth. whiting moist- .are roughened by cleaning as the of cleaning silver microscope will show. % cup pt. " Rub cloth). a lustre a is especially Chemicals metal clined in- are surface. Wipe dry. Brass. Dilute aluminum. instead water. wash kerosene. Metals. to avoid bottle.not finish. the aluminum pan method Weighing the gives less roughening and shows the flat color tone. to with fine soapsuds. to which the as This silver. water or Polish water. to tell which be the only way metal before cleaning and after would Such have. acid in hot Rinse with steel used be may Wipe water.

and The because pitcher part of are pur- which adjoining an larger pieces should stacking will are give be tunity oppor- scratch. is very soft and scratches fine steel wool and oil. Rub hard with with sene. apply with soft with rub chemicals any Wash paper .ammonia. kerowater whiting moistened or Hot Wash with hot soapsuds. This is most quickly discovered on silver which is of the severelyplain pattern. for dishwashing brings kitchen knives and forks into contact with the and it three times the of and silver. Rinse in hot water. fine " cleaning. Wash in hot soapsuds. give it If this is done a hot rinse.may be used. Wipe vinegar may be used. clean brick if (bath knives. Polish with cloth wash and oil. WTipe dry. abrasive of paper dry. The or chasable with two always heavy scratch compartment for the kept separate from Wash wipe very one to rub the silver in dry with a special holder water to best compartments.and carefullywith " . in the care of silver is in careful sorting and washing. with hot and oil. abrasive coarse Pewter Ware. oil and Wash apply in in hot soda Rub with with cork or fine any wad soapsuds. with Use " with and water. Wipe dry while hot to prevent rust. as tissue or not any For " Stains. Wipe warm fine abrasive Place iron. as " Tin. Wipe dry.rottenstone soapsuds. Zinc. tear subjects wear daily to scratches and dents. If greasy. soapy clean over utensils one the and come towel. leaving face). dry. metal easily. wipe dry. surgrease Rub with any fine abrasive. clean. If (avoid rusty. The first point. " soaking handles). Porcelain. The careless gathering of dishes Cleaning Silver. solution for few to remove (3-5) minutes will tend dissolve the to iron (longer tin. water. soft cloth or tissue paper apply with water. another. wash off acid with soap and water.262 HOUSEWIFERY ened or with alcohol. deep enough to allow the silver. on Britannia or water. Washing. wash stains : kerosene Other use fine abrasive. forks. whiting soap and Steel. The best plan is to sort the silver and put it in a papier mache " a " " holder. and for them a spoons lighter silver.hot. For (Do nickel. or . then. general soap powder (porcellaor whiting).as whiting. of for the and deep any the soiled this kind knives. In the " absence of such bowl. like rottenstone.) Wipe dry. best) . Iron rust : dilute hydrochloric acid .

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better for the skin or vegetable dishes Kitchen water of glasses or kept by themselves the and are water. stand Rinse any in a hotter than the wash water. placed together. but it is better if wiping is the process actuallyemployed. or on a large tray. cloth. and ten the little wad A fine dishes. like with the that than to water soapy emptied. and dry. have harder them the dishes are full of hot dish the pots and the are cut adheres that putting hot they they is wash to any dish. clean dishpan heat that With second on a dissolved with clean minute the soda to that washing no hot water for cleaned with frying cold greasy themselves of china. using a towel on which to stand the . washing will in the end be DISHES time preparing dishes for dishes time much gained. In washing hand mirrors. cents. have can first. Use a corners.rinse. they all potato for the purpose. and heavier people of grease to reach " a be may etc. and stand to drain pan of water dish drainer drainboard at the side of the sink. is usually This for washing. plattersand better only cleaned piles of plates. but is so in not directions should being suitable a taken be be may given spoiled.it will be found small wiped they the sugary to such of dishes. pans .saucers. be may pans It will be found to soak.as the mirror after be used No silver should cleaning without to does only It not look not well. because the sharp edges of knives used in scraping " makes excellent an but it costs As or dishes with pan with Utensils. silverware cups to soak their that paper wash they will wooden or and egg Most put are quantity out thing more particlesof food. soapy to the hands. in a wire (Fig.264 HOUSEWIFERY polished silver. condition use. that Now dislike dishes. wash the ready to be dishes The glassware washed. but if little soap a The that with skewer Washing. To prepare be removed. and milk before is comfortable a put in a pitcher gathered together. washed. care that no water gets in behind the glass. grease. WASHING A little Preparation. all scraps of food should called scraping the dishes. 27). harm in spent water. according to the above for washing. . in stacked is of paper rubber A wiper. Cooking utensils are because they are too heavy to be washed " powder extent an baked a is made scraper one dishes. to keep clean.

at ten cleaning staining or wearing dry before putting away. separated and washed by selves them- heavy and are likely the silver forks and to scratch second. and take time to give the silver a good rubbing with soap. be wiped with the glasses should a perfectlyclean glass towel. wipe the silver very dry. if the rinse longer fresh Grouping pile is now is worth it must be dishes. while wooden handles that they gradually loosen swell in water so and off . that one The silver which from lint. Have plenty of soap in this water. followed with a very hot thoroughly every rinse. but scoured.because no washed. spoons. will keep the silver bright. if they have pearl. of many long and use the dishes hot. they will Knives. a third possible reason selves for washing them come by themis that bath good sized quick work. there is Wipe all knives Dish comes only no need Towels cork a they be will make is not at the to be hand. the dishes and cut little wiping. and with rack. the should China. should be is free washed has the the pile next be glasses may washed. of the close contact " use a a hole with the food Pulverized cents of the in a good dish cloth. which a not reasons first.need the brick. for this rubbing. being the are placed in the are are that means without usually are used towels. Fine dishes will need gold decorated other dishes. While still hot. Silver washed day will lessen the work of the specialcleaning (page 133). the dish absolutely . The hot a rinse as not have reason as glass must " that the dish drainer of the work much and the wiping of the that have towels the dry dishes ready for three at the to be consequent been too dishes heavier further same or group sorting. if of steel. bone should be kept out of water. Cloths. A second be prepared and clear wash water the cleanest rest of the dishes washed. If a very hot rinse is used for these dishes and they are placed dish drainer on a wire (which may be purchased for a few cents). as It is essential dishes. with steel easy and little wad of paper. and beginning put away knives The " is very while the its cost is that it eliminates times wiping. to have clean especiallybecause that each. the handles as soaking takes the lustre out of the pearl or bone and yellows it. many . take thought to wash ones first. wooden or handles.CLEANING 265 ROOMS OF CARE AND still warm While glasses to prevent chipping the edges of them. looks are bought in packages of and for the in such may flat cork If : blades. used The for the hot water silver.

be sufficient for a washing out of the dish towels a day would once The after each themselves. If the dishes have clean. follow with a hot rinse. Clean faucets soon with is used which soft soap hot water of food the each for " Put 260 and 261). close the drain. they dishwashing. where particles and grease have been carefullykept out of the drain.for first a coating on drain. and with should as is best for washing towels. Clean To Sink. cooling and may sink. If washing soda is used to cut the grease. if after drain it should the make The soda be followed almost sink as water. Egg. and heat to the boiling point. besides the washing. At the times when be hung out.soapstone or iron (see pages 261 and 262). The first thing that has been done toward its care is scraping or wiping the dishes before washing. Boil five minutes. cooking utensils to soak as flour dishes should soak in cold soak in hot water. minutes boil. Washing emptied. boil the clean towels . put in a pan of cold water. the been " sink The should have three care times daily. rub them a few thoroughly with soap. the particlesof food clog the drain.to dry. however. porcelain. Never pour may of all. and have been well washed. will Finally. always in the air. so to in come any dishwater The pipe.266 HOUSEWIFERY properly prepared for washing. and out of the the grease. much sun as possible. then a cold. Warm soapy water and two or three times a week they may have. if through carelessness. and secondly.when inside of the continue to the to grease into the it cools it forms all water sink. and the which as brass or nickel (see pages Dishes. and the towels used only for wiping dishes. singly. will not little grease stop the sink dishwashing the pipe is flooded with hot water. abundance to clean of very hot water. otherwise the grease in the pipe. Wipe frying . the towels not are washed.it is wasteful . because the A sink strainer. should be washed dish-cloths. milk. This is necessary. and grease than sieve rather is preferably of the type of a wire puree which be kept the name of sink strainer.should the kind often sold under bottom in the of the sink the over drain be poured through it. and Sugar and fat dishes should Outline as an congeals on flushing of a sink three times a day. and carries it down This hot water liquefies pipe. as is so often done. and hang to dry. After washing.wash the entirelydo away with the use of soda.it is allowed close the form. which. so that the dish water is clean and without particlesof food in it. will in time is bound which that outlet.

using cold Utensils. stoves we but may for care they will be kept any grease Rub the spatstove . our look in we better up They and be good condition terings or and the sink after each meal. soak paper CARE AND in hot OF dissolved and water 267 ROOMS Scrape soda. dry. All by wiping off. and of knives pile dishes according to size and shape.CLEANING with pans . Steel Wood with Scour " abrasive an material Boards. very Wash " with Wipe Use washing. so less of a only be much always ready for service. hot in hot for water. In General. hot warm dishcloth or corners. well. with glass a machine STOVES will not spilledfood. " hot water brush for Glasses. dry while if necessary. Supplies brick " scrub with inside and with brush. Wash Rinse in clear everything in hot soapy water. cold an applied with Wash Top). in hot Drain water. soapy silver well. lint. rather than soap. and water Wash " bath and Soak " above. soapy Wipe dry Wash skewer Use hot. scraps brush Dishwashing clean soap hand cleaner brush CLEANING As with for drainer Scrub Sink strainer Soap Cork crushed newspaper. Rinse water abrasive cold Scrub water. a cleaner Wash dough. : Ammonia Bath brick Dissolved Metal for knives soda Scouring powder Soap Washing soda or soap cleaner: silver material coarser Equipment: brush Bottle Sink Dish Dish Dish Dish Metal dish cloth Soap shaker pan Towels china mop mesh kitchen pot Vegetable brusb stoves. should care. Knives. Rub water. Rinse water. Rinse in clear hot water. Dough as in water. " wooden free from 'Wash " China. with Table (Spoons. and . outside. drain. soapy with clean very Rinse in towel. soften to cork. or in towel Silver.while still warm. Keep handles and eggbeater out of water.

or having to be washed. either lying about constantlydirty. apply either before are lightingthe fire. blacking preferredto oil. constant with may protect the hand during usually plentifulin the be clean.one bags which process by using paper they the 160. Moisten little warm a water. Any off with hot soapsuds again using sticky food can be easilywashed in preference to the cloth. kerosene.268 HOUSEWIFERY brisklywith a second piece of the and paper. that is. wood stove blacking to the stove a gas stove. the stoves (when cold).so that there will be no the paper dirty cloth. before applying the blacking. with a cloth moistened are clean Cleaning home. may black and enough to make Fiq. be gone twice Once over a or week. stove will be smooth blacking unnecessary. and with a dauber.or when the fire in the coal .free from must particlesof food. rubbing them thoroughly until and is If the with " bright. or ashes. The bits of coal.

Do not the ice before Wash " the wrap ice . One-half a covering with washing soda to one Bring to pound of soda may be used to a gallon of water. and let boil until the grease. 261. of two enamel top burners gas cleaned. soot and charred food boiling point off. and put back on the stove to dry by lighting the fire. Any of will the metal polishes keep it bright. rinse with hot water." Daily. The tray under Burners boil a These out the as for or less effort. All food Do not Keep Do must put food food not be in clean in allow into the the section food of utensils. is Polish Blacking dry. etc. for it. order to keep the box cold. wiping be taken soon as It takes and should sputter blackings some fire. it must discolorations Remove porcella (see page Look CLEANING the over on AND putting it CARE into the refrigerator. 160). and the oil would stoves.) page and REFRIGERATOR. and wastes OF the with liquidswhich to that low so CARE AND may be cleaned by detaching large enough to hold them. put 269 ROOMS blacking does polishingbrush blacking.. regularly and oil and condition good when water one parts kerosene part turpentine.and be washed lemon or can frequently. sloughs Wipe off with paper or an old brush. in the paper. should be remain uncovered china. melt porcelain lining with whiting or in 262). washed then and stored in . (See Cleaning of Nickel.Covers Keep food such be made broken dining-room to of waxed eggs. refrigeratoron of the may covered. mayonnaise dressing. with looking stove cold.CLEANING or wood is stove the surface. The little keronickel on sene. contents and plan to all left-overs use while fectly per- fresh. finish need only washing. placing in a very mixture with stoves the by greasy. kept and with kerosene or over be may soda them from from the in on blacking two reasons: contain mable inflam- or stoves gas stove. cause kerosene soap when on cool not great deal of time say nothing of the dirt involved. pan and water (Fig. the stoves should be kept free from rust with a linseed oil. The hot stove the should be blacken will Gas to better and stoves washing and much give a with then a and stove stoves water. lettuce and parsley as refrigerator intended strong odor refrigerator.

Wash thoroughly dry. this will keep them Pig. " Cleaning has no a refrigerator. To tor refrigera- except the ice section. boil in with Wash a a from yolks may drying.and parts of the inside to absorb the outside of the odors. power and cool. cloth. change egg day. water Week. unless freshen.using cold . every Twice Unbroken water. 161. Charcoal.without with covered water or water. damp all " fresh.270 HOUSEWIFERY clean be cloths glassjars.

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Ginn Whitcomb Whitcomb Co. Household Bacteriology. How 7. properly not because water. B. " " " " Barrows. Mac- Co. Home Community and Hygiene. millan Conn MacLeod. Yeasts Bacteria. . tubes fresh will filters to one work double a clamp tubes filtering cylinder regularly used Plumbing. H. as those to needing be to visible and to be before accomplished in placed it. List take one machine is one may a pendence de- the factory home. Bros. one is oven The put the then give not and not wash replace. cleaning enamel water a saucepan? cleaning. If 4. and Robert E. boiled place a tubes cannot only at than page which germs. Estelle Buchanan. H. reliance SUGGESTIVE 1. using increase invisible remove certainly to sediment the uncared-for A the household bacteria filter latter in medium the for very it may to food economies bed? mahogany? in deposit given burned of number be to brass off how rusty a rules a marks greasy. Talbot. How 3.) one. be re- the wife's house- firing china.272 HOUSEWIFERY glass cylinder . Marion. remove you QUESTIONS clean to finger remove of set a proceed you can do and multiply. Barrows. with deposit. W. or having to the cleaning. J. remove . Donham. to would a the on however. Lippincott Company. Make 6. be must brush a be maid a from an possible cleaned? the today of bottom for in bottle ? metals. bacteria The the water cared for it affords do in How 2. Molds. Sanitation. to be the remove turn it is to for this even may and to 42. Sarah. Broadhurst. REFERENCES Jean. the that of the the exchange various household is upon case suited filtering problem disease the rebake to more fasten sanitary a sending (See chapter The by no outside replacing upon attempt house supply baked. " Co.. and the other filter is filter. Do from will and water. Handbook Marketing Cost House and of and op Cleaning. This does with sterile a baked. Brown Harper Housework. Richards. Cleaning.. E. Agnes. How 5.. D. Little. rinse and water.

