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SOP-45

Scaffolding

Table of Contents

Page

1.0

PURPOSE ................................................................................................................3

2.0

DEFINITIONS ...........................................................................................................3

3.0

GENERAL GUIDELINES ..........................................................................................7


3.1
Use ......................................................................................................................7
3.2
Prejob Planning and Work Site Inspection...........................................................7
3.3
Responsibilities....................................................................................................7
4.0
LOCATION................................................................................................................9
5.0

ERECTION .............................................................................................................10
5.1
General ..............................................................................................................10
5.2
Load Design (12.11) ..........................................................................................10
5.3
Height Limitations ..............................................................................................11
5.4
Base Plates (See Figure 12.10 Foundation) ......................................................11
5.5
Posts (See 12.3a and 12.3b) .............................................................................11
5.6
Bearers (Transom) (12.3a and 12.3b) ...............................................................12
5.7
Runners (Ledgers, Ribbons) (12.3a and 12.3b).................................................12
5.8
Bracing, Diagonal and Cross Bracing (12.3a, 12.4a, 12.5a and 12.9) ...............12
5.9
Board Planking, Overlays and Working Platforms (12.8, 12.12a and 12.12b) ...13
5.10 Securing the Scaffold to a Structure (12.13) ......................................................14
5.11 Guardrails Top Rails and Midrails (12.3a).......................................................14
5.12 Toeboards (12.3a) .............................................................................................14
5.13 Ladder Access Safety........................................................................................15
5.14 Incomplete Walkways ........................................................................................16
5.15 Alterations..........................................................................................................16
5.16 System Scaffolds ...............................................................................................16
5.17 Combination Scaffolding ....................................................................................17
6.0
INSPECTIONS........................................................................................................17
7.0

SCAFF-TAGS AND HAZARD WARNING TAPE (FIGURE 12.6)............................18

8.0

DISMANTLING........................................................................................................18

9.0

SCAFFOLDING SUSPENDED BY CABLES (CRADLE).........................................19

10.0

CRITERIA FOR UNDERHUNG SCAFFOLDS (12.5A) ...........................................19

11.0

USE OF SCAFFOLDS ............................................................................................21

12.0

REFERENCES........................................................................................................22

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SOP-45
1.0

Scaffolding

PURPOSE
Scaffolding is occasionally needed to perform Company work assignments such as
painting, insulating, pipefitting, general maintenance work or new construction from
elevated areas. This Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) - applies to all CABGOC
departments and contractors who erect, tubular steel scaffolds and ladders
providing access to them.
This SOP-45, Scaffolding, is CABGOCs proprietary, internal working guideline
intended to facilitate safe and incident-free operations. It is not intended, nor should
it be interpreted, as a mandatory regulatory standard. CABGOC does not
guarantee accuracy of this guideline or assume any risk or liability for its use. Users
of this guideline are solely responsible for the consequences of their actions.

2.0

DEFINITIONS
2.1

Scaffolding is a temporary, elevated, work platform used for supporting


workers, materials, or both.

2.2

Post (12.3a) is the vertical tube which acts as a column to transmit the total
weight of the scaffold structure and its load down to its base. (Other names
include standard, vertical, leg).

2.3

Base Plate (12.2) is a steel pad attached to the bottom of the post in order to
distribute the load. The post is centered on the base plate. Adjustable screw
jacks are often attached to base plates.

2.4

Runner (12.3a) is a horizontal tube which runs parallel to the length of the
scaffold, the longitudinal direction. (Other names include ledger, ribbon).

2.5

Bearer (12.3a) is a horizontal tube which runs perpendicular to the length of


the scaffold, (the width or transverse direction). (Other names include
transom).

2.6

Right Angle Coupler (12.2) is the rigid load bearing fitting used to attach
tubes at a 90 degree angle to each other, such as horizontal tubes to vertical
tubes. (Other names include 90 degree coupler, double coupler, right angle
clamp).

2.7

Swivel Coupler (12.2) is the non load bearing fitting used for attachment of
two tubes to each other at other than a right angle, such as a diagonal tube
to a vertical tube.

2.8

Transverse Diagonal Bracing (12.3a) is the diagonal bracing which is


installed perpendicular to the length of the scaffold, across the width
(transverse direction) of the scaffold. (Other common names include Internal
Diagonal Bracing).

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2.9

Longitudinal Diagonal Brace (12.3a) is the diagonal bracing which runs


parallel to the length of the scaffold. (Other common names include face,
faade. Or sway bracing).

2.10

Lift (12.3a) means a unit of height of a completed scaffold. For example,


one lift high means one level high, two lifts high means two levels high, etc.
A scaffold lift or level is most commonly six feet six inches (two meters) in
height.

2.11

Bay (12.4a) means a horizontal unit of scaffold, the distance between two
sets of posts. (Other common names include Section).

2.12

Check/Safety Coupling (12.5a) is an additional coupling fitted above or


below an existing coupler to give extra strength in the direction of potential
slippage. (Other names include safety clamp).

2.13

Putlog/Half Coupler (12.2) is used for attaching an intermediate bearer to a


runner allowing a board to lie flat. This clamp is also called a single and is
Non Load Bearing

2.14

Sleeve Coupler (12.2) is an external fitting used for joining scaffold tubes
end to end.

2.15

Spigot (12.2) is an internal fitting used to join scaffold tubes end to end.

2.16

Guardrail (12.3a) is a horizontal tube placed approximately 42 inches above


the platform as part of a fall protection system.

2.17

Midrail (12.3a) is a horizontal tube placed approximately midway in height


between the platform and guardrail as part of a fall protection system.

2.18

Toe board (12.3a) is a protective barrier board placed around the edge of
the platform as part of a falling object protection system. Toeboards must be
a minimum of 3 inches in height.

2.19

Red Scaff-Tag (12.6) DO NOT USE SCAFFOLD is hung from all ladders
and access ways to a scaffold by the competent person (Scaffold Erector),
indicating that the scaffold is incomplete, being erected, dismantled, or
modified, and not to be used.

