47 views

Original Title: A Fracture Mechanics Approach for Analyzing Spiral Weld Pipes Containing Cracks

Uploaded by aladinsane

- UNIT-1-ME331
- 2.ED Syllabi 295-312
- Sintap Procedure Version 1a
- Quick Guide to API 510 Certified Pressure Vessel Inspector Syllabus Example Questions and Worked Answers
- Weld Ment
- Doc
- STP1256-EB.1415051-1.pdf
- ar97-2-2
- The Merging of Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Concepts - A Historical Perspective
- 1-s2.0-S0142112313002557-main.pdf
- State-Of-The-Art Review on FRP Strengthened Steel Structures
- Fracture Lecture 1
- FAILURE-Material Science
- A Ductile Tear Fracture Analysis of Lap Welded Joints-Imad
- API_510_PTR_7
- M.E._Weld._Tech
- 3845_experience With SINTAP
- WJ_1982_03_s65
- Fexfem Singularities
- Homework Selection of Materials

You are on page 1of 9

ABSTRACT

Spiral weld pipes are used extensively in the gas and oil industries. Compared to the

longitudinal seam pipes, the spiral weld pipes can be manufactured straighter, rounder, longer

and with more uniform stress distribution and higher rigidity. However, because of the longer

weld line these pipes are more susceptible to damage due to the growth of cracks and defects

which exist or are generated in the weldment area. Therefore, it is important to investigate the

integrity and the remaining service life for the defected spiral weld pipes. Due to the arbitrary

orientation of cracks and application of various external loads in spiral pipes, these pipes

experience complex state of stress and deformation. In such cases, crack growth may occur

under any combination of shear and tensile loads in the cracked area. In this paper, the

application of a fracture criterion called the maximum hoop stress (MHS) criterion is

described for predicting the integrity of cracked spiral weld pipes. This criterion can evaluate

both the direction of fracture initiation and the final sustainable load of gas and oil pipes

containing crack. The failure design curve which is presented in this paper for different

loading types and crack orientations can be used for failure assessment of cracked spiral weld

pipes or other similar engineering applications.

Key words: spiral weld pipes, crack, brittle fracture, engineering analysis.

Introduction

Petroleum products such as oil and gas are very often transported by means of

pipelines. There are three major types of pipelines for transporting oil and gas:

gathering lines, transmission lines and distribution lines. Gas or crude oil gathering

lines are used between a well and a processing plant or collection point. The gathering

lines are often relatively small-diameter lines and operate at a variety of pressures.

The transmission pipelines transport natural gas, natural gas liquids, liquid petroleum

products, crude oil etc. These are often made of steel pipes welded together and

interrupted only by valves, compression stations (for gas lines) or pumping stations

(for liquid lines). The third type of pipeline is a gas-distribution line that mainly

transports natural gas within cities.

There are several techniques for manufacturing steel pipes. The longitudinally welded

pipes and the spiral welded pipes are two major types of pipe manufacturing

techniques. The longitudinally welded pipes can be manufactured with two main

processes of double submerged arc welds and electric-resistance welds. The spiral

weld pipes are used extensively by the petroleum industry, for oil and gas lines, for

low-pressure steam lines, etc. They are also used in other industries for high- and low1

pressure water lines, vacuum lines, exhaust-steam lines, low-pressure air lines, sand

and gravel conveying and similar services. However, under the applied loads such as

the internal gas pressure or the soil pressure in the case of buried pipes, these pipes

can be susceptible to damage and fracture due to extension of cracks, flaws and

defects which are found in the weldment area. The main purpose of this research is to

study the integrity and load bearing capacity of spiral weld pipes. Therefore, more

details of manufacturing process and faults detected in this type of pipes are described

in the next sections. Then application of a damage criterion for failure assessment of

defected spiral weld pipes under complex service loads is investigated.

The spiral weld pipes are strong lightweight steel pipes with a single continuous

welded helical seam from end to end. Typical processes of manufacturing are

described below. The spiral weld pipes are made from hot rolled steel strip in coil.