X purchase. in connection such most makes its use infrequent. sent of adds that. whereas the of the frequently as the sent repre- eliminate chances are is necessary as dry cleaning of cost not may telligent in- an cance. use renewal that renovation blankets. equipment re-cutting. be depreciation. uten- or after only justify large first a dyed. should furnishings. renewal cost. as cleaned. most cases fresh. and renewal. bedding. tool chases pur- sil. which as the is housewife clothing However. extra and soap these When this her when is accustomed so she dry cleaning establishment. and are far types of household furniture and the means in considered be consideration the the furniture. things to her of type common The water. let found they the will on either old household always housewife come try 273 to . cost so housewife the by a as that usually are cleaner. The and stains possible For make that to a that remove reason. justifies the so original of first cost. if Careful to cost. cracking. etc. Fabric or untidy fabrics out are better 18 stains if not in when are unsightly removed. material that To in " be can vation reno- she Beds. kitchen carpets. exceed not should RENOVATION AND It is economy new. they will be cleaned them laundering this to rarely stops attention furnishings materially economy. ho to the to by the to fresh. cost if is they and of worthy well furnishings. laundering harm the to sent it fact renovated acquires process are their be can process consider to is directed cleaned. look garment are . with so keep the water. and original cost. of fact. the housewife the by and renovation the In time in cost as cost. of cost purchased may of when every such Fabrics money cost fact.CHAPTEK CLEANING is Kenovatiox to make like does article the all various roughing. curtains. or which or conditions such under quality for pay an fading. FABRICS The with first and and soap with renovation. signifi- new will And fabrics. portieres..

or use juice.4 tallow or Oxalic Re-Agents: acid water Alcohol oz. dropper 1 clear permanganate castile 1 soap. and tea of stain trace cream. as remove Stains detergent the cleansing solution before underseam) (e.grass and mildew. use one quarter cup of this liquid in one pint of warm water. To chocolate remove gravies.an with a attempting to affect the color.274 HOUSEWIFERY remove them washed out first with in cold to the done Rtain work 1 cold water. tartar salts or of Detergent Gasoline or non-linting Hydrochloric Javelle Lard acid Potassium Ammonia Soap white " alcohol. any with cocoa cream.wash magnesium. cream. test this the material stain. punch. 1 cup and pus. starch or meals meat " in not warm flours. sewing with cold and water warm To remove to which wash until To water warm remove the stain remove and soap. the stain wash in cold water. without water further for chemical each color paper of white and Soft cloth Soft brush harm no ether or of and the cloth the fabric. .scorch. then soap. be removed may wash with soap.only slightlydiluted. machine soap .apply the detergent. sugars. oz. Their and or (For " detailed directions..see page 276. l1/^ oz. blood salt has in To and water with been and water mucus. with cream. blood. with he may lemon Recipe for Detergent.with It is always a sponge. and mucus. the other ingredients. Cut Then soap fine and heat in add three quarts of cold safer to piece of pint one of soft water water and any other until dissolved. of salt to 8 soak in cold water quarts of water. added. wash in water warm disappears.and perspiration. ammonia. ether. and syrups. grease. add more water. For removing spots from woolen goods such as men's clothing. For cleaning black goods.g. grease. ether may Removal. oz. If this makes the article too stiff. chalk. 1 stains and Chloroform Cream Blotting Stain work the Borax outfit: cup bowl 1 half as fabric.) To all unknown remove stains.

or which may stain. on may a may be used Cold thing realize be on fabric used on cottons wools and and silks. wash ink remove To .stove indelible remove RENOVATION AND CLEANING water.finallyrinse old remove soap stubborn and and the . with few a soon as rust. ammonia. pineapple.the first The short worker must applications are . cocoa.and chocolate. cold rinse with To stain. of with cover borax. until stain oxalic acid. acid. and that several is. soap and wagon 275 blacking. know one potash. is the what is least of color remove stain possible: What If the fabric is objectionable. Dilute that it takes acids the and alkalies linens. oxalic stand equal quantitiesof water. like soda. stains and many to try. hydrochloric and food acids direct without dilution. as iron and acid. tan pencil. water. few a and hot with Apply stains and and water until stain water.sour oxalic of tartar. or on some under-seam. rinse with warm disappears. let stubborn the acids acid. yellow and destroy wools and silks.the stain. and fruit. made as remove pour convenient. put thick layer of salt on stain as soon from a height through the stain boiling water To cream Use acids. and colored. clear coffee. and tea. rinse with warm water. dilute hydrochloric ink remove milk. dilute stains. use water. wine. and minutes.To and wash with To To . stains. warm old stains remove with shoe Eepeat until removed. water will to remove time. and wash with disappears Eepeat finally and soap Before kind of water. and strong soaps.such as half-strength oxalic. then To with Javelle above) Javelle. moisten coffee. then apply potassium permanganate. spread stain through the stain from a height. especiallyif the stain is unknown. ) Apply water. sample see In using chemicals should that alkalies. bluing. the if come Try from the the stain action remover effect. beginning to work on fabric is stained. let stand boiling water.tar. one the decide must resultingcolor of the chemical lack or used of the which to the find out stain. rub well into the on polish. then (see paragraph with follow soap. use dilute acids (lemon juice. continue seconds. rhubarb.clear tea. Dilute acids.use dilute oxalic acid Apply a few drops of (as above) and potassium permanganate. pour boiling water remove bowl over put lard grease.and hydrochloric. grease spot.citric.therefore.

the wash This will possible formation of use and cept ex- holes. proceed always removed entirely the : first. important part. were condition most and follow to instantly boiling responds similarly.) Many short applicationsare and safer than the one surer long-continued of a chemical before rinsing.like punch. coffee stain In cold water and as one. In the fabric is to bet cleaned. and were cotton. use wash the spot well until the chemical is entirelyremoved.use stains. problems. were with even the presents difficulties. on stain the play an work cold water. example. quickly with warm (Test by holding the whole finger in the water . Good general rules to follow Clear sugar Clear fat Clear albumen Use stains. because own understood.276 HOUSEWIFERY better than continuous one chloroform gasoline. or tepid water. 3. use stains only. coffee with cream. like blood hot or and cold egg.which or with out soap and further work stop If any one. Know material. . it should not burn. Use dilute 4. Use a 5. is as as if it and then itself stain and rule if the difficult to is most cream. 2. A good general problems follows chemical. a cream the a same combined material and with fat. water. water of or a used. stains. a With is as dropper Follow water.like olive magnesia are: use or chalk for grease water. apply the proper chemical. presents its fabric conditions that stains dropper. if the whole example. Each and rinse. of Method follows: Procedure. then wash in soap and Eules that good worker a 1. there of a stain soap. wash wool. the is to treat. When the stain has disappeared. Know stain. cold water oil. For it when case with delicate without entirelycream. soap. Spread the The " stained method portion of over stains removing bowl. 6. abundant very chemical the reagent has been of water. always quickly evaporates. work peculiar problem. Always use simple reagents Wash thoroughly. use without under wool material coffee being Fruit For distinct the of Coffee dye two combined are to Cream as these two are all due water. same when way.

even loosens though water it takes a A be water ring may dye. ring will often water a in and colors dilute use are chemical. or any Put or where then does As fast does a cloth silks method for method for white Moisten harm. sugar and gravy. spot the on the Use better as the isolate garment proceed to wash removed. stripeswith soap or borax. or dropping of water two that of means running or is to spot is to be removed. accidental chemicals. and When result. especiallyif acid is to be used. not the least chance will have fabrics or goods to be be washed to stain with the not cold water. steam Often Steam in the cheesecloth and shake the whole is tained easilyobteakettle. the stain and color for the pad under same longer time. Where in taking ink out of a white stripe among colors are piecesof material of the very uncertain. the fading the only if the garment problem the " spotting or that whole the removed. a over and work-table reasons Place have is to garment is much removal stain washed be to keep from spotting the rest of the first.and washed If the " the chemical bowl. Warm often cold delicate. loosens and is absorbed by the cloth and blotting work If pad. take If whole.and then out clean a possiblefor material by second. cal by dropping from the dropper . . then have to amount tying a be stain shake steamed. folded cloth. like blood of material combination Any 277 RENOVATION AND CLEANING in as grease albumen. (See below. the spot first. of water piece of over dry. the garment on to so spread. cream. the bowl use the stain use paper. ample. is less difficult than is to be follow. and. breadth the a not will small wet. instead as chemical the a much as larger part of the garment as protection.or white blotting paper. Precautions that colors of stain washed. ice- chocolate as cold water.fitting over the spout.use very water a " A white cloth often leaves a fine lint stain which is very difficult to remove. the chemiif the way is prepared by moistening the stain. left after a spot has been removed.) Stripes are saved by streaking the adjoining Saving Colors. may the after " " removal Stain Spotting. To until remove of material by boiling a top tightly and the ring. it is helpful to use for the rubbing cloth. place the stain a used water or over stain the water apply cloth a later.cold use like water. and fat. for excolors. new of warm. hold water thoroughly moist.

(For Laundry Equipment.and boil not cottons.clean blue water. soap suds the helps water.278 HOUSEWIFERY This cheesecloth prevents sputterings of from water spotting the fabric.before washing. and linen.and clean them. following proportions : . which rinse and rinses form a clothes. nine.preparing them If solid blues are in well-stirred.and separate these Mend wherever pilesof fabrics into wool. not and does has been settle not enough the on water scum. because it certainlymakes washing possiblestains. requiring part of a chapter. silk. clothes dissolves Wash white specialattention. rub To soap. because the cold water opens the fabric and for the blue. a few brief directions will laundering is renovation be given. dirty soap water. not is and good especiallysoiled to boil. then the washing should follow Do stains linens. fuel waiting water.) page Sort the clothes into pilesof white and color. soaps. on only white time. hot. and five minutes should naphtha off all greasy if cooled. process which. but a small a and renewal. water. should work. Laundering. ing Boiling helps to clean very soiled cloth- boilingpoint is reached. much too is for weekly renovation. water warm when Boil on if these Many water much of the cottons used cold in account in clothes washing. scald the clothes by covering with hot boil. possible. follow that. dirty clothes. There with must Rinse in two hot would suds. Blue used. On Soak only soap as a so and ordinary of such are stains a out come of to it soil. for Supplies. to flood sticky scum the put after Boiling.cotton. to or to sterilize the spots. of Soaking softens from done. A stitch in time saves as Remove nature stains to need as in the process and easier.when rinses boil with not as with in hot rinse. about thicknesses one-third is garment a about of a of one ball to cheesecloth or teaspoonful of a a heavy piece of liquid blue to a tub. much work Laundry " consideration. use and cold holds linens and There suds. chills the clothes. and several Starching When the Use muslin. in cold Einse in tie them flannel or tub. see 136. follows the the bluing. when is to be starched. see page 103. wish one so hot cold Boil to mize econo- clothes. fillboiler be good suds. two do boil. use used.

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by brushing with Colored Washing soap. Goods. Linens. boiling lb. the by extent bleaching agents oxygen. 1 qt. water as possible use better enough to dirt. or in fact. avoid this by using cold water instead of warm. in which of the blankets Woolen the over in wool. it may water. For " starch side wrong cheesecloth dampened against the nap stiff whisk a the on with cheesecloth lift and way be ironed side right the up should these.ordinary laundry starch With be substituted. cold an agate Pour this liquid into sediment pan' mixture a may be solution a made with soda of lime water and into bottle will or is water chloride % 2 Javelle and disinfect add boiling dissolved use as sinks water. the lime in settled. The ready for the 2 water. To of these. is to wash step the out bleaching. in a Keep closets. soap then paring. is by using Javelle. and 15 but of or for use Bleach three in the to garment. salt use cool of use substitutes. flush the When soda. using about 2 cups to a halfSmall gallon of water. qts. of the best Put the to the quickly as hardens 1 If hand at Use first. pressed Woolens Pull wool. and much are should or improved broom. . may affect the color would could be the water softening the dye. Javelle and Mix water. Recipe for Javelle Water: one minutes. these agents the only thing that paste. and the first methods household pour dark the cold the soda water. So is to As sun. quantities of bran or soap bark will go use case farther if heated strained out. which may little effort and expense by the housewife. bran. preserved to a great the " the the be in causes instant so Use may soap in as because grass or supplies water " into washing 1 lb.remoisten. use any add them directlyto the wash water." salt be must fear " . salt washing Cottons clean. salt to cups " In bleaching. Colors water. second method The be purchased at the drug store. cover first method towel 10 use the that follow fabrics are the "run" to not To the have do will results Bleaching color quickly . garment on the of the wet spread it dries. There The on a " " without "bleed. such be not possible to might be made by using grated potato. and so for water grated potato raw.280 HOUSEWIFERY when be ironed. that the on fluff it. clear place. soap bark. but water always solution.

Eepeat water. sulphur fumes garment the bad tablespoonfulof wool. make A and in wools. yellowed. which This water. but clothes. Oxalic be can stain a good a whiten. a to the . down from Javelle of its delicateness.wet doing this work danger of inhaling working A the in to the suspended for through good bleaching outfit. used has added. After if necessary. the garment water oxalic acid. to avoid its sputtering. which be crystalsdissolved that potassium nor used. Add of water. follow with spot the fabric. or barrel the in to out and pan of the forced clean. and the or permanganate warm no with a of barrel doors sulphur water. a stands fumes to inadvisable make borax Hyposulphite hard acid from the to washings to be as slightyellowing dilute garment Javelle stains compared as to whiten not Neither " remove photography. is fumes. the clean Plunge been to liquid.CLEANING and liquid bottled garment three four or The water minutes wash method third oxalic and into the acid. Javelle soapy bleaching is be may boil. of also can with sure is of stain. solution by adding to an equal amount a concentrated acid to water instead of water to acid. allowed be every pailof water use one will facilitate the work. Make dropper to remove manganate of solution crystalsto one quart by using one teaspoon from of water. so left in the garment. a soda. of Javelle cups do not is harmful which to two in hot of They to which only the to settle and Javelle To water wet cloudy It is used. Apply whole the garment. once For used so either good a the Silks. either Wools permanganate will turn garment. Place in the bottom the candle. Hot should mixture Javelle This 281 RENOVATION AND by potassium permanganate in large quantities for the the perspots. use half-strength oxalic acid. so rise and the of that circulate on clean . or it is as clear be used worker from quart of a with because has silks used in to bleach poison. soapy chemical To Bleach unless permanganate For both bleach for silks. follow allowed to pass Care should subject the to facilities attempt the the lighted candle garment. which is are or mild a is the woolens or will water Silk water. for it. moistened will finallywash water. and which is made. in barrel. Unless it is rather through one be can silks . and is used "hypo" Einse brown step is always necessary. rinse fire and whole with with several the or rinse . which nothing is the best bleach. to avoid candle that is silks to wools. then last been has clean. wools.

Eiderdown even day method " velvet : use in portieres. The cleaned in quiltsmay be most satisfactorily this way. rinsing. stringsor stripsof the . without removing the feathers from the case. be either several of this spots teakettle. pressing of the silk or sateen cover may A little time will be required after the down is dry to spread it about with the fingers.tie the wools If any back so the Water by let the water both cushions. badly soiled. but or and methods of two boil hard. which from the down came being blown into the various section patterns the quilt was as being made.heavy pieces the teakettle be done with satisfactorily nesium magthick layer of powder. Photographers' "Hypo" (hyposulphite of soda) can its in muslin. and then shake applicable when a suds of warm and the water brush garment and off is white Use a second quilt in the suds. by sousing and down in the and then after water. for the candle arrange the rinse in bluing careful Be keeping the white clear and preventing yellowing. for rinsing. or " knead as almost but a Quilts. all four sides to re-liven the down. and This a the one-half over oughly thor- it should done. Souse in Cleaning may by spreading a This not this way be shaken. always can will to silks whiteness All materials " with towards the restore Velvets. often found piece of times. print or cheesecloth a stronger to be will be iron. The be done with a warm iron. but one produced a on wools. Pillows may be washed. a be done with method and runners. and will lack only a little of the originalpuffiness. white silks wools or bleach table the may be done which repeated velvet If is best. in a tub or Wash washing machine.282 HOUSEWIFERY white the inhale Pale will do fumes.and then hang to dry by spreading out betwo waters tween As often as possiblewhile drying shake from two lines. or chalk several powder. in the water yellow soft brush. may from beater. and to help to re-spread it. rewarded. It will be found that any wringing must be done by squeezing. This will be steam produced have process may all cases the worker wet cloth on hot a of inch spout. can renovated whipping In prefers to hours. the this way. let it remain for or is not Prepare so. to by brushing is to be mar may be steamed Put about jet of the velvet out.hang to dry in up soap. be any silks. suds. steam large. and considerable be used to chemical water so of two to as either of things: do not prevent fire. Pillows. nature.

be can When be or and soapsuds. If this lace is precautions as given above (page 277) metal Corduroy. plenty as never gasoline after and use. not the for problem fire risk as hang dripping that and and " suds a material waters. candles. however.grimy be used in conjunction with the Soap may cleansing brush and rubbing the spot directly soap. It will be easier to clean tick often rubbing this. gasoline and the because worker a ting. for hangings used souse is in expert involved.To be washed There worker. and feathers feathers. with Dry the by possible way cleaned in several no brush " Wash soap. rinse never also be successfully. good color. it should by anyone except of suitable air. Finally. removed. and it should quantitiesas water. and a lace may water in the the " These " or tablespoonsfulof salt to Corduroy. no tunity oppor- cigars. gas light or lamps. have been continuously gasolined are likely to turn things which almost impossible to bleach white. Gold Silver and with by brushing the out carry down line." spot- do up would well of and on the mar iron. as if it were soap and There water. because done under excellent for even there of cook as stove. and sun Choose dries and livens a will the break cheesecloth bag.and rinsing to consequently insure a grimy cleaner. which is often water. a pint of water. prepare a dress. are 283 RENOVATION windy day a the the tick if the feathers which AND needs feathers the bag. using two luke-warm Embroidery. and the wash to ticking separately. velvet. clothing.such a is or wringing. and of for wash. best the gasoline as much be used in clothes will as ihould the careless much she generous result. otherwise streaky.CLEANING the wind as wind. An flame open distance not of several of any feet " sort will real contact ignite the of the hand as necessary.matches. transfer For feathers wash the as this for well. gasoline. work in the if possible. begasoline for the next cleaning is not in the long run the gasoline to become less volatile and the exposure causes more be so gasoline work gasoline by taking the with cleaning disposing of the at a gasoline fumes fire and the liquid is For be cleaned may by boiling in salt and each soft brush a conditions. containers. such fire.can and alcohol same This as Lace much oily. To dry Dry Clean. would a have person should for water have on washing. Saving used yellow and are cause a saving. To dispose of used .

