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2.2 & 3.

5 Aka
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Running Head: 2.2 & 3.5 Aka

Sharon Aka
Coaching & Mentoring 2.2 & Evaluation & Assessment 3.5
LEAD756
Andrews University
July 18, 2016
Dr. Jay Brand

Table of Contents
Introduction..
3

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2
Definitions..
7
Coaching and Mentoring theoretical framework integrated with practice
..............................................................................................................
.............8
Organizational assessment and evaluation theoretical framework
integrated with
practice
16
Conclusion..2
1
References..2
4

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Introduction
The purpose of this paper is to present past and present, personal
and professional experiences, integrated with theoretical practice,
influencing my current and future professional practice. There are two
leadership competencies that will be discussed. Leadership with
others, mentoring and coaching: leadership promotes relationships
that are trust-centered, providing the kind of empowerment that
results in personal and performance improvement toward satisfying
mutual objectives (Leadership program, 2016), and leadership through
organizations, evaluation and assessment: leadership uses appropriate
evaluation and assessment tools to make decision about programs and
plans (Leadership program, 2016).
This paper will demonstrate learning in the following areas:
theoretical application to improve my professional practice as an
executive coach, synthesis of mentoring and coaching theory as it
applies to leadership, and connecting mentoring and coaching research
to my current situation. In addition, this paper will demonstrate
application of theoretical knowledge of organization evaluation and
assessment related to the implementation of the 360 Feedback Loop
(North American Division of Seventh-day Adventists, 2016)
performance evaluation process, and the utilization of the selfassessment tool Profile XT (PXT) (Profiles International, 2016).

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Concerns and complexities of operationalization of the entire
performance evaluation process of formal coaching and mentoring in
the North American Division (NAD) of Seventh-day Adventists will be
discussed. Artifacts will be referred to throughout the paper and
presented as evidence of competencies.
I have been in various coaching and mentoring circumstances for
many years in both the professional environment and as a volunteer in
the community. Much of this has been done without a theoretical
approach, and very customized and responsive to those I was
mentoring. In my professional life, coaching and mentoring was a
constant part of my professional responsibilities. As a Registered
Nurse in the hospital sector, I often acted as a preceptor for nursing
students. Later in a Nurse Educator role, I supporting new nursing staf
in orientation and on-boarding and provided seasoned staf with
continuing education specific to surgical and post surgical practice
across eight units in two hospital campus. More recently as a tenured
post-secondary Professor in the School of Health Sciences at Humber
Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning in Toronto, I frequently
mentored new nursing faculty. In my role as Professional Development
Specialist in Humbers Center for Teaching & Learning (CTL), I
developed faculty support courses, resources, and edited a mentorship
manual (CTL, 2011). Many of these resources are still housed on the
CTL website. (Artifact set 1: *CTL website, *CTL instructional resource

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page, *mentor manual) These resources are available to several
thousand full and part time Humber faculty and open for public access.
In my personal life Ive volunteered at a residential summer camp
for over twenty summers and during that time I have mentored several
nursing students in residential clinical placements (Artifact set 2 *FB
messenger messages from Edelweiss and Mikah). Ive also kept in
close contact with one of my nursing students from 2003 and helped
her apply to two diferent graduate programs. When I had major
abdominal surgery in the fall of 2014, she was able to navigate in the
hospital on my behalf as one of several Nurse Educators. It was
fantastic to receive care from one of my own students! Over the years
I have been able to provide career advice and watch her grow into a
wonderful nursing professional (Artifact set 3: *photo of Prachi and me
at hospital, *FB messages).
Additionally Ive been fortunate to develop a close mentorship
relationship with a friends daughter, Jackie. I followed her journey in
nursing school at Andrews University beginning with her lamp lighting
ceremony in the fall of 2012 (Artifact 4 *picture of Jackie). On April 30,
2016 I was acknowledged as her nursing mentor at the Class of 2016
Pinning Ceremony (Artifact set 5: *program, and *pictures). Looking
back I can see that my journey is actually a reflection of research,
which suggests that the heart of mentoring is thoughtful, deliberate
relationships (Peddy, S., 1998; Stoddard, D., 2003).

