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- I W V I I I L L LU d J . I L .

I-IaOU

(Revision of IEEE Std 283-1968]

guide for installation of


oil-i mmersed transformers
(10 MVA and larger,
69-287 kV rating)

November 7, 1980

SH06056

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ANWIEEE C57.12.11-1980
(Revision of IEEE Std 283-1968)

A n American National Standard

IEEE Guide for Installation of


Oil-Immersed Transformers
(10 MVA and Larger,
69-287 kV Rating)

Sponsor
Transformers Committee of the
IEEE Power Engineering Society
Approved May 29,1975
IEEE Standards Board
Secretariat
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Approved May 9,1980
American National Standards Institute
Published by

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc


345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017

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American National Standard


An American National Standard implies a consensus of those substantially concerned with its scope and provisions. An American National
Standard is intended as a guide to aid the manufacturer, the consumer,
and the general public. The existence of an American National Standard
does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the
standard or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using
products, processes, or procedures not conforming to the standard.
American National Standards are subject to periodic review and users
are cautioned to obtain the latest editions.
CAUTION NOTICE: This American National Standard may be
revised or withdrawn at any time. The procedures of the American
National Standards Institute require that action be taken to reaffirm,
revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five years from the
date of publication. Purchasers of American National Standards may
receive current information on all standards by calling or writing the
American National Standards Institute.

@
Copyright
I
1980 by

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc


N o part of this publication may be reproduced in any f o r m ,
in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise,
without the prior written permission o f the publisher.

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Foreword
(This Foreword is not a part of ANSI/IEEE C57.12.11-19801 An American National Standard, IEEE Guide for Installation of Oil-Immersed Transformers ( 1 0 MVA and Larger, 69-287 kV Rating.)

In the mid 1960s, a need was felt for a guide for installation of large transformers. The industry
trend t o larger capacity transformers and reduced BIL pointed up the need to reconcile the widely
disparate practices that had grown and developed among the various utilities. This was particularly
true with respect t o vacuum treatment.
The West Coast Subcommittee of the IEEE Transformers Committee asked for and received the
assignment to write such a guide. Under the chairmanship of L. A. Kenoyer, a proposed guide was
written and published for trial use in 1968 as IEEE Std 283. That standard received general acceptance and some suggestions for improvement. ANSI/IEEE C57.12.11-1980 is a revision of IEEE
Std 283-1968 and was accepted and approved as a standard by the IEEE Standards Board in 1975
and in 1980 by ANSI.
Suggestions for improvement gained in the use of this standard will be welcome. They should be
sent to:
Secretary
IEEE Standards Board
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc
345 East 47th Street
New York, NY 10017
At the time it approved this standard, C57 had the following membership:
C. R. Wilmore, Secretary

I. H . Koponen, Chairman
Organization Represented

Name of Representative

Bonneville Power Administration


Electric Light and Power G r o u p .

.....................................
.....................................

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

National Electrical Manufacturers Association.

...........................

............................

Rural Electrification Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Tennessee Valley Authority. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Underwriters Laboratories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

........................................

George W. Iliff
R. R. Bast
I. 0. Berkhan
I. H. Koponen
J. P. Markey (Alt)
B. F. Smith
E. A. Villasuso
S. Bennon
W. P. Burt
J. C. Dutton
D. C. Johnson
L. W. Long
D. E. Massey
L. C. Aicher
W. R. Courtade
J. D. Douglass
W. C. Kendall
C. W.Mayall (Alt)
W. J. McNutt
Norman M. Neagle (Alt)
R. L. Schwab
R. E. Uptegraff, Jr
G. C. Wilburn
J. C. Arnold, J r
.L. R. Smith
W. A. Farquhar (Alt)
E. J. Huber
S. J. Baxter

This standard was developed by a working group of the West Coast Transformer subcommittee
of the IEEE Transformers Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society which at the time of
approval had the following membership:
D. C . Johnson, Chairman
R.
H.
G.
G.

B. Kimball
M. Manning
G. McCrae
R. Meloy
D.R. Russell
J. M. Schulman
R. M. Youngs

R. Allustiarti
H. G. Fischer
J. A. Forster
T. K. Hawkins
J. J. Herrera
H. F. Hudson
R. G. Jacobsen
0. Keller

L. A. Kenoyer*
*Project chairman

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When this standard was approved May 29, 1975, the IEEE Standards Board had the following
membership:
Warren H. Cook, Vice Chairman

Joseph L. Koepfinger, Chairman

Sava I. Sherr, Secretary


Jean Jacques Archambault
Robert D. Briskman
Dale R. Cochran
Louis Costrell
Frank Davidoff
Jay Forster
Irvin N. Howell, J r