bran dry powder. and of satisfactory wash dye it a ment. and sent away A be freed or carpet is very large and weighty to handle. renovating rugs and To remove clean. if has has tried to person withdrawn. or which rinse and well.for uneven dry to garment that of the color some or To learned in that is be wrashed attempt dye goods small.so a dye spots. dry The the soil is set free principle which grease to be brushed doing much help to prevent the almost last alternative toward and in brushing always griminess that cleaned the would one about the way should be cleaned according package the dye. As dyeing requires soaking in water. powder. thing to have it may a renovated garment be called renewal. the dye to way from clean. attempted best there first. before consideration It is one attempting to do any work. inexpensive thing be every quantity. the dye should been " spot a be " put lighter spots with a cloth or brush before the rest of the the garment is dyed for the garment is dipped.and Dyeing " fabric a these in evaporate will follow. put down e. If. This is the reason these on color blue chosen or for old an black. Many with " materials absorb the earth. and the fullers' of use Before is rather cannot some be can all In then the by housewives that much dry fabrics. rug can Rugs and have . and a garment Carpets.284 HOUSEWIFERY gasoline. Dyeing. The have it is which first it turn decidedlya cannot be thought in out so waste well to pay that for used.the spots will in all probabilityappear purpose for the expert'sadvice that the shade a lighter. prescribed methods the to renovation with garment. but economy an and " . Other must of ways cleaning off with otherwise which results.or or dry cleaning are starch.and will has the cases should cornmeal. of this gravel a example. soiled grease. is that let it drains. this which should be come sufficient tion garment may completely float in the dye soluavoid streaking. either very dark it will probably cover imperfections.g. This the off the shake be not and soil to the binds sandy soil. garIt is gested sug- at home.. the up many All of this must fabric be taken into is very likely to shrink. Otherwise. magnesia. when of covering up spots. no mixed be it.as proceed. of meals. in its original state the garment way in color.especiallyif the rug to be scoured. the soil they are usually carpets is to get them this is advisable. it is ready to dye. for then garment it will be should be dark so a that one. pour on Gasoline shade.

or with frothy lather. frays the has one a the on often RENOVATION with by whipping from AND rinsing is an frequently. one change the The of any . over A shaving lather) a or only a than spread essential Apply beater. brush the with surface a to in color. first. water the on first (as heavy Any carpet. and then lather rug 285 the (Fig. a possibledust ing wash. so be careful it darkens thought be may First cut the or a fiber. Test of would in the remove it off with water.CLEANING dust stick beater Shaking Any is hard rug a if rug. wire this out which been have wrung sponges each part as Rinse small part at a time. rug. may getting it entirely free from dust. 162. always with Washing " fiat rattan because rug ends. water all rugs. except those that practically Many rugs may be actuallywashed machine. home at by preparing a heavy soap and spread Fig. either ened be thoroughly freshendurance. soft cloths Do as to fast as may the a suds as With the rug little soft a brush of too large part. warm rather work you The time. then . washed. at brush or beat water washing to suds keeping colors and rinse white may are be strong a up if the fast. 162).and be applied may very method fade washtub all with even or in water.

line wrong washing be planned for when of rag rugs should by having they are made the rags of permanent color so as to allow for washing. very hot water. floor. of the hose. or a Cold will give the a water good deal of soda. like put chloroform or linoleum Tapestries. and rinse with clear soft brush is removed.either cleaned with or thoroughly brushed the earth. Be can to it changing a very that fast " of than as worse ether on as quality or a is should water a good suds. In rug possibleto clean. soap that contains of water or " best results. must covering. or whiting the up A grease.286 HOUSEWIFERY it give wash clear a brush out. and and This especiallyso easily and rug laid be better a is the well. To remove dry starch. or silks. on the second careful spots.like that a rinsed suds. is likely to none. the absorbent letting be used grease.) the saved and be floor. workmanship were not or they fastened to keep the tapestries they be hung may could be cleaned on a back to in mounting . their frames take should under pad a fire with for that put too stain. use Matting. by means cold ammonia and To clean water. ether. matting. and by a varnish. be tacked may With careful provided they on It is advisable a table top. They be cleaned. Several which soap order if the that wring. each time for a few days. lukewarm be kept out keep or cold in this dissolve enough white soap to make apply the suds. not of by pails Poor rinsing leaves a grimy rug. rinsed not washtub had the case to attempt of water. Tapestries. rag with scrubbed and handle to broom on is often if the rinse person it well.because on dissolve the be freshened can thin will varnish thick. Many rag washed have been in well because wash do not to they rugs appear rug the be too small the case in the done a porch. also to ward be used. but hang dripping on The side down. or absorb the good qualityand is either prove A to varnish. Detergent (page 274) soiled. fullers' dry absorbent grease (Avoid worn This This applicationmay be necessary. and let drip until dry. wools " dust. much poor stain. spread either grease a the off moths. Then rinses will add clear do the remove soapsuds and coloring and the up would to remain allowed first to make the dirt it is not until wash remove any sticky. trying to avoid using much never use soap. by using of remain remove as Linoleum.should cleaner vacuum To to wash. and With water until all soap flat. grease. and strong enough such the not amount an when is not In marked.

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a much requiresso lukewarm in soapsuds. then the high. shaped.neatsfoot that as Ijeather " indoor rubbed be on from if the go all with a piece rather done. As to keep it rubbed very two such chamois is before and pulled. Leather To look skin well soften to may whole the with much grease Certain whole do lukewarm to do spots. in dirt. will linoleum that of way as this is only absorption. one an hands and with over it as oil any If but heat . Whether quarts of water as and it is used drying.use the be can not alcohol use prepare. wiping spots be teaspoon of a lather dry. then oil it the it than color of a " from housekeeper will obtain prepared for shoe cleaning. wash pull to shape then a also cleaner window a condition first cost chamois as leathers. Often to and quite even dried to become it should oil puts the leather the which cleansers in bottles and water good to hence oil. skin used be can the dressing will darken possible.^ it in keep to The was. leather. add one cleaned have bar off all excess A clean the leather this by be will If often one linseed oil oil. of some the easily by purchasing of white will added.288 HOUSEWIFERY Chamois. rinse the covers spots and water if the but method. brush and it should be washed dry a colors is than good condition it in keep better Upholstery. rinse once window stiff. no power cloth.lemon oil. over spotted. the fibre with up will Should by taking water. drying care it chamois dries skin from With is less than water. the The it. the that gloves. cloth . with It is bound . Imitation somewhat oil and . to help it to resist wear.in the really enamelled same remember has wear. cloth Chamois " good or skin become oil to olive brush lukewarm soft brush. which renewed the by housekeeper must enamelled finish to scale off in time and with are oil. This is soiled soft removed affected be tone is the cleaner." as upholstery is very likely dries it parches and cracks.with them keep the which To of water of some will careful to rub darken the idea same chapping. a would cloth be be. soap and two soap give dissolved cups but will help one is to oil it will catch as try light an as or of white cup oil to Remembering solution been one as with most of alcohol only naturally requires.and to a in of light supply leather. when or sponge hard.such as paraffinoil. will chamois the it is better certain remove with much it be water warm for table rinse Many this way. to cup oil. used are chamois. be very quickly leather.

but will rust. while the varnish from absorbing oil keep it free from the wood 19 is to be The wax produces a or dust and shell-like The wax."give specialattention to grit by using " into a . prevents the wood for all wood clean the finish is to dry cloth. Steel or rusty iron is probably most easilycleaned with pumice or powder. mahogany. an expert to meet simple suggestionsthat may be followed with much success.or used for furniture. tend to leave a rough uneven will lubricate the pumice. They are finished with either The care and renewal of woods is one is made wax. be painted with white enamel Tin zinc bathtubs paint. ash. oil or best dressingsinks glaze which care polishedor done wood. This is cleaning by abrasion.or varnish. or the scratch emery will have to avoid to be taken scratching too method. and keep it from attacking the metal too cleaned surface.will require frequent renewal. and cherry. the paint will remain of several months. and the varied ways require of there number but these a are complexities. complex by the many kinds It would of finishingthem. paint will finish bathtub that for will of enamel a two give a good paint the To harden last paint before putting the one season. thus producing a smooth directly. bethe that tub is should be One thoroughly dry very sure and that after each layer of paint there has been ample followed house Two of the to for time by paint layers dry. which is the soft wood most comused.CLEANING 289 RENOVATION AND METALS stove painted by using black enamel for paint. use for paint a tub unless it is the last resource painted it. and care the alone will The not only remove pumice deeply into the metal. Do Stoves fill the be may with tub this before cold and water attempting to it at all. as once WOODS of the complex problems The problem of the housewife. and oak. " use. for let stand Do several begin to not renovation. walnut. have penetrated below the outer coating. probably Stoves. and if allowed to dry thoroughly. of woods. can or before ginning. are Any of the woods may be found in house finish. making the cleaning of the stove only a matter washing with a cloth or paper and soapy water. maple. oil. The monly everyday woods are pine. which may Oil used with the pumice surface.and when over. tub to hours. which the common hard woods.

Remove where can discourage the housewife. Care be given. furniture and repolish.besides covering or water the compare done.and leave softening. moistened comfort be or the room inhale their worker. and else is the labor home. too. a The less worker caustic. good finish to which is either handkerchief of the means the fabrics. giving exercise well as which successful crock stone mentioned not needed.as with expense family enjoys work good home of saving money. potash of one the fumes over The or be may soda materials or are spatteringswould any any while removers all these careful. To possible. at many or These for undertake The dry quickly if not used. results often Poor follow wiping wood with oiled an dampened or clotn. yet involved extensive more required. have paint the nose softened is varnish or than more all and is sary. and " doing as to reoil them. but for there dropped is within have to if the about expense with him so of expense to think of the needs one marks. doing over are the to the unless cost work strength of the housewife. a The not not home at and kinds many or of sufficient to do many entirely used. to involves work. refinishmeans To scratches. " the no over a of time amount To order in necessary will be necessary work. this The successful. heat up less or more However. wash the cloths and of them could to materials is is done at the small a equal this account. ought piece of one rewax or or limited. the be housewife's which means of to hiring it pieces of greater likelihood work. little of this a stages. and work and it is Prepared " remover should air A evenings. then expensive very or or perience ex- some of the man and Paint of a person considerable If the they results. and for a spontaneous are present the problem to many thoroughly of the job. to the cloths and brushes . with little of that a of of material the much is work familiar price charged by an while professional. neces- mouth varnish on .as one should not will add folded. which providing a securing pleasurable results in readilyrespond. and work should brushes. and as most are inflammable. but ammonia. dents. they should be carefullyput away. burning ruin wall hands woodwork. tin or combustion for one in the him. to the Varnish. than success results if the be cannot often suffer on materials cause put them fire if a difficulties in time much this kind of shop work as woods To bought.290 HOUSEWIFERY it.

quicklime. potassium permanganate crystals and after mixing and brown This stain turns soon 4 quarts of water. Apply . Bismarck brown umber tsp. For The 1 Bleach Wood.). To on use many to bought. burnt red Venetian y-2tsp. or both white a before wood filler which must be : umber. potash will also whiten good water hands 1 lb.unless so if too stains Various " and oil and more Stain. be may unwise good ones. and are so definitelythat good results stain is very homemade One be obtained. 291 RENOVATION proportions use Either. if turpentine. darkened for dark wood. about foui POISON. may be tested on thoroughly. a used are linseed makes about use to follows as off water stains or cornstarch or used. oak. turpentine (1 pint of either. finish- oil (1 pint). To hot by a or. it is especially to The be cold spots like ink " and qts. to either concentrated on " 5-ti " 6 " water remove about Use put cannot soda Add " will be needed. oil or wax. dry Do polish the oiled or waxed most nished satisfactory. using acid Oxalic Use to the acid To cold A Filler. and results only knows be to set and be used to harden to resist wear before used. and apply to bleach wood. mix. it seems spend time uselessly. or the stain varnish. satisfactoryand may easily made by using 14 lb. yellow ochre 1 rl mahogany For use y"z tsp. being a or and needs rub three the one or the folded with wood will Let newspaper. AND for ing. and not use wood for floor To board then two again. boiling qts. from wear ft. yellow 1 walnut For all colors Test dark. burnt Y" tsp. if applied long enough . and mixed whiting half). The var- then days. try to and make as there them. ochre V'2tsp. For and acid This is by glove no a mop would water or 15 room a of 20 x floors. a filler is made qts. " Oil should renew an oiled surface. pounds (iy2 lb. Oil. add too board a add light more coloring.CLEANING floors may and be removed wringer. mop resist the caustic. raw teaspoon sienna tsp. as soda " boiled of and half wood Fillers " taken potash solution 1 lb.

and important part. circles by rubbing in the grain of the straightlines with every particleof dirt. by the Bruises.use a spots are very the turpentine. little permanganate stated. white. because which has been the wood darken cover prepared Scratches of on mahogany Its potash. in no way clean brush in straight lines. is quite dependent upon the stroke of the worker. bathroom. or It force that means of bruise. it is possibleto oil and a knock rub.liftingstroke is used. using no pressure pad when rubbing be repetitionsmay Several the.292 HOUSEWIFERY lemon the and oil. she has rubbed more.or boiled Wax. Apply with a Good and just as far as possiblein continuous. or have to rub. enough.295) For a weighted brush. up the scratches. non-liftingstrokes.rub furniture as use polished. Make or with be retouched may wood a a necessary as air will for a then but a cloud the color desired. for shellac work if a short. Often be used may also in halls and vestibules. and " This the or kind of a layers of wood fall. To be must or wood. shellac. darken If the not bruise bruise have too so is been deep that a it . or Scratches. is to be polish. with or spot lint. Wax with by applying the worker is waxed and done surface. little rottenstone if the mixed of is wood. turpentine. a a boiled linseed oil. not oil lemon dye has just been brush wool. and then sandpapering. sticky. water kitchen. which Remove " oil in polish by rubbing To linseed shellac both good quality materials Use " and When and be varnish thick very thin.rub the steel soft cloth shellac. rub some Shellac careful then and prepared wax (p. keep the stroke so even and continuous. where rooms varnish plays an laundry. To Remove deeper than packed down Dents skin deep.paraffinoil. very thin tops the worker's hand is best. free from Touch the Do sliding stroke. If the scratch arefullywith fine grade sandpaper of dust formed by away every particle pad by folding the Wet surface with lift the the pad small a wad of in cotton with paraffinoil and pad. that enough be to air does not floors wooden on such as get under the the in Waterproof brush. To Remove " good furniture polish will it contains dye or stain enough to bared If one has no by a scratch. irregular. sure Use a piece of domet a well coating flannel table Varnish. before anything Any spots and or put on any with be removed may Wax oiled an soft woolen a cloth persistent. shellac will stick and turn In other words.

the return " linseed Lemon. wash with washing soda or some or off. fine sandpaper. wax is used mixture wood not and so the " If this is not paint. Rottenstone oil.glued filmy gray a deeper heat be not Water way household is and 293 RENOVATION and water would Remove left is three hot dent moisture This other some AND the rub spot with a clean cloth. much prettierthan any shellac or varnish could produce. enamelled off with to be a smooth This level spots with the scratched the bring the spots where the paint surrounding them. rub petroleum. Oiled Wood. rubbing in circles. and soft circles in will its dirt. The rottenstone the oil.or To it will scratch. Often " wood of the radiator leaks. by cleaning either with clear Painting. water soft this. It will " The it with Rub a with polish like Floors.burn off. a Spots. and polishing cloth.with soft satiny lustre. the paint first. will looking for To not with Alcohol Remove finish. with whiting. add two or and ammonia. cloth. oil and Polish To Wood. in or mark spilled on wood. Fortunately an alcohol spot is cloth or with deep. Polish soft cloth. prepared oil or on cloth a and seed and lingood rubbing will help to restore an old spot. etc. or whiting and water. Paint can be renovated water. paint is off to Touch uncovered these done. the water It is easilyremoved with a few drops of cloth. " Use cloth.CLEANING is little noticed. and often a quick rubbing at once a even lose time the fingers.going all over should with be . to rub unpolished rubbing is continued long enough. If the in blotting paper hot iron.rather than the cloth. To off. and gives up Varnished.either scrape it will require repainting. the polish will be beautiful. the loose paint should boxes.keeping plenty of oil to lubricate the float in must rottenstone. thin wood To surface of drops afterwards has on a oil and with the wood a and which veneer. ammonia to Spots. The part rises. swells thin been spot. will bring up a polish.all the old patent remover proportions. that so wax Waxed on be linseed a oil in clean equal If this slippery. Moisten the cloth. but actuallyto renovate do this..moisten gently apply heat by means than possible with finish.followingwith linseed turpentine and and "Rub " turpentine cleans. a dented the is only a backing. Clean with turpentine and partiallysoften the Clean To Spots Water flannel Painted. as in the case of repainting bread shelves.

it may can be done be rubbed with wax. and test the color on under side where. so that where will not be too dark. new not use Table Before water stain. sink into the table and when This oil stain should dry. by folding it on a block be used of wood. it will not be noticed. some When the mend be used press or support must As often hold the to cord marks. paint the . . instead Wickerware " to stained or painted just like put the stain on in two the wicker one. making two stain rather than of a thicker one applications of a thinner dye.may be purchased at small with coat one is white second enamel " cost. of one dark pattern. Iron clamps. the main coats. stand in hot water Clean the two pieces to be glued. and follow this with the yellownessfrom several scrubbings to overcome the soda. Table a Do Tops. the be can precaution being wood. Vinegar will remove is no need to use much so pieces and fit perfectly.294 HOUSEWIFERY article to be painted. To sandpaper. and if it seems thick and until it has thinned with stringy. old glue.only glue and thin it. little to will water warm protrude beyond do let it mix with the the not remove surplus. a paint a more will work be economical of accomplished by using two coats of piece enamel house paint. tops will have this is done a to be certain sandpapered amount of to produce bleaching by using soda to extract grease. an Stain or paint on newspaper givesone a very good idea of the degree in the of color tone. tapes pieces tightly together.and then one two of or paint. Glue Buy a standard glue. Wickerware. There glue as A the have it mend. turpentine to thin the oil stain. " finish. as an oil stain. go on very irregularlyif put directlyon To Furniture. Enamel paint will the unpainted surface. Apply glue to both to old glue. as glue will not adhere the heat. " of cloth with torn sometimes or a pieces straight splint" makes a good bandage for a break until the glue sets. it can more easily as well as more economically. has been made. put on that to be better finish is and used. Apply the stain. for holding furniture together while glueing. When this coat is dry. when the whole surface coat. use fine-grainedsandpaper. If it thoroughly dry. It will light overlaps be found dye wicker the paint is used unless troublesome rather to paint the Use thin. stain an old table: to as near To tone of Sandpaper it down one color as possible. if the color is over dark.