The coils of various thicknesses are brought to size by the slitting and cut-to-length

line. Both ends of the coil are monitored using devices like a pulse reflection type

ultrasonic device. The coils having faulty or defected ends are rejected. The faultless

coils are placed on an uncoiler and the leading end of strip is welded to the trailing

end of the preceding strip. The strip is then leveled, its edges are trimmed, and

beveled by milling for weld structure. Main pinch roll feeds the strip to prebending

rolls prior the forming section. This is basically a three-roll bending system. The

inside welding is done by submerged arc welding process. The same process is then

used for outside welding. The manufactured pipes are finally cut to desired lengths by

plasma or oxyacethylene cutting at the exit gate of the pipe machine. Fig. 1 shows a

typical manufactured spiral weld pipe.

The spiral weld pipes offer several advantages over the traditional pipes with

longitudinal welding line. The spiral weld pipes are manufactured straighter, rounder

and longer. Consequently, the line-up and welding processes are faster. They obtain

their final shapes on the pipe mill without any need for further treatments such as

straightening, calibration, etc. The spiral weld pipes offer a more uniform stress

distribution and a higher rigidity than the longitudinal seam pipes. Various

independent tests have proved that in the event of failure, the spiral weld pipes are

safer. This is because, in the spirally welded pipes the rupture area is confined and the

energy is dispersed around the pipe in the direction of the weld, thus the break is

restricted to a small area. It has also been reported that the spiral weld pipes can resist

well the local effects of notches in the form of long cutting on the surface of pipe [1].

However, a disadvantage of the spiral weld pipe is its longer weld line. It is known

that cracks and defects are more likely to exist in the welding area. Therefore, the

possibility of finding cracks in the spiral weld pipes is more than the longitudinal

weld pipes. This underlines the importance of developing a suitable fracture

assessment procedure for cases where cracks are found in the welding strip in spiral

weld pipes.

The results of numerous failure investigations in pipelines have shown that failure

initiates generally at a local defect [2]. Therefore, it is important to detect

appropriately the possible flaws and cracks in pipelines. There are a few

nondestructive testing techniques to monitor the pipes for possible defects. For

example, one of the frequently used techniques called the eddy current testing is

described briefly here. Eddy currents are alternating electrical currents that can be

induced to flow in electrically conducting materials like metals. Eddy current flow

follows a closed-loop pattern unless it is interrupted or diverted by a non-conductivity

area such as a crack, pinhole, or similar discontinuity. Eddy current testing is the

science of detecting flaws while ignoring other influences on the flow pattern created

by dimensional variations, stress, chemistry changes, magnetic properties, electrical

interference, mechanical movement, vibration, etc [3]. Generally, the signals to be

ignored are termed noise, while the ones of interest are called signals.

Eddy current testing is widely used for nondestructive testing in the longitudinal as

well as the spiral weld pipes. It is relatively simple to install and operate. It can also

detect a range of defects and discontinuities at varying mill speeds. Once calibrated,

modern drift correction techniques help ensure that systems operate for periods of

years with little maintenance or attention, except for size changing. There is no

physical contact between the transducer and the material under test, so wear is not a

factor, although damage sometimes results from misalignment or from crashes on the

mill.

With seam or spiral welded products the most likely area for detecting flaws is the

welding strip itself. Flare and flattening tests are essential tests on any mill, but

precise inspection of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) indicates frequently irregularities

or deviation in the process. This allows the operator to correct the process as early as

possible and hence reduce potential scrap. Eddy current inspection can be made fully

automatic with accurate tracking, marking, and rejection of defective sections.

In addition to the eddy current testing, there are other nondestructive testing methods

for pipe industry. Details of two other techniques called the ultrasonic testing and Xray radiography and their applications for the spiral weld pipes can be found in [4].

The results of nondestructive testing show that the most probable locations for finding

cracks in piping systems are: (1) the welding material and (2) the material in the

immediate vicinity of the welding which is often called the heat affected zone (HAZ)

(see Fig. 2). Since the length of welding in the spiral weld pipes is higher than the

longitudinal weld pipes, the possibility of finding flaws and cracks in the spiral weld

pipes is more. Although the presence of cracks itself is not considered as failure in a

structure, it increases noticeably the risk of failure modes like brittle fracture.

Therefore, it is important to use an appropriate fracture and failure criterion for

evaluating the safe operation of spiral weld pipes containing cracks.