Stuart P. Jackson
Irving Kolodny
William R. Kruesi
Benjamin J. Leon
Anthony C. Lordi
Donald T. Michael
Voss A. Moore
William S. Morgan

William J. Neiswender
Gustave Shapiro
Ralph M. Showers
Robert A. Soderman
Leonard Thomas
Charles L. Wagner
William T. Wintringhamt

?Deceased

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Contents
SECTION

PAGE

1. Scope and Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2 . Inspection on Receipt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 . Internal Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Atmospheric Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Oil Filling Before Opening Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Oil Filling Before Opening Tank - Alternate Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Special Considerations for Different Types of Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8
8
8
8
8
8

4 . Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 Complete Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Liftingwith Slings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Raising with Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Assembly of Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Bushings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Heat Exchangers and Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Other Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9
9
9

10
10

6 . VacuumTreatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Vacuum Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10
10
10

7 . Fillingwith Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1 Checking Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 VacuumFilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11
11
11

9
9
9
9

8 . Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

9 . Field Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1 Method 1 - Circulating Hot Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2 Method 2 - Short-circuited Windings, Vacuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3 Method 3 - Using High Vacuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4 Method 4 - Using Hot Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.5 Completion of the Drying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12
12

13
13
14
15

FIGURE

Fig 1 Moisture Equilibrium Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

TABLE

Table 1 Vacuum-Pressure Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

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A n American National Standard

IEEE Guide for Installation of


Oil-Immersed Transformers
(10 MVA and Larger,
69-287 kV Rating)
1. Scope and Introduction

At the installation site all reasonable precautions should be exercised to avoid exposure
of insulation to moisture. I t should be the aim
of the user to put a new transformer into service in a condition at least as good as when it
left the factory. Prior to starting installation
of the transformer, a detailed procedure for
handling, inspecting, assembling, vacuum
treating, and testing the transformer should
be developed and agreement between all parties concerned should be obtained.
To best ensure a long trouble-free life, it is
recommended that all transformers in this
class be filled with a high-grade transformer
oil under as high a vacuum as conditions permit, but not less than the value specified by
the manufacturer.

T h e recommendations presented in this


guide primarily apply to new large oil-immersed power transformers with high-voltage
windings rated 69-287 kV inclusive. However, appropriate sections of the guide may be
applied to lower voltage transformers when
similar conditions and similar transformer
construction exist, and may also be used in
servicing older transformers which have been
opened for maintenance or repair work.
Increasing application of larger capacity
high-voltage transformers with reduced insulation has brought forth the parallel need for
increasing care during installation and service. To maintain dielectric strength of the insulation it is essential to avoid moisture and
entrapped air or gas bubbles. Since oil is a n essential portion of the insulation structure, oil
quality and care in handling are extremely
import ant .
Large-power transformers are usually shipped
without oil to reduce weight. To prevent entrance of moisture during transit the tank is
filled with dry gas (usually nitrogen) under
pressure. Generally, the user must conform to
the minimum recommendations by the manufacturer of the transformer.

2. Inspection on Receipt
When a transformer is received, a thorough
external inspection should be made before the
unit is removed from the car. Check the gas
pressure in the tank and in the supply cylinder, if one was provided. If the gas pressure in
the tank is above zero, it may be assumed that
the tank seal is still effective. If the gas pressure is zero or negative, the possibility exists
that moisture may have entered the tank and
the manufacturer should be notified. If the
necessary instruments are available, check
oxygen content and dew point of the gas in the
tank. If the oxygen content is below 1 percent

NOTE: In some cases, these transformers are oil filled


when received, in which case the instructions relative t o
initial oil filling may be disregarded. It will not be necessary t o drain this oil from t h e transformer except as required for inspection and repair, unless the original filling by t h e manufacturer was n o t done by t h e vacuum
method.

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.11-1980

and the dew point of the gas indicates a relative humidity of less than 1 percent, it may
safely be assumed that the transformer has
not been contaminated with air or moisture in
transit. If the oxygen content and dew point
are above these values, drying may be necessary and the manufacturer should be notified.
If there is evidence of damage or rough handling in transit, an inspector representing the
carrier should be requested and the manufacturer should be notified. For shipments
equipped with impact recorders, representatives from the manufacturer, purchaser, and
carrier should be present to inspect the transformer and examine the impact recorder
chart. If damage is suspected, an internal inspection should be made.
Since cases of internal damage have occurred when there was no external evidence of
damage, it may be desirable to make a n internal inspection of the transformer before unloading. Some users prefer to make the internal inspection before unloading in all cases.
If the delivering carrier will not permit internal inspection of the transformer on the
car, note on the acceptance slip that there are
possible internal or hidden damages. When
the transformer has been removed to the installation site or to some other convenient location to permit internal inspection, proceed
as outlined in Section 3. Request that a representative of the carrier be present during the
inspection.

