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A NEWSLETTER FOR WATER FOR ASIAN CITIES PROGRAMME IN MADHYA PRADESH (INDIA)
UN-HABITAT’s System Capacities in Support of Water for Asian Cities Programme in India
UN-HABITAT (formerly UNCHS) was established in 1978 and is the lead agency for Human Settlements. It works to reduce poverty and promote sustainable development within the context of a rapidly urbanizing world. The UN-HABITAT has been assigned, among other things the responsibility for coordinating the implementation of the Habitat Agenda adopted by 171 countries at the “City Summit” held in Istanbul in 1996. UN-HABITAT has been working on strategies for urban poverty reduction which are based on norms and principles that include, among others, sustainable urban development, adequate shelter for all, improvement in the lives of slum dwellers, access to safe water and sanitation, social inclusion, environmental protection and the various human rights. With a sharp focus on urban poverty, in particular, slums as the most visible manifestation of urban poverty, the UN-HABITAT’s strategic vision which is consistent with social norms and political principles as well as with UN-HABITAT mandates, capabilities and partners’ objectives has the following elements. 1. Knowledge management and reporting, expanding the global understanding of urban development, shelter and poverty, and tracking progress in implementing the Habitat Agenda; Advocacy of norms for sustainable urbanization and urban poverty reduction, carried forward through two global campaigns and a number of global programmes; Technical cooperation in linking norms and campaign/programme goals to urban poverty reduction activities on the gound. Innovative financing for urbanization and specific shelter needs of the urban poor; Strategic partnerships to leverage resources and coordinate international programme activities that work toward similar ends. tion’s key water initiatives are the two regional programmes, namely, the Water for African Cities Programme and the Water for Asian Cities Programme. The objectives of the Water for African Cities Programme and Water for Asian Cities Programme are to reduce the urban water crisis in cities through efficient and effective water demand management, to build capacity to reduce the environmental impact of urbansation on freshwater resources and to boost awareness and information exchange on water management and conservation. The work programme of the various divisions of UNHABITAT contribute to the achievement of its strategic vision. The Monitoring and Research Division through its programme of Global Urban Observatory gathers, organizes, analyses and disseminates information on all subjects that impinge on urban poverty and slums. Similarly MRD’s Best Practices programme is now focusing on good policies related to urban poverty alleviation, shelter and sustainable human settlements development. UN-HABITAT through its global campaigns on (a) Secure Tenure and (b) Urban Governance is trying to address the issues relating to slums and urban poverty. The Training and Capacity Building Branch concentrates on improving knowledge, skills and attitudes of local government officials and civil society partners. Among the other important programmes of UNHABITAT include the Localising Agenda 21 Programme, the Sustainable Cities Programme (SCP), the Urban Management Programme, the Risk and Disaster Management Programme and the Safer Cities Programme. The Regional and Technical Cooperation Division, the operational arm of the UN-HABITAT has a portfolio of 150 ongoing projects and about 50 pipeline projects in 61 developing and transition countries. In addition, RTCD provides substantive advisory services for project formulation and development as part of the UN-HABITAT’s Technical Cooperation. UN-HABITAT has entered into several types of strategic partnerships for tackling urban poverty more effectively. These partnerships include alliances with the Cities Alliance; UNDP; Regional Development Banks (Asian Development Bank and IDB); Private Sector; and the Partnership programmes with several Multi-laterals and Bi-laterals.
• UN-HABITAT preparing for the Development of Water Conservation & Demand Management Strategy for the city of Indore (Madhya Pradesh) • DFID proposes to support Urban Water Supply and Environmental Improvement loan project of ADB in Madhya Pradesh through an Urban Poverty Reduction Programme • Capacity Building Programme on “Sanitation Technologies” is being organized in India by UN-HABITAT in collaboration with SIITRAT for Professionals from African Countries
Inside this issue:
Pro-poor Urban Water and Sanitation Governance Community–Municipal partnerships ADB Assistance in Urban Sector in India India’s Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Scenario Implementing WCDM Strategy
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The work programme of UN-HABITAT includes shelter and social services; urban management; environment and infrastructure; and assessment, information and monitoring. Water and sanitation are important focus areas. Among the organiza-
WATER FOR ASIAN CITIES PROGRAMME IN INDIA
Developing a framework for Pro-poor Urban Water and Sanitation Governance
Governments are invariably involved in the provision of Water and Sanitation services. Generally they work to ensure that all residents have access to adequate water and sanitation. However, these arrangements often fail the urban poor, particular the slum dwellers, who are at a disadvantage in both the market and in the public policy arena. The poor generally end up using water and sanitation systems that are unhealthy and even illegal. There is, therefore, a need for developing a framework for Pro-poor Urban Water and Sanitation Governance in the overall context of managing water and sanitation utilities; supporting community driven water and sanitation initiatives and working with informal sector water vendors so that governments and other actors work together to install and manage the water and sanitation systems. Unfortunately the conventional approach to water and sanitation management is highly bureaucratic rather than open and transparent; expert driven rather than inclusive and communicative and is generally biased in favour of those able to access the large water and sanitation networks rather than equitable and ethical. Water utilities are generally unaccountable, inefficient, unresponsive to consumer demands or environmentally unsustainable. With these perceived weaknesses in existing water and sanitation governance, Global Water Partnership (GWP) has identified several principles of effective water governance that suggest approaches which are open and transparent; inclusive and communicative; coherent and integrative and equitable and ethical. At the same time, performance and operation has to be accountable, efficient, responsive and sustainable. We, therefore, have to move beyond sectoral and segmented models of water governance towards coherent and integrated ones. We have to put unserved or inadequately served residents at the centre of urban water governance. The obstacles to improving water and sanitation provision for low-income households that are unserved and inadequately served do seem to be in large part institutional rather than technical.