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In both my professional and personal life I have never been involved
in the initial rollout of a brand new evaluation and assessment program
across an entire organization. Although Ive had experience
implementing change and program development, both large
organizations that I worked for in Toronto, had well established,
supportive employee performance assessment processes in place
when I arrived. As an employee I experienced success and support
from the performance evaluation programs. It was overall a positive
experience. Perhaps this was influenced by the fact that I worked in a
teaching hospital and then in a post secondary institution.
In both organizations, learning was like oxygen. A learning
organization is the business term given to a company that facilitates
the learning of its members and continuously transforms itself
(Senge, 2010). This type of organizational environment supports
professional growth, failure, and experimentation (Collins, 2001;
Senge, 2010). This is my foundation of my present professional
circumstance and the thing that both frightens and excites me most. I
know what a successful performance evaluation professional
environment feels like, but now Im part of the team operationalizing it
for the first time within the North American Division of Seventh-day
Adventist.

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Definitions

Mentor someone who teaches or give help and advice to a less


experienced and often younger person. A trusted counselor or

guide (Merriam-Webster, 2016).


Coach a private teacher who gives someone lessons in a
particular subject. One who instructs or trains (Merriam-Webster,

2016).
Organizational Assessment the systematic process for
obtaining valid information about the performance of an
organization and the factors that afect performance (Reflect &

Learn, 2016).
Organizational Evaluation An organizational assessment is a
systematic process for obtaining valid information about the
performance of an organization and the factors that afect
performance. It difers from other types of evaluations because
the assessment focuses on the organization and the primary unit

of analysis (Better Evaluation, (2016).


360 Feedback Loop In human resources or industrial
psychology, 360 degree feedback, also know as multi-rater
feedback, multi source feedback, or multi sources assessment, is
a process utilized by organizations to solicit information from a
variety of workplace sources on an employees work-related

behavior and or performance (Wikipedia, 2016).


Profile XT (PXT) An assessment tool for pre-employment
screening and job application selection. It helps you choose the

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best candidates to fill your job openings. It is primarily used for
pre-hire screening, employee selection, onboarding, managing,
coaching, and strategic workforce planning (Profiles

International, 2016).
Self-assessment Assessment or evaluation of oneself or ones
actions or attitudes in particular of ones performance at a job or
learning task considered in relation to an objective standard

(Oxford Dictionaries, 2016).


Multi-rater feedback information about ones professional
performance gathered from multiple sources on one evaluation
form (Wikipedia, 2016).

Coaching and mentoring theoretical framework integrated with


practice
Currently, coaching and mentoring is an underutilized resource
within the Seventh-day Adventist church organization. Although there
are mentoring relationships, most are not operationalized in a formal,
corporate growth model. As a Christian organization we should do what
ever we can to elevate the skills of church employees. We are
counseled to never cease learning. Professional growth is both Biblical
and foundational for our Church, and therefore, should be a core
component of the organization. According to the Bible, the true
measure of a professional is the eagerness to continually improve.
Biblical support for life-long learning is unmistakable. Proverbs 1:5
states, Let the wise hear and increase in learning, and the one who

