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LECTURE NOTES ON CIVIL PROCEDURE

Revised October 2009


WHAT IS CIVIL PROCEDURE
1.
It is the procedure governing the filing, processing and adjudication of civil
actions. It essentially is the lawyers law that defines the rules of the game that
lawyers and judges play.
2.
It is considered as procedural law as it prescribes the method of enforcing
rights and obtaining redress for their invasion, as opposed to substantive law
which creates, defines, and regulates rights and duties that give rise to a cause
of action.
2.1
The rules of procedure promulgated by authority of law bear the force and
effect of law.1
3.
It is embraced in Rules 1 to 71 of the Rules of Court and after its revision,
is now commonly known as the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure. It is divided into
the following topics: General Provisions (Rule 1), Ordinary Civil Actions (Rules
2-5), Procedure in Regional Trial Courts (Rules 6-39), Appeals (Rules 40-43),
Procedure in the Court of Appeals and Supreme Court (Rule 44- 56), Provisional
Remedies (Rules 57-61), and Special Civil Actions (Rules 62-71).
4.
Included within its scope are the 1991 Rules on Summary Procedure,
Local Government Code provisions on the Katarungang Pambarangay and
related issuances of the Supreme Court.
PRELIMINARIES
1.
Any discussion of procedural rules should always be preceded by a
discussion of jurisdiction as its presence is what gives rise to the application of
the rules for the purpose of resolving the action that is brought before a court.
Simply defined it refers to the power and authority of a court or tribunal to hear,
try and decide a case. It has also been defined as the authority by which courts
and judicial officers take cognizance of and decide cases.
1.1
Absent jurisdiction, the only thing a court can do as provided by the rules
is to dismiss the action.

Conlu v. Court of Appeals, 106 Phil 940

1.2
If a court acts without jurisdiction, all its acts are null and void. Further, any
decision it may render is not a decision in contemplation of law and cannot be
executory.2
1.3
The validity of a judgment or order of a court or quasi-judicial tribunal
which has become final and executory may be attacked when the records show
that it lacked jurisdiction to render the judgment-a void judgment may be assailed
or impugned at any time either directly or collaterally by means of a petition filed
in the same or separate case, or by resisting such judgment in any action or
proceeding wherein it is invoked. In fact, even the testimony in a case where the
proceedings had been nullified for lack of jurisdiction is inadmissible as
evidence.3
2.
The absence of jurisdiction as a general rule may be questioned at any
stage of the proceedings, even on appeal.
2.1
However, a party may be barred from raising it on the ground of laches or
estoppel when he has actually invoked the jurisdiction of the court by
participating in the proceedings, then belatedly questions lack of jurisdiction after
judgment has gone against him. Participation in all stages before the trial court
which included invoking its authority in asking for affirmative relief, effectively
bars the party by estoppel from challenging the courts jurisdiction.4
2.2
The court actually does not have jurisdiction, but the law for reasons of
equity, steps in to gag the negligent party and prevents him from raising its voice
about lack of jurisdiction. It does so not because the Court has acquired
jurisdiction but because of fault or negligence of a party now estops him from
raising the question of lack of jurisdiction.5
2.3
Note likewise the rules covering actions for annulment of judgment based
on extrinsic fraud or lack of jurisdiction. If based on the latter, it can only be
initiated before it is barred by laches or estoppel.6
2.4
It is incumbent upon the petitioner to file a motion to dismiss at the earliest
opportune time to raise the issue of the courts lack of jurisdiction. Its failure to

2 Abbain

vs. Chua, 22 SCRA 748, Estoesta vs. Court of Appeals, 179 SCRA 203, Dava vs. People, 202
SCRA 62
3

Dynamic Signmaker Outdoor Advertising Services, Inc. vs. Potongan, 461 SCRA 328

Heirs of the late Panfilo V. Pajarillo v. Court of Appeals, 537 SCRA 96

Tijam v. Sibonghanoy, 23 SCRA 29, Soliven v. FastForms, Phil. Inc., 440 SCRA 389

Sections, 2 and 3, Rule 49, 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure

