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In your SELECT statement, after specifying the column(s), when you execute the SQL

statement, the name of each column appears as the column header.

If you want, you can display any string of


your choice for the column header.
To specify a column header other than the
name of the column, if you are using the
Query Designer, type the desired string in
the Alias column corresponding to the
column.
Here is an example:

Here is an example:

If you are writing your SELECT statement in a Query Editor or at a command prompt
(PowerShell or else), on the right side of the column name, leave an empty space. Then
type a letter or a word as the alias name of the column. Here are examples:
USE VideoCollection1;
GO
SELECT Title Name, Director Master, Rating Exclusion FROM Videos;
GO
If you want an alias name that uses more than one word and you want the words
separate, you can put them in double-quotes. Here is an example:
USE VideoCollection1;

GO
SELECT Title Name,
Director Master,
Rating Exclusion,
YearReleased "Copyright Year" FROM Videos;
GO
This would produce:

Another solution is to include the alias name between [ and ]. Whether the alias is in one
or many words, you can inlude it in double-quotes or in square brackets [ ].
Instead of using just an empty space between the column name and its alias, you can
type AS. Here are examples:
SELECT FirstName,
LastName,
HomePhone AS PhoneNumber,
ParentsNames AS NamesOfParents
FROM
Registration.Students;
GO

Remember that if the alias is in more than one word and they are separate, you can either
include it in double-quotes or between [ and ]. Here are examples:
SELECT FirstName [First Name],
LastName "Last Name",
HomePhone AS [Phone Number],
ParentsNames AS "Names of Parents"
FROM
Registration.Students;
GO
This would produce:

You can also qualify a column using the name of the table. Here are examples:
SELECT Students.FirstName AS [First Name],
Students.LastName "Last Name",
Students.HomePhone AS [Phone Number],
Students.ParentsNames [Names of Parents]
FROM
Registration.Students;
GO

By specifying a schema, the statement can also be written as follows:


SELECT Registration.Students.FirstName AS [First Name],
Registration.Students.LastName AS [Last Name],
Registration.Students.HomePhone AS [Phone Number],
Registration.Students.ParentsNames AS [Names of Parents]
FROM
Registration.Students;
GO
We have already seen how to create an alias for a table. If you are working in the Query
Designer and if you create an alias in the Properties window, as soon as you do this, the
alias is written immediately in both the Criteria and the SQL sections. Otherwise, you can
directly create an lias in your SQL statement. After doing this, you can qualify each
column by preceding it with the name of the alias and a period. Here is an example:
SELECT std.FirstName AS [First Name],
std.LastName AS [Last Name],
std.HomePhone AS [Phone Number],
std.ParentsNames AS [Names of Parents]
FROM
Registration.Students std;
GO
You can also create an alias for some or all columns. Here are examples:
SELECT [Little Angels].FirstName [First Name],
"Little Angels".LastName AS [Last Name],
Gender,
[Little Angels].EmailAddress "Email Address",
ParentsNames [Parents Names],
[Little Angels].HomePhone AS "Home Phone"
FROM
Registration.Students [Little Angels];
GO
In this and other lessons, we will use a database named FunDS. Fun is fun. The DS
stands for department store.
FunDS is a fictitious company that sells clothes and beauty accessories at a nearby mall.
We have been commissioned to create an application for the FunDS company. We start
with a database that holds an inventory of the items sold in the store. To start (in this
lesson), we have created a simple list of items and we will see how to assist the
management with analyzing that inventory.

Each item sold in the store has:


a. A unique item number: The management or the
clerk performing data entry specifies that number.
The number is between 100000 and 999999
b. An item name: This is also a small description of the
item. We would add a category and sub-category
but at this time, we are keeping things simple
because we are in the simple designing phase. For
this reason, some (if not most) items include a word
that identify their category. Examples include:
dress, skirts, watch, pants, shoes, wallet
a

The manufacturer: This is the company that makes


the item sold in the store

The item size: Most clothes, shoes, and other items


are recognized for their size. There is no standard
for the size; it depends on the item. There are many
other items that don't use/need a size

The unit price: This is how much a customer would


pay for the item

The discount rate: This number specifies whether an


item is discounted and, if so, by what percentage

In later lessons, we may improve the database but at


this time, we are starting it a little simpler for illustration
purposes and just for our lessons.

Practical Learning: Using Alias Names


1. Open the Department Store 1 file (Department Store 1). Click inside the
document. Press Ctrl + A and press Ctrl + C to copy everything
2. Launch Microsoft SQL Server and click Connect
3. In the Object Explorer, right-click the name of the server and click New Query
4. Press Ctrl + V to paste the code
5. To create the database, right-click in the middle window and click Execute
6. In the Object Explorer, Right-click Databases and click Refresh
7. Expand Databases. Expand DepartmentStore1 and expand Tables
8. Right-click Inventory.StoreItems and click Edit Top 200 Rows
9. On the main menu, click Query Designer -> Pane -> Diagram
10. On the main menu, click Query Designer -> Pane -> Criteria
11. On the main menu, click Query Designer -> Pane -> SQL
12. In the Diagram pane, remove the check boxes of all fields

13. In the SQL pane, delete TOP (200)


14. In the Criteria pane, click the box under the Column header. You may receive an
error message box:

If so, read the message and click OK. Then click the arrow of the combo box and
select ItemNumber:

