Volume II - Issue 05

“We live in a world of extraordinary inequalities in opportunity, both within and across countries. Even the basic opportunity for life itself is disparately distributed: whereas less than half of 1 per cent of children born in Sweden die before their first birthday, nearly 15 per cent of all children born in Mozambique fail to reach that milestone. Within El Salvador, the infant mortality rate is 2 per cent for children of educated mothers but 10 per cent for those whose mothers have no schooling. These children cannot be blamed for the circumstances into which they were born, yet their lives and their ability to contribute to the development of their nations - are powerfully shaped by them.”
- Paul D. Wolfowitz
President, World Bank

March 2006

Gender Mainstreaming Strategy Adopted
Mahila Chetna Manch organized a Stakeholders’ Consultation on 7th March 2006 to discuss the proposed Gender Mainstreaming Strategy. MCM presented the draft strategy for Gender Mainstreaming, based on the Rapid Gender Assessment of the four project cities. The proposed Gender Mainstreaming Strategy seeks to change the often noted invisibility of gender and gender needs especially in technical, financial and managerial matters in policies and programmes, so that gender concerns are not limited to small women’s projects and there is gender sensitiveness at all levels. Mrs. Nirmala Buch, Chairperson, Mahila Chetna Manch emphasised that the frame work of Gender Mainstreaming is “not only for gender equity and justice but also for efficiency and sustainability of programmes. It requires incorporating gender concerns, promoting women inclusive institutions, transforming cultural structures of power, ending domestic and public violence and recognizing women’s work. This will mean incorporating gender, emphasis on women’s and men’s role and advocacy, training and institutional capacity strengthening in WAC Programme”. The vision of the proposed strategy is faster, equitable, just and sustainable achievement of MDGs through pro-poor governance, removing in-equitabilities and in-equities and increasing women’s access and control over services, resources and opportunities for participation and partnership. The proposed GMS provides for a leadership role of the state government and the Project Directorate, Urban Water Supply & Environmental Improvement Project for pro-poor water and sanitation governance. It recommends several actions which include: (1) Inclusion of gender issues in programme framework, reviews, workshops, monitoring, evaluation; gender related guidelines and gender analysis; (2) Infrastructure, processes, practices of WSS service providers should address identified gaps to meet women’s needs; (3) Enabling participation in decision making fora-legal, policy measures, women’s group organisation, capacity building, entrust responsibility; (4) Advocacy, awareness, sensitization of policy makers, implementers on gender issues; (5) Leadership role of UADD & Project Directorate in implementation of the GMS; (6) Establishment of a Nodal Gender Unit in the Project Directorate and Gender Focal Point in each partner Municipal Corporations; (7) Inclusion of a gender expert in project team; (8) Local women groups in command of local water distribution and community sanitation facilities particularly in slums; (9) Time bound reduction of number of women and men, girls and boys without access to adequate water and sanitation; (10) Full coverage for full time water supply and separate toilets for boys and girls; (11) Open defecation free cities by 2009; (12) Regular public hearings in each city wards; (13) Inclusive and Sensitive Municipal Corporations – in procedures, rules of participation norms, of water and sanitation services; (14) A committee in Municipal Corporation to monitor women’s grievances; (15) Promotion of women’s SHG, training, hand over management of public sanitary complexes to them; and (16) Promotion of gender responsive budgeting in Municipal Corporations. The proposed GMS was discussed and widely accepted by the stakeholders. The Mayors of the project cities and Project Director expressed their commitment to implement the strategy in WAC programme. The strategy document was discussed in the city-wise break away groups, which recommended for the adoption of the strategy document. The Project Director UWSEIP has given his consent to the recommendations and declared the GMS as adopted.