seasonably raise the question of jurisdiction leads to the inevitable conclusion


that it is now barred by laches.7

REQUISITES FOR A VALID EXERCISE OF JURISDICTION


1.
It must have jurisdiction over the persons of the parties. It is acquired over
the plaintiff upon his filing of a complaint.
1.1
On the other hand, it is acquired over the defendant by his voluntary
appearance before the court or the employment of the coercive power of legal
process.
2.
It must also have jurisdiction over the subject matter in controversy.
Jurisdiction over the subject matter of the complaint is to be determined by the
allegations in the complaint and the law in force at the time of the
commencement of the action. This is the power of a court to hear and determine
cases of a general class to which the proceedings in question belong.8
2.1
Determined by allegations in the complaint. Jurisdiction must be
determined at the commencement of the action. Since an action is commenced
by the filing of a complaint, it is also the means by which the plaintiff invokes the
jurisdiction of the court. Hence, it is from it that a determination of the existence
of jurisdiction is had.
2.2
The determination is to be confined solely to the four corners of the
complaint. Specifically, what characterizes an action is not the caption of the
pleading, which is just a legal conclusion on the part of the pleader, but the
allegations in the body of the complaint.9
2.3
In case of conflict between the allegations and the reliefs, the allegations
in the body shall prevail. The prayer is a conclusion of the pleader as to the
proper reliefs that he would be entitled to on the basis of the pleaded cause of
action. The Court is not bound as it may grant a relief, lesser or greater in
amount, or totally different from that prayed for.10
2.4
Even if the plaintiff alleges an amount that puts the case within the
jurisdiction of the RTC, the courts jurisdiction is not affected if it later finds that
7

United Overseas Bank v. Ros, 529 SCRA 334

Heirs of Valeriano S. Concha, Sr. v. Lumocso, 540 SCRA 1

De Jesus v. Bristol Laboratories, 55 SCRA 349, Solid Homes v. Court of Appeals, 271 SCRA 157

10

Bulao v. Court of Appeals, 218 SCRA 321

the plaintiff is entitled to an amount within the jurisdiction of an MTC.11


Conversely, if a court has no jurisdiction, the defect will not be cured by a finding
during the trial that the amount actually due is within the jurisdiction of the court.12
2.5
Neither can it be determined from the allegations in the answer of the
defendant. If the rule were otherwise, no action can prosper as all the defendant
has to do is to allege that the jurisdiction is vested in another court.
2.6
The only recognized exception is the defense of agricultural tenancy.13
The court in this case must conduct a preliminary hearing on the defense to
determine if there is indeed a tenancy relationship, as its existence shall mean
that the court has no jurisdiction as the same is vested exclusively with the
DARAB.14
2.7
Determined by the law in force at the time of the commencement of the
action. Jurisdiction as used in the Constitution and statutes means jurisdiction
over the subject matter15 unless qualified to mean another kind of jurisdiction.
This jurisdiction refers to the jurisdiction of a court over a general class of cases
or the power to try and decide the class of litigation to which the particular case
belongs.16 Jurisdiction is conferred by law, where there is none, no agreement of
the parties can provide one.17
2.8
Example: If an action for payment of a sum of money is filed after the
effectivity of RA 7961 on April 15, 1994, expanding the jurisdiction of the MTC
and implemented by Adm. Circular 9-9418 interest, damages of whatever kindas long as incidental, attorneys fees, litigation expenses and costs (DIAL-C) are
not to be considered in fixing the jurisdictional amount, but must be specifically
alleged and filing fees paid thereon. Hence, in an action for the payment of a sum
of money previous to the said date, a determination of jurisdiction would have to
include the amounts claimed by way of DIAL-C. Another is Section 5.2, RA

11

Ratilla v. Tapucar, 75 SCRA 64

12

Mercado v. Ubay, 187 SCRA 719

13

Section 3, Rule 70, 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure

14

Concepcion v. CFI of Bulacan, 119 SCRA 222

15

Reyes v. Diaz, 73 Phil 484

16

Caluag v. Pecson, 82 Phil 8

17

Department of Health v. NLRC, 251 SCRA 700

18

June 14, 1994

879919 that vests jurisdiction over intra-corporate disputes in the RTC that sits as
a commercial court.
2.9
When a court has already obtained and is exercising jurisdiction over a
controversy, its jurisdiction to proceed to the final determination of the cause is
not affected by new legislation placing jurisdiction over such proceedings in
another tribunal unless the statute expressly provides, or is construed to the
effect that it is intended to operate on actions pending before its enactment.20
3.
Jurisdiction over the res assumes importance only in those actions where
the court cannot acquire jurisdiction over the person of the defendant because he
is not a resident and cannot be found here or served with summons.
3.1
These are quasi in rem actions.21 The action is directed against a
defendant personally, although its object is to subject his interest in the property
to the obligation or the lien.22

PROBLEM AREAS AFFECTING JURISDICTION


1.