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understands obtain guidance. Speaking directly to ministers, 2 Peter
1:8 states, for if these qualities are yours and are increasing, they
keep you from being inefective or unfruitful in the knowledge of our
Lord Jesus Christ. In both of these texts, the Bible speaks to the
necessity of continually seeking knowledge and self-improvement.
What better way to do this than in a trusting relationship with a mentor
or coach.
High performing, contemporary organizations know that their
companies are only as good as the employees (Serrat, 2009).
Onboarding programs, in-house training, and corporate professional
development programs can only go so far (Collins, 2001; Korn Ferry,
2014; Serrat, 2009; Stoddard, 2003). One of the keys to real
professional growth and development is highly developed coaching
and mentoring programs focused on dedicated guidance, inspiration,
and customized facilitation (Serrat, 2009). One of the most highly
efective ways to help someone grow is through positive
communication within a trusting relationship; supporting their selfesteem, efficacy, and self-discovery through conversation (Collins,
2001; Morgan, 2014; Wren, 1995).
While Ive coached and mentored both personally and
professionally, I did not have an adequate set of skills to support
conference, union, and division pastors and administers. As a
requirement of my current role in professional development as

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Associate Director Adventist Learning Community, I am a member of
the leadership team for the NAD. We are working on an organizational
plan for 360 Feedback Loop performance evaluation and assessment
and professional growth with coaching and mentoring support.
Planning and development of the 360 Feedback Loop has been nearly a
two-year process. On October 5-6, 2015, the leadership team met at
the Columbia Union Conference Offices for a two-day brainstorming,
document editing, pre coaches training planning event. I suggested
that we invite the director of Human Resources at the NAD. Dr. Paul
Brantley extended an invitation to her. During these meetings we were
able to refine the 360 Feedback Loop documents, and plan for the
November 2015 executive coaches training. I created a resource
document of courses available at that time on the ALC appropriate for
continuing education for pastors (Artifact set 6 *emails of the event,
event agenda, my documents).
The following month, the leadership team, myself included, and
three additional conference administrative teams participated in a
three-day executive coaches training session from December 1-3,
2015, in Columbia Maryland, and received as an executive coach
qualification. (Artifact set 7: *emails of the event & location. *pictures
taken during the training sessions, *documents from event, *360
Feedback Loop pastors and administrators drafts, and *my PXT
results).

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Through the personal use of the PXT and 360 Feedback Loop, I was
able to better understand the role of executive coach. The PXT tool
evaluates a person on three profiles. My profile of thinking style rated
me within normal range of most respondents for learning index, verbal
skills, and verbal reasoning. I rated above average in numerical ability,
but below average on numeric reasoning. In the profile of behavioral
traits, on a scale from one to ten, I ranged between and eights and ten
for energy level, sociability, decisiveness, assertiveness, and
independence, while the majority of respondents average from four to
six. I responded within the normal range of most respondents for the
traits of manageability, attitude, and accommodating. One somewhat
surprising result was my trait of objective judgment. While most
respondents scored between three-to-five on the ten-point scale, my
score was one, the lowest possible. Of course when I reflect on myself,
I often let emotions get the best of me instead of thinking clearly and
being objective about decision-making.
On the profile of interests I showed top interests in being very
enterprising, creative, working in service for others. In the last index,
an over all profile description is given. What surprised me was how
accurate it is. It says that my learning index of expected learning,
reasoning and problem solving is my strength. In the behavioral index
I am expected to complete what I start, am adaptive in a variety of
settings, pick up new concepts very easily, and have good potential for

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quickly learning new information. My management profile states that I
need creativity to stay engaged. My ability to concentrate and utilize
ideas put forth in training sessions is high, but not significantly above
the norm. It states that I sometimes require assistance to avoid
boredom and respond best to learning that is both theoretical and
practical. It also stated that I may get frustrated during learning if
there is not enough creativity and enthusiasm present. I had to smile,
as this profile index explains why I spent so much time in the
principals office in elementary school as a child. It also reinforced
what I have heard as a professor about my energy levels and ability to
maintain momentum in a classroom environment that leaves people
dizzy at times.
The 360 Feedback Loop information was a bit more difficult to read
as it was directly from my closest peers and administrators. There are
twelve categories of this assessment. We were asked to focus on the
top third and bottom third of our responses for the purposes of coaches
training. My top third, or high performance indicators were leads with
vision and mission, leads through people, manages self, and develops
self through growing and learning. Stuck in the middle were the
following indicators, neither strong or weak; leads with courage,
demonstrates resilience, builds a talented team, connects through
communication. My bottom third indicators were oversees the
administration operations, provides spiritual guidance, models the