2.20

Green Scaff-Tag (12.6) is hung from all ladders and access ways to a
scaffold by the competent person (Scaffold Erector) indicating that the
scaffold erection has been completed, inspected, and meets satisfactory
safety standards, and the scaffold is ready to be used. Scaffolds shall be
inspected a minimum of once every seven days. All Tags automatically
expire to Red at the completion of seven days, and remain Red Tagged
until the scaffold is re-inspected regardless of whether the scaffold was used
or not.

2.21

Person in Charge (PIC) is designated by the department or section that


owns/operates the facility. The PIC is responsible for ensuring that conditions
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in the facility or area are safe for the scaffolding work to begin. Personnel
who can be the PIC are the Platform Operator, Municipal Projects
Supervisor, etc.

2.22

Person Performing the Work (PPW) is the Contractor Supervisor who


directly supervises the scaffolding work on the job site. He is a certified
scaffold erector, experienced with or trained in scaffold erection,
dismantling, use, and knowledgeable about the hazards of scaffolding. He is
authorized and capable of taking prompt corrective measures.

2.23

CABGOC Representative/Supervisor is responsible for ensuring that the


site preparation and permit requirements are completed before work begins
and that the work is done safely and in accordance with permit conditions.
Personnel who can be the CABGOC Representative/Supervisor are the
Facilities Engineering Construction Superintendent, Project Engineering
Supervisor, Building & Infrastructure Supervisor or personnel reporting
directly to them.

2.24

Certified Scaffold Erector means a person designated by the employer


who has the ability to identify existing and predictable hazards associated
with an activity, and who has the authority to have such hazards eliminated.
Hazard recognition ability for scaffolding should include a thorough
knowledge of CABGOC SOP-45 scaffold procedures as well as knowledge
of potential hazards of the environment at the location where the scaffold will
be installed. Hazard recognition ability should be verified through appropriate
training.

2.25

Scaffold Work Team


To measure, manage and safely apply the scaffolding function consistently,
on or off shore, it is recommended that scaffolding teams be balanced to
ensure the minimum skill and safety requirements are met at all times.
The size of the team is determined by each individual job. However, each
team must have a Certified Scaffold Erector.
The recommended Scaffold Erection and Dismantling Team shall be
composed of a minimum Scaffold Erector, Scaffold Fixer, and a trained
Scaffold Hand.
A Certified Scaffold Erector will have a minimum of 2 years practical
experience and completed 40 hours of formal scaffolding training, either
through an industry accredited institute or CABGOC in house training.
The Certified Scaffold Erector shall understand and practice correctly:
SOP 45 directives and required standards
Erection and dismantling procedures for types and configurations
of scaffolds
Job planning and communication
Read, understand and apply Engineered Drawings
Fall protection

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Inspection

A Certified Scaffold Fixer shall have a minimum of one years practical


experience as a laborer, working in support of scaffolding teams.
The Certified Scaffold Fixer shall support the Certified Scaffold Erector in all
scaffold applications, and, under the supervision of the Scaffold Erector, be
able to carryout basic scaffolding handling, erection and dismantling
procedures, such as:

Erection and dismantling of posts, runners, bearers, braces and


ties
Erection and dismantling of working platform decking
Erection and dismantling of access ladders
Safe raising and lowering of scaffolding equipment
Have proven knowledge of basic scaffolding theory as described in
SOP 45.

The Scaffolders Hand shall act as a support for the Trained and Trainee
Scaffolders.
The Scaffolders Hand shall be trained or have proven knowledge and
experience of:
Safe ground level equipment handling
Scaffolding parts and pieces identification
Basic rigging knots for raising and lowering equipment.
2.26

Underhung (12.5a) scaffold means a scaffold suspended from I beams or


other structural members using tube and coupler components and girder
couplers (beam clamps). (Other common names include hanging scaffold).

2.27

PFAS means personal fall arrest system consisting of a full body harness, a
sound anchorage point, and a connecting system between the anchorage
point and harness such as a shock absorbing lanyard, self retracting lifeline,
or some combination of vertical lifeline, horizontal lifeline or other premanufactured combination.

2.28

Dead Load means the weight of the scaffold components.

2.29

Live Load means the weight that will be placed on the scaffold not including
the scaffold components. Examples include of live load include workers,
tools, materials, wind, hoists, etc. Live load capacity for scaffold platforms is
usually expressed in terms of 25 pounds per square foot (approx 120
kg/m^2, 1200 N/m^2) or 50 PSF.

2.30

Special Scaffold A scaffold that meets any of the following conditions and
for which a structural engineering review of the scaffold plan is required:
higher than 50 feet (15 meters), or cantilevered by more than 6.5 feet (2
meters), or over 30 sq. meters (320 sq. ft.) total platform area and supported
by or hung from an existing structure or building (e.g., roof, pipe rack,

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offshore platform), or supporting loads greater than 240 kg/sq.m. (50 PSF),
including piping, equipment, masonry, new or existing structures, or loads
other than workers and their materials, or supported by or hung from one or
more outrigger beams, or supported by or hung from wind girders or roofs of
floating roof tanks.

2.31
3.0

Node point (12.7) means the intersection of vertical, horizontal, and


diagonal tubes.

GENERAL GUIDELINES
3.1

Use
3.1.1 If elevated work can not be carried out safely from portable ladders, a
mechanical lift or work basket, a building or other permanent
structure, or if there is no permanent access to the workplace, or if the
job is such that it is safer to do it from scaffolding, then approved
scaffolding must be provided, erected and secured such that this work
can be performed from an elevated level.
3.1.2 Scaffolding normally shall be 2-inch nominal OD tube steel or other
metal of equivalent strength ( 5.2.2 )

3.2

Prejob Planning and Work Site Inspection


3.2.1 When planning the provision of temporary scaffolding access,
consideration should be given to Rope Access and Mechanical
Access. The feasibility of all types of access should be evaluated.
The most practical application that minimizes risk should be used.
3.2.2 A pre-work safety meeting must be held with all workers such that
they are completely briefed on the scaffolding job and its safety
requirements.
3.2.3 The scaffold users should communicate to the Scaffold Erector the
purpose for which the scaffold is to be used. Normal capacity is 25
PSF or less. If the capacity exceeds this threshold it must be
communicated to the Scaffold Erector in the planning stage as
indicated on the Scaff Tag.