INSIDE THIS ISSUE:
UN-HABITAT Participates in the WWF-IV Road Map for Implementation of the WDM Strategies M.P. Municipal Corporators visit to Tamil Nadu and Karnataka

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March 2006

UN-HABITAT Participates in the WWF-IV
United Nations Human Settlem e n t s P r og r a m m e ( U N HABITAT), Nairobi in partnership with Maghreb-Mashreq Alliance for Water (ALMAE), Morocco organised a special event at the World Water Forum-IV in Mexico on 19th March 2006. The event titled “Making a Difference in Slums and Low Income Settlements: Towards Achieving MDGs in Water and Sanitation” highlighted community level experiences that demonstrated practical ways to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals in relation to Water and Sanitation, linked to national and local government policies. The session drew on the considerable body of international experiences in the water and sanitation sector identified in slums and lowincome settlements. The session was chaired by Mr. Enrique Ortiz, Housing International Coalition and Prof. Albert Wright gave an overview. Several local actions were presented which, inter alia, included case studies from Africa including one from Kibera in Kenya and another from Casablanca, Morocco. The Asian experience included a Slum Environmental Sanitation Initiative in Madhya Pradesh, India and another case study from Latin America. Kibera is the largest slum in east and southern Africa where the slum upgrading programme aims at improving the livelihoods of people living and working in slums and other informal settlements in urban areas of Kenya. It aims at reduction of poverty and achievement of water and sanitation related MDGs. The Slum Environmental Sanitation Initiative in India has started with a citywide poverty pocket situational analysis for mapping the poverty and environmental infrastructural deficiencies for prioritizing interventions. The four local actions presented different approaches for addressing the common goal of meeting the MDGs and making a difference in slum and low-income settlements. The Programme Manager, UN-HABITAT Nairobi coordinated this session on 19th March 2006 which was also addressed by Dr. Baoxing Qiu, Vice Minister of the Minister

Hidden Cost of Intermittent Water Supply
Although often regarded as an unaffordable luxury, well-managed continuous (24/7) water supply turns out to be far cheaper than intermittent (1-4 hours per day) supply. Intermittent supply does not reduce costs but simply transfers them from the water utility to the private household and to those least able to afford them. While the cost per cubic metre may appear low, once all the coping costs (private storage tanks, pumps and treatment systems) are added in, the cost of intermittent supply is far higher than for a well managed 24/7 system. For example, a typical middle class family pays more in pumping costs alone than in water tariffs. Furthermore, while high-income people cope by operating pumps and storage tanks, the poor suffer inconvenience, illness, lost time and lost wages. Furthermore, intermittent supply systems are constantly subject to intrusion of contaminated water during periods of low pressure and actually suck in raw sewage during periods of negative pressure, which is all too common in India’s water systems where many households employ illegal suction pumps that seek to draw water directly from the water mains. In addition, the hidden cost to the city may also be greater. Water mains need to be larger in order to deliver the same quantity of water within shorter time and pipes and joints have about half the useful life of continuous systems as they are subject to frequent turning off and on. Customers availing of the poor quality intermittent service are also reluctant to pay and collection rates are significantly lower than under continuous supply. Finally, faced with higher costs and lower revenues, water boards are chronically short of funds and never have enough to provide adequate operation and maintenance services. As a result, leakage rates are exceedingly high and the percentage of non-revenue water may reach 30 to 50 per cent. As a consequence of poor service, poor revenue collection and poor maintenance, the actual water required to operate an intermittent supply system is typically greater than required for wellmaintained 24/7 system. - India Infrastructure Report 2006

of Construction, Govt. of PR China. Other local actions which were presented during this special session included the case study of Casablanca and the Slum Environmental Sanitation Initiative in Asia: India in Madhya Pradesh by Mr. Malay Shrivastava. The Panelists included Mr. Ratnakar Gaikwad of India, Mr. Malik Gaye of Senegal and Mrs. Houria Tazi Sadeq of ALMAE. The 4th World Water Forum was inaugurated by the President of Mexico, which was also addressed by many other dignitaries. In addition Water, Sanitation and Infrastructure Branch (WSIB), UN-HABITAT also put up an Exhibition with a special focus on Mekong Region Water and Sanitation Initiative (MEK-WATSAN) and Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Initiative (LVWATSAN) which reflected various activities in progress and being implemented in the two regions by WSIB. A special gender session on “Safe, accessible, private and nearby: making services work for women – the key to meeting the MDG water and sanitation target” was chaired by the Executive Director, UNHABITAT in which several local actions were presented including the one on Sanitation to Slum Dwellers from Pune, India. During the WWF-4 Kyoto World Water Grand Prize competition was also organized in which 30 local actions were shortlisted for presentation. These, inter alia, included a case of rainwater harvesting in Ethiopia, an other case of Kenya Sand Dams, a Drinking Water Supply Project in Andhra Pradesh (India), household water treatment technology transfer by CAWST and dissemination of the arsenic filter in rural Nepal.