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soapsuds a off it may covered Roll stains remove Oil each will be after they may be the wife? house- stuck paper in cleansed by the to it? H. a oil will varnished be to after days should lacquered may the special small is which rub to no out either cloth. S.296 HOUSEWIFERY that all cloth of the surface soft cotton. of Department Agriculture. keeping is the of washing into gauze SUGGESTIVE 1.. This or to way coating folded. Home Laundering. How 7. Science of of Stains Century of Laundry from Clothtng and Other Agriculture. William Brannt. Co. work made and freshened be walls renewed ? on sill old an how be refinished having had bureau refinished be draperies. doing free paintings from oiled. soft a patted cloth. several days. Farmers' Laundering. " T. . Dry L. U. washing the of used. How be it has 3. outing has of with With " in cast without then and the much (not hot). If may a to 6. Home Margaret. Ray. Baird Clark. time thin or do Paintings. Balderston. Rankin. wrung painting leather. Care of Bulletin the House. varnished and Put the two the with best three varnish a of If a is mattress without 2. and on painting or with bit a this After careful is soft a it remain there cloth or painting oil even the sponge it. Maria. Given condition brass may cheesecloth little a sink cotton in. U. London. Co. S. Garment and Dyer. wiping it does as the but with on let and being cleaning. it should methods simple removed leaks the and original strip QUESTIONS boxes be spots darkened How bread faucet water warm it? grease hot are 5. apply later. Ray Scourer Cleaner. a changing wash or be brush. for cast. Work. Farmers' Bulletin Textiles. Parloa. Removal Department Economics. brush hard. cretonne be and wood handles window a may clean. C. home? REFERENCES L. by soft not color the evenly. How 4. 861. M. been The be best oil be may used it clean to from like ? new carpets? steams bathroom the both may the that so how whitened. been somewhat If cracking. T.. Co. Balderston. soft a towards linseed flannel. Blackie " Son. what spotted. Macmillan 1099.

well aired. etc. on Screen Test all wells Clean open and half . Household and The outline states of the Cleaning. 297 decay . as the bottles refrigerator a pans. PREVENTIVE A. because this will pipes not only produce odors. put a film of kerosene carrying disease. a open point near cellar floor. Keep the sink clean. but vermin. Whitewash walls the ceiling of and the cellar. water all waste and pig to all Carry the MEASURES to keep to the run and dry hence sanitary as a .'rather than prepare problems of the home for specialemergencies which must be met with heroic measures. the " windows. to all outhouses by whitewashing coops. Place C. air well. following some practical to be taken the housewife in her measures preventive by daily work. if there is but one the other half to air flue from foundation of it and it by providing cellar an house two or storage more room. the about HOUSEHOLD SANITATION Cover " prevent breeding of mosquitoes pools of water during the summer. Scald all milk Keep the become cellar the kitchen Keep keep it cooler. a enough barrels all rain stalls. old food. window. lest the food free from and breeding place for bacteria. this cleans and sterilizes. suggested in the chapters on Plumbing. B.CHAPTER XI DISINFECTANTS In apply idea the preventive treatment the home ? Why not fumigants as cures. the from house and from terns cis- prevent contamination. and keep clean. which Various disinfection and concern points fumigation have been Pests. Ventilate Cellar. ventive presanitation the daily as a housekeeper. " may and draw soiled to promote dryness. cow " chicken The as far water sterilize and pens. to and disinfectants FUMIGANTS of day this AND measures? housewife The rather to try than ward off the attack not need of effective by adopting should why cures. and The Grounds cisterns IN House. flies from priviesto prevent for purity. The a floor in concrete Kitchen.

and air food for animals. unnecessary Empty the garbage can each carry it in day. The Laundry. nose and mouth. Isolate connection and with colds laundry bags and E. The House not small household Do to only makes the and soap few Health Work. fresh from safe. wash. Mothers in home. put money Keep hands. General.and attract may vermin. Wash often enough to prevent any chance of odors from Clean soiled clothes. an house Cleanliness water urging the at been many kinds of pests. health his by School it. you by Do not put fingers in mouth.lest dirt. or it. great perseverance. Do or pins in the mouth. garbage cans. or Bedroom. not DISINFECTANTS AND FUMIGANTS should disinfectants be acquainted with and Every housewife f umigants. it should be buried to be used as fertilizer. If " soiled clothes may whereas the risk of carry disease. in dusting with spread the dust. that the rooms invites vermin. to avoid its attractingvermin or putrefying. clean. are clothes. not pencilsin without. clothes baskets. of clean has As any other sickness. and cellars. removed garbage is not used as by the burned or community. of odors or sickcauses be ready for the unexpected need One must of an exter- . and ice boxes need them . in Do can Each. is for teachers used oiled dusters or it is easy. all Personal to dust. Prevent " the untidy.298 HOUSEWIFERY Wash the ice before it into putting the refrigerator. half an Keep beds free from hour F. are The Air " beds being aired. Do not wet school " or When everyone can Theobald Dr. help the mouth or fingers when turning leaves of books. Keep washed. draws rules spit if. must be kept free from chance ness. but dampened collectingof dust. because drains. soiled clothes dry and well aired until D. the laundry. a dust as in precaution wash a time same used hour. which not separatelyall clothing that wash one has in as plenty exercise must promote Smith so sweepers. G.

borax. ther- Fahrenheit. They effective and the substances familiar are so are inexpensive. wad " With Heat Fahrenheit. the (1 so-called sunlight their best friends. increases. One of soap in 3 quarts Soapsuds spores. dissolved cake Solution. Fumigants and parts of water. and is disinfect. In the clothing possible. of may " of water. to part latter parts of 1000 destroys and germ deodorants there nature are dryness. and 300. indeed. life. with in the a one mometer. will thoroughly disinfect.DISINFECTANTS minator for after and The vermin. hesitancy and washing soda are sufficient in the Soap.decaying the disinfectant a tablet to 1 water destroy powerful many and cleanliness. and flush closets which cleaning of ice-boxes. they seem terms often AND without be used interchangeably. of mercury if (corrosivesublimate) is an antiseptic used in a Disinfectants solution in a of 1 solution of 1 the Abater).window to be cleaned are daily. germs Boiling: except and makes fecting disindevelop germs. Salt and food necessarilydestroy germ preserve sugar may ride Bichloby retarding germ action but they do not destroythe germ. and sunlight. .germicides. Many of our household cleaning methods methods. : sun- of physical means to moisture germs. their to in as cause no use. diminish. basins. laundering of clothing various alkaline reagents are used which increase the disinfectingpower of the water. Dry disinfection.000 and like of test oven too up Fahrenheit heat at 300" hot an dry measure 300" to for without destroys all disease into same heat oven 212" in the oven. boxes. iron. or boiling temperature To hour. filth are chance air and vegetationand for health heat lay a cotton for ten the small filth life. ammonia. the used often to the need or of 299 FUMIGANTS disinfectant a fumigant during or disease. may In to part poisons. and the like are an understanding of the terms . and decrease the length of time required for disinfecting ordinary soiled clothing. of appearance disinfectants. germs.cleanliness. and which ease germicides are substances destroy disretard the but do not Antiseptics growth of germs. fumigants.besides. up vessel safe disinfectants foes are light. Both will minutes which scorch in a as of cotton if ironed closed later and pint of solutions cover or are odors. fortunately are disinfecting Let the study begin with these simple everyday methods. air.

the sun the heat of the iron in ironing. and dry. one-half for to Chlwinated cent. and more no to no power germicide. gallons of One-half " Either water. to make used fences. disinfect excreta. S. lime y"i peck of and Lime chambers. Dept. washes. commonly of it is of the * Whitewash with used solution bleaching powder. on and the vermin.and chicken improve to bu. water water warm Use solution will hot milk paste water as possible.and pans to kill typhoid bacteria. a to require one until to kill bacteria coops. more air it absorbs form powdered damp a about put as in is a called disinfectant Standards. air On the to exposure into absorb lime. when a applied with of pound solution be may is to be disinfected. A boil minutes ten or in 3 in washing good laundering hot scald. cellars. and finally. .are drying. dissolved several be may A will Adding glue helps ground rice boiled to a thin y2 lb. is known and bottles. dissolved Mix lime water lbs. five to or floor is easily mop. Quick-lime is lime oxide. hour as it breaks Quick-lime is often because down from water that water houses out it breaks absorb to power and When much so air-slaked called cellars moisture. into the up of this power it has powder. a Slaked lime do A to Whitewash lime with consistencyto spread thinned brush. sold lime. a air. Circular as when No. solution 5 per its work milk and (hydrated lime) excreta. room soda washing for used Such dissolved wall solution a pail of hot water and a broom It has been proved that the usual methods clothes disinfect the clothing for general use. rinse to This requires hour. 3 used are appearance. and has great power of absorbing water. Lime in its various forms is especiallygood as a disinfectant or germicide. is slaked to deodorize.300 HOUSEWIFERY Soda Solution. clear in warm glue. and 20 a from let stand water 3 per per cent. a whitewash stick to the surface. outhouses. is much * U. powdered Spanish whiting 1 lb. Bureau infect dis- one boiling in days. 70. of chloride of when used Commerce. slaked salt with Whitewash Recipe for y2 lime thoroughly. employed with or and soap and a water. It is cheap and harmless. and of of slaked cent. sufficient for disinfectingclothing. lime.

bell around dark iodine as the use a be and solution used. when a only bleaches not by light As toilets. a open should and egg apply corrosive of the bottle of an in half possiblymistake places.and effect a the to peroxide for bleaching solution. and for clean hands. quite that so Great should care the mistake. especiallyfor antidote. for which Therefore used or Alcohol the compound. is glass bottles. It will not and long-continued soaking. tablet (T1/^grains) to 2 pints mix a fresh -strength. cannot be used for disinfectingany the disinfection of smooth in a metal dish. It is not Alcohol. and Its best hands stant con- of Do 1 1 not pint . it should tightly corked. on a above hands. is any scratch. per cent. and 7 per a should use to bruise.DISINFECTANTS basins put down in washing. poisonous. form.except after it does For of wound good safeguard. and no It is of mercury. in this Bichloride tablet the that It is one can as when in not limited as is the to its sulphur precipitateit.such of a be used rusty nail. solution.but good strength or greatest care. it for medicine. " It discharging wounds wounds. have given ones that her for fatal a The necessary trained for disinfectants preceding chance point omitted work is thoroughly done. such water soaps. toy proteins. Tincture which may cut from a may is very later be infected. with stored To because stain But tie bottled or a small metal corrode utensil. is purchased in handled be be so as such. For other cat sublimate. be is this necessary reasons the used stronger in action are the risk of into enters those exercised doing two been below be one For task. or cent. (White to bought in or poison a the neck disinfectant. and fabrics. and doubt the in their should work having point as to in regular essential an whether the it is thoroughly the " and and use. enamel should disinfection metal. The home methods. 1 tablet to so is for use rubber. It is darkkept especiallygood for as the tion suppurainfectant general dis- a of account its in about over a readily in irritating five minutes. exposure Hydrogen affected and 301 FUMIGANTS AND fectant disin- good to remove splinter.) It is a powerful use surfaces glassware. but used air. the on unstable an heat. much so as membranes. strength is a needle that is to be used 50 for is is be formerly as Its action or deteriorates to disinfect gargle. in connection disinfects. it rapidly on colored use and with products.

valuable of mercury fectant disinas a bichloride to good store of clothing and 40 per cent. a water). one (Antidote this is used until for is free from of Disinfectants the small drop for- . of carbolic to solution. Stir or shake in gals.by adding some is the strength used for disinfection. things placed Formalin a in the is a disinfectant. of purchased to cent. and 4 per one-half It is second at the of from cent. solution It may be and reduced of it to ten times its bulk solution.302 HOUSEWIFERY of Allow water. solution Solution " " The usual in the proportion of is 5 per cent. Soak the strength in which a solution water articles in this 4 per Acid Carbolic 1 lb. rubber. utensils. which corked bottle is drug hour one for disinfection of for as a formaldehyde as gas. mixture Table Alcohol).of hot water. " crystalsto 2y2 the hour.

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5 oz. 4 lbs.304 HOUSEWIFERY Formaldehyde effective formalin. and for that done only by an experienced person.which irritatingto the penetrativepower is not is most in the Park found * Williams on Sulphur and is poisonous. formulas give the for Its for everything formaldehyde ation gener- 304. of formalin. II. the candle and the wick helps to may keep it burning. Potassium permanganate solution. 10 40 per cent Water oz. the worker more the need to go into to relightthe sulphur. in ft. pests. put the in permanganate a which is set upon bricks or in water pan. 4. 5 oz. 2y2 oz. fumigation involves the is not the in effective very extermination in of destroying phur pests. oz. pour on the formalin protect leave the room. the fumes. gas One produced in several ways. The is formaldehyde gas given off. space. very great. Sulphur " but it is very valuable germs. Sul- danger of fire as well as of inhaling of sulphur flowers or poisonous sulphur candle is easilyobtained be used. Two A Formulae will Either Generation for Formaldehyde disinfect 1000 cu. the floor from diately immeand heat. For flowers of sulphur pour on a tablespoon or of alcohol will not then to insure its burning. acid it should 2 y2 gram Formalin Mix oz. permanganate in pan. Quicklime Potassium Oxalic permanganate acid Water lime remaining and Hydrocyanic but is work one with * Park potassium in substances of the and most be Williams. cially especombine with potassium permanganate of potassium permanganate to each pound To half-pound of permanganate every the for any room as Prepare fumigation space.5 oz. of sulphur to every 1000 cu. Expose eight to twelve hours. of pint may is to way one-half Allow cu. Formaldehyde hours. so that it is necessary to be entirelyexposed to its action. (see page 304). and expose herself to room Allow ft. Pathogenic Microorganisms. 5 I. 1000 allow 1 air ft. reason . Pour over this the solution. of air the fumes. 9 gas is effective in destroyinghousehold poisonous gases known. room and membrane mucous page Fumes. and when galvanized iron kettle or to be all is ready.

Through advertising. in a galvanized Stand the pail or crock on two bricks or in a pail or stone crock. DISINFECTANTS suggestionsinclude established solutions and methods various new of fumigating and disinfecting. be tested bubbles a kept closed for eight to be thoroughly aired and cleaned. so that the heat created by the chemical action the floor the burning sulphur may have no chance from to burn or the permanPour the formalin other surrounding material. Additional most and problems The 20 above . the and nose twelve hours fumes no boil 2-5 is a and a good mouth.etc.wash soap. larger pan of water. or on ganate. Be sure everything so planned and ready that there will be no need to hesitate to or try it inexperience. and she will not need work when Knowledge on the part to is thoroughly trained " she against either fire cautioned be to 305 FUMIGANTS AND Get all the things in inhaling the fumes. in order vermin to run have to be left may risk of leaving germs or fabrics no in draperies. subject to fading. the potassium cyanide.DISINFECTANTS To Prepare of the worker the do for Room a Fumigation. Seal the room and door cracks with paper by closingthe window or cotton. but the simactive have been suggested. or the sulphur candle. so that Gloves. and stopping the key-holes. LIST " OF Such in cold water the sides of the to be are When a HOUSEHOLD gloves in to worn the rubber. Wash them Overboiling will weaken good disinfectant. then dry. and go quickly from the room. but colored in. Rubber minutes. Do not remove from the room anything that was there during the illness. Gloves should For room it must . then Clean To is back. the sulphuric acid and water the cyanide.or light the on or be additionally The door may sulphur. not then As soap water prevent infection gloves are glove is warm and in water air safe. is necessary. Arrange the contents thing will be exposed to the gas. Sulphur will corrode and metal risk the clangeror will fade of color. hole. plest reach the housewife and fumigants may disinfectants . the metal door knobs and bed should have a thin coating of fresh (non-salty)fat. after sealed on the outside to have closing it. person who safeguard to tie a moist The should may be slow from handkerchief over be remain. Bedding should be hung over a line. If sulphur is used. to go will mark SUGGESTIVE for small any both that holes. Put the potassium permanganate. that everythe room of the room so ready.