3.3

Responsibilities
3.3.1 All Workforce Personnel
Everyone is responsible for scaffold safety regardless of position or
areas of authority. Stop the work and take appropriate corrective
action when scaffold hazards are observed.
3.3.2 Person In Charge (PIC)

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Scaffolding
The CABGOCs PIC retains overall responsibility for all scaffolding
erected, and stored at his facility. The PIC (2.21) should ensure prior
to erection of scaffolding that:

Scaffolding is the safest and most efficient and effective means


of man access to accomplish the task. (3.2.1)
A method of safely providing scaffolding equipment to the
facility is in place (3.2.2.) (3.4.3)
A Scaffold Erector has been designated to oversee the erection
and dismantling, equipment handling and hazard avoidance in
compliance with SOP 45 (2.24 2.25)
General Work Permit is approved and in place before
erection/dismantling activities begin.

3.3.3 The Scaffold Erector is responsible to the PIC for:

Ensuring the contractor (PPW 2.22) providing the scaffolding


has completed all Prejob Planning and Inspection
requirements. (3.2.2) (3.2.3.)
That the scaffold being provided is not a special scaffold
requiring technical approval.
That the PPW is trained and fully aware of the requirements of
SOP 45 Section 5, erection, and completes the work in
accordance with SOP 45 requirements.
Will establish and perform the Scaffold Inspection and Tagging
process as defined in Section 6.0 and 7.0 (Fig. 12.6)
Submit request for a General Work Permit.

3.3.4 PPW or Trained Scaffold Erector


The PPW or Trained Scaffold Erector is responsible for:

In addition to being trained in the requirement s of SOP 45 the


PPW must have a complete working knowledge of Section 3,
Safety Practices, 4.0 Location and 5.0 Erection.

3.3.5 Scaffold User


The User of the scaffold has a responsibility to ensure the scaffold is
ready for use each shift by visually checking:

Green Scaff-Tagg is in date


The base of the scaffold has not shifted
All tubes and decking remain fixed
Any ties securing the scaffold to the existing structure are in
place
All hazard precautions and warnings are in effect
The scaffold is free of any loose equipment or debris from
previous users
That they use the scaffold for the purpose it was designed.
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3.4

Scaffolding

Safety Practices
3.4.1 No persons other than those involved in the scaffold erection, shall be
allowed on scaffolding during its erection or dismantling.
3.4.2 Good housekeeping should be exercised at all times. Loose
equipment and materials should not be left on scaffold platforms.
Materials such as welding rods, bolts or small-bore piping should not
be placed in the open ends of scaffold tube, as this would create a
hazard during dismantling.
3.4.3 Scaffolding materials shall be handled carefully to avoid damage. It is
prohibited to throw materials or equipment up to scaffold platforms, or
down to the ground. Instead, use hand lines or mechanical lifting
equipment to lift loads.
3.4.4 Containers or bags capable of preventing tools or small items from
falling out shall also be used for lifting or lowering equipment and
items from scaffold platforms.
3.4.5 Scaffolding tubes shall not be used as rollers or used as levering
devices.
3.4.6 Personnel are prohibited from riding on scaffolding equipped with
wheels.
3.4.7 All scaffolding work is to be suspended during diving operations below
the platform or jacket
3.4.8 No scaffold work over the side of offshore locations is to be carried out
during the hours of darkness.

4.0

LOCATION
4.1

Scaffolding shall be erected as near as possible to the structure, piping, plant


process equipment or building involved. Scaffold should be erected to safely
suit the purpose of the work and meet SOP45 requirements.

4.2

Care should be taken to not obstruct access to operating equipment, valves,


or controls when erecting scaffolds.

4.3

Care must be taken when positioning wooden planking, so that it will not be
too close to hot surfaces where ignition of the boards could result. Metal
planks shall be used in these areas.

4.4

Scaffolding close to pedestrian and vehicular thoroughfares should be


marked with hazard warning tape to identify it as a potential hazard area.

4.5

If scaffolding is erected within 16 feet (5 meters) of power supply conductors


or power lines, the conductors shall be de-energized and grounded,

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dismantled or protected by protective insulating materials during erection and
dismantling of the scaffolding. In some cases the energized power line may
be contained within a specifically designed cable tray and protected by
adequate insulation to allow closer access. The CABGOC supervisor should
be consulted for allowable clearance near cable trays carrying energized
circuits.

5.0

ERECTION
5.1

General
5.1.1 The erection and dismantling of approved scaffolding shall be
performed only by trained scaffold work crew.
5.1.2 All personnel involved in erection/dismantling of scaffolding must wear
appropriate personal protective equipment including a personal fall
arrest system. Scaffold erectors should implement a 100% tie off
policy. The anchorage point should be a structural member other than
the scaffold which will support either 5000 pounds or two times the
actual maximum arresting force known to be generated by the brand
and type of PFAS connection being employed. If no such structural
anchorage is available, the scaffold itself may be used as a last resort.
In such cases, the preferred scaffold anchorage should be a post
which itself has been braced by horizontal and diagonal bracing as
required by the scaffold design.
5.1.3 Personnel working 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more above grade shall be
protected by either a guardrail system or a personal fall arrest system
if guardrails are not in place. If the facility supervisor suspects that fall
hazards present an unusual level of risk, both a guardrail system and
a personal fall arrest system may be required. An example of this
would be work from an underhung scaffold.

5.2

Load Design (12.11)


5.2.1 Scaffolds and their components must be capable of supporting without
failure its own weight plus at least four times the maximum intended
load. Loads on scaffolding shall not exceed the design load. For
guidance on recommended scaffold standard spacing, load
concentration, number of working platforms and applications, refer to
Appendix 1.
5.2.2 Materials, other than those designed and manufactured for the
purpose of scaffolding, shall not be permitted for use. All tubing and
couplers shall meet the requirements of BS1139, EN74, or US MIL-S29108A. Alloy and steel tubes should never be mixed unless
specifically designed to be assembled in that manner.
5.2.3 The scaffold loads shall be transmitted to a structurally sound
foundation. The foundation which supports the scaffolds shall be
designed and verified to be able to support the loads imposed by the

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Scaffolding
scaffold. Guardrails shall not be used as a support or foundation for
scaffolds.
5.2.4 Scaffold work level decks shall be able to carry a minimum of 25
pounds per square foot (approx 120kg/m^2 or 1200 N/m^2). If the
scaffold user determines that more weight than 25 PSF must be
placed on the deck, then the user must communicate this to the
Scaffold Erector and the scaffold must be designed to carry the
appropriate loading.

