You are on page 1of 20

Name : Hamid Darmadi

Subject: Curriculum Development

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Research Background
English language has spread out for any purposes of communication. That
is why English is taught in every country. The function can be as the second
language or foreign language. Nowadays, students can study English by
various sources including textbook as the instructional materials. Instructional
materials take two forms: Printed ones, such as textbook, workbook, teachers
guide, etc., and non-print ones, such as audiotapes, videotapes, audiobooks
and other computer-based materials (Tok, 2010, p.508). Among those
teaching and learning materials, textbooks play a crucial part. As Richard
(2001, p.1) state that textbook is a key component in most language program.
It means that the providence of necessary input was received by the students
in the language teaching at class. It also serve as the basis for the language
content and skills to be taught and other kinds of language practice that the
learners take part in. Besides, regarding to its validity, textbook is still chosen
because it was analyzed, evaluated and developed in every aspect. The
textbook also build four language skills as proposed to be acquired for foreign
learners such as speaking, reading, listening and writing.
Other research also done in materials evaluation such as Ansary and
Babaii (2002) which used ten EFL/ESL textbook reviews and ten EFL/ESL
textbook evaluation checklists, and attempted to discover what authors often
consider as the quality elements of English language textbooks and introduced
1
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

a textbook evaluation scheme. They used their checklist to evaluate a general


English textbook entitled Combination Level 3 in Iran. Rahimy (2007)
evaluated a reading comprehension textbook for the university students
entitling Reading Comprehension for the University Students, in Iran.
Karamouzian and Riazi (2008) analyzed the content of a reading
comprehension series entitled Reading through Interaction used at the
university level in Iran. From the previous research, we can conclude that
evaluating the materials is something to be considered for selecting a good
textbook and it still developing nowadays.
Unfortunately, for Indonesian students as foreign learner, there is a gap
between rural area school and city school. Clarry Sada (2014, p.1) observe
that in rural areas, the available materials are high-standard for learners, the
teachers capability in creating or developing suitable materials are still
expected, the rapid change of English language curriculum and its
infrastructure problems. The writer also assumes that the gap between public
and private school is also revealed. Many well-trained teacher will come to the
public school to get high achievement credibility status. This will cause the
quality of private school getting lower. The government also paid more
attention to the public school rather than private school.
Thus, the primary purpose of evaluation is to help students to learn with
appropriate facility, including well-designed textbooks. When the focus of
using textbook is primarily for the students, one of the considerations is
material evaluation. Evaluation should be applied to get the teacher and the

2
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

learners perception about how well or how the textbook works in teaching
learning situation. To select an effective and appropriate textbook, materials
evaluation becomes a process in certain criteria for choosing a good textbook.
To measure any particular materials, any preferred evaluation checklists are
used. In this case, the writer adapted Alamris Checklist to evaluate BSE
English for SMK 1 Textbook.
Hopefully, this research will bring the findings that whether BSE English
for SMK 1 Textbook is appropriate for public or private vocational School as
the models.

1.2. Research Problem


Based on the research background, the problems of the research can be
formulated as follows:
The general research question is Does BSE English for SMK 1 meet the
teachers and students need to be a Model Textbook?
The specific questions are based on the twelve categories of evaluating the
textbook. There are listed below:
1. How satisfactory is the general appearance of the book?
2. How appropriate is the design and illustration of the book?
3. Are the accompanying materials relevant to the subject matter being
discussed?
4. Are the objectives used in the book?
5. Are the topic contents carefully selected?

3
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

6. Are the language contents carefully selected?


7. How far are the social and cultural contexts appropriate in the book?
8. How much is the teaching of language skills satisfied in the book?
9. Is the book suitable considering its teachability?
10. Is the book suitable considering its flexibility?
11. Is the book suitable considering its teaching methods?
12. Are the test, activities, and exercises provided in the book effective?
13. What are the strengths of the book?
14. What category does the book need to improve?