VOLUME II - ISSUE 05

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Road Map for Implementation of the WDM Strategies
UN-HABITAT organised a two day stakeholder workshops on Water Demand Management in each of the four project cities of Bhopal, Indore, Gwalior and Jabalpur. The objective of these workshops was to build capacities of the municipal staff from each of the cities on urban water demand management and also seek inputs and suggestions from the participants on the WDM strategies and implementation plan developed for the project cities. The program was to sensitise the stakeholders on the concept and need for Water Demand Management, to build capacities of various stakeholders on the tools and techniques that can be used for implementation of Water Demand Management and to engage the stakeholders in a dialogue on the WDM strategy developed for each of the project cities and devises the road ahead for implementation of the strategy. The resource persons of the program comprised of engineers and researchers from WRP and TERI working on various issues related to water supply and sanitation and comprised of technical, financial and institutional experts. This program was structured to provide a holistic overview of Water Demand Management through a combination of presentations, field visits and interactive discussions. The program began with an introduction to the issues facing water sector. This was followed by a session on the key concepts of Water Demand Management and the need for WDM in the four project cities. The session was followed by a technical session on various tools and techniques for implementation of a WDM plan. This included practical sessions on Water auditing and balancing using Aqualibre water balance software, metering, sectorisation, GIS and MIS, leak detection and control. Detailed presentations were also made on the financial and institutional aspects of the Water Demand Management. Apart from the technical presentations interactive sessions were also organised which basically included a discussion on the water balance for each of the cities, SWOT analysis of municipal corporations with specific reference to institutional challenges for implementation of WDM and a discussion on the financial health of the Municipal Corporations. The workshops concluded with a session tilted 'Road map for implementation of the WDM strategies'. This session was attended by a large range of stakeholders including senior staff from the respective Municipal corporations and Project Directorate. The measures suggested by TERI, for WDM implementation plans were also discussed. A total of 122 participants attended the training program in the four cities.

Madhya Pradesh Municipal Corporators visit Community Managed Programmes in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka
WaterAid India organised an exposure visit for fifty one Corporators and Municipal staff of the 4 project cities to some of the successful urban projects in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The objective of the study visit was to learn and interact with the communities in these states. Gramalaya, an old NGO partner of WaterAid India in Tiruchirapalli which has implemented successful urban and rural water and sanitation programmes, led the team to various places for exposure to best practices. The team visited several projects briefly described below. wastes by trained waste collectors. The wet waste is composted in the pits in the corner of a civic amenity site and the recyclables are sold. The dry rejects are stored in a dry disposal unit and are transported to a landfill site by lorries. Service charge is collected from residents @ Rs.15/HH. This goes towards meeting salaries and maintenance of system. Presently the compost is being sold to residents @ Rs. 5/kg for aerobic compost and Rs. 8/kg for vermi-compost. Waste Management Committee, a subset of the Kalyan Nagar Resident Welfare Association is managing the programme since 2001. The elected committee has 10 members out of which 5 are women.

• A project in Bangalore city run by an NGO, Deen Sewa Sangh,
for implementation of community led conversion of underground smaller diameter drainage line to bigger diameter lines and toilet construction in the slums.