5.3

Height Limitations
5.3.1 If the height of scaffolding exceeds three (3) times its minimum base
dimension, it shall be secured per the requirements in Section 5.10
5.3.2 Intermediate rest platforms should be provided for climbing to levels
where the change in elevation is greater than 35 feet.
The
Intermediate rest platforms shall be fully planked, equipped with
guardrail/handrail and toe boards, and shall not be used for storage of
material or as an additional working platform.

5.4

Base Plates (See Figure 12.10 Foundation)


5.4.1 The footing or anchorage for scaffolds shall be sound, rigid, and
capable of carrying the maximum anticipated load without settling or
displacement. Unstable objects such as boxes, loose bricks, concrete
blocks, or scrap lumber shall not be used to support or level scaffolds.
5.4.2 Typical scaffolding footing connections on soil or gravel consists of a
steel base plate and a wooden pad of scaffold grade lumber large
enough to distribute the load. Scaffold grade 2 X 10 by 18 long
pads are typical for small scaffolds. Larger scaffolds may require the
calculation of the actual post load to determine the size of pad
required.
5.4.3 Any existing steelwork to be used as support for scaffolding shall be
inspected prior to being used, to ensure its suitability, and condition.
Typical scaffolding footing connections on an offshore platform steel
grating or metal plate decking should have suitable thickness timber
or steel positioned across support steel, to spread the load applied by
standards and base plates. Permanent guardrails shall not be used
as a footing for scaffolds. In no cases should an unsupported post be
placed upon grating without a base plate and / or timber support.

5.5

Posts (See 12.3a and 12.3b)


5.5.1 All posts must be plumb and rigidly braced by horizontal and diagonal
bracing. Maximum spacing between posts in the transverse direction
(width) is 8 feet (2.4 meters) and in length 10 feet (3 meters). Note:
the span on the bearer is limited to 4 feet (1.2 meters) by section 5.6.

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5.6

Scaffolding
Bearers (Transom) (12.3a and 12.3b)
5.6.1 Bearers (Transoms) shall be long enough to fully seat into their
support couplers.
5.6.2 Bearer spans shall not be longer than 4 feet (1.2 meters) without
additional midspan support.
Support can be accomplished be
attachment of a diagonal brace from the midspan of the bearer down
to the nearest node point.
5.6.3 Metal or wooden planking may be used for the elevated work area.
However, both ends of the planking must be tied down or clamped to
the bearer.

5.7

Runners (Ledgers, Ribbons) (12.3a and 12.3b)


5.7.1 Runners shall be installed using right angle couplers along the length
of the scaffold located on both the inside and outside rows of posts at
level heights, and coupled to each post. Runners shall be installed on
the inner side of the post instead of the outer side whenever possible.
5.7.2 Maximum vertical spacing between runners is 6.5 feet (2 meters).
5.7.3 The lowest runner shall not be installed more than 30 inches (0.75
meters) from the bottom, unless it creates a hazard. Where they are
above 30 inches (0.75 meters) as in some offshore applications,
adequate bracing shall be provided, to prevent lateral movement.

5.8

Bracing, Diagonal and Cross Bracing (12.3a, 12.4a, 12.5a and 12.9)
5.8.1 Longitudinal Diagonal bracing shall be installed at approximately a 45
angle from near the base (within 12 inches) of the first post upward to
the extreme top of the scaffold. On scaffolds which are taller than
they are long, this diagonal will reach the last post before it reaches
the extreme top. In this event, the diagonal shall be restarted in the
opposite direction and shall continue up in an alternating direction or
zig-zag pattern. In a similar manner, longitudinal bracing shall be
installed beginning from the bottom of the last post back to the first
post, and repeated as above. On scaffolds that are longer than five
sets of posts, a new line of bracing shall be begun at every fifth post,
and installed per the instructions above. This will create a diamond
shaped appearance on the longitudinal face. This bracing shall be
installed on both the inner and outer rows of posts.
5.8.2 An alternative method of longitudinal diagonal bracing is to install
alternating diagonal bracing in the first bay (between the first and
second sets of posts) all the way to the top. This bracing should be
repeated every fifth post (e.g. between the fifth and sixth sets of posts,
the tenth and eleventh sets of posts, etc.), and at both end bays.

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5.8.3 Bracing should clamp to an exterior post as close to the intersection of
the posts and horizontals as possible, within 12 inches (0.3 meters).
5.8.4 Transverse diagonal bracing shall be installed across the width of the
scaffold. An alternating direction or zig-zag pattern all the way to the
top of the scaffold. The transverse diagonal bracing must be repeated
along the length of the scaffold every third set of posts. On large area
scaffolds where the scaffold is several bays wide, a new line of
transverse bracing shall be started every sixth post in width, in both
directions.
5.8.5 Plan bracing should be installed all rolling scaffolds, at the base and
every three levels in height.

5.9

Board Planking, Overlays and Working Platforms (12.8, 12.12a and 12.12b)
5.9.1 All scaffold boarding and wooden planks shall be selected scaffold
grade as recognized by lumber industry standards and have at least
a minimum size 1.5 inches x 9 inches.
5.9.2 All scaffold metal and wooden planking shall be inspected before use,
during erection, and as part of the workshift inspection.
5.9.3 Scaffold metal or wooden planking used on working platforms, should
cover the complete space between posts. Gaps up to one inch
between planks are allowed. If the post spacing is such that a gap of
more than one inch would occur between the last plank and post, the
last plank shall be positioned as close as possible to the post.
5.9.4 All metal or wooden planking shall be tied in place at both ends, using
a tie down bar or other secure means.
5.9.5 Where wooden planking is lapped, each board shall lap its end
supports (bearers) by a minimum of 12 inches (0.3 meter), and be
secured from movement.
5.9.6 To prevent tripping where the ends of scaffold planks abut each other
to form a flush floor, the abutted ends should be butted closely
together and shall be secured to separate bearers. At corners,
boarding should preferably be butted and not overlapped to minimize
tripping hazards.
5.9.7 Where scaffold planking rests on bearers, ends shall extend a
minimum of 6 inches (15 cm.), but no more than a maximum of 18
inches (45 cm.) over end supports.
5.9.8 Damaged boards (split, burned, chemical contaminated) will be
replaced when found. Boards are the most at risk components for
misuse and damage on any scaffold.

