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Contents

LTE System Introduction

Access Technology of DL (OFDM/OFDMA)


LTE Frame & Slot Structure
LTE DL Physical Signals

LTE DL Channels

LTE System Introduction

Access Technology of DL (OFDM/OFDMA)


LTE Frame & Slot Structure
LTE DL Physical Signals

LTE DL Channels

LTE System Introduction (1/2)


3GPP LTE system
Long Term Evolution (LTE)
Step toward the 4th generation of radio technologies
3.9 G technology

Higher performance in mobility


Low latency
Supports two types of transmission mode FDD / TDD
WCDMA

HSPA

HSPA+

LTE

Max downlink speed

384 Kbps

14 Mbps

28 Mbps

100 Mbps

Max uplink sped

128 Kbps

5.7 Mbps

11 Mbps

50 Mbps

Latency

150 ms

100 ms

~ 50 ms

~ 10 ms

Access methodology

CDMA

CDMA

CDMA

OFDMA / SC-FDMA

LTE System Introduction (2/2)


Downlink
Radio access technology : OFDMA
Subcarrier spacing : 15 kHz, 7.5 kHz
Supports 7.5 kHz : difference between uplink and downlink

The 15 kHz subcarrier spacing supports two different kinds of CP;


Types of CP decide number of OFDM symbol per slot
Normal CP (4.69 s) : 1 slot = 7 OFDM symbols
Extended CP (16.67 s) : 1 slot = 6 OFDM symbols

The 7.5 kHz subcarrier spacing supports only one kind of CP


1 slot = 3 OFDM symbols

Uplink
Radio access technology : SC-FDMA
Supports only 15 kHz subcarrier spacing
Number of SC-FDMA symbol per slot is same as downlink
Normal CP : 1 slot = 7 SC-FDMA symbols
Extended CP : 1 slot = 6 SC-FDMA symbols

LTE System Introduction

Access Technology of DL (OFDM/OFDMA)


LTE Frame & Slot Structure
LTE DL Physical Signals

LTE DL Channels

Multipath fading (1/2)


Multipath fading
A phenomenon of time dispersion, when the transmitted signal
propagates via multiple paths with different delays
Arrives via multiple paths with different
amplitude, phase and delays

Frequency selective fading !

f
< Impulse >

f
< Wireless channel >

< Multipath intensity profile >

Multipath fading (2/2)


Multipath fading cont.

Symbol time Ts , channel delay spread

Ts
f

t
Ts
< Impulse train >

< Wireless channel >

Ts

f
Ts s : no intersymbol interference flat fading
Ts s : intersymbol interference frequency selective fading

Multicarrier Modulation (1/2)


Principles of multicarrier modulation
Drawback in existing high data rate system
High number of symbols sent per second
Channel delay spread >> symbol time Ts (in general)

Occur severe ISI (Inter-symbol interference)

High-rate bit stream Divide into L lower-rate substreams


Ts : ISI free
Data rate R/L, passband bandwidth B/L

T
No ISI
Flat fading

ISI
Frequencyselective fading

Multicarrier Modulation (2/2)


Time domain

Frequency domain
Multi-carrier

Data on
single
carrier

f1

f2

f3

f4

subch1

t
f1

subch2

t
Multicarrier
subch3
with 4
subchannels

OFDM

f2
Better band efficiency
than MCM !

t
f3

subch4

t
f4

f
f1 f2 f3 f4

OFDM (1/8)
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
Multicarrier modulation method
Transmit the signal by dividing into several sub-carriers (multi-carriers)

Orthogonal in time domain between sub-carriers

Shorter ISI
Higher bandwidth efficiency

By using OFDM

Guard intervals

Zero valued guard interval vs. Cyclic prefix guard interval

OFDM (2/8)
Zero prefix vs. cyclic prefix
Zero Prefix

Cyclic Prefix

Zero prefix : Add zero in the guard band


No ISI but ICI
Reduce transmit power

Cyclic prefix : Copy and paste last symbols


No ISI and ICI
Ensure the orthogonality of each subchannel

OFDM (3/8)
Cyclic prefix
Ensure the orthogonality of each subchannel

OFDM (4/8)
Cyclic prefix cont.

OFDM (5/8)
Cyclic prefix

Orthogonal

OFDM (6/8)
OFDM transmitter

OFDM (7/8)
OFDM receiver

OFDM (8/8)
Advantage
High spectral efficiency
Robustness in frequency selective fading and ISI
Cyclic prefix preserves orthogonality between subcarriers
Cyclic prefix allows the receiver to capture multipath energy more efficiently

Overcomes severe ISI through the use of the IFFT and cyclic
prefix
Possible to implement faster by using FFT/IFFT
Simple equalizer

Drawbacks
Sensitive to frequency offset, timing error
High sensitivity ICI
Large PAPR(Peak-to-Average Power Ratio)
Decrease the power efficiency of RF amplifier

OFDMA
OFDMA
Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access
Multi-user version of the OFDM modulation scheme
Multiple access by assigning subcarriers to individual users

LTE System Introduction

Access Technology of DL (OFDM/OFDMA)


LTE Frame & Slot Structure
LTE DL Physical Signals

LTE DL Channels

LTE Frame Structure (1/3)


FDD-LTE frame structure (type1)
1 radio frame (Tf = 307200Ts = 10 ms)
1 slot (Tslot = 15360Ts = 0.5 ms)

#0

#1

#2

#3

#18

#19

1 subframe (1 ms)

TDD-LTE frame structure (type2)


1 radio frame ( Tf = 307200Ts = 10 ms)
1 half-frame ( 153600Ts = 5 ms)

1 subframe ( 30720Ts = 1 ms)