• Karnataka Compost Development Corporation Ltd. (KCDCL): It
is a Government of Karnataka undertaking established in 1975. WHO technology is used here for Solid Waste Management by Aerobic Wind Row Method. The designed capacity then was for about 20-30 tons of waste per day. KCDCL developed indigenous technology and employed semiskilled workers to make the plant economically viable. Marketing of compost is biggest challenge. It is presently selling it at Rs. 1600/metric ton (Rs.1.6/kg). Vermi-compost is sold @ Rs. 2.75/kg. Now the plant is running in profit for the last 10 years. KCDCL has a campus of 22 acres and handles 350 metric tonne waste per day. Bangalore generates more than 2400 metric tonnes of waste per day. The exposure has helped enlarging the vision of stakeholders in understanding options for slum sanitation initiatives and necessity of involving local communities.

• Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Plant (DEWATS) in a rehabilitated slum in Ullalu Upanagara (suburban locality), Bangalore. The technology is promoted by Bremen Overseas Research & Development Association (BORDA), Germany. The plant is designed to treat night soil from the 20 seater community toilet with the production of gas as well as generate treated water that can be used for agriculture/gardening. A Women Self-help Group is looking after the O & M of the Toilet unit.

• Integrated Urban Environment Improvement Project (IUEIP):
Kalyan Nagar is one of the four Bangalore development layouts where this programme is implemented. Three components of the programme are Solid Waste Management, Open Space management and Geographic Information System. The programme involved door to door collection of segregated house hold (HH)

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Slums in Tiruchirapalli Declared Open Defecation Free
Several slums in Tiruchirapalli district of Tamil Nadu have been declared open defecation free. Community toilets are managed and run by self-help groups in these slums successfully on pay and use system. Disposal of excreta is through either treatment, septic tank or underground drainage system. Another appreciable feature is various models of Child Friendly Toilets (CFT) in Community Toilet Complexes.
Pay and Use Toilet Systems visited by Municipal Staff & Corporators of M.P.

Namakkal ‘ZERO GARBAGE TOWN’
Namakkal declared as Dust Bin Free City is a small municipal town of about 65,000 populations located around 70 km from Tiruchirapalli. Municipality here has developed best option for the public service delivery through successful implementation of Environmental Management System by promoting public private partnership in Municipal Solid Waste Management. Town generates 21 MT of solid waste per day from households and commercial activities. The entire waste is segregated at source manually. Collection and transportation is privatized by the Municipal Corporation. 8 MT is being subjected to vermicomposting, 3 MT recyclable is sold and 10 MT inorganic waste is disposed to landfill sites. Involving all citizens for service delivery is the key factor in success of the programme. Namakkal MC has worked and achieved the status as ZERO GARBAGE TOWN (Dust Bin Free City) by involving all households in door to door collection and segregation of wastes into wet compostable, dry recyclable and household

SHG Managed Community Toilet Complex

Tiruchirapalli - Center for Toilet Technology and Training
Center For Toilet Technology And Training, Kolakudipatti Village, Thottiam Block, Tiruchirapalli was established with support from Water Partners International and displays various models of toilets that can be used as options in Total Sanitation Campaign programme. The models include individual toilets, school sanitary blocks, child friendly toilets and Anganwadi toilets. It also has training facility for representatives and staff of NGOs, Government officials and other stakeholders. It organises trainings on Masonry skills, SHGs strengthening and other WATSAN aspects.

Child Friendly Toilets

UN-HABITAT Water for Asian Cities Programme EP-16/17, Chandragupta Marg, Chanakyapuri New Delhi - 110021 (India), Tel: +91-11-42225019 / 22 Fax: +91-11-24104961, Web: www.unwac.org WAC Programme Project Office E-1/191, Arera Colony, Bhopal - 462016 Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: +91-755-2460835-36 Fax: +91-755-2460837, Email: Wac.India@unhabitat.org

Editorial Board Malay Shrivastava, Secretary, UADD, State Govt. of M.P Hazari Lal, Director, Govt. of India Gulshan Bamra, Project Director, UWSEIP, Bhopal Debashish Bhattacharjee, ADB, India Resident Mission Aniruddhe Mukerjee, CTA, UN-HABITAT, Bhopal Editor Kulwant Singh, CTA, UN-HABITAT, New Delhi

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