Actions which are incapable of pecuniary estimation

1.1
Generally, it is one where the basic issue is something other than the right
to recover money, where the money claim is incidental to or is a consequence of
the principal relief being sought.
1.2

It is a claim, the subject of which cannot be estimated in terms of money.

1.3
Examples: Action for specific performance although damages are being
sought but if damages are part of an alternative prayer, jurisdiction should be
based on the amount. Other examples: Action for appointment of receivers,
expropriation, interpleader, support, and rescission.
1.4
In determining which court has jurisdiction, the applicable test is the
Nature of the Action Test which involves a determination as to whether or not the
action is capable of pecuniary estimation. If not capable, jurisdiction is with the
RTC. If capable-jurisdiction is determined by the amount claimed/value of the real
or personal property but this test must yield to the Primary or Ultimate Objective
19

Securities Regulation Code of 2000

20

Palana v. People, 534 SCRA 296

21

Perkins v. Dizon, 69 Phil 186

22

Biaco v. PCRB, 515 SCRA 106

Test where notwithstanding the fact that the action appears to be incapable of
pecuniary estimation, if the primary objective is to recover real property,
jurisdiction will be determined by the assessed value of the real property.
1.5
Examples: An action for specific performance with a prayer for the
issuance of a deed of sale over a parcel of land is a real action as the object is
the recovery of the land itself23 or an action to quiet title in which both parties are
claiming ownership of the subject parcels of land is also a real action.24 Hence,
they cannot be considered as being incapable of pecuniary estimation.

2.
DETERMINATION OF AMOUNTS OF THE CLAIM TO DETERMINE
JURISDICTION AND PAYMENT OF DOCKET FEES.
2.1
Filing and docketing of the complaint are not separate but are
complementary. It is not simply the filing of the complaint or appropriate initiatory
pleading, but the payment of the prescribed docket fee that vests a trial court with
jurisdiction over the subject matter or nature of the action.25
2.2
The problem arises as filing is not synonymous with docketing as the
complaint may be filed but not necessarily docketed if the appropriate fees are
not paid.
2.3
The purpose of docket fees is to take care of court expenses in the
handling of cases in terms of costs of supplies, use of equipment, salaries and
benefits.26
2.4
Examples in determining appropriate docket fees: (a) F o r e c l o s u r e o f
chattel to collect PHP 100,000.00 but actual value of chattel is PHP 500,000.00,
the docket fee is based on what is sought to be collected and jurisdiction is
determined by the amount claimed by the plaintiff (b) An action to collect a sum
of money that is within jurisdiction of the MTC but with accessory prayer for
damages beyond MTC jurisdiction, the damages, interest, attorneys fees,
litigationg expenses are to be excluded in determining jurisdiction but docket
23

Gochan v. Gochan, 372 SCRA 256

24

Ferrer v. Lucas, CA G.R. No. SP 52294, July 9, 1999

25

Proton Pilipinas Corporation v. Banque Nationale de Paris, 460 SCRA 260.

26

Serrano v. Delica, 465 SCRA 82

fees are still to be collected27 but if action is for damages over 400K jurisdiction is
with the RTC because it is the main cause of action or one of the causes of
action.
2.5
If the docket fees are incorrect- the trial court should allow the plaintiff to
pay within a reasonable period of time before the expiration of the applicable
prescriptive or reglamentary period otherwise the defendant must move to
dismiss the complaint on the ground of lack of jurisdiction, if he does not, he may
be considered to be in estoppel.28
2.6
The court had jurisdiction over the amended complaint as it had acquired
jurisdiction over the case when the original complaint was filed and the
corresponding docket fee was paid thereon. While the payment of the prescribed
docket fee is a jurisdictional requirement, even its nonpayment at the time of
filing does not automatically cause the dismissal of the case, as long as the fee is
paid within the applicable prescriptive or reglementary period.29
2.7
When the docket fees for the main action are paid but those for related
damages alleged but not specified are not paid, the court is not prevented from
proceeding with the complaint, the trial court may expunge the claims or allow on
motion, a reasonable time for amendment of the complaint or accept payment of
the requisite legal fees.30
2.8
In a complaint for recovery of possession of real property which did not
allege the assessed value thereof, the trial court commits a serious error in
denying a motion to dismiss on the ground of lack of jurisdiction. All proceedings
in said court are null and void.31
2.9
If the claims are not specified and subsequently arise or there is an
insufficiency in the payment of docket fees, the required additional fee shall
constitute a lien on the judgment and the clerk of court must enforce and collect
the difference in docket fees from the judgment that may be rendered by the
court in the case, awarding a claim no specified in the pleading or if specified is
left to its determination.32