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mission of the Adventist church, and models servant leadership. The
fact that three of my bottom four had to do with spirituality or Christian
behavior was stunning to me. It took a couple of days for me to come
to grips that perhaps I am not as overt about faith and God as I should
be and I wondered if spending a lifetime as a professional in the public
sector has contributed to the way I conduct myself as an obvious
Christian. Either way, it was sobering.
Once we reflected on self, we had to work with a partner to
determine methods of improving on areas of weakness. This was a
highlight for me as I worked with Dr. Ivan Williams, Director of NAD
Ministerial. He was a perfect match for me as he was able to coach me
in my areas of greatest need, and I found that I was able to provide
that kind of support for him too. It was deeply gratifying to work with
someone who needed to develop areas where I am strong, but who
could hold me up in my own weakness. Over the three-day coaches
training session we learned the sandwich approach to coaching; wrap
weaknesses with all that is good. Here is the sandwich principle;
deliver strengths, development needs, and then hope (PXT, 2015).
I bonded with the entire leadership team during the three-day
coach and mentoring training. It was an experience that will always be
with me, and I will consider my small working group trusted colleagues.
Since the beginning of 2015, the leadership team has been meeting
virtually every Friday at 10:00am to customize the 360 Feedback Loop

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evaluation tool and plan every detail of this entire process. (Artifact
set 8: *evidence of meetings, *meeting documents *calendar screen
shot of leadership team members). These meetings continue to gain
importance as our launch date gets closer.
The Adventist Learning Community (ALC), is creating the entire 360
Feedback Loop performance evaluation system on the ALC Learning
Management System (LMS) platform. We started beta testing the first
week of June 2016 and plan to have the platform live by early fall
2016. We are also writing scripts that will be used to create training
videos to be deployed across the division as a strategy for consistent
retrievable training across the division. (Artifact set 9: *screen
captures the 360 Feedback Loop on ALC, *my beta testing evaluators
page, and *training video scripts). Customization of the 360 Feedback
Loop to the Seventh-day Adventist organization, becoming familiar
with the PXT tool, qualifying as a coach, and creating the virtual 360
Feedback Loop on the ALC platform have been time consuming.
However the most difficult task of operationalizing the program is still
in front of us.
It is critical to address the many concerns about the new
assessment program in the training and deployment of this
organizational process in order to prevent chaos and potential
organizational and personal damage. There is evidence to suggest that
performance measurements are frequently misused. As a result, the

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results can be irrelevant or worse. Used out of context, they reward
the wrong activities and result in less rather then more attention to
outcomes and quality Performance measurements, by themselves
are not appropriate for assessing outcomes, for determining future
directions or for resource allocation. They can, however, be one
important component of a comprehensive evaluation strategy (Perrin,
B, 1998, para 1). During the coaching and mentoring training
December 1-3, 2015, I internalized several coaching and mentoring
strategies for success.
Perhaps the most complex skill in executive coaching and
mentoring is interpreting diferent combinations of PXT traits. Over
time, common combinations of PXT traits have emerged. During the
training, instruction was given on some of the most common
combinations and what those combinations means as far as
professional behavior. Interestingly, two of my strength combinations;
high energy and high decisiveness (both positive in nature), result in
behavior that sometimes looks instinctual or shooting from the hip.
Another very interesting combination of mine was a strength in
learning index and independence combined with an area of weakness,
manageability. The result of this triple combination indicates a high
level of leaning agility. Interpreting combined index results will take
time and experience to master. Luckily for me, we are at the
beginning of this journey, and I will have time to ramp up my coaching

