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You are on page 1of 5

Mass, Length & Time

Secondary/Derived Quantities

The combination of one or more base

quantities

Special Quantities

Exposure, Dose,

Radioactivity

IBWM

International

Measures

Equivalent

Bureau

of

Dose

&

Weights

&

Length

It is based on speed of light

SI Unit: meter (m)

Platinum-Iridium Bar: represents the

standard unit of length

Redefinition: wavelength of orange light

emitted from an isotope of krypton-86

One Meter: distance traveled by light in

1/299,792,468

Mass

One Kilogram: mass of 1000 cm3 of water at

4o C

SI Unit: kilogram (kg)

Platinum-Iridium Cylinder: represents the

standard unit of mass

Units of Weight: Newton (N) & pounds (lb)

Time

It is based on the vibration of atoms of

cesium

Original Definition: based on rotation of

Earth on its axis (mean solar day)

Redefinition: a certain fraction of the

tropical year 1900

STEWART C. BUSHONG

Measurement

It has a magnitude & a unit

Four Systems of Units

MKS

CGS

British

SI

SPECIAL QUANTITIES OF RADIOLOGIC

SCIENCE & THEIR UNITS

Radiographic

Special Units

SI

Quantities

Exposure

C/kg

Air kerma (Gya)

Dose

J/kg

Gray (Gyt)

Equivalent

J/kg

Sievert (Sv)

Dose

Radioactivity

s-1

Becquerel (Bq)

The same system of units must always be used

when one is working on problem or reporting

answers!

MECHANICS

Mechanics

The segment of physics that deals with

motion at rest (statics) & objects in motion

(dynamics)

Velocity (V)

It is sometimes called speed

The rate of change of its position with time

Formula: V = d/t

o d = distance

o t = time

SI Unit: m/s

British Unit: ft/s

Velocity of Light

Symbol: c

c = 3x108 m/s or 1.86x105 mi/s

SUMMARIZED BY: MEYNARD Y. CASTRO

Physics

The study of interactions of matter & energy

clock

Page

CHAPTER 2

FUNDAMENTALS OF RADIOLOGIC SCIENCE

He presented the fundamental laws of

motion

Newtons First Law: Inertia

A body will remain at rest or will continue

to move with constant velocity in a straight

line unless acted on by an external force

Inertia

The property of matter that acts to resist a

change in its state of motion

Newtons Second Law: Force

The force (F) that acts on an object is equal

to the mass (m) of the object multiplied by

the acceleration (a) produced

Force

A push or pull on an object

Symbol: F

Formula: F = ma

o m = mass

o a = acceleration

SI Unit: newton (N)

British Unit: pounds (lb)

STEWART C. BUSHONG

Weight

A force on a body caused by the pull of

gravity on it

Symbol: Wt

Formula: Wt = mg

o m = mass

o g = acceleration due to gravity

SI Units: N or lb

Acceleration Due to Gravity

Symbol: g

Constant in SI Unit: 9.8 m/s2

Constant in British Unit: 32 ft/s2

Weight is the product of mass & the

acceleration of gravity on earth: 1 lb = 4.5 N!

Momentum

The product of mass of an object & its

velocity

Symbol: p

Formula: p = mv

o m = mass

o V = velocity

SI Unit: kg-m/s

British Unit: lb-ft/s

Total p before interaction = Total p after

interaction

Work

The force applied times the distance

Symbol: W

Formula: W = Fd

o F = force

o d = distance

SI Unit: J

British Unit: ft/lb

Power

The rate of doing work

The quotient of work over time

Symbol: P

SUMMARIZED BY: MEYNARD Y. CASTRO

Acceleration

The rate of change of velocity with time

Symbol: a

Formula: a = (Vf Vo)/t

o Vf = final velocity

o Vo = initial velocity

o t = time

SI Unit: m/s2

British Unit: ft/s2

Constant Velocity: zero acceleration

For every action, theres an equal &

opposite reaction

Page

Average Velocity

Symbol:

Formula: = (Vf + Vo)/2

o Vf = final velocity

o Vo = initial velocity

SI Unit: m/s

British Unit: ft/s

CHAPTER 2

FUNDAMENTALS OF RADIOLOGIC SCIENCE

Conduction, Convection & Radiation

Conduction

The transfer of heat through a material by

touching

Energy

The ability to do work

Law of Conservation of Energy

States that energy may be transformed from

one form to another but it cannot be created

or destroyed

Thermal Radiation

The transfer of heat by the emission of

infrared radiation

An x-ray tube cools primarily by radiation

Kinetic & Potential Energy

Kinetic Energy

The energy associated with the motion of an

object

Symbol: KE

Formula: KE = mv2

o m = mass

o v2 = velocity squared

SI Unit: J

British Unit: ft-lb

Potential Energy

The stored energy of position

configuration

Symbol: PE

Formula: PE = mgh

o m = mass

o g = acceleration due to gravity

o h = height

SI Unit: J

British Unit: ft-lb

Heat

or

Unit: calorie

STEWART C. BUSHONG

Convection

The mechanical transfer of hot molecules

in a gas or liquid from one place to another

Temperature

It is measured with a thermometer

3 Scales: Celsius, Kelvin & Fahrenheit

Converting Fahrenheit (F) to Celsius (C)