1.3. Hypotheses
1.3.1. Alternative Hypotheses (Ha)
The hypotheses of this research is BSE English for SMK 1 will meet
the teachers and students need to be a Model Textbook.
1.3.2. Null Hypotheses (H0)
The hypotheses of this research is BSE English for SMK 1 wont
meet the teachers and students need to be a Model Textbook

1.4. Research Significance


The writer believes that through this research, the English teachers will
become aware of using appropriate teaching strategy in appropriate English
textbook. The teacher is hope to be motivated to reflect on the problems of
existing book, modify it, or revise it. For the publisher, it is important to have

4
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

analysis of what the teachers need and students need before publishing a
textbook. It also concern about the objectives of the class. For the future
researcher, it is important to find out the strengths and limitations of the
evaluated books and use the findings to reduce the negative features of the
books. For the government, the evaluation should make them more wise and
careful in designing or developing curriculum

1.5. Research Purpose


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tenth grade of Vocational
High School Textbook: BSE English for SMK 1 to be appropriate for the
teachers and the students need at public or private school.

1.6. Terminology
Foreign Language is a language which is not normally used for
communication in a particular society. (Tomlinson, 1998)

Materials is anything which is used to help language learning, such as course


book, textbook, magazines, films, tape recording, CD-ROMs, etc. (Tomlinson,
2003)
Material Evaluation is a procedure that involves measuring the value (or
potential value) of a set of learning materials. (Tomlinson, 2003)

5
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1. Theoretical Framework
1.1.1. Teaching English as a Foreign Language
Teaching is defined as the use of preplanned behaviors that
increase the probability of affecting a positive change in the students
behavior (Levin and Nolan, 1996:4). Fleming and Walls cited on
Sianggam S. (2007: 220) also quoted that the basic idea of teaching a
language in the classroom is to help the students to get the knowledge and
skill on the teaching material. To cover all definition, the writer conclude
that teaching is an activity or helping somebody to know and understand to
do something by giving or showing them on instruction that causes the
students behavior change based on teaching material.
Based on the writers experience in teaching, the writer found that
the students had difficulties in studying English because of several factors.
They were lack of vocabulary and grammar, lack of English exposure as it
is not the native (as foreign language) and also about the appropriate
textbook. They confused about the materials which are too difficult to
comprehend or to be understood. While the students still had a trouble to
develop their language skills in English, the teacher lost their guidance by
the failure of education curriculum development in Indonesia from KTSP
into 2013 Curriculum. It was hard for the teacher to know their
competence in English because they have to follow the textbook available

6
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

to be taught. Even they prefer to use internet sources better than textbook.

1.1.2. Roles of textbook in ELT


Textbook have long been considered to carry a certain degree of
importance in English language teaching. Cunningworth (1997, p.7) claim
that English textbooks have the roles as 1) a resource for presentation
material, 2) a source of activities for learner practice and communicative
interaction, 3) a reference source for learners on grammar, vocabulary,
pronunciation, etc, 4) a resource of stimulation and ideas for classroom
language activities, 5) a syllabus, 6) a resource for self-directed learning or
self-access work, and 7) a support for less experienced teachers who have
yet to gain in confidence.
The roles of textbook in the teaching learning process are also
should be recognized by the teachers. McGrath (2002) state that textbook
is important because it sets the direction, content and to a certain extent of
how the lesson is to be taught. It is significant images to see that teachers
have it as the reflection of their attitudes and beliefs toward textbooks
which will impact on how teachers use textbooks. Sometime we found
some teachers who enter a class without a textbook provide much teaching
learning activity in the classroom. Thus, it is through using textbooks that
the language itself can be learn and practiced.

7
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

1.1.2.1. The advantages and disadvantages of using Textbook in ELT


Graves (2000, p.174-175) lists the following advantages of using
textbook such as:
1. It provides a syllabus for the course.
2. It provides security for the students because they have a kind of road
map of the course.
3. It provides a set of visual, activities, readings, etc., and so saved the
teacher time in finding or developing such materials.
4. It provides teachers with a basis for assessing students learning.
5. It may include supporting materials, and
6. It provides consistency within a program across a given level.