Welding material

(HAZ)

Fig. 3 shows a typical crack in the welding material of a spiral welded pipe. The

typical crack shown in this figure has been assumed to be in line with the welding

direction. However, in general the cracks in spiral weld pipes can be in any directions

relative to the pipe axis. The direction of crack depends on the type of deficiency that

takes place during the welding operation.

When the pipe is subjected to an internal pressure or the soil weight, the crack is often

subjected to complex loading. Usually a crack detected in the weldment zone of a

spiral pipe, experience two major mode of deformation namely: mode I (crack

opening mode) and mode II (crack in-plane sliding or shearing mode). These two

types of crack deformations are shown schematically in Fig. 3 for a crack in the

weldment. Thus in practice damage and failure of such defected spiral pipes can be

occurred under mixed mode tensile-shear loading. The ratio of these modes of

deformation can be quantified by using the mode I and mode II stress intensity factors

which depend on the geometry of cracked structure and the loading conditions.

Mode II (shearing)

Mode I (opening)

Fig. 3: A typical crack in the weld material subjected to mixed mode I (opening) mode II (shearing) loads.

complicated than in the conventional pure mode I problems. While the direction of

fracture initiation in mode I is always along the line of initial crack, it depends on the

type of loading in mixed mode crack problems. The proposed criteria for mixed mode

fracture such as the maximum hoop stress [5], the minimum strain energy density [6]

and the maximum energy release rate [7] criteria should determine both the direction

of fracture initiation as well as the fracture load.

oop

m ax

ck

cr a

Shear

In this section a well-known theory called the maximum hoop stress (MHS) criterion

is described. The criterion can be used for studying brittle fracture in spiral weld pipes

containing cracks. According to this criterion, a crack subjected to mixed mode

(tension-shear) loading will propagate from the crack tip in a radial direction o when

the maximum value of hoop stress along this direction reaches a critical stress level.

Schematic representation of this criterion is presented in Fig. 4.

Tension

Fig. 4: Schematic representation of MHS criterion for predicting mixed mode brittle

fracture.

The hoop stress distribution near the crack tip can be written by an infinite series

expansion as [8]:

hoop = ( r , ) =

2

2 2

2 r

144444424444443

1

(1)

singular terms

where r and are the conventional polar coordinates. KI and KII are the stress

intensity factors (SIF). By ignoring the effects of higher order terms near the crack tip,

the direction of crack growth can be determined from:

= 0

cos

0

2

[K

sin 0 + K

(3 cos

< 0

(2)

0 1 )] = 0

By solving Eq. (2) for any combinations of mode I and mode II, the angle o can be

found from the following equation:

0 = arccos

3 tan 2 + 1 + 8 tan 2

1 + 9 tan 2

= arctan

K II

KI

(3)

-80

-70

-60

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-1

( 2/ ) tan (K I / K II )

1.0

(pure mode I)

Fig. 5: Fracture initiation angle for any combinations of mixed mode I/II based on the

MHS criterion.

For pure mode I fracture (i.e. when KI = KIc, KII = 0 and 0 = 0), Eq. (3) is reduced to:

c =

1

2 r

Kc

c 2 r = K c

(4)

where KIc is the pure mode I fracture toughness and c is the critical value of hoop

stress. Both KIc and c are assumed to be the material properties. Once the angle of

fracture initiation o is determined from Eq. (3) by replacing Eq. (4) into Eq. (1) the

load bearing capacity of cracked body subjected to mixed mode loading is evaluated

based on the hypothesis of MHS criterion:

K c = cos

K cos

2

0

2

K sin 0

2

(5)

According to the MHS criterion when the right hand side of Eq. (5) which is affected

by KI, KII and 0 reaches a constant value of KIc, mixed mode brittle fracture takes

place.

The procedure for evaluating the initiation of fracture in the spiral weld pipes using

the maximum hoop stress (MHS) criterion is summarized here. Once a crack is found

in the pipe using the nondestructive testing methods and its size and shape are

determined, the stress intensity factors of the crack KI and KII should be calculated.