Formula: Tc = 5/9(Tf - 32)

o Tc = temperature in celsius

o Tf = temperature in fahrenheit

Converting Celsius to Fahrenheit

Formula: Tf = 9/5(Tc) + 32

Converting Celsius to Kelvin (K)

Formula: K = Tc + 273

o K = temperature in Kelvin

Approximate Temperature Conversion

From oF to oC: subtract 30 & divide by 2

From oC to oF: Double, then add 30

Cryogens

The cooling agents used in MRI

Liquid Nitrogen: boils at 77 K

Liquid Helium: boils at 4 K

Calorie

The heat necessary to raise the temperature

of 1 g of water through 1o C

o F = force

o d = distance

o t = time

SI Units: J/s or W

British Unit: hp

One hp: 746 W

Page

CHAPTER 2

FUNDAMENTALS OF RADIOLOGIC SCIENCE

Fractions

The quotient of two numbers

x/y: numerator/denominator

Improper Fraction

The quotient is greater than one

Adding/Subtracting Fractions

Find a common denominator then add or

subtract

x/y + a/b = xb/yb + ay/yb = (xb + ay)/yb

Multiplying Fractions

Simply multiply numerator & denominator

(x/y) x (a/b) = xa/yb

Dividing Fractions

Invert the second fraction & multiply

x/y a/b = (x/y) x (b/a) = xb/ya

Ratio

It expresses the mathematical relationship

between two similar quantities

In addition & subtraction, round to the same

number of decimal places as the entry with the

least number of digits to the right of the

decimal point!

In multiplication & division, round to the

same number of digits as the entry with the

least number of significant digits!

Three Principal Rules of Algebra

First Rule: when an unknown x is multiplied

by a number, divide both sides of the

equation by that number

Step 1: ax = c

Step 2: ax/a = c/a

STEWART C. BUSHONG

Proportion

It expresses the equality of two ratios

Decimal System

System of numbers that is based on

multiples of 10

Decimal to Exponential Form

If there are digits to the left of the decimal

point, the exponent will be positive

If there are no nonzero digits to the left of

the decimal point, the exponent will be

negative

Plancks Constant

Symbol: h

Constant:

o 4.15 x 10-15 Ev-s

o 6.63 x 10-34 Js

Rules of Exponents

Multiplication: 10x x 10y = 10(x+y)

Division: 10x 10y = 10(x-y)

Raising to a Power: (10x)y = 10xy

Inverse: 10-x = 1/10x

Unity: 100 = 1

Graphing

It is based on two axes: x-axis & y-axis

Origin

The point where the two axes meet

SUMMARIZED BY: MEYNARD Y. CASTRO

Proper Fraction

The quotient is less than one

Step 3: x = c/a

Second Rule: when numbers are added to an

unknown x, subtract that number from both

sides of the equation

Step 1: x + a = b

Step 2: x + a a = b a

Step 3: x = b a

Third Rule: when an equation is presented in

the form of a proportion, cross-multiply &

then solve for the unknown x

Step 1: x/a = b/c (cross-multiplication)

Step 2: cx = ab

Step 3: x = ab/c

Page

SCIENCE

CHAPTER 2

FUNDAMENTALS OF RADIOLOGIC SCIENCE

Ordered Pairs

(x-axis, y-axis)

Radiologic Units

Roentgen, Rad, Rem, & Curie

Roentgen/Exposure

The unit of radiation exposure or intensity

It is defined as a unit of radiation quantity

(1928)

Applies only to x-rays & gamma rays &

their interaction with air

Symbol: R

SI Unit: air kerma (Gya)

o Adoption of Wagner/Archer Method

1 R: 2.08 x 108 ip/cm3 of air

1 R: 2.58 x 10-4 C/kg (official)

Rad/Dose

The unit of radiation absorbed dose

The quantity of radiation received by the

patient

It is used for any type of ionizing radiation

& exposed matter, not just air

Symbol: rad

SI Unit: gray (Gyt)

Special Unit: J/kg

1 Rad: 100 erg/g or 10-2 Gyt

Erg (J): a unit of energy

second (Bq)

SCIENCE

STANDARD SCIENTIFIC & ENGINEERING

PREFIXES

Multiple

Prefix

Symbol

1018

exa

E

1015

peta

P

12

10

tera

T

109

giga

G

106

mega

M

103

kilo

k

2

10

hecto

h

101

deka

da

10-1

deci

d

10-2

centi

c

-3

10

milli

m

10-6

micro

10-9

nano

n

10-12

pico

p

10-15

femto

f

-18

10

atto

a

Diagnostic radiology is concerned primarily

with x-rays. We may consider:

1 R = 1 rad = 1 rem or 1 mGya = 1 mGyt = 1

mSv)!

Page

Rem/Equivalent Dose

The unit of occupational radiation exposure

It is used to expressed the quantity of

radiation received by radiation workers &

populations

Symbol: rem

SI Unit: Sievert (Sv)

Special Unit: J/kg

Application: occupational radiation monitors

Curie (Ci/Bq)

A unit of radioactivity

The unit of quantity of radioactive material

Symbol: Ci

SI Unit: Becquerel (Bq)

Special Unit: s-1

STEWART C. BUSHONG

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