27 A.M.

09-94, June 14, 1994

28

NSC v. Court of Appeals, G.R. 123215, February 2, 1999

29

Pagcor v. Lopez, 474 SCRA 76, Polido v. Court of Appeals, 527 SCRA 248

30

Tacay v RTC of Tagum, Davao del Sur, 180 SCRA 433

31

Quinagoran vs. CA, GR No. 155179, August 24, 2007

32

Pascual v. Court of Appeals, 300 SCRAPascual v. Court of Appeals, 300 SCRA 214

DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN THE NATURE OF JURISDICTION EXERCISED BY


THE COURTS
1.
AS TO THE NATURE OF THE EXERCISE OF JURISDICTION OR KIND
OF CASES THAT ARE TRIED it is General, meaning it is exercised over all
kinds of cases or Limited, meaning it exercised over and extends only to a
particular or specified cases
2.
AS TO THE NATURE OF THE CAUSE OR THE ACTION it is Criminal
when the object of the action is to impose punishment for a crime or Civil, if
otherwise.
3.
AS TO THE TIMING OF ITS EXERCISE- it is Original, meaning it is
exercised by courts in the first instance or Appellate, meaning it is exercised by a
superior court to review and decide a cause or action previously decided by a
lower court.
4.
AS TO THE EXTENT OF THE EXERCISE OF JURISIDICTION it is
Exclusive, meaning it is confined to a particular court or Concurrent, meaning two
or more courts have jurisdiction at the same time and place.
4.1
In this instance, the court which has first validly acquired jurisdiction takes
it to the exclusion of the others. This is also known as the Exclusionary Principle.
This is taken together with the Doctrine of Judicial Stability of Non-Interference
which holds that court of co-equal or coordinate jurisdiction shall have no
authority to pass upon or scrutinize the exercise by another court of its
jurisdiction.
4.2
Note though the Doctrine of Hierarchy of Courts which requires litigants to
initially seek proper relief from the lower courts in those cases where the
Supreme Court has concurrent jurisdiction with the Court of Appeals and the
Regional Trial Court to issue the extraordinary writs of certiorari, prohibition or
mandamus. The Supreme Court is a court of last resort and its jurisdiction to
issue extra-ordinary writs should be exercised only when absolutely necessary,
or where serious and important reasons therefor exist.33 Neither does
concurrence of jurisdiction grant any party seeking any of the extra-ordinary
writs the absolute freedom to file the petition with the court of his choice.34

33

Pearson v. IAC, 295 SCRA 27

34

Ouano vs. PGTT International Investment Corporation, 384 SCRA 587

5.
AS TO SITUS it is Territorial, meaning it is exercised within the limits of
the place where the court is located or Extra-Territorial meaning it is exercised
beyond the confines of the territory where the court is located.
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN JURISDICTION IS ACQUIRED
Jurisdiction once acquired continues until the case is terminated. It is not affected
by subsequent legislation placing jurisdiction in another tribunal.35
The
exceptions are: when the law expressly provides for retroactivity,36 when the
change in jurisdiction is curative in nature, or when there is a perfected appeal.
This is also known as the Doctrine of Adherence to Jurisdiction.
DOCTRINE OF PRIMARY JURISDICTION
1.
That which vests in an administrative tribunal the jurisdiction to determine
a controversy requiring the exercise of sound administrative discretion stated
otherwise if jurisdiction is vested upon an administrative body, no resort to
courts can be made until the administrative body shall have acted on the matter.
2.
In exercising its primary jurisdiction, a court has the inherent jurisdiction to
determine issues incidental to its exercise. This is known as the Doctrine of
Ancillary Jurisdiction.
LEVELS OF SUBJECT MATTER JURISDICTION
1.

