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Can the ethanolic extract from Manilkara zapota peels and the essential oil of t

he seeds be an effective alcohol fuel for gasoline-engined automobiles to reduce

air pollution?
If the ethanolic extract from the Manilkara zapota seeds and peelings is used, t
hen the alternative fuel will be reducing the amount of pollution in the country
and the price of fuel.
This research will be a significant endeavour in promoting a clean, healthy and
more sustainable environment and will be beneficial to those with cars at home t
hat need a cheaper alternative. Also, the good thing with this research is that
since it reduces the amount of emissions and thus lessening pollution in our atm
I. Preparation of Materials
1. For the extraction of the ethanolic extract of sapodilla,
a. remove the peelings from the fruit and separate the fruit itself from the see
ds (make sure the peelings are cleaned before proceeding in the experiment as ot
her organisms may advert the results of the study).
b. Mash the fruit and the peelings in a bowl and afterwards whirl it in a blende
r with 100 mL. of water.
c. Put it on a bowl.
d. Add in the yeast (for fermentation).
e. Air-tight the bowl so that no other organisms will contaminate the mixture.
2. Prepare the distillation equipment. The distillation equipment consists of an
electric stove, one air-tight casserole, one u-shaped tube and one container.
II. Fabrication of Product
1. Filter the mash from the liquid found on top.
2. Turn on the stove with the casserole on top with the mixture inside it.
3. Make sure no heat will be going near the opening as it may cause an explosion
*The droplets outside the tube are the water from the mixture and the clear liqu
id coming out of the other end is the pure ethanol produced in fermenting the sa
podilla peel and fruit.
4. Next, extract the oil from the seeds of the sapodilla.
a. In a container, put the seeds and water.
b. Let it rest and sprout for twenty-four hours and let it dry for two hours.
*Make sure all the equipment that you will use is dry.
c. Pound the seeds using a mortar and pestle until the seeds outer covering brea
d. Using a cloth, separate the powered seeds from the oil by continually squeezi
ng it.
e. The liquid coming out of the cloth is the oil that will be undergoing the tra
5. In a beaker, put the oil from the seed, sodium hydroxide and ethanol. Let the
reaction take place.
The formation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) through transesterification of
seed oils requires raw oil, 15% of Ethanol & 5% of sodium hydroxide o
n mass basis. However, transesterification is an equilibrium reaction in whic
h excess alcohol is required to drive the reaction very close to completion. The
oil was chemically reacted with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to pro
duce FAMEs. After separation of the two layers, the upper layer of biodiesel was
purified by distilling the residual Ethanol. The remaining catalyst was removed
by successive rinsing with distilled water by adding 1-2 drops of acetic acid t
o neutralize the catalyst.
6. Filtrate the blacking transparent is the final product.
III. Testing of the Product

For evaluating the product, the group must pick 50 students from the four year l
evels and 20 drivers. In the proper experiment, they will be allowed to look and
smell the product and evaluate by the physical characteristics and comparing it
to the conventional fuel brought in the survey.
Also, the final product, will be undergoing a laboratory test in which it will b
e tested if its chemical and physical components are capable or similar to that
of conventional fuel.
In the survey, they will be assigned into five treatments.
1st treatment has the normal configurations wherein it has 10 mL. of Ethanol and
10 mL. of fatty acid methyl esters;
2nd treatment contains 20 mL. of pure Ethanol;
3rd treatment contains 20 mL. of pure fatty acid methyl esters;
4th treatment contains 15 mL. of Ethanol and 5 mL. of fatty acid methyl esters;
5th treatment contains 5 mL. of Ethanol and 15 mL. of fatty acid methyl esters.
During the testing of our products, those 50 chosen respondents will be given a
survey questionnaire that has questions that concern the quality, feasibility an
d structural characteristics of our fuel.
Afterwards, their answers will be tallied and will be interpreted to see the cap
abilities of the fuel.
It is expected that the distillate fuel s physical and chemical characteristics ar
e similar to that of conventional diesel that can be bought nowadays. Using the
experimental method, a blueprint of the procedure is made that enables the resea
rchers to test their hypothesis by reaching valid conclusions about relationship
s between independent and dependent variables. By this, they can also provide en
ough evidences to accept or reject the hypotheses. After the tabulation of data,
they used the statistical tool, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), in order to provi
de necessary data to accept or reject a statement in the questionnaire. In addit
ion, the researchers used laboratory tests to strengthen the argument raised tha
t the biofuel created is the same of the fuel we have today.
Demirbas, A. (2009). Biofuel Production through Fermentation. Retrieved August 7
, 2009 from
Ganguly, P. (2007). Biofuel Production Process. Retrieved December 16, 2007 from
Giorgio (2006). Biofuel Production. Retrieved June 21, 2006 from http://www.iea.
Giorgio (2009). Biofuels: Ethanol Overview. Retrieved October, 7 2009 from http:
He, L. (2007). Metabolic Engineering Approaches for Biofuel Synthesis. Retrieved
September 9, 2007 from
Hollinshead, W. (2014). Biofuel production: odyssey from metabolic engineering t
o fermentation scale-up. Retrieved July 9, 2014 from
Rowe, M. (2012). Updated fermentation process may boost biofuel production. Retr
ieved November 9, 2012 from
Whitaker, H. (2013). Factories: Engineering bioethanol production through evolut
ion. Retrieved June 25, 2013 from
8kg Sapodilla
100mL water
32g yeast
20 mL Sodium Hydroxide
10 Filter paper

P90/kg x 8 = P720
P15 per bottle
P133 per 0.38kg

Alcohol lamp/Bunsen Burner
Distillation Equipment
Mortar and Pestle