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(A model of communication)


The act or process of using words, sounds, signs, or behaviors to express or exchange
information or to express your ideas, thoughts, feelings, etc., to someone else
A message that is given to someone: a letter, telephone call, etc.
Communications : the ways of sending information to people by using technology


It refers to the conceptual used to explain the human communication process

It described what is necessary for an act of communication to take place.

Function of Communication Models

1. To clarify the scope of human interaction showing it to be circular, complex, continuous
dynamic or a coding process
2. To point out where to look and under what conditions to analyze different responses.
3. To show the variables in human communication
4. Used as a frame work researches


(The left is Claude Elwood Shannon; to the right is Warren Weaver)

Biography of Shannon and Weaver

Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver were engineers working for Bell Telephone Labs in
the United States.
Their goal was to ensure the maximum efficiency of telephone cables and radio waves.
They developed a model of communication which was intended to assist in developing a
mathematical theory of communication.


The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone
Shannon and Weaver model of communication has been called mother of all the
Primary Parts of the Model
Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver.

The sender was the part of a telephone a person spoke into;

The channel was the telephone itself; and
The receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person.
Elements of the Model

1. Sender: The person who wishes to communicate the message. He or she makes up the
message and the way it is communicated.

2. Encoder: This is the message is changed into signals, for example sound waves. This is
done by the sender when transmitting the message. It can also be, for example, the
language used when speaking, or the grammar used when writing. In this case, since the
model was made up for technical communication, and example of encoding could be
when the voice over the telephone gets coded into wave and transmitted through cables.
3. Decoder: Decoding is done by the receiver when he gets the message. He has to
decode the message that was coded by the receiver in order to be able to understand it.
4. Receiver: The recipient of the message from the sender. He usually gives feedback to
the sender in order to make sure that the message was properly received.

5. Channel: to which signals are adapted for transmission

6. Feedback: This is when the receiver asks for clarifications from the sender. Feedback is
important in order to make sure that the message has been well received.

7. Dysfunctional Factor: An element, noise is a dysfunctional factor: any

interference with the message travelling along the channel which may lead to the
signal received being different from that sent.

(Fig. 1 diagram of the Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication)


(Fig. 2 diagram of the Shannon and Weaver Communication)

Encoding vs. Decoding

Transmission models treat decoding as a mirror image of encoding, allowing no room for
the receiver's interpretative frames of reference.
Where the message is recorded in some form 'senders' may well have little idea of who
the 'receivers' may be (particularly, of course, in relation to mass communication).

For the telephone;

o the channel is a wire;
o the signal is an electrical current in it; and
o the transmitter and receiver are the telephone handsets.
Noise would include crackling from the wire.
In conversation, my mouth is the transmitter, the signal is the sound waves, and your ear
is the receiver. Noise would include any distraction you might experience as I speak.

Levels of problems in the analysis of communication

Shannon and Weaver argued that there were three levels of problems of communication:
A The technical problem: how accurately can the message be transmitted?

B The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'?

C The effectiveness problem: how effectively does the received meaning affect

Shannon and Weaver somewhat naively assumed that sorting out Level A problems
would lead to improvements at the other levels.
Although the concept of 'noise' does make some allowance for the way in which
messages may be 'distorted', this frames the issue in terms of incidental 'interference' with the
sender's intentions rather than in terms of a central and purposive process of interpretation.
The concept reflects Shannon and Weaver's concern with accuracy and efficiency.

Relationships and Purposes

In the transmission model the participants are treated as isolated individuals.
Transmission models of communication reduce human communication to the
transmission of messages, whereas, as the linguists tell us, there is more to
communication than this.

Advantages of Shannon and Weaver's model

Particular models are useful for some purposes and less useful for others. Like
any process of mediation models foregrounds some features and backgrounds others. The
strengths of Shannon and Weaver's model are its:

generality, and

The advantages of this model are straight to the point and simple. This model has made
communication to be in an easy understandable way and also simple when compared to the
other models. This is because when the two men came up with this model they had an idea of
coming up with a communication process which was going to be effective to people. With that,
people of the past generation and new generation were given a chance to communicate with
one another from different paces of the world through the Shannon-Weaver model.
Such advantages made this model attractive to several academic disciplines. It also drew
serious academic attention to human communication and 'information theory', leading to
further theory and research.
And another advantage of this model is, to Locate, their ability to make an information
communication matter into quantity matter, until very suitable to information technology

Weaknesses of the transmission model of communication

Noise which can make a disruption of concentration

This model also give a parasail images, communication which sight as one way
Explanation about the feedback not clearly, actually the feedback have
an important role
Explanation about media isnt clear

The transmission model is not merely a gross over-simplification but a dangerously

misleading misrepresentation of the nature of human communication. This is particularly
important since it underlies the 'commonsense' understanding of what communication is.
Whilst such usage may be adequate for many everyday purposes, in the context of the study of
media and communication the concept needs critical reframing.

The transmissive model reductive influence has implications not only for the
commonsense understanding of communication in general, but also for specific forms of
communication such as speaking and listening, writing and reading, watching television
and so on.
It reflects the naive 'realist' notion that meanings exist in the world awaiting only
decoding by the passive spectator.
The model underestimates the creativity of the act of interpretation.