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This article is entitled Human Rights from an Islamic Perspective. It was written by
Hayatullah Laluddin, Amir Husin Mohd. Nor , Abdel Wadoud Moustafa Moursi elSeoudi,
Ibnor Azli Ibrahim, Ahmad Muhammad Husni, Anwar Fakhri Omar, Muhammad Adib
Samsudin & Muhammad Nazir Alias. The article is written in 18 pages. This article discussed
about human rights from Islamic perspective, comparing it with the western views.
The writer was good at grabbing readers attention to keep on
reading the next point that he has as he has a good command of vocabs which allow readers
to immerse themselves within the passage while reading them. The way he introduces his
argument was convincing, attracting, exploring to readers which such readers can feel
curious, satisfied and eager to continue reading his article until its end. He can finally
convince other readers on the stance that he is having
through correct and current example.
The writer attempted to highlight on the rights to have human rights. In our opinion,
the writer was successful in bringing all readers to understand one point after another, which
is easy to complex. He introduced about The necessarity of human rights apply to all men,
but it has been overwritten and taken by political intrigue as western powers are the only
recognized cultures in modern times, such led to the perception of the human rights doctrine
as a tool for the propagation of western moral imperialism and economic domination. Recent
decades show most Islamic states suffers from abuse of human rights which bring dismay to
its name. However this does not entirely represents the whole Islamic community.
The next point is he briefly discussed on Human rights in Quran. Quran which sent
upon to Muhammad for mankind has spoken about human rights thousand years ago before
the establishment of modern body of United Nations that emphasize in maintaining orders
and protecting civil rights in every manner. In Quran, it is discussed that everyone deserved

equality as Islam is concerned with respect, tolerance, justice, and equality and its concepts of
freedom and human rights are imbedded in the faith in One God. Hence, mankinds security
and peace depend on his compliance with His commands and obedience to Him. The
arguments that he stated is fairly accepted by us as he was able to convince his points.
Next he emphasized on Maqasid al-Shariah As the Basis of Human Rights. Islam
emphasize on maslahah , public interest; a basis of law. According to necessity and particular
circumstances, it consists of prohibiting or permitting something on the basis of whether or
not it serves the public's benefit or welfare. The concept of public interest can be very
helpful in cases not regulated by the Quran, Sunnah, or qiyas (analogy).interest can be very
helpful in cases not regulated by the Quran, Sunnah, or qiyas (analogy). This cannot be
achieved unless what is called, the five principles values comprising religion, life, intellect,
progeny and property are secured and preserved. The preservation of these elements is
essential to the existence of society and continuation of human life.
The next point is interrelated with the previous points, which the writer argues violation
of human rights is a crime and punishable. Violation of these rights is seen as a great crime
with grave consequences. The punishments for violation of these rights are specifically
provided for in the textual sources of the law, hence, are called as had (fixed punishment).
This aims to protect the human rights itself from being abused by any parties. It also helps to
preserves the well-being of someone, ensure their security and protects their honour and
pride. Consequently, the protection of the right to life, and preserving religion, reason, human
dignity and property constitute the five basic fundamentals upon which the general human
rights are based. In Islamic legal framework, as stated earlier, these rights are addressed under
the doctrine of the objectives of shariath. Unfortunately, Islam despite its pioneering position
in respect of human rights, within the current circumstances is exposed to unfair accusations.

This calls for concerted efforts by Muslims scholars to clarify Islams position with regard to
the issue of human rights.
The writer also mention the Strategy for Human Rights Protection which can be divided
into affirmative measures and negative measures. The ways are the adaptation of the
measures that gradually lead to the creation and establishment of the basic constituent
elements of these rights. For example, Islam preserve the right of religion by means of
propagation and call for the establishment of the pillars of belief, the carrying of dawah, to
establish the bases of religion such as, faith through uttering the Oneness of God and the
prophet hood of Muhammad, performance of prayer, paying of Zakat, poor due, fasting and
pilgrimage. Maintaining healthy nutrition for ones body is a must and it is illegal to not do so
or deprived from food and water without any proper reasons. Islam protects the intellectual
rights and invention that benefits society. Islam permit attainment of property through
permissible means, allow travelling in quest of sustenance and halal property throughout the
earth. It legislates rules and regulations for management and acquisition of property and its
On the other hand for negative measures, this way comprises prohibitory measures by
means of which destructive elements to the basic rights are negated. In the same manner as
Islam has preserved the universal rights by affirming their constituent elements, it preserved
them by negation of destructive elements. Thus, it repulses things or acts that are detrimental
to religion or weakens its position. Such measures include prohibition of all deeds that are
conducive to weakening religiosity individually or collectively. Therefore, it prohibits
apostasy and considers it as a grave sin and prescribed death sentence as a punishment for
such crime. Islam illegalize insanity and mental disorder, as the way to protect the right of
education and knowledge. The right of property is also preserved by prohibition of

