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- Lecture 06 - Integration of measurable functions (Schuller's Lectures on Quantum Theory)
- Lecture 01 - Logic of Propositions and Predicates (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)
- Lecture 03 - Classification of Sets (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)
- Lecture 04 - Topological Spaces: Construction and Purpose (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)
- Lecture 09 - Differential structures: the pivotal concept of tangent vector spaces (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)
- Lecture 16 - Dynkin Diagrams from Lie Algebras, and Vice Versa (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)
- Lecture 05 - Topological Spaces: Some Heavily Used Invariants (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)
- Lecture 06 - Topological Manifolds and Manifold Bundles (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)
- Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics, Lectures 1-25
- Lecture 10 - Construction of the Tangent Bundle (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)
- Lecture 08 - Tensor space theory I: over a field (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)
- Lecture 07 - Differentiable structures: definition and classification (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)
- Lecture 08 - Spectra and perturbation theory (Schuller's Lectures on Quantum Theory)
- Lecture 15 - The Lie Group SL(2,C) and its Lie Algebra sl(2,C) (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)
- Schuller's Lectures on Quantum Theory 1-8
- Lecture 18 - Reconstruction of a Lie Group from its Algebra (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)
- Lecture 05 - Measure Theory (Schuller's Lectures on Quantum Theory)
- Lecture 07 - Self-adjoint and essentially self-adjoint operators (Schuller's Lectures on Quantum Theory)
- Lecture 13 - Lie groups and their Lie algebras (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)
- Lecture 17 - Representation Theory of Lie Groups and Lie Algebras (Schuller's Geometric Anatomy of Theoretical Physics)

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Set theory is built on the postulate that there is a fundamental relation (i.e. a predicate

of two variables) denoted and read as epsilon. There will be no definition of what

is, or of what a set is. Instead, we will have nine axioms concerning and sets, and

it is only in terms of these nine axioms that and sets are defined at all. Here is an

overview of the axioms. We will have:

2 basic existence axioms, one about the relation and the other about the existence of the empty set;

4 construction axioms, which establish rules for building new sets from given

ones. They are the pair set axiom, the union set axiom, the replacement axiom

and the power set axiom;

2 further existence/construction axioms, these are slightly more advanced and

newer compared to the others;

1 axiom of foundation, excluding some constructions as not being sets.

Using the -relation we can immediately define the following relations:

x

/ y : (x y)

x y : a : (a x a y)

x = y : (x y) (y x)

Remark 2.1. A comment about notation. Since is a predicate of two variables, for

consistency of notation we should write (x, y). However, the notation x y is much

more common (as well as intuitive) and hence we simply define:

x y : (x, y)

and we read x is in (or belongs to) y or x is an element (or a member) of y. Similar

remarks apply to the other relations ,

/ and =.

2.2 Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms of set theory

Axiom on the -relation. The expression x y is a proposition if, and only if, both x and y

are sets. In symbols:

x : y : (x y) Y (x y).

10

We remarked, previously, that it is not the task of predicate logic to inquire about the

nature of the variables on which predicates depend. This first axiom clarifies that the

variables on which the relation depend are sets. In other words, if x y is not a

proposition (i.e. it does not have the property of being either true or false) then x and

y are not both sets.

This seems so trivial that, for a long time, people thought that this not much of a

condition. But, in fact, it is. It tells us when something is not a set.

Example 2.1 (Russells paradox). Suppose that there is some u which has the following

property:

x : (x

/ x x u),

i.e. u contains all the sets that are not elements of themselves, and no others. We wish

to determine whether u is a set or not. In order to do so, consider the expression u u.

If u is a set then, by the first axiom, u u is a proposition.

However, we will show that his is not the case. Suppose first that u u is true. Then

(u

/ u) is true and thus u does not satisfy the condition for being an element of u,

and hence is not an element of u. Thus:

u u (u u)

and this is a contradiction. Therefore, u u cannot be true. Then, if it is a proposition,

it must be false. However, if u

/ u, then u satisfies the condition for being a member

of u and thus:

u

/ u (u

/ u)

which is, again, a contradiction. Therefore, u u does not have the property of being

either true or false (it can be neither) and hence it is not a proposition. Thus, our first

axiom implies that u is not a set, for if it were, then u u would be a proposition.

Remark 2.2. The fact that u as defined above is not a set means that expressions like:

u u,

x u,

u x,

x

/ u,

etc.

are not propositions and thus, they are not part of axiomatic set theory.

Axiom on the existence of an empty set. There exists a set that contains no elements. In

symbols:

y : x : x

/ y.

Notice the use of an above. In fact, we have all the tools to prove that there is only

one empty set. We do not need this to be an axiom.

Theorem 2.2. There is only one empty set, and we denote it by .

11

Proof. (Standard textbook style). Suppose that x and x 0 are both empty sets. Then

y x is false as x is the empty set. But then:

(y x) (y x 0 )

is true, and in particular it is true independently of y. Therefore:

y : (y x) (y x 0 )

and hence x x 0 . Conversely, by the same argument, we have:

y : (y x 0 ) (y x)

and thus x 0 x. Hence (x x 0 ) (x 0 x) and therefore x = x 0 .