While the disadvantages were identified as follows:


1. The content or examples may not be relevant or appropriate to the
group you are teaching.
2. The content may not be at the right level.
3. There may be too much focus on one or more aspects of language and
not enough focus on others, or it may not include everything you want
to include
4. There may not be the right mix of activities.
5. The sequence is lockstep.
6. The activities, readings, visuals, etc., may be boring.
7. The material may go out of date.

8
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

8. The timetable for completing the textbook or parts of it may be


unrealistic.

1.1.3. Materials evaluation


1.1.3.1.The definition of materials evaluation
Tomlinson (2003, p.15) defines that materials evaluation is a
procedure that involves measuring the value (or potential value) of a set of
learning materials. it is focus on the needs of the users of the materials and
makes subjective judgments about their effects.
An evaluation might consider what materials should have in it.
According to Nunan (1988), a well-designed material should be clearly
linked to the curriculum they serve, should be authentic in terms of text
and task, should stimulate interaction, should encourage learners to focus
on formal aspects of the language, should encourage learners to develop
skills, and should encourage learners to apply their developing skills to the
world beyond the classroom.
Therefore, Cunningworth (1984, p.15-17) respond to those criteria
and proposed four general guidelines of textbook as the materials
evaluation. There are:
1. Textbooks should correspond to learners need.
2. Textbook should reflect the uses.
3. Textbooks should take account of students needs as learners and
should facilitate their learning processes, without dogmatically

9
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

imposing a rigid method.


4. Textbooks should have a clear role as a support for learning.

From these proposals, such checklist instrument is needed.

1.1.3.2.Types of materials evaluation


According to McGrath (2002), three stages can be considered in
the process: pre-use, in-use, and post-use evaluation.
1.1.3.2.1. Pre-use evaluation
Pre-use evaluation will help teachers to find out the potential
value of the materials in the textbooks.
1.1.3.2.2. Whilst-use evaluation
Whilst-use evaluation is when the value of materials is
measured while using them or observing its being used.
1.1.3.2.3. Post-use evaluation
Post-use evaluation measures the actual effects of the materials
on the users.

In this research, the writer choose post-use evaluation which


should be administered by the teachers to find out whether the textbooks they use
meet the learner and learning needs, and to propose suggestions for additions or
deletions to enhance the relevance and utility of the textbooks for the learners.

10
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

This type is hopes to give suggestion to select supplementary materials that should
be used in vocational high school for English class.

1.1.3.3. Criteria for materials evaluation


Alamri (2008: 105-107) provides a set of criteria for evaluating
textbooks. The writer adapts the criteria covered within twelve areas,
which are as follows:
1. General Appearance
a. The cover is informative and attractive.
b. The font size and type used in the book are appropriate for tenth
graders.
c. There is an informative orientation page.
d. The book has a complete and detailed table of contents.
e. Every lesson is given an appropriate title.
f. The book has an appropriate glossary.
g. The book has a complete bibliography
2. Design and Illustration
a. There is a variety of design to achieve impact.
b. There is enough white space to achieve clarity.
c. There is consistency in the use of headings, icons, labels, italics,
etc.
d. The illustrations are varied and attractive.
e. The illustrations stimulate students to be creative.

11
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

f. The illustrations are functional.


g. The illustrations facilitate students' visualizations without imposing
complete visual images.
3. Accompanying Materials
a. Cassettes that accompany the book are suitable.
b. The CD-ROM that accompanies the book is suitable.
c. The posters and flash cards that accompany the book are suitable.
d. The teacher's book that accompanies the book is informative.
4. Objectives
a. Generally, the book fulfills the general objectives of teaching
English language in Indonesia.
b. Generally, the book fulfills the general objectives of teaching
English language for elementary stage.
c. The terminal objectives specified explicitly in the pupil's book are
based on some theoretical background.
d. The terminal objectives define the desired degree of mastery.
e. The terminal objectives meet the needs and wants of tenth grade.
f. The terminal objectives define the desired degree of mastery.
g. The terminal objectives meet the needs and wants of tenth grade.
h. The developmental objectives are specified at the beginning of
each lesson in the teacher's book.
i. They are clear and precise.
j. They are measurable.