JURISDICTION OF THE SUPREME COURT

The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in civil cases of which it cannot be


deprived and which cannot be diminished by Congress is to review, revise,
reverse, modify, or affirm on appeal or certiorari as the law or the Rules of Court
may provide, final judgments and orders of lower courts in: (a) all cases in which
the constitutionality or validity of any treaty, international or executive agreement,
law, presidential decree, proclamation, order, instruction, ordinance, or regulation
is in question; (b) all cases involving the legality of any tax, impost, assessment,
or toll, or any penalty imposed in relation thereto; (c) all cases in which the
jurisdiction of any lower court is in issue; and (d) all cases in which only an error
or question of law is involved.

35

Mercado v. Ubay, 187 SCRA 719

36

Latchme Motoomull v. Dela Paz, 187 SCRA 743

The foregoing Constitutional definition is of appellate jurisdiction.


Congress, however, is not prohibited from increasing or adding to this
Constitutionally-defined jurisdiction. And so Congress has given the Supreme
Court original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors, other public
ministers, and consuls and petitions for the issuance of writs of certiorari,
prohibition and mandamus against the Court of Appeals. Congress has also
vested the Supreme Court with jurisdiction, concurrent with the RTCs, over
petitions for the issuance of the writs of certiorari, prohibition, habeas corpus, and
in actions brought to prevent and restrain violations of law concerning
monopolies and combinations in restraint of trade.
The appellate jurisdiction in civil cases of the Supreme Court as defined in
the Constitution had been revised and expanded a little bit more by law to
include all cases involving petitions for naturalization or denaturalization, all
decisions of the Auditor General, if the appellant is a private person or entity, and
final judgments or orders of the Commission on Elections.
2.

JURISDICTION OF THE COURT OF APPEALS

The Court of Appeals has both original and appellate jurisdiction. Its
original jurisdiction, which is exclusive, is over actions for annulment of RTC
judgments. Its original jurisdiction, which is concurrent with the Supreme Court
and the RTCs, is to issue writs of mandamus, prohibition, certiorari, habeas
corpus and quo warranto, and auxiliary writs or processes, whether or not in aid
of its appellate jurisdiction.
The appellate jurisdiction of the Court of Appeals, which is exclusive, is
over final judgments or resolutions of RTCs and quasi-judicial agencies, such as
the Securities and Exchange Commission, Sandiganbayan and the National
Labor Relations Commission.
3.

JURISDICTION OF REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS

The RTCs are our second-level trial courts. As the Supreme Court and the
Court of Appeals, RTCs have both original and appellate jurisdiction in civil
cases.
Their original jurisdiction is concurrent with the Supreme Court and the
Court of Appeals in the issuance of writs of certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo
warranto, habeas corpus and injunctions but, as issued by RTCs, these writs
may be enforced only within their respective regions, and over actions affecting
ambassadors and other public ministers and consuls. The original jurisdiction of
RTCs, which is exclusive, is broad and covers the following cases: (1) all civil
actions in which the subject of the litigation is incapable of pecuniary estimation;
(2) all civil actions which involve the title to, or possession of, real property, or any
interest therein, where the assessed value of the property involved exceeds Two

hundred thousand pesos (P200,000.00) or for civil actions in Metro Manila,


where such value exceeds Four hundred thousand pesos (P400,000.00) except
actions for forcible entry into and unlawful detainer of lands or buildings, original
jurisdiction over which is conferred upon the Metropolitan Trial Courts, Municipal
Trial Courts, and Municipal Circuit Trial Courts; (3) all actions in admiralty and
maritime jurisdiction where the demand or claim exceeds Two hundred thousand
pesos (P200,000.00) or in Metro Manila, where such demand or claim exceeds
Four hundred thousand pesos (P400,000.00); (4) all matters of probate, both
testate and intestate, where the gross value of the estate exceeds Two hundred
thousand pesos (P200,000.00) or, in probate, both testate and intestate, where
the gross value of the estate exceeds Two hundred thousand pesos
(P200,000.00) or, in probate matters in Metro Manila, where such gross value
exceeds Four hundred thousand pesos (P400,000.00); (5) all actions involving
the contact of marriage and marital relations; (6) all cases not within the
exclusive jurisdiction of any court, tribunal, person or body exercising jurisdiction
of any court, tribunal, person or body exercising judicial or quasi-judicial
functions; (7) all civil actions and special proceedings falling within the exclusive
jurisdiction of a Juvenile and Domestic Relations Court and of the Court of
Agrarian Relations as then provided by law; and (8) all other cases in which the
demand, exclusive of interest, damages of whatever kind, attorneys fees,
litigation expenses, and costs or the value of the property in controversy exceeds
Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000.00) or, in such other cases in Metro
Manila, where the demand, exclusive of the above-mentioned items exceeds For
hundred thousand pesos (P400,000.00).
The appellate jurisdiction of the RTCs is over all cases decided by
Metropolitan Trial Courts, Municipal Trial Courts and Municipal Circuit Trial
Courts in their respective territorial jurisdiction.
The term damages of whatever kind has been specially defined by the
Supreme Court for purposes of determining the jurisdictional amount in respect
to the jurisdiction of the RTC. This term is understood to apply only to cases
when the damages are merely incidental to or a consequence of the main cause
of action, and that therefore where the claim for damages is the main cause of
action or one of the causes of action, the amount of the claim shall be considered
in determining the jurisdiction of the court.
The Supreme Court has however designated certain branches of the
RTCs to handle exclusively certain cases as corporate and intellectual property
cases.