Source: World Bank (2003) World Development Report 2004: Making Services Work for Poor People, The World Bank and Oxford University Press, Washington DC
In Madhya Pradesh where Urban Water Supply and Environmental Improvement Project is going to be implemented in 4 towns through an ADB loan, the Pro-poor Governance framework has to support community driven water and sanitation initiatives; manage networked water and sanitation systems, bring in small scale water vendors and sanitation providers and get the best out of the private enterprises, public agencies and civil society groups so that the new water governance has an institutional framework which is pro-poor and free from corruption. The new framework must have transparency, accountability and the rule of law. Key relationships of power and accountability
This diagram emphasizes the role of negotiation in ensuring that services such as water work better for low-income people. The underlying framework is based on the notion that demand for improvements needs to come from the poor people themselves and that the level of improvement will depend on the influence that poor people bring to bear on the service providers either directly or via the government.
Community–Municipal partnerships to improve sanitation in India
Community-based organizations demonstrated that they could plan, build and manage community toilet blocks in slum areas that were better designed and managed than those built by local government. But it was only when municipal governments worked in partnership with them that a large-scale programme was possible. Today, hundreds of thousands of people in low-income areas of Mumbai and Pune have much better quality toilets and washing facilities because of government– community partnerships. Two community organizations (the National Slum Dwellers Federation and Mahila Milan – savings and loans cooperatives formed by women slum and pavement dwellers) and a local NGO (SPARC) developed community toilets that were better designed and managed than conventional government-funded, contractor-built toilets. But it only became possible for these to be constructed on a large scale when the municipal commissioner in the city of Pune decided to get NGOs and community organizations involved in replacing or building 440 toilet blocks. A third of the construction costs were to come from the city, a third from the state government and a third from the national government. A further condition was that NGOs/ communities would agree to maintain the toilets for a set period, as government did not have the capacity or resources to do this. SPARC, Mahila Milan and the National Slum Dwellers Federation successfully bid for 114 toilet contracts. The new toilet blocks were light and airy, with tanks to ensure a constant water supply (conventional toilet blocks often ran out of water), and with toilet blocks at the front specially designed for children (children are frightened of using smelly dark pit latrines and haven’t the same capacity as adults to queue). The blocks included a home for a caretaker, who also helps to collect a small monthly fee from community members to pay for maintenance. Some blocks had a community hall built on top. The scheme in Pune has encouraged other slum dwellers and municipal authorities to try similar approaches, and these same three organizations obtained a contract to build 320 toilet blocks in the slums of Mumbai. As a result of these community–municipal partnerships, hundreds of thousands of ‘slum’ households in Pune and Mumbai now have clean, cheap, easily accessed toilets with facilities for washing. There are plans to promote this new approach in smaller towns and cities, where local resources and capacity are even tighter. SPARC, Mahila Milan and the National Slum Dwellers Federation also have many other projects and programmes to improve conditions for low-income households that are being developed in partnership with local governments and national government agencies (Burra, Patel and Kerr, 2003).
