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4 System Design
The Balance by Design Method will be used in the design of this system. In this design
method, calculation is done from each hood then proceeds, segment by segment, towards the fan.
The following will be determined or calculated:

1. Calculate Volume Flow Rate

Obtained from the design data of welding slot

hood of ACGIH Ventilation Manual. Found in
Fig. 5 of Appendix A.

2. Determine duct velocity

Use minimum transport velocity required for

welding fumes found in Table 1.0 of Appendix

3. Calculate maximum duct


Use Equation 2.7 to determine the area of the

duct. The maximum duct diameter is obtained
using area of a circle A=pi*d2/4

4. Calculate duct velocity pressure

Use equation 2.8 to convert duct velocity

obtained at step 2 to velocity pressure

5. Determine slot velocity

Use 2000 fpm as discussed in section 3.3.2

6. Calculate Hood Static

7. Identify sources of duct
pressure losses

8. Determine Straight Duct


9. Calculate friction factor of the

straight duct

10. Calculate friction loss

11. Calculate Elbow Losses

This is the pressure loss experienced in the

hood. Use Equation 2.10 for slotted hood.
(Obtained from ACGIH)
Refer to section D of 2.2.4 for different
sources of duct pressure losses
Determine Straight Duct

Use Equation 2.12 for

galvanized steel. (Obtained from
With the straight duct length and friction
factor calculated previously, friction loss
can be calculated using Equation 2.11
Use Equation 2.14. Loss coefficient C in this
formula can be obtained from Table 1.1 Elbow
Loss Coefficient of Appendix C. (Obtained from
Use Equation 2.18. Loss coefficient K in this
formula can be obtained from Graph 2 of Appendix

12. Calculate Branch Entry

13. Calculate Duct SP Loss


Results from steps from 6, 10, 11, and 12 are to be

added and will be named as the duct sp loss.

Steps 1-13 basically covers the calculation of the pressure losses in each duct segment
(from hood towards the junction). Steps 1-13 will be repeated to a different segment of the
system. After it has been done, the duct SP loss for both segments/branches will be compared.

14. Calculate the ratio of the higher

SP to the lower SP loss

Use Table 1.7 of the appendix to

determine actions to be taken.

15. If ratio is less than 1.05

Flow of the branch with lower SP

loss will not be corrected

16. If ratio is at 1.05 to 1.20

The flow in the branch of lower SP loss

will be corrected using the equation
found in Table 1.8 Benchmarks for
balancing. Corrected velocity and
velocity pressure will also be
recalculated using equations 2.7 and

17. If ratio is greater than 1.20

The duct of the branch with lower

static pressure will be resized and
steps 1-13 will be repeated.

18. Repeat this until the ratio

satisfies the conditions in steps 15-

Use equations 2.7 and 2.8


After satisfying the condition, the pressure losses from the junction up until the fan will
be calculated. Steps 1-13 will be repeated. At this point the flowrate now will be the sum of the
flowrates of the two branches.