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5.9.9 The maximum span on wood planks shall be 4 feet (1.2 meters).
Intermediate bearers shall be used to limit the span of wood planks.
5.9.10 Loads on individual wood planks shall be limited to 250 pounds
maximum.
5.9.11 The maximum span on manufactured planks such as aluminum or
steel shall be as recommended by the plank manufacturer, based
upon the capacity to carry a minimum load of 250 pounds at the
center.

5.10

Securing the Scaffold to a Structure (12.13)


5.10.1 Scaffolding shall be braced or guyed to an adjacent building, structure
or equipment to prevent it from swaying or tipping over. Ties shall be
at least doubled 12 gauge iron wire or equivalent. The first tie-in in
shall be at a height of three times the narrowest base dimension. Tieins must be repeated at least every 30 feet (9.1 meters) horizontally
and 26 feet (7.9 meters) vertically. The ties should be within three
times the narrowest base dimension to the top working platform.
5.10.2 Tie-ins should be constructed from scaffold tubes creating box ties
with load bearing right angle couplers or girder couplers (beam
clamps) whenever possible. If wire tie-ins are used, number 9 gauge
wire or double wrapped number 12 gauge wire should be used.

5.11

Guardrails Top Rails and Midrails (12.3a)


5.11.1 Open sides and ends of all working levels shall be guarded by top
rails, midrails, and toeboards. The top rail shall not be less than 42
inches (1.07 meters) nor more than 45 inches (1.14 meters above the
platform.
5.11.2 A mid rail shall be not less than 20 inches (0.5 meters) or more than
24 inches (0.6 meters) above the platform. The mid rail shall not be
used as a support for boards to aid working.

5.12

Toeboards (12.3a)
Open sides and ends of all working levels shall have toeboards to prevent
objects laying on the platform from falling over the sides or ends. A half
coupler may be used to secure the toeboards.
5.12.1 Side toe boards should be secured to upright standards, preferably
using a half coupler.
5.12.2 End toeboards should be installed across the whole width of the
scaffolding platform.
5.12.3 Toeboards should be at a minimum of 3.5 inches (9 cm.) high with the
clearance between the toeboard and the platform to be a maximum of
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Scaffolding
-inch (0.6 cm.) A standard scaffold board may be used as a toe
board.
5.12.4 Where barricading cannot be effective, such as where personnel are
required to work or pass under a scaffold platform, or where sensitive
equipment is subject to falling object hazards, a screen (18 gage, inch mesh or equivalent synthetic) shall be installed between the top
guardrail and toeboard of the platform and extend horizontally the
length of the opening.

5.13

Ladder Access Safety


A safe means of access such as a walkway, stairway, or fixed ladder must
be provided to all scaffold platforms. A portable ladder may be used if
securely attached to the scaffold to provide unobstructed access and egress
to scaffold platforms.
5.13.1 Scaffold ladder systems manufactured specifically for use as scaffold
ladders by scaffolding manufacturers are recommended. These
systems typically come with U-shaped brackets with built on couplers
for attachment to the scaffold. The brackets shall be attached to a
separate post adjacent to the main posts so that the ladder is beside
and perpendicular to the guardrails.
5.13.2 When used, portable Ladders must be set-up at a safe angle and
secured to the scaffold to prevent slippage. The distance from the
base of the ladder to the scaffold should be a quarter of the working
height (75 degrees), or four units up to each unit out from the base.
5.13.3 All scaffolding ladders must extend a minimum of 3 feet (1 meter)
above the platform deck, if guardrails and handrails are not required,
otherwise 12 inches (0.3 meter) above top rail to provide a handhold
during mounting and dismounting.
5.13.4 Ladders must be placed on a firm footing to avoid slipping or tipping.
5.13.5 Ladders should always be erected so they are the correct way up, i.e.
extending ladders, so that the extending section is on top.
5.13.6 Ladders must be of the correct length for the job and shall not be
lashed or spliced together, or placed on boxes or other loose packing
to gain extra height.
5.13.7 Ladders shall be inspected prior to each use and as part of the work
shift inspection. Workers should report faulty ladders to their
supervisor without delay. Damaged or defective ladders shall not be
used and should be marked "DO NOT USE. If repairs cannot be
made to a damaged ladder, the ladder must be removed from service
immediately.

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5.13.8 A person climbing a ladder shall face the ladder and use both hands
for climbing. The carrying of tools and materials shall minimized when
traveling up and down ladders. The preferred method is the use of a
hand line for the raising or lowering tools/materials.
5.13.9 A person working on a ladder should not over-reach. The ladder
should be re-positioned to a more convenient site to allow safer
access. It is essential that the position of the ladder is safe and that it
is secured at the top or held firmly at the base to prevent movement
before the ladder is ascended.
5.13.10 Ladders should be removed as soon as a job is complete and stored
in a horizontal position.
5.13.11 Care should be taken when carrying ladders, especially at doorways
or around corners.
5.13.12 Ladders shall be installed such that adequate foot clearance is
maintained above and behind each rung.
5.13.13 Drop bars shall be installed at the point of ladder access whenever
possible.
5.13.14 Ladder rest platforms shall be installed at a minimum of every 35 feet
vertically up the ladder. These rest platforms shall incorporate a
mandatory break in the ladder, and subsequent continuation with a
new ladder. (See Diagram 12.4(a)).