4.
JURISDICTION OF METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURTS, MUNICIPAL
TRIAL COURTS AND MUNICIPAL CIRCUIT TRIAL COURTS
The MTCs are the first-level trial courts in this country. They have
therefore no appellate jurisdiction and all their jurisdiction is exclusive and

encompasses the following cases: (1) all civil actions and probate proceedings,
testate and intestate, including the grant of provisional remedies in proper cases,
where the value of the personal property, estate, or amount of the demand does
not exceed two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000.00) or, in Metro Manila
where such personal property, estate, or amount of the demand does not exceed
Four hundred thousand pesos (P400,000.00), exclusive of interest, damages of
whatever kind, attorneys fees, litigation expenses, and costs, the amount of
which must be specifically alleged: Provided, That where there are several claims
or causes of actions between the same or different parties, embodied in the
same complaint, the amount of the demand shall be the totality of the claims in
all the causes of action irrespective of whether the causes of action arose out of
the same or different transactions; (2) cases of forcible entry and unlawful
detainer: Provided, That when, in such cases, the defendant raises the question
of ownership in his pleadings and the question of possession cannot be resolved
without deciding the issue of ownership, the issue of ownership shall be resolved
only to determine the issue of possession; and (3) all civil actions which involve
title to, or possession of, real property or any interest therein where the assessed
value of the property or interest therein does not exceed Two hundred thousand
pesos (P200,000.00) or, in civil actions in Metro Manila, where such assessed
value does not exceed Four hundred thousand pesos (P400,000.00) exclusive of
interest, damages of whatever kind, attorneys fees, litigation expenses and
costs.
The MTCs may however be assigned by the Supreme Court to hear and
determine certain cadastral cases and petitions for habeas corpus.

RULE I
1.

GENERAL PROVISIONS

The Rules shall be known and cited as the Rules of Court.37

2.
They apply in all courts, except as otherwise provided by the Supreme
Court38 in civil, criminal and special proceedings.39
2.1
For purposes of the subject matter, only Rules 1 to 71 or the 1997 Rules
of Civil Procedure shall be discussed herein.

37

Section 1, Rule 1, 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure

38

Supra, Section 2, Rule 1

39

Supra, Section 3, Rule 1

2.2
A Civil Action is one by which a party sues another for the enforcement or
protection of a right or the prevention or redress of a wrong. Examples: To
enforce payment of a loan or to eject an intruder on ones property.
2.3

Civil Actions may be considered as:

(a)
Ordinary or Special, while both are governed by the rules for ordinary civil
actions, there are specific rules prescribed for a special civil action.
(b)
In Personam, which is an action brought against a person based on
personal liability to the person bringing the action. The purpose of the action is to
impose through the judgment of a court, some responsibility or liability directly
upon the person of the defendant.40 In this kind of action, no one other than the
defendant is held liable, not the whole world.
(c)
In Rem, is an action that is directed against the thing itself rather than the
person, It is directed against the thing, property or status of a person and seeks
judgments with respect thereto against the whole world.41 An example would be
an action for registration of land as the judgment thereon is binding upon the
whole world.
(d)
Quasi in Rem, is an action that names a person as a defendant but its
object is to subject the persons interest in property to a corresponding lien or
obligation.42 It deals with the status, ownership or liability of a particular property
but which are intended to operate on these questions only as between the
particular parties to the proceedings and do not cut off the rights and interests of
all possible claimants. Examples are actions for partition, attachment or
foreclosure of mortgages.
2.4
Note the distinctions between actions in personam, on one hand, and
actions in rem or quasi in rem on the other, is essential as far as jurisdiction. In
an action in personam, jurisdiction over the person of the defendant is necessary
for the court to validly try and decide the case. In a proceeding in rem or quasi in
rem, jurisdiction over the person of the defendant is not a prerequisite to confer
jurisdiction on the court provided that the court acquires jurisdiction over the res.
Jurisdiction over the res is acquired either (1) by the seizure of the property
under legal process, whereby it is brought into actual custody of the law; or (2) as
a result of the institution of legal proceedings, in which the power of the court is
recognized and made effective. 43
40