This is the proof that is found in standard textbooks. However, we gave a definition

of what a proof within the axiomatic system of propositional logic is, and this proof

does not satisfy our definition of proof.

In order to give a precise proof, we first have to encode our assumptions into a sequence of axioms. These consist of the axioms of propositional logic (the empty sequence) plus:

a1 y : y

/x

a2 y : y

/ x0

i.e. x and x 0 are both empty sets. We now have to write down a (finite) sequence of

propositions:

q1 . . .

q2 . . .

..

.

qM x = x 0

with M to be determined and such that, for each 1 6 j 6 M one of the following is

satisfied:

(A) qj a1 or qj a2 ;

(T) qj is a tautology;

(M) 1 6 m, n < j : (qm qn qj ) is true.

These are the three conditions that a sequence of propositions must satisfy in order to

be a proof.

12

Proof. (Formal) We begin with a tautology.

q1 y

/ x y : (y x y x 0 )

(T)

q2 y : y

/x

(A) using a1

q3 y : (y x y x 0 )

((p r) p) r,

where p y

/ x and r y : (y x y x 0 ) and it is easily seen to be true by

constructing a truth table. Moreover, by the definition of , we may rewrite q3 as:

q3 x x 0 .

The next three steps are very similar to the first three:

q4 y

/ x 0 y : (y x 0 y x)

(T)

q5 y : y

/ x0

(A) using a2

0

q6 y : (y x y x)

q6 x 0 x.

Finally, we have:

q7 (x x 0 ) (x 0 x)

tautology. Recalling the definition of =, we may rewrite q7 as:

q7 x = x 0

thereby concluding the proof in seven steps.

Axiom on pair sets. Let x and y be sets. Then there exists a set that contains as its elements

precisely x and y. In symbols:

x : y : m : u : (u m (u = x u = y)).

The set m is called the pair set of x and y and it is denoted by {x, y}.

Remark 2.3. We have chosen {x, y} as the notation for the pair set of x and y, but what

about {y, x}? The fact that the definition of the pair set remains unchanged if we swap

x and y suggests that {x, y} and {y, x} are the same set. Indeed, by definition, we have:

(a {x, y} a {y, x}) (a {y, x} a {x, y})

independently of a, hence ({x, y} {y, x}) ({y, x} {x, y}) and thus {x, y} = {y, x}.

13

Remark 2.4. The pair set axiom also guarantees the existence of one-element sets. If x

is a set, then we define {x} := {x, x}. Informally, we can say that {x} and {x, x} express

the same amount of information, namely that they contain x.

Axiom on union sets. Let x be a set. Then there exists a set whose elements are precisely the

elements of the elements of x. In symbols:

x : u : y : (y u s : (y s s x))

The set u is denoted by

x.

Example 2.3. Let a, b be sets. Then {a} and {b} are sets by the pair set axiom, and hence

x := {{a}, {b}} is a set, again by the pair set axiom. Then the expression:

[

x = {a, b}

is a set by the union axiom.

Notice that, since a and b are sets, we could have immediately concluded that {a, b} is

a set by the pair set axiom. The union set axiom is really needed to construct sets with

more than 2 elements.

Example 2.4. Let a, b, c be sets. Then {a} and {b, c} are sets by the pair set axiom, and

hence x := {{a}, {b, c}} is a set, again by the pair set axiom. Then the expression:

[

x =: {a, b, c}

is a set by the union set axiom. This time the union set axiom was really necessary

to establish that {a, b, c} is a set, i.e. in order to be able to use it meaningfully in

conjunction with the -relation.

The previous example easily generalises to a definition.

Definition. Let a1 , a2 , . . . , aN be sets. We define recursively for all N > 2:

[

{{a1 , a2 , . . . , aN }, {aN+1 }} .

{a1 , a2 , . . . , aN+1 } :=

S

Remark 2.5. The fact that the x that appears in x has to be a set is a crucial restriction.

Informally, we can say that it is only possible to take unions of as many sets as would

fit into a set. The collection of all the sets that do not contain themselves is not a set

or, we could say, does not fit into a set. Therefore it is not possible to take the union of

all the sets that do not contain themselves. This is very subtle, but also very precise.

Axiom of replacement. Let R be a functional relation and let m be a set. Then the image of

m under R, denoted by imR (m) is again a set.

Of course, we now need to define the new terms that appear in this axiom. Recall that

a relation is simply a predicate of two variables.

14

Definition. A relation R is said to be functional if:

x : ! y : R(x, y).

Definition. Let m be a set and let R be a functional relation. The image of m under R

consists of all those y for which there is an x m such that R(x, y).

None of the previous axiom imply that the image of a set under a functional relation

is again a set. The assumption that it always is, is made explicit by the axiom of

replacement.

Is is very likely that the reader has come across a weaker form of the axiom of replacement, called the principle of restricted comprehension, which says the following.