3. Internal Inspection
3.1 Atmospheric Conditions. Moisture may
condense on any surface cooler than the surrounding air. Moisture in insulation or oil
lowers its dielectric strength and may cause a
failure of the transformer. The transformer
should not be opened under circumstances
which permit the entrance of moisture, such
as on days of high relative humidity. If the
transformer is brought to a location warmer
than the transformer itself, the transformer
should be allowed to stand until all signs of external condensation have disappeared.

3.2 Oil Filling Before Opening Tank. Prior to


opening the transformer tank, the transformer should be filled with clean, dry oil to

IEEE GUIDE FOR INSTALLATION OF OIL-IMMERSED

cover the coils and insulation. Some users prefer to fill with oil warmed to approximately
30 C (90 F) to heat the core and coils, thereby
minimizing the possibility of moisture condensing in the transformer. All oil should be
filtered and tested in accordance with Section
7.1 before being pumped into the transformer.
Pump the oil into the bottom portion of the
tank. Vent the top gas space to atmosphere as
oil is admitted; maintain a slight positive
gauge pressure in the gas space until the oil
level is above the windings. Since this oil was
introduced without vacuum and was therefore
not degassed, be sure to remove this oil before
final vacuum treatment and oil filling as outlined in Sections 6 and 7.
3.3 Oil Filling Before Opening Tank - Alternate Method. Some manufacturers specify
that the initial oil filling be done by the vacuum method listed in Sections 6 and 7, provided the transformer is in suitable condition
when received. If t h e internal inspection
which follows does not indicate a need to remove the oil, then after assembly the remainder of the oil may be added by the vacuum method; or alternately, since the oil will
have absorbed a quantity of gas during this
period, it may be advisable to drain out the oil
and refill by the vacuum process.
3.4 Special Considerations for Different Types
of Tanks. If the transformer is of the splittank type construction and has been shipped
with the upper section of the tank removed, it
will be necessary to remove the temporary
covers on both tank sections before connecting
the two tanks together. Because of the different types of internal construction and the
different ways of joining tank sections together used by the various manufacturers, detailed
instructions for performing this operation will
be furnished by t h e transformer manufacturer.

3.5 Inspection. If the transformer was shipped


in its permanent tank, access for internal inspection and assembly is obtained through a
manhole.
Caution: After the manhole cover is removed, the transformers should not be entered until the nitrogen or other gas is completely purged with air, making sure the oxygen content is at least 19.5 percent. This re-

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.11-1980

TRANSFORMERS (10 MVA AND LARGER)

placement of gas with dry air is necessary to


provide sufficient oxygen to sustain life.
T o avoid the danger of any foreign objects
falling into the transformer, all loose articles
should be removed from the pockets of anyone
working above the open transformer tank and
all tools should be tied with clean cotton tape
or seine cord securely fastened either to outside
of the transformer tank or to a readily accessible
point inside of the tank. Tools with parts
which may become detached should be avoided. If any object is dropped into the transformer and cannot be retrieved, the manufacturer should be notified.
While making the internal inspection, particular attention should be paid to the condition of the leads, de-energized operation tap
changers, connections, insulation, wood
blocking, core, internal current transformers,
and any superstructures which may make up
part of the internal transformer assembly.
Temporary shipping supports, if any, must be
removed. The minor supports are not always
specifically covered in the manufacturers instructions. However, the manufacturers instructions should always be consulted for such
information. If any internal damage which
may have been due to rough handling is found
during this inspection, the carrier and the
manufacturer should be notified. The manufacturer should also be notified if any foreign
material is discovered.

for assembly. The lifting lugs and eyes are designed for vertical lift only. When lifting the
complete transformer or a heavy piece, the
cable should be so attached to provide a vertical pull t o each lug. As an added precaution to
prevent buckling the tank walls, the cover
should always be securely fastened in place.
Use lifting cables of appropriate length so that
the transformer will be lifted evenly. Lifting
lugs on most transformers are designed t o lift
the transformers completely assembled and
filled with oil. The approximate total weight
of the transformer is given on the nameplate
and on the outline drawing.
4.3 Raising with Jacks. Jack bosses or pads

are provided on all transformers in this class


so that the transformers can be raised by
means of jacks. On some transformers, jacks
may be placed under the transformer bottom
plate a t points designated by the manufacturer. The drawings or manufacturers instruction book should be consulted.