5.14

Incomplete Walkways
If there are any incomplete walkways during erection or dismantling, a RED
Scaff-Tag (indicating the red prohibitive circle and slash across it with the
words DO NOT USE SCAFFOLD) must be attached to all ladders and
access ways to that scaffold. (See Section 7.0 on Scaff-Tags and Hazard
Warning Tape).
If grating or deck plate is removed, a RED Scaff-Tag must be attached to
all ladders and access ways to that scaffold. Also a scaffold barrier should be
erected around the hazardous area.

5.15

Alterations
Scaffolds and their foundations shall only be altered by trained erectors
working under the supervision of the Scaffold Erector responsible for the
scaffold.

5.16

System Scaffolds
All system scaffolds shall be erected per the manufacturers published
instructions and the requirements of this Manual. Since assembly
instructions on system scaffolds can vary from tube and coupler and from
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system to system, the manufacturers assembly and loading instructions
shall be made generally available to all persons responsible for inspecting
the scaffold.

5.17

Combination Scaffolding
At the discretion of the Scaffold Erector the combination of both, system and
conventional tube and clamp may be used.

6.0

INSPECTIONS
Scaffolding should be inspected as follows:
6.1

Completed scaffolds shall be inspected by a Scaffold Erector every seven


days, and after any occurrence which could have caused damage to the
scaffold.

6.2

In addition to ensuring that the scaffold is constructed in accordance with


SOP-45, the inspection shall encompass the following items which may have
occurred prior to or during usage.

6.3

All boarding and wooden planking shall be inspected to ensure the following:
a) No splits, distortions (warping), damage or decay.
b) Notches do not exceed 1/3rd of the width of the board/plank.
c) No chemicals/contamination spilled on the planking such that personnel
at a later date using the scaffolding could get on their bodies while
working or sitting on the scaffolding.
d) Hot welding slag or other burning operations have not damaged the
planking.
e) Secured on platforms, and re-laid if found untied or loose.

6.4

Tubes and couplers shall be inspected and removed from service for the
following:
a) Tubes that are bent more than 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) out of plumb over the
length of the member. Bent tubes are not to be straightened.
b) Tubes that have a visible defect, such as dents, cracks or been subjected
to excessive heat. Cracks on tubes shall not be welded.
c) Couplers that do not tighten securely, have stripped threads, or are loose
when applied to tubes.
d) Couplers that are distorted, loose, or have worn pins. Corrosion, both
internal and external on scaffolding tubing is the foremost danger in this
environment.
e) Couplers shall not be soaked in oil based products. Threads may be
lubricated, but all other areas of the couplers shall be free from
contaminants.

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SOP-45
7.0

8.0

Scaffolding

SCAFF-TAGS AND HAZARD WARNING TAPE (FIGURE 12.6)


7.1

If the scaffold is incomplete, being erected, dismantled or modified the


Scaffold Erector supervising the work, should ensure "RED" Scaff-tags with
the words DO NOT USE SCAFFOLD must be attached to all ladders and
access ways to that scaffold.

7.2

Once a scaffold erection has been completed, inspected and meets a


satisfactory standard, the Scaffold Erector who supervised the erection,
should ensure "GREEN" Scaff-tags (indicating Erection and Inspection
Record information) must be attached to all ladders and access ways to that
scaffold.

7.3

If it is impossible to completely eliminate all hazards from a scaffold or to


meet the intent of SOP45, and the scaffold must be used in that condition,
the scaffold shall be tagged by the Scaffold Erector with a Yellow warning
tag. The nature of the unavoidable hazard should be explained on the tag.
An example might be if plywood decking had to be used to cover a gap
between planks, a small tripping hazard is created. It is presumed the vast
majority of scaffolds can be erected to comply with SOP-45, and that the
need to yellow tag a scaffold would be extremely rare.

7.4

During erection or dismantling where personnel can walk close to and past
scaffolds and staging, hazard warning tape or signs should be used to
barricade off the area.

DISMANTLING
Scaffolding shall be removed upon completion of the scope of work. If the work is
incomplete or suspended, access to the work areas should be prevented by
attaching "RED" Scaff-tags to all ladders and access ways to that scaffold. If a
project is placed on hold: the scaffolding can be left in good working order, green
tagged and inspected in line with the companys procedures. If the scaffolding is to
be isolated then the ladders should be removed and the structure red tagged.
8.1

Do not remove any ties until the scaffold is dismantled to their particular
level.

8.2

Do not remove any of the bracings, bearers, and guardrails other than
progressively as the work proceeds.

8.3

Do not leave a partly dismantled scaffold in an unstable condition.

8.4

Do not leave a scaffold component partially attached to the rest of the


scaffold structure.

8.5

Do not overload the scaffold by the temporary storage of dismantled


material.

8.6

All materials should be lowered to the ground immediately upon being


disassembled.

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8.7
9.0

Scaffolding

Do not allow scaffold components to drop freely.

SCAFFOLDING SUSPENDED BY CABLES (CRADLE)


Occasionally work assignments such as sandblasting, painting, pipefitting,
insulating, general maintenance or new construction is best performed on
scaffolding suspended from a tank roof, I beam of an offshore platform or other
fixed structure to reach the desired elevated area.
9.1

Ensure the suspended scaffolding anchors are secured to the tank roof, I
beam of the offshore platform or fixed structure.

9.2

Ensure the suspended scaffolding safety devices, electric


mechanism and rollers of the scaffold are functioning properly.

9.3

Ensure personnel on the suspended scaffolding wear a full body safety


harness having a D-ring on the back, secured by a lanyard to a lifeline,
drop line or fixed anchor. The lanyard should not be attached to the railing of
the suspended scaffolding.

9.4

If personnel on the suspended scaffolding are working over water, each


person should wear a work vest.

hoisting

When possible, it is advisable to have the rollers on the suspended scaffolding be in


contact with the tank wall or vertical structure as the scaffolding is lowered or raised
rather than the scaffolding hanging several feet away from the tank wall or vertical
structure. Having the scaffolding rollers in contact with the tank wall or structure
prevents the scaffolding from swaying creating an off-balance working condition
for the personnel on the scaffold.
10.0

CRITERIA FOR UNDERHUNG SCAFFOLDS (12.5A)


10.1

All underhung scaffolds shall be hung from structures capable of supporting


at least 4 times the load imposed on them by the scaffold.