Co. H. Buchanan. J. Co. Household Bacteriology. School of Home Economics. " P. and Ann E. Saunders " .. solutions cleaning for and fecting disin- cuspidors. of Life. What 2. QUESTIONS housewife every of List safety? own 3.. Jean. House Sanitation. Life. " Barrows. D. J. Marion. Modern Co. ways and whereby means contagion be may spread? List.306 HOUSEWIFERY household regarding and that pests chapter and Salt and given in Chapter XII are this may well water permanganate Boiling standard are Listerine Potassium be considered they may form as mouth be washes. precautions member one Suppose and nose What the are can usual family a cold. Household S. Co. Home and Community Hygiene. B. Macmillan American Hygiene. Mac- Co. throat fumigants. Georgiana Saunders. 4. Procedure. closets. G. How bed a may be treated after a severe sickness ? REFERENCES Bboadhurst.. Handbook Dunham. Practical Pope's Manual Relation Country to Nursing.. Philadelphia. J. clothing. Putnam Sons. B. Putnam Nursing Macmillan G. and of Molds. Maxwell Pope. G. Lipman. " W.. Estelle millan Conn. Maria. P. Talbot.. Carbolic acid Creolin Lysol (page 307) together. Sanitation and Richards. Yeasts W. produce may Formalin Bichloride of Sulphur Hydrocyanic Formaldehyde mercury acid gas standard are SUGGESTIVE 1. E. Barrows. H. gas What all take must in should care caring for another nurse the well soiled who clothing? has member a take severe for her suggestions. Bacteria. used in and dilute a gargle. Lippincott Company. a water Soap and water Soda and water standard are Lime washing. Ginn Antiseptics. " Co. Bacteria in Pope. Dakin and Elliot. flush cresol or Tricresol Alcohol Tincture of Carbolic acid Lysol and iodine standard are tricresol such as killers of germs disease. Daily Methods of Whitcomb Whitcomb Nursing.. chambers. Robert and E.

paint shop. hide or Prevention or screens or leaders free The from the absolute cure. therefore destructive PESTS bought is is very or cup and a It needed. cover however. entrance of cracks up stagnant Cleanliness travelling. use by using putty. with use colored large. make strip a the match to will wood. is accomplished best and nature powerful some and runways agent. and hardens almost is mixed is in ot small quantities even colored a as with to match be wood put be to water It can fill be mixed rest of the wall the it in or cracks wide very putty it is as It bought each on advantage. garbage containers. privies. the and of cure a extermination is the Putty may easier much are fumigate work. keep Household " . putty better to agent and Plaster-of-Paris be the often heroic more a strips. etc. cover. cleanest fill stagnant insecticide use food traps. laundry grocery the in house. cracks. Molding powder.and manure piles. constant nooks. keep house manure piles. exterminate to vigilance Eternal unexpected troublesome. crawl they they remain. to an it is to be quickly. handled the as If in. are from have pools. involves much Methods of Closing gained to foothold. a food dust no to tightly covered. rain use barrels. or the of visitor unexpected in even valise the great preventive one because the gain may is the this in when but measure. old used as tin in such white. and floor. Extermination at often of vermin. plaster-of- have strip. possibilityof runways not unexpected not too cracks had of the of use closing include poisons. in fly. becomes powders. wooden side filthy come holes. to They preventing pests. and traps. and be may filling.CHAPTER XII HOUSEHOLD Prevention. fill up after price to means spilled collect and is the that rapidly so and and dangerous. allow and keep water. vigilance. fumes. with cracks. just It wood. screen or bundle. but used when box. are call for they dark than out pests reproduce They places. Paris. good a often used also cardboard can of may immediately. any coloring 307 . of basket.

the one shelves drawers or so that it will to blow the buy may powder deep into a powder blower . using gasoline or benzine clothing or upholstery by spraying it brush. poisonous only as a are not Kerosene. " and care on only Powder can shelves try with the back into by the last resort.and both should be used out of doors as much as possible. floors and brush method in order of to save water. or the acid be used in wash may in the closets. which are closets or on tables and drain or boards. the deposited their eggs. or if indoors. In the place of powders. alum. They the hand. is by spreading powder such as borax. poisonous The " and second step.308 HOUSEWIFERY desired be may into put the before water mixing it with for use the plaster-of-Paris. formalin. ammonia. Powders. remedies with strong pungent " odor be may used. a careless worker should be never . or hydrocyanic gas fumes acid gas may be used. To be sure of better control of these or with of flour and water a poisons. such as kerosene or ammonia. and should be carefullyconsidered beforehand. or themselves by should be as is to saturate in with where the the vermin care must a usual articles have a on paint The sprinkler. with all windows and absolutelyno fire or open flame of any kind open about. Fumes. for of its bellows means they as that blows are and dangerous poisons. and bulach a Caliproduct. be exercised. Persian insect powder. as be to sprinkled in cracks keep it on the back of the contents cracks. mix not far which crevices.or a greatest " carbolic washes applied with Inflammables. but it is best always to try thoroughly the simplest and safest methods or first.either may be mixed paste made and in turn laid in drawers spread on strips of paper. or by pouring it on to soak the place of To do this work. soap powder. which calls the of non- non-inflammable methods. especiallyat night.using the inflammable last resort. and also those that only pungent but also highly inflammable. or in a solution with a 'paint brush feather. about edge It is wise work. and shelf. fornia strength are pyrethrum. The next in strength and last of the powders to use These should be used with the greatest are strychnine and arsenic. such as gasoline benzine. Poisonous such as sulphur. or even Next to these in pepper. Strychnine and arsenic may be used as powders. The is great danger of using these powerful poisons in the kitchen ob\ ious. The or danger of these last two is the risk of fire.

papers the fly. Do 1. Fly traps various consists water " in can under good on flies types. on kill. The work PESTS is best done mattresses. hellebore. and all windows Screen doors. Absolute 4. be allowed fumes Metal thin a corroding themselves. about Sulphur the to be be effected. mosquito nets. 163). pillows. the odor because. kept clean be a warning to the may in removing odors.HOUSEHOLD allowed do to it. " away yards.) in class by they simply prohibit With etc. sulphate. scalding is helpful Fly. Store no and soiled Extermination. 3. Formalin. good a stick home-made with hot trap soapy .so coating the Screens. kerosene. to 309 disease. may with from sulphur and is Traps there They do as is carpets and and all door of lard metal. so work walk on a let the gasoline all evaporate before light matches destroying the pest. Any and rat traps. These " passage. tightly covered. color. will bleach out covered carried destroy you. garbage " of in cup cup a . hold or house.." 1. Keep food 5. in stroy De- lime. action. whether are besides germicide. many sweet a beds These " or may the being poisonous. privy piles. and see usually for this. It Sulphur. especiallykitchen and dining- room. often INDIVIDUAL House gravel using the or fat to is used exterminators traps operate by killing. can the work the on Be path. keep the ing. etc. 2. borax. "Swat Sticky flypaper. Don't gasoline for Fumigation. may nasal fumes room be twenty-four hours should or bring any light to the of doors out will kill the grass. containers and cloths. Prevention. lawn to sure article .chicken manure iron Build vaults. clothing. hence a menace to health (Fig. as in mouse next do any color in knobs will have fresh or Formalin not may that Some otherwise To pungent very traps. cleanliness 3. a some contain may trap should be a traps poison. the on end A of ceiling. with maggots breeding places with chloride of of maggots fly-proof. attractive A " is tating irri- if inhaled. 2. (See chapter a and outside. PESTS of carrier and page are which mixture victim. fumigat303.

place poison in light near erally Persian insect powder and bulach. 163. Natural 5. other Potash. ponds. pools. Mosquitoes.and By " kerosene of breeding places. Prevention. part bichromate 1 " saucers. into weeks such during summer. of " oil surface over enemies natural every two ponds. parts fly. Place Formaldehyde. and free net barrels and tanks all windows " 1. Screens rain at Extermination.and cans. gold fish. to allow net. puparium at malaria.310 room HOUSEWIFERY 4. with at be and night (have sure no tears). 1 part formaldehyde to 10 parts water. darken the this window. Cover 4. doors..or if this is not possible treatment fill up or Introduce 2. at night in unused rooms. nets air. Muse Carriers " larva domestica: of with details right. results from these remedies. silver as minnows. Bichromate in Place Fiq. Sweep up in morning. Poisons is the enemy get best window . yellow fever. " The house 2 to water. Sprinkle libPyrethrum. net mosquito large enough is inside the . except one " " in saucers. Remove old tin pails.bottles. and at left several fevers. Bed circulation is free from of and holes fine wire netting. 3. other tainers possible con- of water.etc. 1. Drain Spread fish. to : centipede.

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Corrosive but 4. and seams The " boxes inspection of all baggage and clothing coming into house. (Fig. especially tuftings of mattresses. 3. Burn sulphur a strong soapsuds. More sublimate. gasoline. Spray walls. bed-bug from carriers oil of with above below and of disease cedar. candle. Fig. Extermination. Possible " dusty.). water bugs . (Avoid fire. " Careful 2. the housekeeper worm must her attention the closet to or give storage place. garbage pails. 1. Temperature Extermination. Bed Bugs. 303). places first. Oil of 5. and benzine. 1. Hot water. (Fig. handled Roaches. 165. so as produce inactivity. 166). injected into kerosene or all crevices of beds and walls. bedding. undisturbed Prevention.312 HOUSEWIFERY Or cold storage method is low (adopted by dealers in furs. shelves. They feed on dead ani- abundant warm turpentine. use to " Wash 2. Take to clothing sunlight and brush thoroughly. croton bugs. 165).sinks.) 4.easilycarried and Inspection of beds in Found in clothing. Fumigants: to be and sulphur with Cock to " great care " in roaches. etc.or and egg. 7. the closet with 3. 2. be burned " (see page most efficient remedy. near places such as hot water boilers. Benzine " 1. pantries and kitchens. If the moth has developed.

grease. pan under under powders refrigerator. Soak 3. 2. the male. 1. into it in kerosene." makes hot into very are c. Place legs of tables and refrigerators Ants. " Dust: caught in a with bread it. egg-case. placed in they roaches. 3. " PESTS rancid like with sides grease. sodium dish 313 all food. Extermination. often can crawl cannot inches runways. pantry clean from dish cloths. cloths dry . paste : Spread Trapping. or mops borax in water refrigerator. Roaches well lined pan pan kill trapped To borax. seem kitchen scrubbing brushes. tightlywith Find cotton the ant-hill. A trap. roach Oriental The Wet wet fluoride. flowers. usually come Prevention. 1. the female. so small and " with a close " 1. as three about a. Keep all food covered. and of water ants have crawled . of all kinds.HOUSEHOLD mal and matter and drip pans. 2. plunge trap b.plunge the sponge into boilingwater. and deep Especially hard to fight because they in such myriads. Place food sink alum Keep 166. " Powdered powder. pyrethrum on bits of cardboard Periplanetaorietitalis" roach. Prevention. Fig. be through a good water. and crumbs. after sponges into it. in sweetened water.sulphur Poison 2." or 1. covered coating of oil. no Extermination. refrigerator to especially draw them. Sprinkle 5. Cover 3. in cups 2.and soaked injectkerosene Spread borax on shelves. Keep "A.

edges 2. c. a. within pupa and and a violent carriers cat or gr. 167. larval skin splitto it.314 HOUSEWIFERY Poison. larva.) of disease. " scrophularice. iron with hot iron. b. poisoned with poison to larva? in poison. and alcohol. pupa. Feed carpets and upon and silk. 4. Beplace carpets by rugs. used ing dwell- . is sublimate Parasites " benzine inflammable. 1. d. Prevention. will pass the ironed part. kerosene pour " " Thorough 1. destroy larvae. benzine. because " corrosive Fleas. up carpets at least twice a year. floors. harmless " " " carpets and Fig. houses : into under sublimate Corrosive in 1 pint of human. through carpet and will kill insects directlyunder dissolved sublimate Wash cleaning: Thoroughly expose Place " Poison. Are woolens most destructive because they eat so many of types things (Fig.168) must . of carpet Steam. Strong soapsuds Beetles Carpet (Buffalo Bugs). house carpets. Anthrenua the Extermination. (Use and very effective. be speciesin Two dog flea (Fig. 167). soda. corrosive sides to edges and under- alcohol 60 " Apply (Great care poison. and Fill cracks under with clean boards. will of or floors with hot cracks Every Clean water. and Soak the ants with arsenate great in sponges will carry the it is as care. and thoroughly clean 5.) very carpet. beetle. carpet. Spray with out cracks (Benzine Lay tarred Paris. -The carpet-beetle. Steam 3. Take 2. paper and look for insects.) a of arsenate syrup nest. base- plaster-of- little while take up damp cloth over carpet.

(c) naphthaline crystals. naphthaline. (powdered or of Oil 2. quart adult dogs clean solution 315 PESTS and 108. rugs. distended (a) Sweep " strong soapsuds. carpets of For water. 1. or solution). floors.(d) pyrethrum. openings by which they . normal a. " Destroy powder. Leave 1. larva. " female. (6) boughs and chips of pine. Keep and cats in to 1 Animals' 3. . Extermination. cats For free from dogs fleas. " (c) fill up take The often. holes cover. to be 1 black- Bathe quart often quently fre- creoline tablespoons 4 " like small are tablespoons creoline 2 " flea. 2. Tin 2. enter. (6) wash up flea: jigger of cracks Care 1. in hung Fia. floors or floors with b. oil of pennyroyal can The be applied to the human skin. " makes all food no Close a Chipmunks. about. Keep 3. crumbs . or can be used in the household window floor. or pillow should of carpet. sleeping rug water. or " are All are very very tive destruc- dirty. the eggs and creolin. leather. called nits. and all good covered. clothing and Prevention. benzine or gasoline. beaten and sun. with eggs. (d) sprinkle carpets with r.HOUSEHOLD Prevention. Eepellents (a) pennyroyal. around or on by rubbing alum in " Rats of Mice and Squirrels food.

" " Scald possible entrance.curtains. Cannot be preparations on the market. forceps. 1G9). Cats centipede. Weasels house professional " vermin exterminator brings his own weasels. silver-fish. 170. stiff silks. catchers." A Scutlyera 3. remove suspiciousodors. starched clothing.glazed paper. Keep the place dry and well aired. traps before used 169. as 4. Lepisma The set domestica. 1. settingto Poisons 2. Traps near about.wallpaper paste.316 HOUSEWIFERY Extermination. bristle tail) (Fig.linen. " " . 1. various " pet animals with Via. Prevention. Silver Fish (fishmoth. Injurious to bookbindings.

49. The Sarah. Marlatt. Pests as Bulletin Farmers' S. small book powder sprayed on Pyrethrum 1.. 1. Marlatt. Control. Cockroaches. Methods of Kinds and C. conservatories. aired. 740. Abundant Centipedes. L. an C. U. Arsenic piecesof " Prevention. U.. Carry L.. Man to S. Marlatt. Harper Bros. Sodium fluoride 3. Destroy centipedeswhenever 1. L. 0. Bulletin of Agriculture. Live. The Marlatt. in pests occur. S. Marlatt. F. Bulletins No. No. of Cleaning. Marlatt. Gas Against Acid L. O. Handbook Housekeeper's U. 2. " fresh Apply What safe 2. 444. to (deadly poison).and around 2. House Nos. Insects Bulletin University Howard. 754. Howard. Flies. moist heating pipes and registers (Fig.. No. Glen Traps Fly C. 0. SUGGESTIVE L on in and Keep placesdry 2. Animals. Dept. C. Buffalo or No. Herrick. of S. Farmers' 679. L. 459 Beetle. of Dept. 627. and Suggestions with Methods and Bulletin S. Farmers' L. 683.. S. Bulletin Home No.. 170). of Agriculture. of Agriculture. Bishopp. Bulletin Farmers' O. Dept. " Extermination. Dept. Phillips " Co. Bulletin Dept. drawers. . Household W. Later it? What household was a pest. L.. pyrethrum powder. MacLeod.. Dept C. Place closets. S. Moth. Household Pests. sprayed wherever Add starch paste. Hydrocyanic Howard. U. Centipede. Agriculture. 681. where cardboard pests occur. 659. of Agriculture. No. Dept. Howard. Constant inspectionof moist places. Farmers' Moths.cellars. 658. Mosquitoes. The Bulletin House No. of Agric. Remedies Howard. S. A can QUESTIONS clean If an of bed a vermin of roaches Avith infested is exterminate ? ants? to once kitchen a box sugar a thought she had a cricket and hated she found old-fashioned superstition. Agrinell Cor- Control. Clothes True C. Household Injurious Bulletin Century Co. Agriculture. Farmers' C. L. " 317 PESTS what means she kill it because had been be may boring har- employed to ? REFERENCES C. Dept. of Dept. " of Agriculture.. 0. No. S. Dept. How 3. Mosquitoes. Their FOB U. S. Silver Fish. L. Fleas F. Carpet The Agriculture. U. S. McClure. No. housewife of 4.. U. Farmers' Bulletin No. of Agriculture. etc. shelves. House Ants. Dept. No.. Against Preventives and L. Etc. U. No. Farmers' They How Disease. Economics. L. Farmers' U. culture. Farmers' Bulletin U. Ikbcot. of 626. Bishopp. S.. Farmers' Parloa. and 734. ways for ridding suggested be can you seen. Dept. of Agriculture. 699. Control. Operation. bathrooms.HOUSEHOLD Extermination. of U. Bedbug. The U. Maria. Their and Bulletin Farmers' .

course a in course as in lessons the be may housewifery housework made other ment manage- introduced be may is part of the a together with or economics home that so curriculum. in textbook the theory learner well-organized instruction group the be can try out to equip to it since teaching the concerned. represents technique As form either of a a subject of study. important that by practice in more subject chapter. and in this special course a of students both met that nature fundamental to younger as be the it is desirable living. dealing widely gives as well as problems to introduce who will courses. or. provision If have is made laboratory. itself which is to attention to the give special practical course by exercises with of appropriate laboratory housekeeping . selected in courses yet developed not housewifery by itself. be constantly accompanied mental to make do impressions successfully the hands students of though describes becomes 318 of will there course processes later a or is and reference the book. it may housekeeping. other has management. and task particular be everywhere. subject teachers given by it does its other any of such by regular indeed proper of household for subject is be may and teacher provided this time same is as separate housewifery a specially prepared its have for teacher a to the form. lectures it is very the sanitary problems teacher Housewifery " lessons economics of it should housewifery this in presented theoretically by practical processes of number be the simple provided they teachers that instruction. in as into cooking courses. with a it should course. of home the importance by subject. a into subject which order who jects subother A in Students in concerns of by discussion. just At the in housewifery and courses. had is such. Moreover. will ideas. Methods a considered of Teaching. curriculum the where taught in household topics.CHAPTER XIII SUGGESTIONS TEACHERS FOR presented in this book.that to older The the and special equipment classroom training. be oral leads most other of lessons talks. who textbook usually keep note- . but help present theory must taught housewifery of teachers by vivid. processes Housewifery.