5. Assembly of Fittings
5.1 General. After the internal inspection has
been completed, the bushings and radiators or
unit coolers should be installed. The radiators, coolers, and bushings will be handled in
different ways as prescribed by the manufacturer of the equipment, but in general
should be lifted in a vertical position during
handling and installation. Many different
types and shapes of gaskets may be used in assembling the various components. Specific instructions for these are usually provided by
the manufacturer.

4. Handling
4.1 Complete Transformer. The transformer
should always be handled in the normal upright position unless information from the
manufacturer indicates it can be handled otherwise. Where a transformer cannot be handled by a crane or moved on wheels, it may be
skidded or moved on rollers or slip plates, depending upon compatibility of transformer
base design and the type of surface over which
it is to be moved. Transformers built in accordance with current standards have bases designed for rolling in two directions.

5.2 Bushings. Bushings should be absolutely


clean and dry when installed. Gaskets and
gasket recesses should be carefully cleaned.
Gaskets should be carefully placed and uniformly clamped so that tight seals are formed.
Current-carrying connections should be thoroughly cleaned and solidly bolted, except that
Bellville-type washers, if used to maintain
bolt pressure, should not be depressed more
than half their thickness. Instructions for
handling the high-voltage bushings should be
included with the bushing crate. Mechanical
loading on ends of bushings should not exceed
design limits.

4.2 Lifting with Slings. Lifting lugs and eyes


are normally provided for lifting the complete
transformer, and the necessary additional
means are provided for lifting the various parts

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.11-1980

IEEE GUIDE FOR INSTALLATION O F OIL-IMMERSED

5.3 Heat Exchangers and Piping. Radiators

After all parts have been assembled, the tank


should be sealed and pressure tested to ensure
that all joints are tight. Some manufacturers
recommend using also a vacuum test, specifying that the pressure rise with the tank sealed
should not exceed 25 mm Hg (3330 Pa) in 30
min. With either pressure or vacuum tests it is
important to be sure of the pressure-differentia1 conditions permissible on the load-tapchanging panels, which may not be capable of
withstanding any pressure differential. Check
all gasketed joints for leaks with a liquid-soap
solution or other suitable leak detector. The
tank should hold the gas pressure for at least
4 h without leakage. All leaks must be eliminated before starting the vacuum filling.

or heat exchangers, oil piping, valves, and fittings should be thoroughly cleaned and
flushed
with
clean, warm
25-35 " C
(80-100 " F) oil before being fitted t o the transformer, unless not required by the manufacturer. Make sure that all gaskets are properly seated on the gasket seats a t the time of
installation. Where necessary to mount a gasket in a vertical plane, the use of gasket cement to hold the gasket in place during installation may be required. Radiators or heat exchangers are usually capable of withstanding
full vacuum. If not, these should be left off until after the tank has been filled with oil under
vacuum. If oil-to-water heat exchangers are
provided, it is recommended that the water
passage be drained and vented to atmosphere
prior to drawing a vacuum on the transformer
tank. Pressure test the oil passages of the heat
exchangers with filtered oil.

NOTES: (1) I t should be recognized that any leakage


of air into t h e transformer tank while a vacuum is being drawn o n t h e transformer may seriously contaminate t h e transformer insulation. Air, when drawn
i n t o a vacuum, expands and drops in temperature, consequently releasing moisture. If the core and coils are
cold, t h e moisture released from t h e air will condense
o n these parts and will be absorbed into the paper insulation. To avoid this hazard, all leaks must be eliminated before starting t h e vacuum processing, and the
core and coils should be heated by filling the tank with
warm oil before starting the assembly of the transformer.
( 2 ) As a n aid to field personnel using vacuum equipment calibrated in various units, Table 1 is included for
ready conversion.

5.4 Other Accessories. The de-energized tap

changer, oil-level gauge, temperature gauges,


and other accessories should be assembled in
accordance with manufacturer's instructions.
Check the operation of the tap changer to be
sure that it operates properly in both directions and that full contact area on all taps and
adequate contact pressure is maintained on
all contacts. Check the operation of the oillevel gauge before sealing the tank.

After ensuring that all leaks have been


stopped, drain the oil and proceed with the
vacuum treatment. The oil may be drained as
fast as desired, but a rapid rate may create a
partial vacuum within the tank. The drain
valve should be closed immediately after the
tank is empty to prevent entrance of air from
the drain connection. Because unforeseen delays may occur before the vacuum treatment
is applied, it is recommended that the oil be
replaced with dry nitrogen during the draining process. Make certain that sufficient nitrogen cylinders are available to fill the tank.
After the oil drain valve is closed, continue to
admit nitrogen until a positive gauge pressure
exists in the tank.