The stress intensity factors (SIF) can be found in handbooks but only for structures

with simple geometry and loading configurations. For more complicated crack

problems, numerical techniques like the finite element method are the best tools for

computing the stress intensity factors. The use of finite element method is advisable

for cracks that are detected in spiral weld pipes. This is because of helical shape of

welding line in the pipe, which introduces extra shear loads due to different material

properties in the welding material and the parent material. The other reason is that the

cracks in spiral weld pipes are rarely in either longitudinal or tangential directions.

The stress intensity factor for an angled part-through crack such as a semi-elliptical

crack is not normally available analytically. To achieve a more realistic fracture

assessment, it is also important to take into account the effects of factors like the

change in material properties as well as the residual stresses in the welding zone.

Then the stress intensity factors KI and KII should be replaced in Eq. (3), to calculate

the angle of initiation of brittle fracture o. For cracks having a curved crack front, the

stress intensity factors vary along the crack front. Thus the angle o should be

calculated for different points along the crack front. In the next step, for each of these

points the function hoop ( K I , K II , 0 ) is computed from Eq. (5). If at any of the points,

this function becomes more than the critical factor KIc of the related material, brittle

fracture is expected to initiate in the pipe.

KII / KIc

fracture

Safe

B

A

KI / KIc

Fig. 6: Failure design curve for mixed mode condition based on the MHS criterion.

For practical use of the MHS criterion in the engineering applications such as

integrity evaluation of cracked spiral weld pipes, an engineering design curve shown

in Fig. 6 can be used for predicting the onset of brittle fracture. After calculation of

stress intensity factors (KI and KII) and normalizing them by the fracture toughness of

weldment material (KIc), the corresponding points of (KI/KIc , KII/KIc) should be

determined in the design curve shown in Fig. 6. If the obtained point (like point A in

Fig. 6) lays inside the safe region (below the MHS design curve) the crack will not

propagate. Conversely, if the stress intensity factors correspond to the point B (which

locates outside the safe region), the fracture of cracked spiral weld will occur.

Williams and Ewing [9] for general mixed mode loading. The experimental results

used by Williams and Ewing were related to fracture tests on centrally cracked plates

of different crack angles. Although flat plates were used in the tests, the related

experimental results can also be used for large-diameter pipes containing cracks of

various angles. This is because the curvature in such pipes is negligible.

It is important to be noted that Eq. (1) take into account only the singular terms of

stresses and strains near the crack tip. More recent studies by Ayatollahi et al [10]

have shown that the higher order stress terms sometimes influence significantly the

material behavior near the crack tip. This effect has been explored both on the size of

the plastic zone around the crack tip [10] and on the plastic constraint in cracked

specimens [11]. However, considering the effects of higher order terms involves more

complicated mathematical techniques. Therefore, the simple procedure outlined in the

present paper can be more appropriate for practical evaluation of cracks in spirally

welded pipes or other similar engineering purposes.

The spiral weld pipes are used extensively in the petroleum industry. Several benefits

can be considered for using the spiral weld pipes instead of the conventional

longitudinal weld pipes. However, because of longer welding line, the existence of

cracks in the spiral weld pipes is more likely. Therefore, it is important to monitor the

pipelines periodically for detecting possible cracks during the nominal service life of

the pipe. The cracks in the spiral weld pipes are generally subjected to mixed mode

(tension-shear) loading. Failure design curve was described in this paper for

investigating the safe operation of spiral weld pipes against brittle fracture when the

pipe contains a crack.

References

[1] Jira , J., Jirova, J and Micka, M. (2001) Modelling of behaviour of spiral weld of

high-pressure gas pipelines, Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on

Experimental Stress Analysis, Tabor, Czech Republic.

[2] Metals Handbook, Vol. 11 Failure Analysis and Prevention, American Society for

Metals, 1986.

[3] Roberts, B. (1994) Monitoring the quality of welded tube and pipe, Proceedings of

The Quality Aspects in Tube Producing Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

[4] Narasimha Rao, K., Kundu, S.K., Patil, B.G. and Avtar, R. (1996) Non-destructive

testing of spiral weld steel pipes, Proceedings of the 14th World Conference on NonDestructive Testing, New Delhi, India.

[5] Erdogan, F. and Sih, G.C. (1963). On the crack extension in plates under plane

loading and transverse shear. Journal of Basic Engineering, Transactions of ASME.

