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A. Properties of Term
1. Comprehension
Comprehension is the understanding and interpretation of what is read. To be able to accurately understand written
material, children need to be able to
(1) Decode what they read;
(2) Make connections between what they read and what they already know; and
(3) think deeply about what they have read.
2. Extension

its range of applicability by naming the particular objects that it denotes

the range of a term or concept as measured by the objects that it denotes or contains, as opposed to its
internal content

B. Classification of terms according to :

1. Extension

it refers to all individuals signified by the term.The following indicates universality:
a. universal affirmative quantifiers such as, all, each, every, any, everything, everyone, anything, anyone,
whatever, whichever, whenever, wherever, whoever, e.g. all countries, every citizen, each blogger, any
amount, anything new, whatever answer
b. universal negative modifiers such as, no, none, no one, nothing, nobody, never, etc., e.g. no American,
nothing small, nobody wise
c. indefinite articles a and an (when taken to refer to all denotations of the term), e.g. A man is a rational

if it stands for an indefinite part of a whole. In Logic, a term is considered particular if it represents at least
one but not all of the individuals composing a class. The following indicates particularity:
a. indefinite pronouns/adjectives (some, many, several, few, most, certain) e.g. some singers, several songs,
many questions, few answers
b. indefinite articles a and an used in particular contexts, e.g. a helicopter, an airplane
c. number modifiers, e.g. 7 dwarfs, 2 princesses

d. modifiers such as majority, almost all, generally all, nearly all, e.g. majority of the congressmen, almost all
administrators, generally all believers
e. Subject terms in propositions that are true to only some of the denotations of the term, e.g. Belgians are
religious; Men have sense of chivalry.

if it refers to only one individual or thing. The indicators of singularity are:
a. proper nouns/ proper names, such as Tokyo, Michael Jordan, Air Force One
b. superlatives, such as the best actor, the most corrupt official, the highest scorer
c. demonstrative adjectives/pronouns, such as this book, that room, that teacher, this student
d. personal pronouns, I, he, you, she, her, etc. (as long as they definitely stand for one specific person)
e. the definite article the/specific modifiers such as, the lady in red

2. Exactness of meaning

exhibits exactly identical sense and meaning in different incidents.
For example, we say Canines are dogs and Dalmatians are dogs. Theterm dogs is univocal, unless we give

a different meaning in any of the term dogs in the statements.

it indicates entirely different meanings in different occurrences. .In the statements, Stars are heavenly
bodies and Nicolas Cage and Brad Pitt are stars, the term stars is equivocal for the meaning of the term
stars in the first statement is different from that of the second. An equivocal term thus is not one but two
Other examples: pitcher (player) pitcher (water container); base (camp) base (lower part); spring
of water spring of a machine; bark of a tree bark of a dog

it shows partly identical and partly distinct meanings in different occurrences.
. In the phrases head of a man and head of a family, the terms head in some sense are similar but
nonetheless different in some aspects.
Other examples: healthy man healthy diet; leg of man leg of a chair; foot of a man foot of a mountain

3. Relation

are two terms, one of which negates the other. Contradictories are so mutually exclusive that there is no

middle ground or third possibility between them.

e.g. edible non-edible; being nothing; existent non-existent; life lifeless
are terms that belong to the same class but deny each other. Between these terms, there is/are middle
ground/s. When some said that her girlfriend is not black, it is not safe to conclude that he must be white, for
he may be brown or yellow. White and black therefore are contrary (not contradictory) terms.
Other examples: elateddepressed, hardeasy, hot cold, happy sad, long short, geniusidiot.

terms wherein one cannot be understood without the other. In their meaning, they imply reference to one
e.g. husband wife, interviewer interviewee, parent child, master servant, teacher pupil, leader

C. traditional rules of definition in logic

D. common kinds of definition
1. Stipulative
2. Lexical
3. Extensional
4. Intentional
5. Demonstrative
6. Synonymous
7. Operational