10.2

Suspension points of hanger tubes shall be securely fixed to prevent their


being dislodged by all potential forces acting upon them.

10.3

Horizontal tubes shall be affixed to the underneath of existing steel I beams


by the use of a pair of girder couplers (beam clamps) designed for such
purpose. A girder coupler shall be attached on both flanges of the beam two
beam clamps per connection) everywhere a horizontal intersects a beam.
Horizontal tubes shall continue across and be attached to at least two
structural steel I beams.

10.4

Hanger tubes shall be coupled to the horizontal tube that is placed across
the bottom of the supporting beam. Hanger tubes shall be attached using
load bearing right angle couplers.

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SOP-45
10.5

Scaffolding
Check (safety) couplers shall be installed above the load bearing coupler
which connects the hanger tube to the support horizontal. Bearers shall be
installed on top of runners as customary and additional check couplers shall
be placed under the runners.
Check (safety) couplers shall also be installed directly beneath all trapeze
tubes.

10.6

Whenever possible vertical hanger tubes should of one length. Where joints
are necessary, the tubes should be parallel spliced using a minimum of four
couplers.

10.7

The preferred method of underhung scaffold erection is to begin by erecting


a supported scaffold from a lower deck as close as possible to the area
where the underhung scaffold is needed, then build the supported scaffold
up to the underhung beams, attaching to the underhung beams. Temporary
cantilevered erector platforms can be constructed from the supported
scaffold following the underhung beams by pre-placing a swivel coupler onto
the ends of two tubes, then extending the two tubes outward with one
serving as a horizontal and the other as a diagonal, upward and back to the
already constructed portion of the scaffold. Girder couplers connected by
short tubes can be placed under the deck beams as an anchorage point for
100% fall protection.
An alternate erection technique is to install trapeze tubes approximately 2
feet (600 millimeters) below the runners (ledgers) to assist in erection,
modification and dismantling, and also to serve as a secondary support
should the runner slip.

10.8

Runners (ledgers) and bearers (transoms) shall be coupled to hanger tubes


using right-angle couplers.

10.9

Hanger tube spacing shall comply with the same tube and coupler post
spacing requirements for supported scaffolds.

10.10 Bearers or intermediate bearers shall be spaced no more than 1.2 meters on
center under scaffold planks, consistent with supported scaffolds.
10.11 Drop-forged girder couplers shall be used for the support of hanging
scaffolds.
10.12 Diagonal bracing on underhung scaffolds shall be installed in the same
manner as diagonal bracing on conventional base supported scaffolds.
Diagonal bracing shall originate within 12 inches of a node point. See section
5.8.
10.13 Diagonal plan bracing shall be installed in each end bay and every fourth bay
along the length.
10.14 An additional (third) guardrail shall be installed above the normal guardrail on
all underhung scaffold on offshore facilities. The vertical spacing to the third
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Scaffolding
guardrail shall be approximately equal distance to the normal midrail and
guardrail.

10.15 Under no circumstances should a half coupler be used to support a


horizontal tube to the underside of an I beam.
11.0

USE OF SCAFFOLDS
Scaffold Users should abide by the following common sense guidelines:
11.1

Do not work from a scaffold if it has not been inspected that workshift and
tagged as Approved, Ready to Use. In addition, do a visual inspection for
the obvious requirements such as ladder access, full planking, guardrails,
plumbness, rigidity, etc.

11.2

Do not use a scaffold if it does not have a proper ladder or other equivalent
safe means of access. Do not climb the scaffold itself.

11.3

Do not use a scaffold if the working platform is not planked all the way
across. Do not use a scaffold if only one or two planks are placed where
there should be more.

11.4

Do not use a scaffold if the planks are not scaffold grade. If the planks are
man made, make sure they are in good condition.

11.5

Do not use a scaffold if the planks are bowing more than 1/60 of their span.

11.6

Do not use a scaffold if it is not plumb, square and rigid.

11.7

Do not use a scaffold taller than 3 times its minimum base unless it is tied,
guyed, or braced to prevent tipping ( 5.3.1).

11.8

Do not climb the scaffold other than by the safe means of access provided.
Never climb guardrails.

11.9

Do not work if you feel weak, sick or dizzy. Never use drugs or alcohol on a
scaffold.

11.10 Do not climb with slippery shoes.


11.11 Do not carry materials as you climb. Keep both hands on the ladder side
rails.
11.12 Do not jump on to planks or platforms.
11.13 Do not use scaffolds during storms, rain or high wind.
11.14 Do not allow tools, material or debris to accumulate on the platforms and
cause a hazard.

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11.15 Do not alter the scaffold. Scaffold alterations may only be performed by a
trained crew under the supervision of a Scaffold Erector.
11.16 Do not use heat producing equipment such as welding or burning equipment
without taking precautions to protect the scaffold members or boards.
11.17 Do not work if you notice any components which are damaged.
11.18 Do not attempt to extend working heights by planking guardrails or by the
use of boxes or ladders on scaffold platforms.
11.19 Do not use scaffold as material hoist towers or for mounting derricks unless
the scaffold is designed for such use.
11.20 Do not bridge between towers with planks or stages unless the scaffold
assembly has been designed for this use by a qualified person.
11.21 Do not violate clearances from electrical power lines.
11.22 Do not overload the platform by more than its intended uniform loading.
11.23 Do not overload the scaffold by point loading a plank above its capacity.
11.24 Do not ride scaffolds constructed on fork lifts, truck trailers, or other moving
vehicles.
11.25 Do not use the scaffold unless the proper falling object protection for the
users and workers below has been provided.
11.26 Do not use rolling towers unless the wheels are locked.
11.27 Do not ride rolling towers while they are being moved.
12.0

REFERENCES
Scafftag Products, Ltd.
Chevron Safety in Designs Manual Section 8, "Scaffolds" (Section 7 in some earlier
editions of SID)
Gaviota Oil and Gas Plant Safety Manual
U.S. OSHA 29 CFR Subpart L "Scaffolding"
U.K. Health and Safety Executive Guidance Note GS15 General Access Scaffolds
Scaffold Training Institute Competent Person Manual
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8

Drawings
Diagrams of scaffold components
Two Level Tube & Coupler scaffold
Multiple Section Independent Scaffold
Typical underhung Tube & coupler scaffolds
Scaffold Tags
Node point
Plank detail

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12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
12.13

Bracing detail
Foundations
Table of loadings and allowable platforms
Diagrams of typical scaffold grade planks
Diagrams of Typical Tie In Details

12.1

Drawings
The followings drawings are intended to supplement SOP45 as illustrative
and educational material. Site conditions may vary so the drawings below
are not intended as detailed plans or solutions for every field condition. When
modifications are necessary, the requirements of SOP45 must be followed.