12
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

k. They suit the level of tenth grade.


l. They contribute to the attainment of terminal objectives.
5. Topic Contents
a. The topics of the book are varied and engaging to appeal to tenth
graders with different interests and personalities.
b. The topics encourage students to express their own views.
c. The book avoids potentially embarrassing or disturbing topics.
d. The topics allow students to think critically.
6. Language Contents
a. The book covers the main grammar items appropriate to tenth
graders.
b. The book includes adequate materials for teaching vocabulary.
c. The book includes adequate material for pronunciation work.
d. The

materials

for

teaching

grammar,

vocabulary,

and

pronunciation are graded in an appropriate manner.


7. Social and Cultural Contexts
a. The social and cultural contexts in the book are comprehensible.
b. The content of the book is free from stereotypical images and
information.
c. Students can learn about the inner lives of the characters used in
the book.
d. The book expresses positive views of ethnic origins, occupations,
age groups, social groups and disability.

13
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

8. Language Skills
a. The four skills are adequately covered.
b. There is material for integrated skills work
c. Listening material is well recorded, as authentic as possible, and
accompanied by background information, questions and activities.
d. There is sufficient reading material. (There is a range of varied and
interesting reading text that can engage students cognitively and
effectively.)
e. There is sufficient material for spoken English (e.g. dialogues,
role-plays, etc.)
f. Writing activities are suitable in terms of length, degree of
accuracy, and amount of guidance.
9. Teachability
a. The book helps teachers to minimize their preparation time.
b. The book helps teachers exploit the activities to meet the students'
expectations.
c. The book helps teachers cater for mixed ability students and
classes of different sizes.
10. Flexibility
a. The book is appealing and useful to the students.
b. The book caters for different levels of formality.
c. The book provides opportunity for teachers and students to localize
activities.

14
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

d. The book caters for different preferred learning styles.


11. Teaching Methods
a. The teaching methods used in the book are the latest in the field.
b. The methods used are student-centered.
c. The methods used allow students to talk more than teachers.
d. The methods used allow various class activities.
12. Practice and Testing
a. The book provides a variety of meaningful and mechanical
exercises and activities to practice language items and skills.
b. It provides communicative exercises and activities that help
students carry out their communicative tasks in real life.
c. Every exercise has a clear direction.
d. There are a reasonable and appropriate number of exercises.
e. The tests are valid and contain correct language.
f. The book provides periodical revisions for diagnostic purposes.
g. The book provides models for final achievement tests.

With regard to the system of rating, he develops based on a 4-point


scale, namely strongly disagree (1), disagree (2), agree (3), and strongly
agree (4).

1.1.3.4. The use of checklist as an evaluation tool


An evaluation checklist is an instrument that provides the evaluator

15
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

with a list of features of successful learning-teaching materials so that the


researcher, the teacher and the students can rate the quality of the material
(Souri, Kafipur, and Souri, 2011). This is the instrument for carrying out
post-use evaluation of the English textbooks.
McGrath (2002, p.48) believes that a good checklist should fulfill
the following functions:
1. Provide comprehensive information of the sort that will facilitate
evaluation and comparison.
2. While making as few demands on the evaluator as possible.
3. Lead for the selection of the materials which are appropriate for the
context.

1.2. Conceptual Framework


After knowing the criteria for choosing a suitable method of evaluation,
there are three steps to be considered. The first step is a consideration of
relevant contextual factors and the gathering of information analysis of the
material. The second step is a close evaluation using the checklist method
which should require careful tailoring to the needs of learners, the teaching
context and the need for periodic updating recognized (McGrath, 2002, p.56).
And the last step is the decision making phase which can be reached through a
careful and systematic approach that addresses the questions.

16
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
1.1. Form of Research
Three basic methods of textbook evaluation are known in the literature: 1)
impressionistic method, 2) in-depth method, and 3) checklist method. To be
able to select from these options; each method was precisely examined for its
characteristics and capabilities in terms of comprehensiveness, practicality,
and the reliability of the obtained results (objective vs. subjective evaluations).
Due to the large number of advantages that using the checklist method in
contrast with other methods has (McGrath, 2002), this method was selected
for the study.