misappropriation or violation of ones own property or others without the due process of law.
The example is to take others property or use it without seeking his permission and consent
is prohibited.
The most distinctive points the writer had written is about The Distinctive Features of Human
Rights in Islam This can be divided into :
Right of Honour
The right of honour and respect is mentioned in the Quranic verse:
We have honoured the children of Adam ( Quran 17:70) 210
This verse clearly states the dignity that God bestowed on man. The Glorious
Qur'an and Sunnah honour man and his individual rights in the society. They did not
overlook the needs and rights of the society and public interest. In fact, the Almighty
God states in the Glorious Qur'an:
Right of Equality and no Discrimination
As far as the basic human rights are concerned Islam does not permit any
discrimination between human beings in respect of their entitlement to these rights. Race,
sex, lineage and property do not carry any weight in the context as it is clear from the
Quranic verse:
O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into
nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily
the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And
Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things). (Quran 49: 13)

This verse signifies the desirability of interaction between nations. However, due to
human selfishness and jealousy such interactions may experience some strains and setbacks.
Therefore, Islam devised a legal system that addresses all human rights and responsibilities in
a balanced way. In fact, the human rights lay at the very roots of its structure and the right of
equality is one of them.
The Right of Justice and Cooperation

Allah does not forbid you to act righteously and justly towards those who have
not fought against you in matter of religion, and who have not expelled you from
your homes. ( Quran, 60:8)

Making charity as a characteristic of faith sets a lofty pattern of charity which is pure and
universal. It is on this bases that Islam establishes the practice of alms-giving, hence, making
one fond of spending voluntarily without any compulsion, in anticipation of return in this
world and the reward in hereafter from God the Almighty. The same inspiration was
manifested by the people of Madinah, as they received the emigrants and give them shelter,
sharing their property and houses with them with cheerfulness and gladness of spirit. (Ibid)
The Right of Freedom of Religion and Expression
Islam does not allow any compulsion in respect of ones belief and religious thought. This
is stated in the Quranic verse: there is no compulsion in religion ( Quran, 2:255)
Generally, this verse in its totality implies the negation of forced conversion to any religion,
hence, implying the freedom of religion.
The Right of Property and Protection of Life.

Beside, Quranic verses implying the right of property and protection of life, there are
some traditions of Prophet Muhammmad with the same implications. For example, the saying
of the prophet which states: Verily, your blood and your property are forbidden to be
The Right of Privacy
Islam secures privacy of family by not allowing one to enter others house without
seeking permission. This is clear from the Quranic verse prohibiting unauthorized entrance to
other house without his prior knowledge of doing so. It is stated in the holy Quran: Enter
not houses other than your own, until ye have asked permission and saluted those in them
( Quran, 24:27)
The Right to Social Welfare
Mutual responsibility is the basic principle underlying the social relation network in
the society. It is through this basic principle that poverty can be eradicated and individual
members of the society can achieve an honorable life. Therefore, Islam has prescribed certain
measures to insure individual freedom from the burden of poverty, unfulfilled needs and
necessities. Imposition of certain portion in the wealth of the rich to be spent on the poor in
according to their needs is one of such measures. This is stated in the Quran as follow:
And those in whose wealth are a recognized right. For the (needy) who asks and him
who is prevented (for some reason from asking) Quran, 70:23-24).
The Right of Education
Islam does not consider acquisition of knowledge only as a right that an individual is
entitled to; it rather envisages it as an obligation of every individual member of society. For,

through knowledge human being can improve his living skill and achieve prosperous life,
hence securing his interest in this world and the hereafter. This is stated in the prophet hadith
as follow: Seeking knowledge is an obligation of every Muslim, male and
female( AlHaisami, Nur al-din, 1992: 473) Islam initiates certain punitive measure for those
abstaining from acquisition of knowledge or its dissemination. This is due to the fact that it is
every individual Muslim obligation to acquire knowledge. The nations claiming to be the
champion of human rights lack such measures.
After reading and analysing the article, it proves that Islam gives a clear statement
regarding human rights. It covers every single aspect of rights that everyone can think of. To
think of that due to Islam itself is a divine religion that comes from God Himself, bestowed
upon those who choose the right path in their lives. The basis of human rights are brightly
discussed and should be the standard reference to every mankind as Allah had mention in
Quran that Islam has been perfected. Hence, human rights should not only being justified by
pieces of paper, instead to practically taken measures and applies in moments of life, starting
from home until till worldwide. This depends on the Ummah and future leaders who will lead
and shape the world, may into a better place or worse is up to them.