Domagas v. Jensen, 448 SCRA 663

41

Ching v Court of Appeals, 181 SCRA 9

42

Ramos v. Ramos, 399 SCRA 43

43

Biaco v. Philippine Countryside Rural Bank, GR No. 161417, February 8, 2007

3.

Civil Actions can also be distinguished as:

3.1
Real Actions are those which affect title to, or possession of real property
or any interest therein.44 All others are personal actions.45
3.2
In a real action, it is founded upon the privity of real estate. That means
that realty or any interest therein is the subject matter of the action. What is
essential is that as far as the real property is concerned, the issues are title to,
ownership, possession, partition, foreclosure of mortgage or condemnation.
Hence, an action for damages suffered by real property is a personal action as it
does not involve any of the listed issues.
3.3
An action to annul a contract of loan and its accessory real estate
mortgage is a personal action. In a personal action, the plaintiff seeks recovery of
personal property, the enforcement of a contract or recovery of damages. A real
action is an action affecting title to real property or for recovery of possession, or
for partition or condemnation of, or foreclosure of mortgage on real property. The
rule on real actions only mentions an action for foreclosure of real estate
mortgage; it does not include an action for cancellation or annulment of a real
estate mortgage.46
3.4
The distinction between a real action and a personal action is important for
the purpose of determining the venue of the action.
3.5
An action in personam is not necessarily a personal action. Nor is a real
action necessarily an action in rem. An in personam or an in rem action is a
classification of actions according to the object of the action. A personal and real
action is a classification according to foundation. It is in rem when directed
against the whole world. For instance, an action to recover, title or possession of
real property is a real action, but it is an action in personam. It is not brought
against the whole world but against the person upon whom the claim is made.47
4.

Distinguishing civil actions from other kinds of actions:

4.1
Criminal Action is one by which the state prosecutes a person for an act or
omission punishable by law.
4.2
A Special Proceeding is a remedy by which a party seeks to establish a
status, right or a particular fact. In addition, a civil action is adversarial, while a
special proceeding may not be so as it may involve only 1 party. The object of a
44

Supra, Section 1, Rule 4

45

Supra, Section 2, Rule 4

46

Chua vs. Total Office Products and Services, Inc., 471 SCRA 500

47

Republic v Court of Appeals, 315 SCRA 600

civil action is the formal demand of a right by one against the other, while in a
special proceeding, it is the declaration of a status, right or a particular fact.
5.
They do not apply to election cases, land registration, cadastral,
naturalization and insolvency, and other cases not herein provided, except by
analogy or in suppletory character and whenever practicable and convenient.48
6.
The rules have retroactive application in the sense that they shall be held
to apply to actions pending or undetermined at the time of their effectuality.49
6.1
The exceptions to retroactive application are: (a) the statute itself or by
implication provides that pending actions are excepted (b) it will impair vested
rights (c) to the mind of the court, it will work injustice (d) it would involve
intricate problems of due process or impair the courts independence
WHEN AN ACTION IS COMMENCED
1.
An action is commenced upon the filing of the original complaint in court.
Filing refers to the act of presenting the complaint to the clerk of court and the
payment of the requisite docket and filing fees. Filing is deemed done only upon
payment regardless of the actual date of the filing.50

1.1
An exception is when the plaintiff is authorized to litigate as a pauper
litigant as he is exempt from the payment of filing fees.
2.
If an additional defendant is impleaded in a later pleading, it is
commenced as far as the additional defendant on the date of the filing of the
later pleading, irrespective of whether the motion for its admission, if necessary is
denied by the court.51
3.
Note that the commencement of the action interrupts the period of
prescription as to the parties to the action.52
HOW SHOULD THE RULES BE CONSTRUED