Proposition 2.5. Let P(x) be a predicate and let m be a set. Then the elements y m such

that P(y) is true constitute a set, which we denote by:

{y m | P(y)}.

Remark 2.6. The principle of restricted comprehension is not to be confused with the

principle of universal comprehension which states that {y | P(y)} is a set for any

predicate and was shown to be inconsistent by Russell. Observe that the y m

condition makes it so that {y m | P(y)} cannot have more elements than m itself.

Remark 2.7. If y is a set, we define the following notation:

x y : P(x) : x : (x y P(x))

and:

x y : P(x) : ( x y : P(x)).

Pulling the through, we can also write:

x y : P(x) ( x y : P(x))

( x : (x y P(x)))

x : (x y P(x)))

x : (x y P(x)),

where we have used the equivalence (p q) (p q).

The principle of restricted comprehension is a consequence of the axiom of replacement.

Proof. We have two cases.

1. If y m : P(y), then we define: {y m | P(y)} := .

15

2. If y m : P(y),

then let R be the functional relation:

R(x, y) := (P(x) x = y) (P(x) y = y)

and hence define {y m | P(y)} := imR (m).

Dont worry if you dont see this immediately. You need to stare at the definitions for

a while and then it will become clear.

Remark 2.8. We will rarely invoke the axiom of replacement in full. We will only invoke

the weaker principle of restricted comprehension, with which we are all familiar with.

We can now define the intersection and the relative complement of sets.

Definition. Let x be a set. Then we define the intersection of x by:

\

[

x := {a

x | b x : a b}.

T

If a, b x and x = , then a and b are said to be disjoint.

Definition. Let u and m be sets such that u m. Then the complement of u relative to

m is defined as:

m \ u := {x m | x

/ u}.

These are both sets by the principle of restricted comprehension, which is ultimately

due to axiom of replacement.

Axiom on the existence of power sets. Let m be a set. Then there exists a set, denoted by

P(m), whose elements are precisely the subsets of m. In symbols:

x : y : a : (a y a x).

Historically, in nave set theory, the principle of universal comprehension was thought

to be needed in order to define the power set of a set. Traditionally, this would have

been (inconsistently) defined as:

P(m) := {y | y m}.

To define power sets in this fashion, we would need to know, a priori, from which

bigger set the elements of the power set come from. However, this in not possible

based only on the previous axioms and, in fact, there is no other choice but to dedicate

an additional axiom for the existence of power sets.

Example 2.6. Let m = {a, b}. Then P(m) = {, {a}, {b}, {a, b}}.

Axiom of infinity. There exists a set that contains the empty set and, together with every

other element y, it also contains the set {y} as an element. In symbols:

x : x y : (y x {y} x).

16

Let us consider one such set x. Then x and hence {} x. Thus, we also have

{{}} x and so on. Therefore:

x = {, {}, {{}}, {{{}}}, . . .}.

We can introduce the following notation for the elements of x:

0 := ,

1 := {},

2 := {{}},

3 := {{{}}},

...

This would not be then case without the axiom of infinity since it is not possible to

prove that N constitutes a set from the previous axioms.

Remark 2.9. At this point, one might suspect that we would need an extra axiom for

the existence of the real numbers. But, in fact, we can define R := P(N), which is a set

by the axiom on power sets.

Remark 2.10. The version of the axiom of infinity tat we stated is the one that was first

put forward by Zermelo. A more modern formulation is the following. There exists a

set that contains the empty set and, together with every other element y, it also contains the

set y {y} as an element. Here we used the notation:

[

x y :=

{x, y}.

With this formulation, the natural numbers look like:

{, {}, {, {}}, {, {}, {, {}}}, . . .}

This may appear more complicated than what we had before, but it is much nicer

for two reasons. First, the natural number n is represented by a n-element set rather

than a one-element set. Second, it generalizes much more naturally to the system of

transfinite ordinal numbers where the successor operation s(x) = x {x} applies to

transfinite ordinals as well as natural numbers. Moreover, the natural numbers have

the same defining property as the ordinals: they are transitive sets strictly well ordered

by the -relation.

Axiom of choice. Let x be a set whose elements are non-empty and mutually disjoint. Then

there exists a set y which contains exactly one element of each element of x. In symbols:

x : P(x) y : a x : ! b a : a y,

T

where P(x) ( a : a x) ( a : b : (a x b x) {a, b} = ).

Remark 2.11. The axiom of choice is independent of the other 8 axioms, which means

that one could have have set theory with or without the axiom of choice. However,

standard mathematics uses the axiom of choice and hence so will we. There is a

number of theorems that can only be proved by using the axiom of choice. Amongst

these we have:

17

every vector space has a basis;

there exists a complete system of representatives of an equivalence relation.

Axiom of foundation. Every non-empty set x contains an element y that has none of its

elements in common with x. In symbols:

\

x : ( a : a x) y :

{x, y} = .

An immediate consequence of this axiom is that there is no set that contains itself as

an element.

18

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