Vol. 85, pp. 519-527.

[6] Sih G.C. (1973). Methods of analysis and solutions of crack problems. Mechanics

of Fracture, Vol. 1, Ed G.C. Sih, Noordhoff, Leiden.

[7] Hussain M.A., Pu S.L. and Underwood J. (1974). Strain energy release rate for a

crack under combined mode I and Mode II. Fracture Analysis, ASTM STP 560.

American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp. 2-28.

[8] Williams, M.L. (1957) On the stress distribution at the base of a stationary crack.,

Journal of Applied Mechanics. Vol. 24. pp. 109-114.

[9] Williams J.G, Ewing P.D. (1972) Fracture under complex stress - the angled crack

problem. International Journal of Fracture; Vol. 8. pp. 441-446.

[10] Ayatollahi, M.R., Smith, D.J. and Pavier M.J. (2001) Effect of higher order

stresses in an internal crack problem. IUST International Journal of Engineering

Science, Vol. 12, No 2, pp. 53-66.

[11] Ayatollahi, M.R., Smith, D.J. and Pavier M.J. (2002) Crack tip constraint in

mode II deformation. IUST International Journal of Fracture, Vol. 113, No 2, pp.

153-173.

- UNIT-1-ME331Uploaded byMuthuvel M
- 2.ED Syllabi 295-312Uploaded byPriyadarshini Krishnaswamy
- Sintap Procedure Version 1aUploaded byAnonymous tLUB9IQhb
- Quick Guide to API 510 Certified Pressure Vessel Inspector Syllabus Example Questions and Worked AnswersUploaded byShaikh Aftab
- Weld MentUploaded bySunil Kumar
- DocUploaded byGerald Austin
- STP1256-EB.1415051-1.pdfUploaded bypaola
- ar97-2-2Uploaded byMona Awad
- The Merging of Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Concepts - A Historical PerspectiveUploaded bylcm327
- 1-s2.0-S0142112313002557-main.pdfUploaded byVladimir Milovanovic
- State-Of-The-Art Review on FRP Strengthened Steel StructuresUploaded byfarhan danish
- Fracture Lecture 1Uploaded byRakibul Haque
- FAILURE-Material ScienceUploaded byDebora Jane Siazon Tejano
- A Ductile Tear Fracture Analysis of Lap Welded Joints-ImadUploaded bysupersalvi
- API_510_PTR_7Uploaded byHema
- M.E._Weld._TechUploaded byJay Balar
- 3845_experience With SINTAPUploaded byAbraham Imam Muttaqin
- WJ_1982_03_s65Uploaded bySol Angel
- Fexfem SingularitiesUploaded bymilad66teh
- Homework Selection of MaterialsUploaded byJ7C2
- Lecture Ch08Uploaded byLeann Farley
- L2V4bGlicmlzL2R0bC9kM18xL2FwYWNoZV9tZWRpYS81MTY2Uploaded bySandeep Bhatia
- Structural Integrity Main PipesUploaded byJosé Pinto
- 0e2d6e527e5df8c1fa6a6024b6c5baa3Uploaded bysendi
- 1111Fracture ToughnessUploaded byPei-YuChen
- Quiz 2 SolutionUploaded bysabavoon
- Root Cause Analysis of Low Impact Toughness of Cast Steel Yokes Used in Railway Freight CarsUploaded byJoyguru Ju
- 1-s2.0-S0955221914000223-mainUploaded byDaniela Acasandrei Casat Chicet
- Deformation Structure Induced by Indentation in GaAs and Si Single CrystalsUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- IIDT(Wall Slab Connection)Uploaded byAshaari Cha-e