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and mentoring skills as we pilot and then deploy the 360 Feeback Loop
across the NAD. Although we have a strategic plan as far as how to
deploy the ALC 360 platform and process, a theoretical framework for
organization assessment and evaluation will be a valuable asset
moving forward (Collins, 2001).
Organizational assessment and evaluation theory and
integration of personal practice
After decades of organizational frustration at inadequate
accountability structures or absent performance measurements, the
NAD administration made the decision to create an entire assessment
and evaluation system for the division focused on pastors and church
administrators. Putting a proven strategy of performance assessment
and evaluation from the corporate sector into action in the church
environment is not new. However, as an organization, the Adventist
church is not accustomed to multi-rater performance assessments, and
many employees have expressed concerns. There is fear that the 360
Feedback Loop results will be used as a weapon against employees
instead of an instrument to support professional growth (A. Smith,
personal communication, July 8, 2016). There is also concern that the
current church culture lacks the necessary level of trust within
Conferences to deploy a performance evaluation tool (P. Brantley,
personal communication, July 8, 2016).

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In the article Organizational silence, a barrier to change and
development in a pluralistic world, authors Elizabeth Morrison an
Frances Milliken present the concept of organizational silence. This is
when the vast majority of the employees within the organization
withhold information about potential problems of issues. This
collective sense making can create shared perceptions that speaking
up is not wise. Of course this impacts an organizations ability to
change and grow (Morrison, & Milliken, (2000). Solving this problem
requires good communication in a trusting safe environment. The
challenge for the leadership team is inadequate time and resources for
training, combined with urgent need from the conferences.
Several people have expressed concern that the tool will be
deployed without adequate training for both professional participants
and their chosen raters (B. Davis, personal communication, July 8,
2016). Personally, this is not a concern of mine. Most professionals in
the work environment outside of church employment experience 360performance review frequently throughout their professional life. For
the most part, multi-rater performance reviews on pastors will be
completed by church members who are accustomed to the public
sector employment environment.
Perhaps our most critical challenge will be in helping to foster a
sense of trust within conferences related to performance evaluation.
The organizational culture needs to want to embark on this new

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assessment and evaluation journey before we deploy the tool. Much
care and thought is being given to the rollout strategy for this program,
which will commence shortly. Organizations are run and steered by
people. It is through people that goals are set and objectives are
realized. The performance of an organization is thus dependent upon
the sum total of performance of its members (Toppo, & Prusty, 2012,
para 7).
The Seventh-day Adventist church currently exists in a time like no
other. In 2013 research revealed that ninety percent of the worlds
data was created in the previous two years. This means that
knowledge grew by ninety percent between 2011 and 2013 (Science
Daily, 2013)! Social media platforms are facilitating seismic cultural
shifts nearly overnight. Consider how quickly society has shifted its
stance on same sex marriage, immigration, terrorism, or politics. What
previously took decades or centuries is now happening in months.
Adventists are living in extraordinary times. Supporting employees to
reach their full potential has to be a priority. Contextualization of the
new performance assessment and evaluation process may be the most
sobering and motiving rational to use.
The Bible has several examples where evaluation of performance
was an important issue. In Exodus 35: 31-33 we read, The Lord has
filled him (Bezalel) with the spirit of God, in wisdom and
understanding, in knowledge and all manner of workmanship to design