6. Vacuum Treatment
6.1 Preparation. Leave the pressure-relief diaphragm blanked off until after the final vacuum filling, unless the manufacturer's instructions indicate the diaphragm can withstand full vacuum. If separate oil-expansion
tanks or inert-gas equipment or other devices
which will not withstand full vacuum are provided, these should be isolated from the main
tank before drawing vacuum. In some transformers the barriers between the main tank
and other compartments will not withstand
full vacuum on one side with atmospheric
pressure on the other side. Where such conditions prevail, a partial vacuum must also be
established on the other side so that the pressure differential will not damage the barrier.

6.2 Vacuum Treatment. Assuming the trans-

former arrives on site in a dry state and that it


has not been unduly exposed to moisture during assembly, the principal function of vacuum treatment is to remove trapped air from
the insulation and enable the insulation to attain its full dielectric strength. Small gas bubbles have much lower dielectric strength than
10

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.11-1980

TRANSFORMERS (10 MVA AND LARGER)

oil and may, if located at a point of high stress,


lead to failure. By removing most of the gas
from the transformer and from the oil by vacuum filling, the hazard of the small bubbles of
free undissolved gas that remain in the windings and insulation is greatly reduced.
The degree of vacuum required to be effective depends on the design of the windings and
insulation and should be determined by consultation between the manufacturer and purchaser before assembly is begun. In general, a
vacuum treatment at pressures of the order of
25 mm Hg (3330 Pa) absolute may suffice for
transformers rated under 345 kV. For higher
voltage transformers, vacuum treatment a t
pressures as low as 1 mm Hg (133 Pa) absolute
pressure may be required. An additional benefit gained from the treatment at high vacuum
is that the moisture introduced into the transformer insulation during assembly can be removed before the transformer is put in service.
A vacuum pump capable of evacuating the
tank to the required degree of vacuum in approximately 2 -3 h is recommended. Connect
the vacuum pump to the vacuum fill connection on top of the transformer with pipe or
reinforced hose of sufficient size to minimize
line losses. If no connection was provided for
this purpose, a n adapter plate for the pressure-relief outlet, with suitable pipe connection, can be fabricated. In order to obtain
an accurate vacuum value, it is essential that
the location of the connection of the gauge or
manometer should not be the same as the vacuum pump. Check all pipe joints for leaks by
pulling a high vacuum or by pressure testing
before connecting to the transformer. Close all
oil and nitrogen valves. Start the vacuum
pump and continue pumping until the tank
pressure becomes constant. Stop the vacuum
pump and check for leaks in the tank or piping. If all joints are tight, there should be no
appreciable increase in residual pressure in a
period of 30 min, as suggested in 6.1.

may be necessary to use a centrifuge ahead of


the filter press. Continue passing oil through
the filter press until the prescribed dielectric
strength is met. A minimum breakdown
strength of 30 kV, when tested in accordance
with ANSI/ASTM D877-79, Method of Test
for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage of Insulating Liquids Using Disk Electrodes is recommended.
NOTE: ANSI/IEEE C57.106-1977, Guide for Acceptance and Maintenance of Insulating Oil in Equipment, is recommended as a comprehensive guide concerning oil checking.

It should be regognized that the ability of the


filter press to remove water from the oil depends upon the dryness of the filter papers.
Filter papers should be oven-dried immediately
before being inserted into the filter press.
If oil-storage facilities are available, a sufficient quantity of new oil to fill the transformer should be dried and stored in the clean
oil-storage tank before starting to fill the
transformer. If oil-storage facilities are not
available, continue circulating oil through the
filter press until the prescribed dielectric
strength is consistently obtained. A sample of
the oil should be taken prior to filling and retained for future checks, such as power factor,
etc.
Caution: Oil passing through filter papers
may acquire a n electrostatic charge which
will be transferred to the transformer windings as the transformer is filled. Under some
conditions the electrostatic voltage on the
winding may be hazardous to personnel or
equipment. To avoid this possibility, all externally accessible transformer terminals, as
well as the tank and oil filtering equipment,
should be grounded during filling.
7.2 Vacuum Filling. After obtaining the required vacuum and holding for 4 h or more,
depending on manufacturers instructions,
filling may begin. (Inlet and vacuum connections should be separated as far as possible
to keep oil spray from entering vacuum
pump.) The oil line should be connected to the
upper filter-press connection or other suitable
connection on top of the tank. The filtered oil
is admitted through this connection, the rate
of flow being regulated by a valve a t the tank
to maintain a positive oil pressure external to
the tank at all times, and to maintain the vacuum at or near its original value. [The filling

7. Filling with Oil


7.1 Checking Oil. If oil is supplied in barrels,
check the dielectric strength while it is still in
the barrels. If free water is present, drain off
the water before passing the oil through the
filter press. If excessive free water is present, it
11