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will make place the is illustrative material Fig. 172. equipmeagre by borrowing equipment. The supplying of pieces of silver and of various metals to be cleaned. by demonstrations Like all demonstration work it has only a small part of the value of the actual work done by the students themselves. With such a the from for possibleif the equipment ment. other departments. " must Laboratory be furnished This much of tional addi- work at first available for only a small amount housewifery laboratory (Fig. but it does materials.320 HOUSEWIFERY burners. and course is an labor there of a storage facilities teaching inexpensive furnishing which on the teacher. and the class may have to be satisfied with such help as is furnished given by the teacher. into various cretonnes to be made hemming or up bags and holders or upholstered into pillows this and similar " . a few pieces of linen that might be used for teaching of nappery. 172). and by teacher or students bringing in special problems for the day.

if necessary be teaching materials can be present samIn general there should ples of the materials. etc..SUGGESTIONS material FOR might easilybe brought refrigerators. various items listed in the chapters of this book so far as they can suggest what equipment convenientlybe brought into a school workroom If one has to equip from have. so injured by rough work table can be (34"-38"). coming. inquireas to materials which can be had on loan so one but. because homes or of the often time the for when But lesson. well may desk raised be at running water. and supplies. a " have to set aside about $500. given a gradually accumulated. the the laboratory should should first. have them in the if in the school possible.furniture. and confloor space for storingmaterials. are that once it would be in by part of students.when will not be too large for storage space. in from store-room. space for 30 students. Teachers sometimes study to their apartments own because unsatisfactory. 21 room. refrigerator. in the laboratory. The horse-shoe of the horse-shoe.stoves. the requisitesfor inbe subject provided as adequately as for other subject. if the ideal work-room is to be established. and exhibits. This requiresa good-sizedlaboratoryroom with for there is of teaching or more a large amount large store-rooms.at any rate somewhere and assemble them. outlets including glass display cases gas and the form with In a range. and storage cupboards ample space for bringing should and standing height tables teacher's the addition there of to be bed. therefore. they should be high chairs provided. seen at laboratory. but this is students' going and too large to work without lost in the class is confusion. As conditions structio permit. material which used. a class their can classes speciallessons. To equip the laboratory. be provided Ample blackboard space should and also cork board for pinning up exhibit material. .one would Laboratory Equipment. tools.and The of the furnishings which enter into the ordinary household. be The should have can room wisely soon as in any one work with and this should be moveable. One two 12 x 15 not in use or rooms etc. the tables should soft wood that will be not they tops.labor-savingequipment. arranged in the opening refinished with a readily.. should have shelving and The store-rooms siderable cupboards. and.working equipment. in the room. utensils of all kinds. it will be a practicalto more 321 TEACHERS where take beds.

of part costs in such economic so as line and estimate an The a At color. and type problem. concrete " curtain curtain and teacher fixtures. rather sheets of special given time to prepare some cut up catalogs. study. however. coverings. to see By one may room. supplies of all kinds. is the viewpoint of the merOne chants.vacuums. dish-washers. Gradually. samples of the materials soaps. laundry. as dustless with materials. students of the be and their they present classroom as art mount of materials must range the at no but are all time of student the of of nishings fur- the led times. Many catalogs are put great that feel that it is impossible for them to furnish these the merchants there being some anticipated purchase expensive catalogs without that many firms gladly coauthor has found The of the article. cleaning . of large labor-savers Manufacturers will often is valuable extend the for tive compara- courtesy of . regularly. handicap to the above method at out so great expense. . sweeper which the housewife deals in various wood samples finishes. becomes of these. Loans from help through the may local dealers. working equipment of kitchen. should controls teacher of housewifery must always teach economy. metals suitable for experiof all kinds in forms mental household floor linens. faucet. as things used idea of desirable equipment be had may the from following suggestions: Plumbing fittingsas trap. comparison better and combinations comparative expensive things cost the which desirable out both students to both alone be considered. charts of plumbing and heating systems. than have them use or Teachers have Firms. because of the laboratory soon a museum many machines which too old to serve as up-to-dateequipment. larger labor-savers as washing-machines. This is or loaning of equipment by manufacturers especiallyimportant with expensive equipment such as vacuum It is a disadvantage to own cleaners and too washing machines.etc. of illustrations represent the to with side discussion. sample lighting equipment.hangings. .etc. etc.types of flooring.wallpapers. bring furnishing by having the furniture and their samples The of cost.322 as HOUSEWIFERY one's funds to make get into the Some reach laboratorythe as far possible. and cleaning processes. finallybecome " An exhibit purposes. operate if they are consulted work and in this type of educational value to students.

otherwise there is too much share well as too small of responsibility. cleaning solutions. used for interestingitems. the class should be of a family size. division of labor. On may list of reference her for to The of be book mation infor- bulletin board reference be a for on books found helpful typewritten sheet also be added a set of lems prob- readings. and of are with in the TEACHERS be great by firms. being there only through school hours. 173. or should be to student each work.SUGGESTIONS a visit to the and stores to in the Helps in edge Classroom.g.. be Practice houses have to an advantage for different types proved school to those of collegeage. they being given the privilegeof putting their furnished names plant FOR in class. helps of Any recipes. as a The public school practicehouse lacks a large part of the value that it have. A Folio catalog be should be Whether to outline preceding a and excursions Lantern both to tories fac- Catalog articles This . it may or a the lesson and give such an outline on taken should 323 slides. A shelf provided in the laboratory. not text-book is used. the student should practiceapartment or of the family " ideallybe given the individual tasks of a member should Her work finallyextend through all living in the house. and in teaching housekeepers in extension even the practicehouse very real and of the desired help to the individual. suggested that in time eighth-grade and high school girls will be asked as part of their practicalstudy of housekeeping to live for a week or more Work. because students do not make a regular practicehouse may Some have their real home. in a Practice model house Houses or The apartment. and ages. deep a dealer.and sheets also eliminate will save mistakes time in tation of dic- copying. sized advertising material. make. by the teacher Practice this outline filed any gether to- dents stu- must from is useful from the service be obtained cards for also be may be to larger catalogsand other sources. such service. 174). " drawer. ratory labo(Figs.e. These fit the notebook. from the girlsof grammar To classes. made available catalogs material filingboxes of and be may of folio boxes or slides will often may index of a to prepare directions sheets. In a a " . practicehouse. of the corner newspaper through the use well class." method is extended real and definite working out of to a more of practice houses the problem by the use or practice apartments. cut lesson. indexed. on given mimeograph this sheet the student lesson.

in the the or Agricultural Colloge. Corvallis. department may act as a leader of the closelysupervised. varies for this practicalwork number of points allowed student a with different standards of training.but when properly supervised group. then to " is to way bring in a new dress. This is also of service to who has charge of the food and the budget.and Model work . guest schedule once a A etc.maid. the home gives time to perfectmethods reasonablyand. as established in some are housekeeping centers teaching better housekeeping standards. homemaking good week. launchange the working 'because this group. Oregon. is usually operated on a weekly basis. assistant " Practice teacher Oregon house. especiallyto the institution. mistress. an 173.324 HOUSEWIFERY branches of housekeeping and buyer. A senior student one Fio. a good standard of The gives sufficient basis for credits for this practice work. schedule too. cities. work but it should the be counted a basis of must as be equivalent to laboratory hours within the given credit accordingly.

may women in prove an or own The up done important wage-earning occu- . which who " which all necessities for certain come These community. particularly others. Corvallis. Work has difficulty the work for The homes. with of visitors. conducts Practice encouraged main all the and the item of the being students.. the information in apartment an Kk. in for cost in Oregon. are apartments are for is marked centers standard work been rate compensation step toward a center work definite to is in Homes. specialteacher a center. credit others' each Such of practice Living-room they live. 174. Some " the by the public also used periods a usually is good housekeeping with for the kind Oregon house.SUGGESTIONS FOR who live in foreign women furnished economically but often and homemaking. in the homes done some teachers by way Such of training of young to of apartment of charge of students being given for stated to find week an have work Agricultural College. children. who school the 325 TEACHERS to housewifery have their in hours of work. supervise and check when work.

their Irving City Lesson 2. I. c. regular high schools. where more a for course York methods. cleaning alkalies disinfectants of sink. economics of homes in such and schools lesson This Courses School should in disadvantage good housekeeper but a widely. Washington at New York of Discussion 1 previous . LESSON Housekeeping Lessons OUTLINES Given NO. pipe. is definite girls. and specialclasses. School. in taught. bathroom " Opening and and use tray. explained number points in Each girl Necessary Home " under High formation shown discussed Law work and Apartment a. Care of Practical closet of good and II care plumbing plumbing construction " work sink. New for work.both junior be either the half unit of Washington schools. I her cellar and the door leading to roof. given below are City. 4.a will This In " a detailed of lack be of any a two housekeeping high schools. training standardized good the to be may in rural second used in extension work. tub. first nine- a New School.or other or with and in course courses lessons eight technical Irving High practice apartment outline unit a outlines two in of lessons course perhaps a or in given that dent stu- may methods reason the from housewife the one having results Each Housewifery. size average " size and rent apartment examines Lesson 2.and department. 3. in settlements of is in the which home the other some : tional voca- housewifery course. of Use Use of of trap. basin and flush . Habits. Plumbing. Traps d. vary high The housekeeping teacher schools home. Practice value Rooms b. the available. construction " a. and other Tenements any and subjects related to the home. Open c.326 HOUSEWIFERY pations related take her will and have made schools be fact. fixtures. There others in slow progress. Care of o. the 1. Importance b.

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duster with with Hangings (2 ) Ornaments Carpet or rugs Methods and dustless as dampened and Cleaning 1. Whiting d. Advantages work oily cloths IX Lesson Care and Furnishing 1. Method of d. Of neat bed (1 ) Air bedding closet (2) Examine (3) Turn door bed mattress and room while in airing occasionally often the morning. room to keep it free from vermin Open . should be dust plain. Of room (1 ) Keep free from (2) Keep Keep well ventilated (3) b. Polishes b. Cleaning: a. a Furniture (1 ) 4. 3. lie to Reasons polishes. An iron bed is best Care a. Neutral c. Substances to be avoided. 3. if possible. Carpet undesirable All and hangings should covers be made of washable material Furniture (3) 2. of Cleaning of b. cleaning For cleaning room a broom cleaner vacuum Pictures (3) (4 ) (5) Cleaning. Care Daily Room a of the Room Sleeping Furnishing: a. if and and mop necessary VIII of Polishing and dustless use " the Lesson Furniture why why soap Polishing: a. All is (2) clean be furnishings should Floor covering. 2.328 HOUSEWIFERY Lesson VII Cleaning 1. Oil possible as for paper floor. Substances to be used. Water b. Difference between and room Preparation For a. Simple home-made c. Care of avoided. 2. (1) to easy floor Bare wash or with a is rug best.

Extension 329 TEACHERS FOR tool a to-day tool a tool of Analysis (a) need (b) quality. Rural Possible daily confronting the Lesson 1. for Appeal the what Housewifery Homemaker or building a " Classes. (c) cost (d) cost to suitability to purpose repair of NOTE. it conditions Surrounding (1 ) Scientific depends Considerations a. cleaning tool a. and as " Demonstration with tools. What b. How (1 ) choose Cleaning well as as connect II Process consider: we constitutes to parts relate should parts Lesson In House vicinity (b) (4) the home the Physical (a) b. the of housewife the home . The health rooms into the the (2) is it secured how (b) influence on (c) Sunlight Heating Lighting of Arrangement of the House Divisions (1 ) the law work part part pleasure part rest communications that between The 1.SUGGESTIONS LESSON For Schools. school the b. of: concept A An " Special Work Methods Present-day II NO. (a) (2) Homemaking. OUTLINES Settlement Other and Introduction the to Course Establish house A home " Results " family life makes study of the problems a " the " primarily one whom upon the Choosing in success choosing of Character of (b) The supply water in buildings Social of neigh borhood and to business Proximity itself house The or apartment Condition of building (1) Plumbing (2) Ventilation (3) Character what (a) (5) (6) (7) 2. failure or I Analysis Home. the The cleaning process. Analysis a.

1. Make solutions (1 ) (2) (3) solutions cleaning over be to used the Washing soda Oxalic acid solution Detergent The Correlate one be and principle taken analysis the all the remaining and processes remain the with lessons: divisions) therefore same. the IV and contents " stove Kinds a. essentials and b. viz. Working c. the such. of the The teacher f Emphasize cooker principles to and make these enlarge solutions upon as routing a of demonstration. last with " Correlate surfaces. As a. all text. working necessary Measure for kitchen To lesson: next extra bring b. walls. Lesson 1. 2. Talk b. of performed work cooking determining The (1 ) b.: dishes. housework from this . regard With routing of work heights. as up house the of III Kitchen the in applied room * work solution Soap Lesson and use class Javelle (4) (5) as women the in class principles even if be included these make to the the tion organizaof consists in it. room: X cabinet kitchen a Equipment Permanent The Show equipment.330 2. preparing Light (3) Practical finish and structure The Ventilation (2) 2. the analysis and will divisions processes application or home individual to home conditions. the in kitchen. Organization c. Analysis food. Care * cost in Construction a. f efficient to work: Problem away of of dishes ceiling Inefficiently arranged without Efficiently arranged a. correct height of working t Emphasize lesson. Care The list of. HOUSEWIFERY The Material Cleaning a. or have in mind. (1 ) Coal (2) Gas (3) Fireless b. putting the in washing food. thq floor.

care work is scheme Note. . iron on etc. Essentials b. How of construction of construction A' Equipment (continued) made b. Care Principles The Permanent Utensil waste. Practical washing. combined work. or work: Cleaning refrigerator. disposal of care with of teaching-. Principles a. The window b. 331 sink (1 ) 1. 2. making Practical danger work. a. Lesson The 2. refrigerator a. cupboard for dining Organization of dishes Equipment c. Care Practical of cheaper dishes room devices make-shifts. 3. Kinds of construction Porcelain (2) Enamel (3) Iron. Principles b. Heat d. removpractical starch. or Kitchen. Analysis of a. stain-removing materials: and in lesson cleaning of laundry. laundering. and " * Emphasize correct height of working surfaces. FOR a. kitchen Lesson The The b. let ing along bleaching. As only a small part in the whole laundry line lie of work the the of the course. walls. stains. diah box Discussion 1. Table b. sizing emphain using necessity for care. TEACHERS making starch combined with Stain teaching: removing. constructing of the refrigerator. and ceiling * equipment Tubs c. Use c. Light c. Care c. Ventilation The a. sink. Ironing board for Equipment d. sponging and pressing. its use in as a window box VI Laundry determining structure and finish of floor. cleaning. according to the season year.SUGGESTIONS The 3.

use determining as essentials in structure and characteristics of finish of floor. The determining as in and structure finish of and Furnishings bed Parts Bedstead Spring (c) Mattress (d) (e) Covering Pillows made (2) How (3) Cleaning laws and importance taste of good sanitation of are " " homey the same quality for in living elaborate interiors. Dining VII. to offer some solution for the heatless bedroom. Organization Practical work. teach window dust. The (2) ceiling Light cleaning. Vermin. floors. ma- of necessity Rug should " of Lesson The 1. closet of. dusting. t Try floor. walls. scrub- of etc. The Bathroom. This Note. VI methods correct Bedroom. The Room. and ceiling. it be a real closet or space in the corner b. in handling terials. walls Heatt Emphasize the use essentials Ventilation (a) (b) that its The (1 ) * of (1 ) (3) (4) (5) b. whether Need ornaments * Room Living furnishings Curtains (c) (d) 2. and Show room. Bedroom. and ceiling Light (2') (3) Heat Ventilation (4) The (5) essential The Floor In connection 3. for care. for simple . the dining room. and Equipment c.332 HOUSEWIFERY Lesson The 1. 1 1. bing. practical lesson sweeping. disposal and the Cleaning living room furniture. emphasizing combined teaching: with renewal renovation and danger cleaning. walls. Analysis a. Room Dining Analysis a. The cleaning coverings Pictures and with living and dining discuss rooms. the Furniture (a) (b) a. The of its The (1) Living Room.