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Scaffolding

FIGURE 12.2 SCAFFOLD TUBE & COUPLER COMPONENTS

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Scaffolding

4-0 [1.2m]
7-0 [2.1m]

TOE BOARD
GUARDRAIL
WIRE TOE BOARD
TO BEARER
SLEEVE
COUPLER

ADD EXTRA BEARERS


IN BETWEEN POSTS AS
REQD. 4-0 [1.2m] MAX.
SPACING BETWEEN
BEARERS

1-9
[0.5m]
1-9
[0.5m]

6-6
[2.0m]

PUTLOG
COUPLER
FULLY PLANKED
PLATFORM
MAX. 1 GAP

SCAFFOLD
LADDER

SWIVEL CLAMP
AT DIAGONALS
EXTENSION OF
BEARER OR
SEPARATE POST
RIGHT ANGLE
CLAMP AT
BEARERS &
RUNNERS

6-6
[2.0m]

POST
RUNNER 10-0 LG. MAX

BEARER
TRANSVERSE DIAG.
BRACE 9-0 [2.7m]
TUBING
SOLID FOUNDATION
STEEL BASE PLATE

LONGITUDINAL DIAGONAL BRACE


WOODEN PAD

FIGURE 12.3a Two Level Tube & Coupler Scaffold


Less than 4 feet in Width

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Scaffolding

10-0 [3.0m]

8-0 [2.4m]

FULLY PLANKED
PLATFORM
MAX. 1 GAP

TOE BOARD

GUARDRAIL

WIRE TOE BOARD


TO BEARER
SLEEVE
COUPLER

1-9
[0.5m]

ADD EXTRA
BEARERS IN
BETWEEN
POSTS AS
REQD.
4-0[1.2m] MAX.
SPACING
BETWEEN
BEARERS

1-9
[0.5m]
BEARERS WIDER
THAN 4-0 ON
SPAN MUST BE
SUPPORTED IN
6-6 THE MIDDLE (SEE
[2.0m] DETAILS OPTION
1 & OPTION 2)

EXTENSION OF
BEARER OR
SEPARATE POST

SWIVEL CLAMP
AT DIAGONALS
6-6
[2.0m]

RIGHT ANGLE
CLAMP AT
BEARERS &
RUNNERS

SCAFFOLD
LADDER

BEARER

RUNNER 10-0 LG. MAX

TRANSVERSE DIAG. BRACE


11-0 [3.4m] TUBING
POST

SOLID FOUNDATION
STEEL BASE PLATE

LONGITUDINAL
DIAGONAL BRACE
WOODEN PAD

FIGURE 12.3b Two Level Tube & Coupler scaffold


More than 4 feet in Width

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Figure 12.3 c Details of intermediate bearer support

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Scaffolding

FULLY PLANKED
PLATFORM
MAX 1 GAP

GUARDRAIL

TOE BOARD

POST

SLEEVE COUPLER
(STAGGERED)
BEARER
4-0 SPAN
MAX.

SCAFFOLD
LADDER
EXTENSION OF
BEARER OR
SEPARATE POST

POSITIVE TIES
SEE FIG. 12.13

NODE
POINT
RUNNER 10-0
SPACING MAX.

TRANSVERSE
DIAG. BRACING
(ZIG-ZAG)

LADDER REST
PLATFORM EVERY
35-0 MAX.

LONGITUDINAL
DIAGONAL BRACING
(ZIG-ZAG)

FIGURE 12.4a Multiple Section Independent Scaffold

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Scaffolding

FULLY PLANKED
PLATFORM
MAX 1 GAP

GUARDRAIL

TOE BOARD

POST
BEARER
4-0 SPAN
MAX.
LADDER NOT
SHOWN FOR
CLARITY

SLEEVE
COUPLER
(STAGGERED)

RUNNER 10-0
SPACING MAX.
LONGITUDINAL
DIAGONAL BRACING
(ZIG-ZAG)
TRANSVERSE
DIAGONAL BRACING
(ZIG-ZAG)

FIGURE 12.4b Multiple Section Independent Scaffold


Wider than 4 feet.

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FIGURE 12.5a Typical Underhung Tube & Coupler Scaffold

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Scaffolding

FIGURE 12.5a Details Above

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FIGURE 12.6 SCAFFOLD TAGS

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DIAGONAL
POST

BEARER
RUNNER

DIAGONAL

FIGURE 12.7 NODE POINT

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Scaffolding

Figure 12.8 Plank Detail

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LONGITUDINAL DIAGONAL
BRACING (ZIG-ZAG)
EVERY 4th SET OF POST

TRANSVERSE DIAGONAL
BRACING (ZIG-ZAG)
EVERY 3rd SET OF POST

FIGURE 12.9 Bracing Detail

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Scaffolding

FIGURE 12.10 Foundation

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TABLE 12.11 ALLOWABLE LOADINGS


Note: The above limits are from OSHA based on a light duty scaffold 4 feet wide by 10 feet
long, or a medium duty scaffold 4 feet wide by seven feet, or a heavy duty using 2.5 inch OD
bearer tubing. For other sizes a leg load calculation must be done by a qualified person.

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FIGURE 12.12(a) View of scaffold grade stamp

FIGURE 12.12(b) Platform with scaffold grade stamps visible

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FIGURE 12.12 (c) Examples of scaffold grade stamps

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Figure 12.13 Typical Tie In details

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