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.11-1980

IEEE GUIDE F O R INSTALLATION O F OIL-IMMERSED

(8) Check oxygen content and total-combustible-gas content of nitrogen gas cushion.
A total-combustible-gas test should also be
made soon after the transformer is in service
at operating temperature, to provide a suitable reference bench mark.
(9)Check operation of auxiliary equipment
such as oil-circulating pumps, fans, or oil or
water flow meters in accordance with manufacturers instructions.

rate should not exceed lh in/min (1.25 cm/


min).] Gas bubbles or water in the oil will
expand in proportion to the vacuum obtained
and be drawn out by the vacuum pump. The
vacuum should be maintained for 3-4 h after
the transformer tank is full. (Caution: Do not
allow transformer oil to enter the vacuum
pump.) When vacuum filling is completed,
break the vacuum by admitting dry nitrogen.
The transformer should then soak for at least
12 h before energizing to absorb residual gas
and thoroughly impregnate the insulation. If
the transformer is other than the nitrogensealed type, complete the filling in accordance
with the manufacturers instructions.

9. Field Drying
In the event that the internal inspection reveals signs of moisture in the transformer or if
gas seal on the tank was damaged in transit,
field drying may be necessary. If possible, determine the extent of the moisture and the
manner in which it entered the tank. The
transformer manufacturer should be requested t o make recommendations concerning further checks and steps for drying
out the transformer. Most modern power
transformers are dried in the factory to a residual water content of less than 0.5 percent of
the weight of paper insulation. Field drying
should attain a comparable value of residual
moisture content if at all possible. If drying is
determined to be necessary, one or more of the
following methods may be used depending
upon the facilities available. A low value of residual moisture can be attained most rapidly
by use of method 2. Method 3 is equally effective but requires longer time and better vacuum equipment. Method 1is very slow and not
as effective as the vacuum method. Method 4
is not as effective as the vacuum methods.
Other methods or combinations of these
methods may be used where facilities are
available.

8. Tests
After the transformer has been assembled
and filled with oil, tests should be made to ensure that the transformer is ready for service,
and to provide a basis for comparison with future maintenance tests. The following tests
are suggested. All or any portion of these tests
may be made, depending on the equipment
available and the importance of the particular
transformer.
(1) Insulation resistance test on each winding to ground and between windings.
(2) Power factor test on each winding to
ground and between windings in accordance
with Section 7 of ANSI/IEEE C57.12.901980, IEEE Standard Test Code for LiquidImmersed Distribution, Power and Regulating
Transformers, and Distribution and Power
Transformer Short-circuit Test Guide.
(3) Power factor test on all bushings equipped
with a test tap or capacitance tap.
(4) Winding ratio test on each tap. If loadtap-changing transformer, check winding ratio on all load-tap-changing positions.
(5) Check winding resistance of all windings with a Kelvin bridge and compare with
factory test results.

9.1 Method 1 - Circulating Hot Oil. This


method requires the use of a suitable oil filter.
either vacuum-drier type or blotter press, plus
a heater which will enable hot oil at a temperature of approximately 85 C to be circulated
in the transformer tank until positive indication of drying out of the windings has
been obtained. The transformer should be
filled with oil to cover the core and windings
and the oil circulated through either the filterpress valve and drain valve or through top and

NOTE: Wheatstone bridge or volt-ammeter methods


can also be used under certain conditions.

(6) Check operation of oil and hot-spot temperature indicating and control devices.
(7) Check dielectric strength, power factor,
interfacial tension and neutralization number
of the oil.

12

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TRANSFORMERS (10 MVA AND LARGER)

bottom radiator valves. Wherever possible, to


reduce heat losses due to radiation, prevent
the oil from circulating through the coolers.
Blanket the outside of the transformer tank to
reduce to a minimum the time of drying out
and the amount of heating required to keep
the oil temperature constant.
With this method the moisture is removed
through the oil filter. If a blotter-press filter is
used, the rate of water extraction will depend
upon the degree of saturation of the filter papers. Filter papers must be extremely dry and
papers must be changed frequently if this
method is to be effective. If a vacuum-drier
type of oil filter is used, the rate of water extraction will depend upon the vacuum maintained in the filter and upon the rate of transfer of water from the paper insulation to the
oil. This rate of transfer of moisture increases
with temperature, hence it is desirable to operate at the highest temperature which will
not cause deterioration of the oil. The rate of
drying can be increased by application of vacuum to the surface of the oil.
9.2 Method 2 - Short-circuited Windings,
Vacuum. This method requires a source of
power to heat the transformer by circulating
current through the windings and a suitable
vacuum pump to extract moisture from the insulation. A refrigerated condenser trap in the
vacuum line to collect water is also required.
The transformer should be filled with oil to
the normal level. Blanket the outside of the
transformer tank to reduce to a minimum the
heating required. Connect the vacuum pump
to a suitable valve at the top of the tank.
Care must be exercised to prevent the temperature of the windings and insulation from
reaching a dangerous value. The temperature of
the windings should not exceed 95 'C, and the
oil 85 "C. Frequent measurements of the resistance of the windings and of the oil temperature should be made.
The power supply may be connected to either winding, with the other winding short
circuited. The secondaries of any current
transformers in the tank should also be short
circuited. All tap coils should be connected in
the windings.
For forced-oil-cooled transformers, the oil
pumps should be operating while the transformer is being heated, but the cooling medi-

ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.11-1980

um, either air or water, should be shut off.


Short-circuit currents up to full rated current
can be used to heat forced-oil-cooled transformers. For self-cooled transformers, up to
full rated current may be used while the transformer is cold, then reduced as the transformer approaches rated temperature. The
voltage required to circulate this current will
depend upon the impedance of the transformer.
After the desired winding and oil temperatures have been reached, disconnect the power supply and drain the oil from the transformer tank. When the oil has been drained
from the tank, close the valves and start the
vacuum pump. Continue pulling vacuum on
the transformer until water extraction stops.
This procedure may be repeated as many
times as necessary to attain the desired degree
of dryness. The minimum water content in
the insulation which can be obtained for any
given temperature and vacuum conditions
can be estimated from Figure 1 chart. Note
that the value read must be multiplied by
1.7 for kraft paper insulation. Water extraction from the insulation will stop when
the vapor pressure of water in the insulation
at the temperature and pressure prevailing
equals the partial pressure of water vapor in
the tank at this temperature and pressure.
9.3 Method 3 - Using High Vacuum. This
method requires the use of a suitable vacuum
pump, capable of pumping down to a n absolute pressure of 0.05 mm Hg (6.67 Pa) or lower,
and a refrigerated vapor trap to collect the water. No additional heat is required if a n adequate vacuum pump is used.
Drain the oil from the transformer, filling
the tank with dry nitrogen as the oil is
drained. Remove heat exchangers and other
external pipe connections and seal these openings, preferably with blanking plates. Connect
the vapor trap and vacuum pump to a suitable
pipe connection on the tank. To minimize line
losses and speed up the drying, the vapor trap
should be located as close to the transformer
tank as possible. (A small quantity of water
expands into a large volume of vapor a t very
low pressures, hence the capacity of the vacuum pump is greatly increased by using the vapor trap to remove water ahead of the pump.)
Seal the tank and pressure test for leaks. After

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ANSI/IEEE
C57.12.11-1980

IEEE GUIDE FOR INSTALLATION OF OIL-IMMERSED

70

60

50

40

30

20

10
.02
20

.03 .04 .OS .06

30

4 0 50 GO

MICRONS

.08 ,I
80 100

HG

.2

.3

.4

.5 .6

.8

1.0

IO

MILLIMETERS HG

VAPOR PRESSURE
Fig 1
Moisture Equilibrium Chart

minimum the amount of heating required,


and also to keep the interior of the tank at a
uniform temperature to prevent condensation
in the tank.
Clean dry air should be forced by a fan over
the heating elements, then through an opening a t the base of the tank to pass over and
through the coils before exhausting through
a n opening in the cover. Baffles should be
placed between the hot-air inlet and the windings to prevent the flow of hot air from being
concentrated on one small portion of the
windings.
Thermometers should be positioned in the
inlet and outlet air streams and the quantity
of air circulated should be such that only a
small difference between inlet and outlet temperatures is obtained. The temperature of the
inlet air should be about 100 "C. (Caution:
When drying oil-soaked insulation with hot
air, care should be taken to avoid open flames
near the transformer, particularly near the air
exhaust where oil vapors will be concentrated.

ensuring that all leaks have been eliminated,


start the vacuum pump. Water extraction
from the insulation will begin when the residual vapor pressure in the tank is reduced below the vapor pressure of water in the insulation. If any leaks are present, this pressure
may not be attained, hence it is imperative
that all leaks be eliminated. After the residual
pressure in the transformer has been reduced
to the point that water is being extracted, the
residual water content of the insulation may
be estimated from Fig 1 for the prevailing
winding temperature and pressure. Note that
the value read must be multiplied by 1.7 for
kraft paper insulation. Drying may be continued as long as moisture is being extracted or
may be terminated when the residual moisture content of the insulation has been reduced to the desired level.
9.4 Method 4 - Using Hot Air. With the
transformer assembled in its tank, the tank
should be blanketed in order to reduce to a