#0

#2

DwPTS

UpPTS

Guard period

1 slot ( Tslot = 15360Ts = 0.5 ms)

#3

#4

#5

#7

#8

#9

LTE Frame Structure (2/3)


Transmission in FDD-LTE and TDD LTE

TDD-LTE
Special subframe : provide guard time for DL-to-UL switching
Single carrier frequency

FDD-LTE
Two carrier frequencies for UL transmission and DL transmission
UL and DL transmission can occur simultaneously

LTE Frame Structure (3/3)


TDD-LTE configuration
Periodicity of DL/UL
: 5 ms, 10 ms

#0, #5 : Always allocated for DL

LTE Slot Structure (1/2)


Resource grid for downlink
In the frequency domain,
RB
DL
DL
N sc N RB N sc
Subcarriers for downlink

DL
N symbol
OFDM Symbols

In the time domain


DL
N symbol OFDM symbols

Configuration

N scRB

Resource Block
DL
N symbol

DL
N symbol
N scRB

Resource element
Normal CP

15 kHz

12

15 kHz

12

7.5 kHz

24

Resource element
(k, l)

Extended CP

DL
N RB
is related to

the transmission BW
DL
6 N RB
110

N scRB
subcarriers
DL
N scRB N RB

subcarriers

LTE Slot Structure (2/2)


Normal CP & extended CP

First CP is longer than others

LTE System Introduction

Access Technology of DL (OFDM/OFDMA)


LTE Frame & Slot Structure
LTE DL Physical Signals

LTE DL Channels

LTE Physical Signals (1/7)


Physical Signals
Downlink
Reference signal
(RS)
Synchronization signal
(SS)

Cell-specific RS
UE-specific RS
MBSFN RS

Uplink
Demodulation RS
Sounding RS

Primary SS
Secondary SS

Reference signal (RS)


Provide for channel estimation between UE and eNB
Performs as pilot signal for coherent detection

Synchronization signal (SS)


Acquire frequency and symbol synchronization to a cell

LTE Physical Signals (2/7)


Synchronization signals : PSS, SSS
The detection of these two signals

Enables time and frequency synchronization


Provides the UE with the physical layer identity of the cell
Provides the cyclic prefix length
Informs the UE whether the cell uses FDD or TDD

Transmitted periodically, twice per 10ms radio frame


the PSS and SSS are transmitted in the central six RBs

LTE Physical Signals (3/7)


Synchronization signals : PSS, SSS cont.
In a FDD cell
The PSS is always located in the last OFDM symbol of the first and 11th slots
of each radio frame
The SSS is located in the symbol immediately preceding the PSS

LTE Physical Signals (4/7)


Synchronization signals : PSS, SSS cont.
In a TDD cell
The PSS is located in the third symbol of the 3rd and 13th slots
The SSS is located three symbols earlier
The precise position of the SSS changes depending on the length of the CP
which is chosen for the cell

LTE Physical Signals (5/7)


DL reference signals
Cell-specific downlink RS
Transmitted in every DL subframe
Used for channel estimation for coherent demodulation of any dowinlink
transmission
Cell-specific RSs are staggered with Six possible frequency shift

LTE Physical Signals (6/7)


DL reference signals cont.
Cell-specific reference signals in case of multi-antenna
transmission

LTE Physical Signals (7/7)


DL reference signals cont.
UE-specific RS
Be intended to be used for channel estimation by one specific terminal
No collision with the cell-specific RSs

MBSFN RS
MBSFN subframe consists of two part : Unicast part, MBSFN part

LTE System Introduction

Access Technology of DL (OFDM/OFDMA)


LTE Frame & Slot Structure
LTE DL Physical Signals

LTE DL Channels

LTE Physical Channels (1/6)


LTE physical channels
Transmission channels that carry user data and control message
LTE physical channels vary between the uplink and the downlink
Downlink
PBCH, PDSCH, PMCH, PDCCH, PCFICH, PHICH

Uplink
PUSCH, PUCCH, PRACH

LTE Physical Channels (2/6)


PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel)
Utilized for downlink data transport for unicast
Should be designed for very high data rates

PBCH (Physical Broadcast Channel)


Carries general system information for all UEs to access the
network
Need high transfer power to be transformed in low error rate
Allocated in the center of the channel and occupies 6 RB (72 subcarriers)

Located in slot #1 at OFDM symbols #0~3

PMCH (Physical Multicast Channel)


Similar to the PDSCH except that it carries information to
multiple users for point-to-multipoint broadcast services
MBSFN operation

LTE Physical Channels (3/6)


1.08 MHz (=6RB)
System bandwidth

Slot #0

Subframe

#0
#1
#2
#3
PBCH

Slot #1

LTE Physical Channels (4/6)


PDCCH (Physical Downlink Control Channel)
Carries the channel allocation and control information
Scheduling decision

Consists of one or more consecutive Control Channel Elements


First 3 OFDM symbols of the downlink slot can be used
To allow for terminals to decode scheduling information as early as possible

PCFICH (Physical Control Format Indicator Channel)


Carries the number of OFDM symbols used for transmission of
PDCCHs in a subframe (n=1, 2, 3)
Mapping to resource elements : 4REG (16 RE excluding RS) in
the 1st OFDM symbol
Spread over the whole system bandwidth
To avoid the collisions in neighboring cells, the location depends
on cell identity

PHICH (Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel)


Carries the Hybrid ARQ Indicator (ACK/NCK)

LTE Physical Channels (5/6)

LTE Physical Channels (6/6)


1.08 MHz (=6RB)
System bandwidth

First 3 OFDM symbols


PDCCH

Slot #0

Subframe

#0
#1
#2
#3
PBCH

Slot #1