15. Press Tab, type Item # andclick somewhere else in the window

16. In the Diagram pane, click the check box of ItemName


17. In the Criteria pane, click the box at the intersection of ItemName and Alias
18. Type Name/Description
19. In the Diagram pane, click the check box of ItemSize
20. In the Criteria pane, click the box at the intersection of ItemSize and Alias
21. Type Size
22. In the Diagram pane, click the check box of UnitPrice
23. In the Criteria pane, click the box at the intersection of UnitPrice and Alias
24. Type Unit Price and click somewhere else in the window:

25. Right-click somewhere in the window and click Execute SQL

A Combination or Expression of Columns


In our review of string-based functions, we saw how to concatenate strings. The operation
is also available in a SELECT statement. This means that you can combine the values of

separate columns to create a string or a value that is in fact an expression. For example,
you can combine a first name and a last name to produce a full name as an expression.
Another expression can use a date on the table, add a number to it to get a date on
another day. An expression can also be used to perform a calculation on two or more
columns such as employees weekly hours multiplied by their hourly salary to get their
weekly salary.
The most common operator used is the addition. It can be used to combine two or more
strings to get a new one. Here is an example:
SELECT FirstName + N' ' + LastName
FROM
Registration.Students;
GO
This would produce:

The addition can also be used on numeric values. All other arithmetic operators can be
used. For example, you can multiply an employee's weekly time to an hourly salary to get
a weekly salary. The statement of such an expression can be written as follows:
SELECT WeeklyHours * HourlySalary
FROM Payroll
You can also create an alias for an expression to give it the desired name. To do this, on
the right side of the expression, type AS followed by the name. As we learned already, if
the alias is in more than one word, include it in either single quotes or square brackets.
Here is an example:
SELECT FirstName + N' ' + LastName AS N'Full Name',
EmergencyName + N' ' + EmrgPhone AS [Emergency Contact]
FROM
Registration.Students;
GO
This would produce:

In the same way, you can create a longer and more complex expression that contains SQL
keywords, the table's columns, and regular words. Here is an example:
SELECT PropertyType + N' in ' + City + N', ' + State + N', in ' + Condition +
N' condition. Equipped with ' + CAST(Bedrooms AS nvarchar(20)) +
N' bedrooms, ' + CAST(Bathrooms AS nvarchar(20)) +
N' bathrooms. Built in ' + CAST(YearBuilt AS nvarchar(20)) +
N' and selling for ' + CAST(MarketValue AS nvarchar(20))
AS [Property Description]
FROM
Listing.Properties
Here is an example of what this would produce:

Remember that if you are adding strings to each other, you can use the CONCAT()
function.

Practical Learning: Using Expressions in Data Selection


1. In the Diagram pane, click the check box of DiscountRate

2. In the Criteria pane, click the first empty box under Column. Type UnitPrice *
DiscountRate / 100 and press Tab
3. In the corresponding Alias box, type Discount Amount
4. Click the next empty box under Column. Type UnitPrice - (UnitPrice *
DiscountRate / 100) and press Tab
5. In the corresponding Alias box, type After Discount
6. To execute, on the main menu, click Query Designer -> Execute SQL

7. Click the SQLQuery1.sql table


8. Press Ctrl + A to select everything and type the following (the LambdaSquare1
database was created in the previous lesson):
9. USE LambdaSquare1;
10. GO
11. SELECT aparts.UnitNumber,
12.
aparts.Bedrooms,
13.
aparts.Bathrooms,
14.
aparts.Price,

15.
aparts.Deposit,
16.
(aparts.Price + aparts.Deposit) "Due Before Moving",
17.
aparts.Available
18. FROM Presentation.Units aparts;
GO
19. To execute, press F5

The Assignment Operator


If you just create a regular expression using arithmetic operators, the new column would
not have a name. Transact-SQL allows you to specify a different name for any column
during data selection or a name for an expression. To do this, you can create a name and
assign it to the actual column name using the assignment operator =.

To change the name of a column in data selection, on the right side of SELECT, type the
desired name, followed by the assignment operator, followed by the actual name of the
column. If the name you want to use is in one word, simply assign the column name to it.
Here is an example:
SELECT EmergencyName = EmergencyName
FROM
Registration.Students;
GO
If the name you want to use is in more than
one word, you can include it in singlequotes, in double-quotes, or between square
brackets.

Here are examples:


SELECT CONCAT(LastName, N', ',
FirstName) AS [Full Name],
[Emergency Name] =
EmergencyName,
'Emergency Phone' =
EmergencyPhone
FROM
Registration.Students;
GO
This would produce:

Practical Learning: Using the Assignment Operator


Practical Learning: Using the Assignment
Operator
1. Change the statement as follows:
2. USE LambdaSquare1;
3. GO
4. SELECT "Unit #" = aparts.UnitNumber,
5.
Beds = aparts.Bedrooms,

6.
7.
8.
9.

Baths = aparts.Bathrooms,
[Monthly Rent] = aparts.Price,
'Primary Deposit' = aparts.Deposit,
(aparts.Price + aparts.Deposit) "Due Before
Moving",
10.
aparts.Available
11. FROM Presentation.Units aparts;
GO
12. Press F5 to execute