- 64 Interview QuestionsUploaded byshivakumar N
- research notes on sulfide stress crackingUploaded byaladinsane
- Builder 3&2 VOL 02 -14044Uploaded byChad VanWinkle
- US Navy Course NAVEDTRA 14043 - Builder 3 & 2, Volume 1Uploaded byGeorges
- Sleep Warrior Sleep HacksUploaded byrizky
- Mathematics - An Introduction to CyberneticsUploaded byToumpelis Sotiris
- Research Notes on Sulfide Stress CrackingUploaded byaladinsane
- Grigull, Ulrich - Fahrenheit, A Pioneer of Exact Thermometry (Article)Uploaded byaladinsane
- 100 Must-Read Life-Changing BooksUploaded byDobrisan Ioana Alexandra
- Soldering and BrazingUploaded byaladinsane
- foma-ndt-system.pdfUploaded byaladinsane
- Finite Element Method - Boundary Element MethodUploaded byapi-3698788
- Atmel - Enhancing ADC Resolution by OversamplingUploaded byAhmo50c
- ReliabilityConfJaskePaperUploaded bymarkyberry
- Comparisons of Steel Water Storage Tanks (Tim Guishard Enterprises)Uploaded byaladinsane
- plate a516 and a387 - pressure vessel steelsUploaded byaladinsane
- Tensor Analysis for Students of Physics and Engineering. Read 02.24.2008Uploaded byScribd_rkc
- Failure Probability of Gear Teeth WearUploaded byaladinsane
- 1740_9 NASAUploaded byEngr Fawad Wali
- Chapter 7 Overhead and Gantry CranesUploaded bymail.to.anjum8318
- Seminar on Brittle and Ductile FractureUploaded byChetan
- Xrf Analytical TechniquesUploaded byaladinsane
- Moment Redistribution - Principles and Practice Using Aci 318-02Uploaded byaladinsane
- dosimetric conceptsUploaded byaladinsane
- Effect of Titanium on Behavior of Medium Carbon SteelUploaded byaladinsane
- Preheat MaterialUploaded byMuzammilBashir
- Fa of Hp Steam Superheater at a Fertilizer PlantUploaded byaladinsane
- Alloying Elements in Ss and Other Cr-containing AlloysUploaded byaladinsane

- Steel and Timber Design - Chapter 1Uploaded byWilfredo Ochavez
- Om ParkashUploaded bypleasename1
- DDBD Steel Eccentrically Braced Frame StructuresUploaded byfersirza
- r5.03.09Uploaded byPro
- TOPIC 2 – ANALYSIS OF RECT SECTIONS (EC2)Uploaded byRCdesign2012
- eurocode - cara mengerjakan jembatan rangka bajaUploaded byeka wijaya
- 3 torsionUploaded bytigin
- Analysis and Optimization of a Crash Worthy Helicopter SeatsUploaded byThomas Wilcox
- V4I7-IJERTV4IS070814Uploaded bysandyyansiku
- IAL/GCE Physics unit 1 revision cardUploaded byApollo Wong
- Dislocation Model for DeformationUploaded byP R SREENIVASAN
- The Crust of the Earth is Constantly MovingUploaded byapi-3808551
- CHE-3166 Process Design S2 2015 My L12Uploaded byPhan Nee
- Prediction of Fatigue Life on Lower Suspension ArmUploaded byRafael Buss
- Statically Indeterminate Member and Thermal (1)Uploaded byLanz de la Cruz
- Brick Masonry PropertiesUploaded byKali Bahadur Shahi
- 7 Mechanical Properties Stress-Strain Modulus NotesUploaded byKiran Babu Satuluri
- AU 3-8 Sem 090710 (BOS 2010)Uploaded byPraveen Singh Rathore
- Nonlinear Analysis 2010 ENG FINALUploaded byRay Faiers
- chapter4.pdfUploaded byErwin Anshari
- !Rangkuman UCS With Strain GaugeUploaded byGumbert Maylda Pratama
- 12932.pdfUploaded byAnya Cooper
- 20_ANSYS_WB_hints_gift_ expertfea_com.pdfUploaded bySenad Skelet
- Pavement Deflection Analysis US Department of TransportationUploaded byRicardo Alfaro
- ANALYSIS OF INCREMENTAL SHEET FORMING PROCESS THROUGH SIMULATIONUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- Prediction of Fatigue Crack Initiation Life in Railheads Using Finite Element-grupo 9Uploaded bysebastian
- MSE 113 - 2009Uploaded bymaftahok
- A Large Deformation Theory for Rate Dependent Elastic PlasticUploaded byejpaterc
- Tenta 2016-06-03 With SolitionsUploaded bylionardodavinci
- 490_SSAB_Automotive_final.pdfUploaded byyujian331