. or to justify the various cleaning processes on this Reviews. for bathing. for be in terms of principles. but regular class meetings practical knowledge and skill connection serve to test with in her in order a meet any emergency real economizer in to for the nation. and wise economizer become a capable manager may should be given not only at reviews Such materials.SUGGESTIONS 2. Lesson and health. and concern basis . to particularlyimportant so that the person trained in housewifery of time. and money. b. 4. survey. 333 TEACHERS Vermin Habits a. practicalnature. It is " of a furnace. but hygiene. b. and important by constant reviewing to get a broad and to bring together general explanations and procedures. walls and good drainage of and importance cleanliness extreme only not vital their laundry for unsafe of if omit VII bathtub using laundry tubs sanitation teach VI. tireless cooker. use tell to Water (1 ) the its essentials (1 ) b. whether The bathroom. Kinds c. The review example. with connection work. and the and wife house- also help . linen closet Need of. Plumbing How (1 ) or aside set space a for it " importance from floor. to give that ready to as knowledge. etc. safe (2 ) lesson closet real a Filtration (a) Note. to explain may of in the applications of bacteriology securing sanitary standards housekeeping. a POR use for used are and batbing. is the end of a course. in terms may This the technique of the household. have this VIII. Prevention d. This it be Organization Equipment c. Eradication The 3. lal"or. explain the management also be of a Reviews of the physicalprinciplesof heat. If VII this as convince group is to and divide VI. Analysis of The (2) ceiling Light (3) Heat (4) Ventilation Equipment c. brief exercises interest enliven which her as make domain. a. lessons two of supply should into bad finish and structure Emphasize of in course in of lesson class determining as Sewage (a) Principles (b) Traps. a.

hence light.and oiled saves Cleaning and Care : " Put dust sheets over furniture when matching. saves work. " house Study your Plumbing : Keep small which plan may " strainer in sink block the drain. Place hence Saving Appliances: in cleaningvegetables saves scrubbingtable. " to line paper distasteful. makes garbage can cleaning easy and less table on paper and saves " less mone}\ Equipment and Use heat saves " do washing machine table. Heating and Lighting: " " Put covers Give to care mantles Put saucepans on dampers of stove on lights give " Use Labor power the Raise fuel.sink. and makes saves and money soap. or food. .work. Avorker's the saves " they back. Use electric or irun gas saves " time and work for the ironer. practicalpoints under Houseiviferyas a Business: Have a plan for housework each dozen Make a typical" listed below are be used reader a as How practice? or check on omies econ- sonal percould many the list to extend a heading. fuel. and work cracking.aired. other work " washtub while it works. will not streak on clothing." short and : how practices I adopt the Let ? project. hence " time saves it from sweeping " money. suggest improvements. and budget of expenditures helps to save income.there list may a of these do I Such many student. Furnishings: Choose small figures " saves material in Money spent in fast colors good economy of making new. ironing board. or steps. may will catch " small particlesof food bills. time saves " keeps order. time.where stove. water saves Keep washers on faucets saves Pipe running water wherever used steps.334 HOUSEWIFERY As review sample a cuts. Supplies: Save scraps of soap clarifyfat Save and Use blue that for wash use " it cooks " dissolves " boiler machine. Keep leather cool.save more table. near " a and stove cost " and utensils pans to be used saves are Get fire.housewife.

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Then The be devoted consideration the students . important and dignifiedplace in the collegecurriculum. visits to stores and and participation in a practicalfield like this is in developing the subject matter interested to apply the subject directlyeffective in making them matter Following such brief reports.washing vacuum household supplies. employee. on practicein homes visited tions. polishes. demay and upkeep. of the household tectural as Also. Social studies may be made. household equipment.the removal be tested by the methods of bacteriology. household observations other literature. archia worker. the students the instructor presents the topicfor the period on which reference material . presented by the instructor.the washing and drying of dishes. discussion follows to clear have alreadyexamined work begins. the cleaningof metals. These suggestions are given to of housewifery reallyinindicate the fact that the subject matter volves that it merits an the problems that lie in a dozen so sciences. may cloths. of the home may students on assigned topics. The instruction be made interestingby relatingit very closelyto the real life may The class hour well begin and the community. Sanitary problems such as the care of dish a of dust.such student items college teaching while different their the in tests of taken underscience. well The class period in housewifery for collegeinstruction may and be a three-hour period. for example.may be in terms equipment machine. up points in theory before the practical terms of Half to to two-thirds practicework. will be appropriate.336 HOUSEWIFERY Laboratory arranged to illustrate because chosen exercises of which study with household various by Concrete the relation students of and to the as out well For such of chemical as the be examined dish and be scientific example. or the housewife studies of house plans. suggestions from manufacturers' Student institutions. washer.or a separate lecture period may with a two-hour laboratoryperiod at another time. of the class " for of the three-hour periodmay then generaltopicis assignedfor the example. are carried household cleaner.such as reports from by five-minute magazines and housewifery articles in the current newspapers. may may fields of various metal primarily processes familiar. tested in physical principlesas well as used practicallyto acquire desirable technique. particularly of the service portion of the house. providing time both for instruction be provided laboratory practice. Studies in economic be made of the work nature preciati problem. demonstraduring the vacation .

for a assigned. silver. new a the possibilities field that we seem are just entering.and is in itself a pieceof well as and supplies. and are vocational equally home- . $2 seems for a half-yearcourse. moving picturesbegin to play an important part. and by by the teacher.tools. b. housewifery will probably be closely related to the household as courses explained below. housewiferywill find that it is possibleto rent reels on different subof equipment and methods vices. deshowing both the mechanical This is and the efficiencyaspects of housekeeping. With this type of work. to illustrate height of working surfaces drawings as those shown and posture during work be easilydrawn by the teacher (Fig. and At materials specialtopic. brass. The part-time service of a maid is necessary for such a laboratory. c. be done with the collegestudent or with the housekeeper. the emphasis now With methods 22 in been and in on made of cooking which the to demonstration adult demonstrations teaching of lecture audiences.which clean is up the room valuable keeping house- a lesson. A sufficient laboratoryfee may well be . The students problem in hand and make test notes is organized with a student leader who is and results. a.much may lectures in which carries through a process. caring begins. e. by the lecturer in extension " " educational demonstrators employed in the departments of terested manufacturing companies. for which " without limit. /).gettingmaterials out for laboratory before the class hour use cleaning. one by demonstration Such shows or a tool or piece of equipment and illustrates its use. work other as their requiringpart of charged for the work a adequate organizationand worker's time.SUGGESTIONS FOR organized into working groups example. should have a wealth provisionof care of illustrative material materials. management who is working Demonstration For the teacher Teaching.and this is in itself a training progress the close of the put away to each is tools for the group 337 TEACHERS hour and the students supplies. may be given in the school 175.or nickel and are various on reagents and Each results. In the collegecurriculum. Much has teaching foods housewifery is a subject applicable. including gas and electric companies inin introducing their products. etc. responsiblefor of value. with duties of caring for materials.emergency The instruction to be successful for bulletin boards. Demonstrations may work. and the teacher of jects. d.

No Fio. sink. height good : is lower to allow for pressure anywhere. ironing position at washtub." b. table table height good. correct . low. c. incorrect position at washtub.338 HOUSEWIFERY strain back. too o. /. board d. c. Note worker's 175. with iron. position good.

and to such in what other practice work household teachers management.) " " Housewifery and Household Management. silver polishing. unit of four to eight lessons on (SeelLesson Outlines.cleaninga room. The home farm thus " or items of good housekeeping or good have and been used in agriculture of " demonstrates farming section.so that the teaching is real and there is opportunity for home-like gatherings.. Classes otherwise for wage-earning young not are house will be popular in the evening. a large problem will be the teaching of making in many actual housekeepers. I and II. Special Classes sible to organize special classes in housewifery for housekeepers. who may come used. higher instipresents the theory of organizing and administering the keeping household. especiallyif a model women or an apartment is available. Some be used as separate lessons in the foods course. many Teachers will find it posin Housewifery. following The Housewifery Topics in a Cooking Course. others may be readily brought into housewifery topics among many a cookery course: dish-washing. process of woods.and more consideration will be given to demonstration rural In kitchen in one teaching. Teachers of cookery will find it helpful to consider the topicspresented in this book from the point of view of adapting parts of them The to their courses. and kitchen of these topics care equipment. or the technique of houseof housewifery. and for household when tories laboraat hours employees.may equipped with running water or with new be used as a "demonstration" " Concrete rural for demonstrations working extension teaching both the " of home in that housewives of this kind economics in many states. 329.a small definite practicaltopicsis desirable. or they may may be brought in incidentally in a cooking lesson. pages 326. book also be assigned their students reference as reading on may problems related to food preparation. many management. in high schools " Instruction in tutions. care of refrigerator. economy of fuel.are evidently which forms the subjectmatter Accordingly.care removal. In such classes. laundry equipment. a private home when devices. closely related to household in household already provide laboratory and courses management is really housewifery. communities. etc. some to the crete con- neighbors.SUGGESTIONS FOR 339 TEACHERS states. metals. The problems of housework. of sink. care (towels). this book Advanced may Study whether prove of useful a as Housewifery. " or in text. The problems of house- . laundering stain of range.

laboratory of its own The teacher of Housewifery. rather as represent teach prepared under varying She adopt. a good economically impossible for certain students. personally. is to set is as practicable. ideals. soft. merits institutions.and bacteriology should. research advanced " " to understand order background the of the subject. etc. the The teacher had the her to actual many student that must ' for not be she teacher able only to know teacher the know help facts ' reduce from greatest experience possible. cloth that is non-scratching. money. rather homes. meeting responsibilities they time. and bacteriology. that is policy to over-train by presenting a' standard For example. must one because be must present standards to of the students standards.the housewifery work an for advanced students. of housework means same. than types of purchased dusters own For training school. do the actual work of a household for a period it should to teach of the tasks.that meet an conditions. But. example.340 HOUSEWIFERY wifery worthy are the institutions advanced of will do well instructor research. so family expenditures. be taught. Teacher of this subject The be trained in chemistry. the study of the mechanism such In of machines. physics. but homes. It is but poor it is better might used a for be of service as a students the in the duster. So only can in their and minds and own successfullyadjust theory practice in to do the help students teacher The so types many of able be must which and every hold to she carried as it. The problems can often be guided cooperatively. but should experience which herself and her have helps work to . of several months. Those preparing more. the housewifery teacher checking up the practical aspects of a problem such for example as dish-washing methods. if possible. but must out and the at them carry students to must not time same than She practices only present her ideal readjust the standards far forward as and ways conditions. materials. and the scientific department conducting as its part.. equipment. and duster is any non-linting. and and study to in for such secure higher the studies cooperation of such scientific departments as chemistry. bocks. even she needs to be an experienced housekeeper. physics. emergency and to renovation readjust that clothing is present suggests because must points regarding will if worn-out even which The suggest types of material to and one two or in her used teach must to be economy.

301 for night. 136 soap. 281 291 as in Box silks. Ants. to prepare kitchen. as 55 Bedsteads. 278 136 as carpeting. Agate 186 clean. starch as filing springs. 269 129 189 disinfecting. 29 136 soap. ( andle. as a blankets. Bluing. Alternating of Binding 261 system. 300 fuel. cases. 250 of. 254 to clean. 135 Advanced study cleaning. disinfectant. Bath tubs. disin- a 196 and starch. 249. Buying. Bread 110 186 cost. Beds. 261 utensils. 193 sizes of. Bleaching to in mercury 193. 97 299 Boxes chutes. to clean. Brooms. heat and outfit. 141 clothes. 250 141 295 cake 119. 251 bed 92 Cake containers. as 254 cotton wools current. 238 general rules. silver. 61. Brussels carpet. ware. 262 221 259 160 26 pumps. linens. hampers. 188 as closets. 193 Carbolic to make. 98 Calcimine walls. 57 lights. clean. 188 295 261 mixer. to Air housewifery. 94 135 Ammonia. 245 80 light. Business desk. 257 for pests. 250 care cleaning of. 161 278 clothes. a mountings. as Brass. Burners. 196 312 Canned Canning Canning spreads. 136 soap.INDEX Acetylene danger a fuel. closets. 304 for the sick. 58. 298 for fectant. for Alkalies in cleaning Bleach 250 for pan 59 Antiseptics. equipment. 280 140 a Bran 308 pests. Boiling 313 Arsenic Ash and wood. 135 and bugs. to 119. 308 341 . 189. Axminster 74 Basement Baskets Bath storage. 55 128 and preserving acid solution. disinfectant. 193 217 springs. 140 147 soap. 74 of stoves. Brushes. to clean. 55 as 308 131. Blended electric Aluminum of Blankets. sheets. Bichloride 301 tank pressure Alcohol as 339 250 130 96 clean. starch Britannia 312 box a a 299 substitute. 50 to clean. Borax. to Beeswax. 205 Bathroom. frame. 98 clean. 81 Acids. mixers. 226 lacquered. paraffin. Benzine. from. in utensils. 257 Bed disinfectant. 189 removing pests. 237 substitute. and Bucket springs. relative costs Cabinet. brick. of. germicide.

stairs. 54 Chart. 111 278 Clothes. 193. 53 storage. Carpeting. gas. 280 in soap. 265 period. 62 electric. 216 store. Clinkers. as Cresol. Colored goods. Clothing storage closet. 54 Coke. 217 125 equipment. Chain 37 to clean. 196 Commercial storage. Chamois. 4 storage. 234 to Cesspools. 201 to wash. 140 Cornstarch. 125 Chenille. 217 Containers. 227 Clothes chute. 260 rugs. stoves. for Cotton remove. 198 for service six. 314 122 Carpet sweepers. brooms Card catalogues. 273 metals. kitchen. and preserving 336 and rugs. a Creoline. to wash. Carpet beetle. College course Color 140 tints. 137 Coloring matter to 259 Combs. 130 tools. value Comparative Conservation 26 Class Cook and polishers. 216 garbage.342 INDEX Carbon filaments in electric lights. 54 in housewifery. medicine. 221 222 241 shoes. bucket 288 pumps. of room. of to knives. 118 refrigerator. clothes. 269 Cork and of renovation. tools. 302 . 254 Counterpanes. 217 61 coal. Comfortables. 267 Cleaning 162 tin. Closing 273 furnishings. 63 261 clean. 297 205 317 and Cereals food containers. 282 to make. clean. 250 floor covering. 191 280 bleach. and cleaners. carpet. of care soiled rooms. Cleaning cloths. washing. 257 fabrics. 206 Coal-bin. runways kerosene. to 63 62 to Corduroy. 257 Care 161 hemp and ingrain. 218 glass. 209 288 chenille. heat. 204 228 161 rugs. 16 Cheesecloth. food. 307 283 98 162 mattresses. 74 earthern. 206 dust. 118 stores. 160 and Carpets iron Cast 160 158 utensils. 147 to 209 linen. brussels. Closets 82 for 226 bathroom. 110 clothes. 93 clean. 208 preserves. 161 China. 211. 302 Cotton. as a disinfectant. of furniture. 223 pantry. 216 ventilation Cellar. to clean. Cost of 132 241 74 of pests. grass. 227 laundry. 217 Cleaners of to 335 of Charcoal. 230 Coal. clean. 206 shoes. 207 Clothes-pin bag. for service. bathroom canning. 240 Copper. clean. 237 of beds. 246 porcelain. Centipedes. 267 rooms. Covering of heating pipes. 76 disinfectant. of. refrigerator. 261 for dug-outs to Caves or food.

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Filing boxes. gas. 153 cloths. 216 faucets. household. 170 eleaners. 65 68 coverings. 132 to glue. to meters. 78 gas 218 148 191 mattress. 58. 192 Half-teaspoon measure. 131 engine. arabic. 155 of woods. effect of. 59 lights. 74 water heater. 66 one-pipe. 8 starch Gum substitute. hot-water. 246 finished. traps. 125 coverings. 294 wooden. 172 rugs. 271 Fireless cooker. plumbing. as exterminator. 259 curtains. 43 to clean. 28 Fixtures. formula. 4 clothes. 62 danger from. 309 Floor. 92 utensils. 72 Gravity water system. 53 308 Fumes.85 General Formalin. 41 Galvanized sinks. incinerator. as 141 Hair light. to clean. 309 Formula. 303. construction. mattress. 237 Gas. to clean. 37 Grouping tools. 172 polishes. 80 Gold and silver lace. Furnishings. Filters. 297. 40 Flat. 171 clothes. 220 utilization. pilot lights. 298. pillows. hot-air. for General 26 pumps. 258 Food containers. 61 cook stove. 110 Hampers. 298 Glass table tops. 278 of utensils. to exterminate. Fur 41 304 sulphur. 314 Flies. 131 as fuel. 117 Flax-jute. 42 kinds. 69.work ironers. 132 rules Glassware. 283 Goose-neck faucets. 241 laundering. to mend.344 INDEX Faucets. 41 material. 301. 309 Fumigants. 70 Gasoline. 227 Hanging plaster Hard Hard bathroom 98 water. 81 stove. pillow. 41 leaky. 216 pits 31 57 burners. 85 85 for cleaning room. 221 192 waste. 308 for gas. formaldehyde. formalin. 40 191 Feathers. to exterminate. steam. 58 tops. 98' caves. 94 309 Furnaces. 76. equipment. 97 General standard Germicides. goose-neck. to clean. Halls. foot pressure. 84 utility and efficiency. formaldehyde Fuels. storage. 47 Garbage containers. 304 303 extermination Furniture. 211 or Foot-pressure Force Formaldehyde 303 303 of 287 308 173 202 Globes. pests. 152 . 162 Fleas. to remove. 41 Grate fires. or 22 cement walls. 44 washtubs. 57 read. 67 84 selecting. 153 kinds 35 Flush closet. 65. 27 Grease 274 stains. as cleaner. 55 danger from. Handles for Handles for fixtures. labor-saving.