14

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ANSI/IEEE
TRANSFORMERS (10 MVA AND LARGER)

C57.12.11-1980

Table 1
Vacuum-Pressure Conversion
Based on Atmospheric Pressure of 29.92 in Hg a t 15.6 "C ( 6 0 O F )

pounds per square inch

Vacuum
inches
of mercury

0
4.9
9.8
14.2
14.46
14.63
14.65

millimeters
of mercury
0
254
508
736.6
750
759
759.95

0
10
20
29
29.526
29.88
29.918

The flash point of transformer oil is approximately 145 "C. Fire extinguishers, preferably
the carbon dioxide type, should be located
near the transformer before beginning the
drying.)
The volume of air required to obtain minimum drying time varies with the size of the
tanks, the following being a n approximate
guide:
Area of Tank Base
(square feet)
30
Area of Tank Base
(squaremeters)
2.8
Volume of Air (cubic
f e e t p e r m i n u t e ) 1000
Volume of Air (cubic
meters per minute) 28

60

100

125

150

5.6

9.3

11.6

14.0

2000

3000

4000

5000

56

85

114

140

inches
of mercury
29.92
19.92
9.92
0.92
0.394
0.0394
0.00197

Absolute Pressure
millimeters
of mercury
760
506
252
23.4
10.0
1.0
0.05

pascals
101
67
33
3
1

323
460
597
120
333
133
7

insulation resistance between windings and


between each winding and ground should be
recorded. As the drying proceeds, it will be
noted that the insulation resistance will fall,
due to the increase in temperature and release
of moisture. The resistance will then begin to
rise, the rate of increase slowing down as the
drying nears completion. When the insulation
resistance flattens out to a constant value, the
transformer is not completely dry but it has
reached the maximum degree of dryness obtainable with the drying system being used.
Power factor tests may be used instead of or
in addition to insulation resistance tests for
determining the progress of the drying. Power
factor will increase as the temperature increases, then decrease as moisture is extracted
and flatten out as the drying nears completion.

9.5 Completion of the Drying. A soon as the


transformer can be considered to be dry, it is
essential that the tank be immediately filled
with oil to cover the core and windings.
During the entire drying-out process, regular readings of winding temperatures and of

Caution: At some stages in the drying-out


procedure, a n explosive mixture of oil vapors
and air may exist.

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IEEE Standards of Special Interest


to the Power Engineer
IEEE
Std
85-1973
259-1974
266-1969
346-1973

430-1976
454-1973
ANSI C2
ANSI/IEEE
C37.91-1972
C37.95-1973
C57.12.00-1980
C57.12.01-1979
C57.12.80-1978
C57.12.90-1973
C57.12.90a-1978
C57.12.91-1979
C57.13-1978
C57.98-1968
C57.loo-1974
C57.1 04-1978

C57.105-1978
C57.106-1977

Title
Test Procedure for Airborne Sound Measurements on Rotating Electric Machinery
Test Procedure for Evaluation of Systems of Insulation for Specialty Transformers
Test Procedure for Evaluation of Insulation Systems for Electronics Power
Transformers (Reaff 1975)
Definitions in Power Operations Terminology Including Terms for Reporting
and Analyzing Outages of Electrical Transmission and Distribution Facilities
and Interruptions to Customer Service
Procedures for the Measurement of Radio Noise from Overhead Power Lines
Recommended Practice for the Detection and Measurement of Partial Discharges (Corona) During Dielectric Tests
National Electrical Safety Code, 1977 edition
Guide for Protection Relay Applications to Power Transformers
Guide for Protective Relaying of Utility-Consumer Interconnections
Standard General Requirements for Liquid Immersed Distribution, Power
and Regulating Transformers (Revision of ANSI/IEEE C57.12 .OO-1973)
Standard General Requirements for Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers
Terminology for Power and Distribution Transformers
Test Code for Distribution, Power and Regulating Transformers
Distribution and Power Transformer Short-circuit Test Code (Revision of
ANSI/IEEE C57.12.90a-1974)
Standard for Dry-Type Transformers
Standard Requirements for Instrument Transformers (Revision of ANSI
C57.13-1968)
Guide for Transformer Impulse Tests (Appendix t o C57.12.90-1973)
Test Procedure for Thermal Evaluation of Oil-Immersed Distribution Transformers
Guide for the Detection and Determination of Generated Gases in Oil Immersed Transformers and their Relation to the Serviceability of the Equipment
Guide for Application of Transformer Connections in Three-phase Distribution Systems
Guide for Acceptance and Maintenance of Insulating Oil in Equipment
(Revision of IEEE Std 64-1969)
For a free catalog of IEEE Standards write the
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc
345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, U.S.A.

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