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ADB Assistance in Urban Sector in India
ADB’s involvement in India’s urban sector began in 1993 with TA to prepare an urban infrastructure project in Karnataka. Since then ADB has provided 22 TA grants totaling US$ 11.35 million to prepare projects and support capacity building. Since 1995, ADB has approved loan for seven projects in the urban sector. Totalling to US$ 1.4 billion; Karnataka Urban Infrastructure development (US$ 105 million), Rajasthan Urban Infrastructure Development (US$ 250 million), Karnataka Urban Development and Coastal Environment Management (US$ 175 million), Urban Environmental Infrastructure Facility (US$ 200 million), Kolkata Environment Improvement (US$ 250 million), and Housing Finance I and II (US$ 420 million). In addition, ADB has approved a loan of US$ 500 million for Gujarat Earthquake Rehabilitation and Reconstruction in 2001. The TA of US$ 200 million ADB loan assistance to Madhya Pradesh is the first urban sector assistance to the State. Other recent ADB’s assistance to the state includes: Madhya Pradesh Public Resource Management Program (US$ 250 million approved in October 2001), and Madhya Pradesh Power Sector Development Program (US$ 350 million approved in November 2001). The former is aimed at assisting statelevel fiscal reforms through a structural adjustment facility. As part of fiscal reforms and public sector restructuring program the GoMP, amongst others, is committed to reduce primary deficit to below 1.0 per cent of state domestic product, introduction to value-added tax, improved cost recovery – water charges to cover at least 75 per cent of O & M expenditure and adoption of flexible wage policy enabling ULBs to have separate service conditions and salary scales. Since 1990s, the Government of India has treated external assistance to states as ‘additionality’ over the Plan allocations. This assistance is channeled on the basis of a 70:30 loan / grant ratio at a fixed interest rate. The foreign exchange risk is borne by the GoI. The state of Madhya Pradesh, although accounting for 13.5 % of the geographical area, 8 % of the population, and more than 5 % of states’ domestic product, has received comparatively low levels of external assistance. Existing Provision of Urban Services in four Project Cities in M.P.
(per cent) Urban Services Bhopal Population served by piped water supply Population with household connections Unaccounted for Water Hours of supply Average lpcd Sanitation and Drainage Population served by reticulation system Population with served with septic tank Septic tanks working satisfactorily Household reporting problems with flooding Solid Waste Waste collected Waste to safe disposal 60 0 60 0 60 0 60 0 7 30 11 41 9 30 2 20 10 44 8 33 0 50 5 32 67 37 64 2-3 hrs 87 Project Cities Gwalior Indore 68 62 64 1 hr 93 68 48 52 1hr 66 Jabalpur 89 34 52 2-3 hrs 67
India’s Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Scenario
Urban Water Supply The present status of urban water supply and sanitation in India is extremely inadequate. According to an estimate, about 89 percent of the urban population – about 57 per cent with house service connections and about 32 per cent with standpost - had access to safe drinking water supply facilities at the end of the Ninth Five Year Plan i.e. March 2002. However, the figure does not reflect adequacy and quality of water. As per the recent statistics, the water availability per day is exceedingly limited ranging from 2 to 8 hours in a day as against 22 hours Sri Lanka and 24 hours in Malaysia. Thus, even the figure of 89 per cent is perhaps misleading. The service levels also vary dramatically among different categories of the cities. Even in some of the Class-I cities (having population above 100,000) the service levels fall below the national standard of 135 lpcd, with Class-II cities (having population between 10,000-20,000) receiving only an average of 55 lpcd. Further, on the urban water supply front, transmission and distribution networks are largely of very poor quality, in addition to being outdated and badly maintained, resulting in higher operating costs. Physical losses are typically high, ranging from 25 to over 50 per cent. Low pressures and intermittent supplies lead to back siphoning, resulting in contamination in distribution network. Unsatisfactory service standards have led to low tariff structures, which in turn have resulted in poor resource position of ULBs, poor maintenance and service – a vicious circle. Urban Sanitation At the end of the Ninth Five Year Plan, 60 per cent of the urban population had sanitation facilities – 30 per cent with sewerage facilities and about 30 per cent with on-site sanitation (low cost sanitation and septic tank) facilities. Of the total municipal waste water generated in cities and towns, less than half is collected and what is collected, less than half goes through some form of treatment (invariably primary) before final disposal. The high cost of conventional sewage treatment places this option out of the reach of the most of the urban local bodies. It is estimated that about 80,000 metric tones of solid waste is generated in urban areas every day, of which about 60 per cent is collected and disposed of as open dumping. Result of Deteriorating Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Inadequate urban water supply and sanitation facilities and deteriorating urban environment have been deterring India’s social and economic development and affecting adversely the quality of life of its people, particularly the urban poor. The substantial deficiencies in supply of potable water has led to widespread water- borne diseases like diarrohea, hepatitis, jaundice, roundworm and hookworm which not only affect public health, but also impact on the environment and add to economic costs. It is estimated that 30.5 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) are lost each year due to poor water quality, sanitation and hygiene. If considering merely the economic value of life year at the average per capita GDP of US $ 300 per person per annum, the annual loss of 30.5 million DALYs is about US $ 9150 million. Inadequate sanitation facilities have caused contamination of surface and ground water contributing to environmental pollution. Inadequate collection and treatment of solid waste has led to unhygienic conditions, namely soil and water contamination, chocking of drains etc.