76 Inverted lights. to Iron exterminate. to fires. water. acid Hydrocyanic gas. 236 of fuels. clean. Kinds 52 53 irons. for pests. prevent. as 275 remove. sys- 29 surfaces. 280 water. 339 courses. Installation 65 and 220 Ingrain to use Inflammables. 116 care of. Kerosene. to remove. 52 by stoves. 144 rests. Height of sinks washtubs. 87 323 classroom. 279 Ironing boards. as a fuel. 153 cabinet. Housewifery Javelle 31 waste. 204 Importance Teeless 59 Key 32 for 131 80 to 4-8 waste. 113 146 measures. of storage problems. 276 304 158 storage. 80 cooking ware. 161 103 pads. 300 Hydrogen 250 heater. Hydrochloric acid. House. Humidity 28 Hydraulic ram. 22 Hard wood. Hot-air furnace. 65 grate and Heating lighting. 235 care of. 80 Iron and steel. 307 pottery. 115 alcohol. to clean. for sleeves. temporarily. 116 144 supplies. 148 labels. 275 Ink. water as 1 laboratory. Inorganic waste. 23 permanently. closets. 262 storage. 18 160 and Instantaneous carpeting. and 319 Human 116 235 238 10-12 courses. 172 Home laundry equipment. 116 Ironing. Housekeeper's House plans.INDEX Hard water. grass furniture. holders. 115 covers. special classes. for Insulation. 312 management 339 business. to make. 92 198 70 308 tem. to 261. Hemp and heaters. 204 22 wood. 345 70 . 84 Iron pests. Hour service. 65-67 Hot-water lighting. 236 linen. kerosene. 135 stains. furnishing. 116 gas. peroxide. 153 clean. 209 Kitchen 214 refrigerators. the clean. used to a lamps. tags. 116 rugs. water 262 Irons. 54 cook stove. 141 246 61 Heating. Incinerators. 31 Insoluble bluing. 116 rust. a 116 31 waste. 19 chart. heater. hot-water and heating. 198 129 desk. water to Household paper of care Iron 66 close. 176 pests. 232 to Houseflies. in Indirect 47 working Helps carpets. 63 danger from. 112 309 equipment. 235 68 heating system. to supplies. 307 307 gasoline. suggestions Housewife's 54 cleaner. 339 topics in cooking architect. 261 electric.

319 Labor-saving appliances. linen. 218 Marking Matting. Measures.60 gas. 176 closets. 94. to remove. Laundering. 333 172 83 cleaning. 302 aluminum. to wash. 208 Laundry. 297 storage. suggestive list. mesh for Metals 300 table Meter for for supplies. classroom. Lacquer. 157 Linseed oil. 82 Lamps. 98 stain. 321 319 stove 326 103. purity of. 286 to lay. 300 Linen. 288 Leather. 265 wire. 118 storage. 58 Lime. 130 Liquid glass. 96 tin. to Metal 274 and 223 closet. 190 79 on. embroidery. buy. suggested tables. closets. 250 general directions. 97 264. to pads. 84 295 to renovate. 70 grate. 93 of tests for to 94 of. 185 towels. kerosene. table cloth. 81 189 192. 97 clean. 118 286 247 sweep.346 INDEX Kitchen equipment. 209 supplies. 57 225 . 186 64 unit. household. care furniture. 92 wood. utensils. slacked. 322 Long-handled dustpan. 70 to Mattresses. and 283 133 98 pot washer. 96. 97 wooden. 251 Loans from firms. Materials covers. 121 Lysol. Lighting. 92 glass. Marble. equipment. hints to Meat presto. agate. equipment. 183 utensils. 92. 173 Lemon oil. furniture. 70 Making exercises. 251 tufting. 131 Lesson and clean. 299 chlorinated. 207 work 176 117 Mangle. 82 gas. 179 265 glass. 185 handkerchiefs. 177 Machine or 2 workshop. 278 2 outlines. list. for egg storage. equipment Medicine lace Metal polishes. table 97 94 and crockery enamel of table 157 Linoleum. 251 145 grinders. quicklime. Laboratory. to sizes 299 260 tops. 80 Lights. 250 linen. clean. enamel. 92 electricity. 186 sheets. Knives. 80 to clean. 247. 186 napkins. 103 Lime. pilot. furnace. 97 steel. 236 Labels. 41 of. Metal 81 kerosene.190 to clean. 80 electric. linen. work. 300 water. Lower sheet for bed. for Medical acetylene and candles. 105 stoves. 90 sanitation. Light 326. 96 standards wash. to clean. electric. 222 essentials 92 towels. 132 fire. 186 186 pillow case. 184 oil. 251 fillings. Leaky faucets. 192.

Porcelain. as Order writing. 152 walls. 125 155 One-pipe heater. bath tub. 149 wrapping. 144 tissue. 315 128 324 124 310 140 storage. painting. 144 towelling. knife. 131 Naphtha. and Pewter britannia. 317 fleas. Plaster casts. 312 carpet beetle. 296 to Painting Paint 246 on Palette Pantry. 314 centipedes. 250 to for Personal clean. 125 Mosquitoes. 234 Piston machine. ants. small. 145 wall. metals. 249 Miscellaneous Model equipment. Plaster of to 152 walls. 58 21 Plumbing. Pottery. sinks. clean. 238 Potassium 47 permanganate. 262 Piano keys. 130 starch. 135 for store. to use. 209 glass. to clean. Oil stove list 142 of. used washing dishes. 67 plumbing. unit. 315 roaches. 63. to clean. 86 clean. squirrels and 307 to exterminate. 6. to 25 pumps. oil. 244 wood. 266 carpets. 311 Moths. 30 31 Oscillating washing Other Pile Pillows. 261 Notions. 314 flies. 145. 161 rugs. 257. of 80 130 wax. of Organization metal 298 to clean. fixtures. Painting. calcimine Placing equipment. to Milk separators. 125 wringer. 235 to 145 candles. 98 paraffin. oil. 250 Pictures. open Pads 282 lights. 244 floors. 309 mosquitoes. 296 to burners. 235 vermin. 232 179 Napkins. teaching 276 housewifery. to exterminate. rats. 192 Pilot stains. 2 250 to paris. 15 109 fuels. exterminate to 295 40 plumbing. cleanliness. 126 housekeeping centers. Pests. 54 Outline for Oxalic acid. cleaning. 311 and rats mice. Paraffin duster. furniture. 175 Mohair Mops. for furnishing. 132 Polishes. 316 315 chipmunks. 44 to clean. 133 Pipeless heater. suggestive Nickel Oilcloth for Oil dust mop. Oiled Oil wood. 127 Motors. to clean. 160 to clean. as 131 cleaner. 262 tubs. 313 bed bug. Open Paper dish cloths. Mirrors.347 INDEX Method of Methods removing for stains. 275 for and Paint 192 mattresses. 310 moths. 198 Powders for pests. household. to exterminate. 67 Pipes. 318 Mice and exterminate. 133 155 wood. feathers. Pastes stove.r" 30S . for work Oriental 241 cleaning. Mourning Music cabinets. 144 toilet. 296 46 Organic waste. 312 silverfish. 98 work Poisons remove. the close 307 46 house. to thaw. a 188 National springs. 293 to Painted clean. cleaning. to clean. 308 27.

wax. house 297 297 kitchen. weave Rules unit 158 clean. 278 Rinsing Roaches. . drapery Reviews 26 electric. value extermination mice. 277 water rings. Rural Russia 304 284 290 paint remover. 234 types of. of. 261 acid. Ram. 160. storage. 277. 297 298 bedroom. 280 filler for woods. 300 whitewash. 305 store. 297 laundry. Radiators. metal 134 clean. 206 suction 264 household in measures sanitation. cleaning of. buying supplies. prepared 132. 295 295 176 28 28 windmill. detergent. Preparation Presto lights. 295 woods. to exterminate. 297 laundrv. 297 in general. 280 for housewife 297 without help. Recipe. for Sanitation polish. 315 Recreation carpets. 298 house kitchen. 214 dishes. 3 housewiferv. cellar. to store. 81 of. to 23 and soap. Rag rugs. 291 formaldehyde gas. 297 about house. stone. 215 iceless. 14 333 Score 326. 129 29S cellar. in washer. 196 Quilts. 140 clothes. 136 washer. 274 javelle. 247. 241 Rooms. 33' by Pumping electric Rest 28 25 Rotten Rain and 28 of. furniture 333 133 cloths Rouge 162 water. paintings. 275 Refrigeration. lacquered of of 28 power. 204 iron. 28 28 hydraulic ram. 13. 297 grounds. Rubber clean. 15 with help. of unit Rice 26 piston. 132 polish. Pressure and Practice Refrigerator. 16. oil Repp gasoline engines. 17 246 School house. for goods. in starch. 269 of of pumps. chain. homes. 279 wood cleaner. 299 Quicklime. 193 Rugs to house. 108 Rotary Qualitv of blankets. Removing stains. 235 to 248 312 silver. force. 93 of bedroom. to hydraulic. 25 Pumps. 269 care cleaning. of. 298 Raving colors. 289 for and iipholstery. 162 home Schedule starch. 214 of. Privies. 152 295 137 of 211 162 of. bucket.348 INDEX Preserve closet. 305 fumigating lighting of. paste for wallpaper. 325 for dishwashing. Preventive 108 323 work. 296 plaster casts. 3 housewifery. 277 of brass Renovation mountings. courses in cards. 212 temperature 72 Regulating dampers. 26 ware. 79 Rosin. 158 Rats oxalic 235. arrangement of. 214 construction. grounds in general.

38 Service chart. Sewing supplies. 65 Steam 113 clothes. 155 clean.349 INDEX cleaners. 278 Space for furniture. 339 Special storage closets. Sorting clothes. 137 substitute. drains. heating. space Slate pests. 187 Staining woods. 134 powders. 232 Silverfish. 47 savings. drain 277 beds. 44 for. 204 closets. 140 recipe for. Soft 22 Spotting precautions. 23 315 storage. 104 strainer. solution. 139 heights of. 279 140 substitutes. 277 to 196 faucets. Silks. mourning. use. blended. 139 pests. 140 clothes. 98 to clean. 74 45 slop. 138 Soap 138 68 96 clean. 234 84 Selecting equipment. 232 floors. 141 dextrine. cleaning outfit. furnaces. 227 Shellacked storage. plumbing open size and Stains. 231 for bed. 281 of. 193 Sheets. cleaning of. 134 Silverware. 288 Shoes. bark. Soaking 291 stoves. 17 Setting colors. 278 chipmunks. to bleach. 47. tools boards. water. 134 pastes. 43 water. 137. 139 Soda. 37 Sewage 126 Sewing machine. a to 127 motor. 44 boards. 112 Standardization. and Scourers for Screen 228 Squirrels 263 134. eggs. 133 Storage. 316 Simmering Sink. 262. 9 Standardizing. 278 disinfectant. 274 precautions. 70 Stationary tubs. chips. 141 arabic. cloths. 142 storage of. 227 of cellar. Septic tank. 134 138. 46 Special classes in housewifery. 266 Slacked lime. 233 Silver. 41 46 44 46 sinks. storage Sprinkling clothes. Small electric Soap. 70 grates. 262 of. 299 139 138 silver. 6 Space-saving sinks. 289 wool. Steel. 262 soaps. 140 kinds. 278 Starching Starting fires. Softening Springs for Sprinklers. making for powders. 277 disposal. 234 231 . 141 gum tints for. 16. to cleaning pans. 221 articles for of carpets and of clothing. bran. 9 138 140 prepared. 205 commercial. of. 136 as 274 and tasks. as Starch. 309 cleaning of. 188 and athletic Sport goods. 300 Sleeve remove. 221 Spiral springs. burners. 299 solution. outfit. 235 storage of. borax. 218 personal 204 rugs. care 133 cleaners. 140 45 of. 87 materials.

204 22 wood. 207 linen. for ventilation. 207 vegetables. 250 129 261 261 241 furnishings. shoes. 68 burner. steel. for Tapestries. silver. 145 shelves. 257 280 . system. 231 206 preserves. iron and motors. 64 clean. of of household of 118 household of of laundry. linen. rubber 235 228 materials. Strychnine Subsoil 65 289 Tanks. 303. 225 sewing. of Teacher 185 173 clean. 227 trunks. 223 medicine. 294 kinds. 184 Suggestive labels. Supplies. 143 paper. aluminum. silver a 97 Tinware. bathroom of leaves for Tile walls. 242 sizes. 90 disinfectants. to enamel top. 73 cleaning. 92 198 Tableware. 334 lists Tea 318 52. 156 226 of puritv Test ment. 177 tops. 235 Sulphur fumes. a and wools. cottons bleach and silks 104 equipment supplies. 232 Sweeping. electricity.350 INDEX electric Storage. gas. Tapes 39 Suggestions for buying china. of Tincture 305 of 242 linen. 225 144 paper. for buying linen. bathroom bed. sewing Stove 103 medicine. linen. 222 230 sport or athletic tools. disinfectant. 92 61 heating of. 302 and weights to 63 by. 206 wrapping paper. glass. 104 To 90 262. Table 58 height 62 of 62 63 laundrv. goods. 201 cleaning. 289 Tissue kitchen. Sweepers. 207 Swinging boiler. room. 179 234 cook. equip- 286 housewifery. for teachers. to china. 200 236 29 water. of. 129 235 laundry. choose. 103. for review. music. linens. 294 Table. 92 wooden kerosene. of 92 top. 308 pests. 289 Stoves. personal articles. 280 as a disinfectant. 223 232 cleaning. 309 Sunlight as a bleach. 299 Supervision of water supply. 118 90 laundry. coal. 184 of medical clean. of of as 301 disinfectants. goods. buying of. kitchen. 176 152 clean. 221. and To buy. rural. 143 writing desk. glass top. drainage. essentials Table 238 care of. 201 of 340 floors. for cleaning. 201 145 144 paper. to supplies. to 29 pressure. 281 general rules. marking. of of 245 iodine. dustless. air and Tags Tank for 145 measures. To clean 291 agate. 232 sewing.

.

52 suggestion for. 29 36 household 31 water. 99 egg Wheel table. on of. put on. 232 Wash 234 carpets. 110 Wax. 293 waxed and installation kinds 131 Turpentine. 32 human. 47 Tufted carpets. Wicker 244 300 134. 47. furniture. 265 dishes. to clean. 295 291. to clean. 149 Wallpaper. 309 To Tray. Upholstered 299 25 pumps. bins. off. 69 heating by kerosene. 265 machines. 79 organic. 101 enamel White paint. recipe for. 104 height of. shut Upper sheet. oiled to devices. 264 228 silver. a water. 183 To wipe walls. 132 polished furniture. 36 145 302 Tricresol. 289. 44 Water. 107. value 122 wood. 222 medicine. 173 materials to 29 care. 265 soda. Waxed. 71 varnish. 234 277 30 24 storage. 173 for. cleaners. 50 wash. 152 basins. 93. 243 coverings. to clean. 289 of. tools. 104 china. inorganic. 135 furniture. 282 Ventilation. 97 to Vacuum bottles. for pests. sweepers. 294 145 294 246 132 155 . store. 47 material of. 110 Washing and carpets. 150 finish personal articles. to remove. 207 window To thaw To use a screens. 104 boards. floors. 243 36.352 To INDEX store 218 eggs. Utensils. Wallpaper. 206 Vegetable Velvets. 22 stopcock. 52 Tungsten Trunk Tubs. traps. 51 benches. 265 Washing clothes. 227 trunks. 172 to clean. 231 rugs kinds. 292 wax Towels. 223 and of. grease. 24 Wells. care 254 122 washing 22 supply. wood. 179. 179 size of. 264 glass. 110 dish towels. Whiting. 37 Traps. soda as a Washing disinfectant. 138 243 windows. Walls. Wash tubs. 235 pipes. storage. shoes. Various Varnished of Waste. Wheel beater. 293 59 Whitewash. 286 rugs silver. 292 kitchen utensils. 30 stains. 30 water filler. and Weights measures. 149 for 31 31 or varnished clean. 53 Voltage. 142 To wood. 291 filter. comparative materials. 264 knives. tanks. linen. 207 bath. to clean. 243. 183 kinds. 278 devices. 161 lamps. heating by gas.

refinish. to 276 1 paper to stains. to bleach. 53 to to use to varnish 292 stain. as to 287 and 290 remove to 97 ware. screens. bins. 171 ventilators. to 206 and care shellac. Window food Windows. spots and 293 varnished. 294 92.INDEX Wilton 161 carpets. 248 house. wash Work 291 on. to polish. bruises Zinc. shades. table 291 293 292 155. Wrought and string. for 155. 289 261 238 . to to 100 of Work paint. alcohol dents 292 from. clean. clean. 172 tops. iron. removing Wringers. 291 155. to Window the 171. 291 filler a sinks. Wood to 234 paint remove from. spoons. storage close to 353 clean. 293 47 tubs. 97 Wrapping 293 remove from. 99. 125 235 to clean. Wire Wood. to remove 293 unit. 262. and 293 106 mops. from. 293 oil. box. renewal. spots furniture. Wire drainer. 292 from. to 100 scratches water remove Wooden fuel. dish to 216 235 171. to to wax. 298 clean water clean painted from. 44 ware.