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artistic works, to work in gold and silver and bronze, in caring wood,
and to work in all manner of artistic workmanship (Bible Gateway,
2016). Here Moses chose men who had a reputation of being the best
craftsmen in all the tribes of Israel. They were to build and furnish the
tabernacle of the Lord (Wiese & Buckley, 1998). Moses had an
organizational plan.
In the book Good to Great, author Jim Collins describes a six-step
model to guide organizations to excel. The first phase of his model is
focused on unconventional, unorthodox leadership. His idea of a great
leader is one that has a blend of humility and professional will (Collins,
2001). Interestingly, the NAD Vice President leading the entire
performance evaluation process is steely in his resolve, quiet, and
unassuming.
Collins second step challenges the old adage that people are your
most important asset. Step two highlights the need for the right
people (Collins, 2001). Korn Ferry seconds the idea that
organizational excellence is the result of having the right people with
the right attitude, and the right professional competencies (Korn Ferry,
2015). The Adventist church elects professionals to many positions,
bypassing a typical interview process. Divine guidance may play
prominently in the people filling many positions.
The third step is confronting the brutal facts (Collins, 2001). This is
where organizational trust is most important. Great organizations hold

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onto unwavering faith in their potential, while looking honestly at their
current reality. Performance assessment and evaluation is the way to
seek the reality of professionals employed by the Adventist
organization. Collins calls the process between step three and four a
breakthrough (Collins, 2001). I imagine its the same sensation one
gets when youve been lost and finally make sense of a map.
Step four is the hedgehog concept. This is the self-examination of
an organization to determine if what they are doing is being done well
(Collins, 2001). The Adventist mission statement captures what the
churches purpose. It says, the mission of the Seventh-day Adventist
Church is to call all people to become disciples of Jesus Christ, to
proclaim the everlasting gospel embraced by the three angels
messages and to prepare the world for Christs soon return (Bible
Gateway, 2016; Seventh-day Adventist Church, 2016). The key to
analysis is ensuring that the people of the organization are working
toward the organizations mission.
The fifth step is creating a culture of discipline (Collins, 2001). This
isnt talking about the discipline necessary to abide by the Adventist
twenty-eight fundamental beliefs. It is the discipline of every
employee to seek excellence, to learn, grow, and be creative.
Complacency is not an option.
Step six is the use of technology (Collins, 2001). Great
organizations maximize technology to ignite transformation (Matuszak,

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2015). The Adventist Learning Communitys virtual platform provides
the entire Adventist organization access to the 360 Feedback Loop
performance evaluation tool, lists of conference coaches and mentors,
and free continuing education courses or stand alone resources for
professional learning. We are in the beta testing stage of the
implementation process with a goal of going live in a few months.
Collins framework presents a structured approach for strategic
planning for the new program.

Conclusion
Through the presentation of personal and professional experiences
integrated with theoretical fame works, I have explored and
demonstrated two leadership competencies: leadership with others
mentoring and coaching, and leadership through organizations,
evaluation and assessment.
Additionally I have demonstrated learning in the following areas:
theoretical application to improving my professional practice as an
executive coach, synthesis of mentoring and coaching theory as it
applies to leadership, and connecting mentoring and coaching research
to my current situation. I have demonstrated application of theoretical
knowledge of organization evaluation and assessment related to the
implementation of the 360 Feedback Loop (North American Division of
Seventh-day Adventists, 2016) performance evaluation process, and

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the utilization of the self-assessment tool Profile XT (PXT) (Profiles
International, 2016). Lastly, I have provided multifaceted artifacts as
evidence of long-term engagement and recent contributions to my
professional practice.
While there are concerns and complexities of operationalization of
the entire performance evaluation process of formal coaching and
mentoring in the North American Division (NAD) of Seventh-day
Adventists, Collins provides a path for taking our organization from
good to great. The organization is literally on the precipice of
changing history in a Christian organization.
At the July 14, 2016 leadership meeting, our external business
consultant, Barbara Davis, suggested that we multi author an article
for Harvard Business Review on the creation, implementation, and
utilization of the 360 Feedback Loop within the Adventist organization.
She said that what we have done is so unique that it would be an
excellent publication opportunity. From that conversation additional
peer reviewed journals were suggested as publication venues. The
Adventist church has a structure that is only comparable to one other
religious organization in the world, the Catholic church. The
implementation of an organizational wide efort in professional
assessment and development has not been successfully done in a
religious organization before. These are indeed exciting times.

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