WATER FOR ASIAN CITIES PROGRAMME IN INDIA
Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council: Implementing Water Conservation and Demand Management Strategy
The City of Johannesburg forms the largest urban complex in South Africa and one of the largest on the African continent. It supports a population of more than 3.5 million people of which almost 500,000 are located in informal settlements. Water is supplied at the reticulation level by the recently formed company “Johannesburg Water” which supplies approximately 380 million m3/annum (1050 Ml/day) on a continuous basis. All bulk water is potable and is supplied by Rand Water which treats the raw water to international drinking standards before supplying to various customers. Rand water is the largest bulk water supplier in South Africa with an average supply of approximately 3 000 Ml/day. The non-revenue water in the City of Johannesburg is estimated to be in the order of 40% of the total supply of which approximately half is through apparent losses and the remaining half through real leakage. As a result of high level of non-revenue water, Johannesburg recently embarked upon an extensive programme to tackle the problem throughout its area of jurisdiction. The GJMC has considered the issue of nonrevenue water to be very important and a relatively large budget allocation has been approved to address various aspects of water loss control. Water Conservation Strategy Johannesburg was selected by UN-HABITAT as the representative city for South Africa under the Water for African Cities Programme and the programme developed a new demand side focus to urban water management with emphasis on reduction of unaccounted for water. The development of Water Conservation Strategy was part of a project which involved the following three components: taken in all management zones at regular intervals to identify areas of high leakage; Pressure Management: Pressure management coverage to be increased to all areas where such measures are financially viable; Mains replacement programme: Pipelines for replacement to be prioritised based on burst frequency analysis etc.; Active and passive leakage control: Active Leakage Control to be extended to cover the whole supply area, excluding areas where it is known that leakage is low; Pilot Projects: Pilot projects to be used to test new techniques and or equipment that may be effective in reducing the non-revenue water.
Efficient use and control of Demand
Retrofitting: All schools and municipal and/or government buildings within the City of Johannesburg to be investigated and prioritised for retrofitting. All automatic flushing urinals in government and/or municipal buildings, schools and all other places of education to be replaced as a matter of priority; Tariff Structures and Billing Procedures: A standard tariff policy to be developed for use throughout the whole City of Johannesburg supply area. The policy for metering and billing to establish a cost effective procedure for controlling water use and providing an effective billing system; General Education and Public Involvement: The City of Johannesburg to play a more active role in general education including school education and public involvement with regards to efficiency of water use; Payment for Water and Illegal Use: All connections in the City of Johannesburg to be individually metered; Legislation: Certain new by-laws to be promulgated to encourage water use efficiency.
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The development of a water conservation strategy for the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council; A review of existing retrofitting projects and other measures to reduce unaccounted-for water in the GJMC and Rand Water areas; and
Accounting for all Water
A review of existing Management Information Systems (MIS) and the development of a model system for effective and efficient water management. The key elements of the Water Conservation Strategy for the City of Johannesburg are as under: Efficient Distribution and Operation
Water Audits: An annual water auditing procedure to be established for all sections of the City of Johannesburg supply area; Bulk and Management Meters: All bulk and management meters to be checked for accuracy; Consumer Meters: All consumers in the City of Johannesburg to be metered; Reconciling Meter Readings: Meter readings to be reconciled using the new MIS system; Performance Targets: A review of the performance to be undertaken annually and the targets re-defined if they are found to be unrealistically high or low.
Water Resource Management
Management zones: The strategy recommends that all former management zones should be re-established and new zones created where necessary to provide complete management zone coverage for the whole supply area; Monitoring DAW in each zone: Monitoring of Minimum Night Flows should be under-
Supporting National Policies: The City of Johannesburg shall continue to support the water conservation policies where the costs involved can be justified by the savings achieved. The City shall also encourage (a) Rainwater Harvesting, (b) Water Wise Gardening, (c) Recycling of Waste Effluent, and (d) Greywater Use.
Editorial Team Editorial Board Gopal Reddy, Secretary, UADD, Government Board Savitur Prasad, Director, Govt. of India UWSEIMP Project Director/ Deputy Project Director Debashish Bhattacharjee, ADB, India Resident Mission Professor H.M. Mishra, State Academy of Administration P.S. Mathur, CITI Foundation, India Kulwant Singh, CTA, WAC Programme
Water for Asian Cities Programme Office
EP-16/17, Chandragupta Marg, Chanakyapuri New Delhi - 110021 (India) Tel: +91-11-24104970 - 73 Fax: +91-11-24104961 Email: Kulwant.Singh@unhabitat.org Website: www.unhabitat.org & www.unwac.org
Guest Editor Managing Editor
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