1.2. Technique of Data Collecting


The technique to collect the data is by using survey.

1.3. Tools of Data Collecting


The tools of collecting the data are by using questionnaire and checklist. In the
research, questionnaire and checklist obtain in qualitative and quantitative
data. The questionnaire were translated into Indonesian Language to ensure
that each items are clear and understood by the participants.

1.4. Data Analysis


In analyzing the survey data, the rating will take the form of Likert Scales.

17
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

Rating scales were coded as 1- strongly disagree, 2- disagree, 3 agree and 4


strongly agree. The mean, percentage and frequency will be calculate.

18
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

REFERENCES
Alamri, A. A. M. (2008) An Evaluation of the Sixth Grade English Language
Textbook for Saudi Boys Schools. MA thesis, King Saudi University.
Ansari, H., & Babaii, E. (2002). Universal characteristics of EFL/ESL textbooks:
a step towards systematic textbook evaluation. The Internet TESL
Journal
Vol.
VIII,
No.
2.
Retrieved
from:
http://iteslj.org/Articles/Ansary-Textbooks/
Bryd, P. (2001). Textbooks: Evaluation for selection and analysis for
implementation. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.) Teaching English as a
second or a foreign language (3rd ed.), pp. 415-427. Boston: Hienle &
Hienle Publishers.
Clarry Sada. 2014. Developing ELT Materials for Young Learners of Foreign
English Language Learners. A Proceeding of 2nd International
Conference on English Language Teaching Material. Vol. 2. p.1-13.
Cunningsworth, A. (1984). Evaluating and selecting EFL teaching materials.
London: Heinemann Educational Books
Cunningsworth, A. (1995) Choosing your Coursebook. UK: Heineman
Graves, K. (2000). Designing language courses. Boston: Heinle & Heinle
Publishers.
Karamouzian, F.M. 2010.
A Post-Use Evaluation of Current Reading
Comprehension Textbooks Used in TEFL Programs. The Iranian EFL
Journal,Volume 6 (4), 24-62.
Karamoozian, F. M., and Riazi, A. M. (2008). Development of a new checklist for
evaluating reading comprehension textbooks. ESP World, 7(3).
Retrieved
June,
2008
from:
http://www.espworld.info/Articles_19/issue_19.htm
McGrath, I. 2002. Materials Evaluation and Design for Language Teaching.
Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Miekley, J. (2005). ESL textbook evaluation checklist. The Reading Matrix, 5(2).
Retrieved
from:
http://www.readingmatrix.com/reading_projects/miekley/project.pdf

19
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Name : Hamid Darmadi


Subject: Curriculum Development

Nunan, D. (1998). Language teaching methodology. London: International books


distributors Ltd.
Nunan, D. (1988) Learner-Centered Curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Rahimy, R. (2007). A coursebook evaluation. ESP World. Vol.6, Issue 2(15).
Retrieved from: http://www.esp-world.info/contents.htm
Richards, J. C. (2001). The role of textbooks in a language program. Retrieved
November
12,
2
2008,
from
http://www.professorjackrichards.com/pdfs/role-of-textbooks.pdf
Richards, J. C. (2001). Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Soori ,A.; Kafipour, R.; and Soury M. (2011) . EFL Textbook Evaluation and
Graphic Representation. European Journal of Social Sciences. ISSN
1450-2267 Vol.26 No.3 (2011), pp. 481-493 EuroJournals Publishing,
Inc. 2011, http://www. European journal of social sciences.com
Tok, Hidayet. (2010). TEFL textbook evaluation: from teachers perspectives.
Educational Research and Review, 5 (9), 508-517.
Tomlinson, B (1998). Glossary of basic terms for materials development in
language teaching and introduction. In B. Tomlinson ( ed.), Materials
development in language teaching. (pp. 1-24). Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Tomlinson, B. 2003. Developing Materials for Language Teaching. London:
Continuum.

20
Tanjungpura University, West Kalimantan, Indonesia