48

Supra,,Section 4, Rule 1

49

Nypes v. Court of Appeals, 478 SCRA 115

50

Magaspi v. Ramolete, 115 SCRA 193

51

Supra, Section 5, Rule 1

52

Cabrera v Tiano,8 SCRA 542

1.
The rules shall be construed liberally in order to promote their objective of
securing a just speedy and inexpensive disposition of every action or
proceeding.53
1.1
Liberal construction is the controlling principle to effect substantial justice.
Litigation should as much as possible, be decided on their merits, and not on
technicalities.
1.2
Rules must not be applied to rigidly so as not to override substantial
justice.54 Rules of procedure must be used to facilitate not to frustrate the ends
of justice.55
1.3
It does not mean, however, that procedural rules are to be ignored or
disdained at will to suit the convenience of a party. 56
2.
Liberal construction of the rules should be made by the courts in cases:
(a) a rigid application will result in manifest failure or miscarriage of justice,
especially if a party successfully shows that the alleged defect in the questioned
final and executory judgment is not apparent on its face or from the recitals
contained therein (b) where the interest of substantial justice will be served (c)
where the resolution of the motion is addressed solely to the sound and judicious
discretion of the court (d) where justice to the adverse party is not commensurate
with the degree of this thoughtlessness in not complying with the procedure
prescribed.57
3.
A party litigant should be given the fullest opportunity to establish the
merits of his complaint or his defense. He ought not to lose life, liberty or honor or
property on technicalities.
3.1
Rules of procedure should be viewed as mere tools designed to facilitate
the attainment of justice. An example is the matter of the attachment of copies to
petitions58 or failure to indicate material dates in the petition.59

53

Supra,Section 6, Rule 1

54

De La Cruz v. Court of Appeals, GR No. 139442, December 6, 2006

55

Canton v City of Cebu, GR No. 152898, February 12, 2007

56

Vda De Toledo v Toleda, 417 SCRA 260

57

Seapower Shipping Enterprises, Inc. v CA, 360 SCRA 173, Tan v CA, 295 SCRA 755

58 Alberto
59

v Court of Appeals, 334 SCRA 756

Fulgencio v NLRC, 411 SCRA 69

4.
Note that in doing so, substantial justice and equity considerations must
not be sacrificed.
4.1

Periods for filing are as a matter of practice, strictly construed.

4.2
Neither can liberality of the rules be invoked if it will result in the wanton
disregard of the rules or cause needless delay in the administration of justice.60
5.
Concommitant to a liberal application of the rules of procedure should be
an effort on the part of the party invoking liberality to adequately explain his
failure to abide by the rules.61
6.
The rules and procedure laid down for the trial court and the adjudication
of cases are matters of public policy.
6.1
They are matters of public order or interest which can in no wise be
changed or regulated by agreements between or stipulations by parties to an
action for their singular convenience.62
6.2
They are required to be followed except only for the most persuasive of
reasons as when transcendental matters of life, liberty or state security is
involved. Litigation is not a game of technicalities. It is equally true, however, that
every case must be presented in accordance with the prescribed procedure to
ensure an orderly and speedy administration of justice.63
7.
The Supreme Court has the power to suspend or set aside its rules in the
higher interest of justice.64 Specifically, the reasons that will warrant the
suspension are: (a) the existence of special or compelling reasons (b) the merits
of the case (c) a cause not entirely attributable to the fault or negligence of the
party favored by the suspension (d) a lack of showing that the review is frivolous
or dilatory, and (e) the other party will not be prejudiced thereby.65
RULE 2

CAUSE OF ACTION

CAUSE OF ACTION DEFINED


60

El Reyno Homes v Ong, 397 SCRA 563

61

Sebastian v Hon. Morales, 397 SCRA 549, Duremdes v Duremdes, 415 SCRA 684

62

Republic v Hernandez, 253 SCRA 509

63

Mindanao Savings Loan Association v. De Flores, 469 SCRA 416

64

Fortica v Corona, GR No. 131457, April 24, 1998

65

Sarmiento v. Zaratan, GR No. 167471, February 5, 2007

1.

The basis of an ordinary civil action is a cause of action.66

2.
A cause of action is the act or omission by which a party violates a right of
another.67
THE REQUISITES OF A CAUSE OF ACTION
1.
The requisites for a cause of action are: (a) a right in favor of the plaintiff
by whatever means and under whatever law it arises or is created (b) an
obligation on the part of the defendant to respect and not to violate such right (c)
an act or omission on the part of the defendant constituting a violation of the
plaintiffs right.68
DISTINGUISHING IT FROM AN ACTION AND A RIGHT OF ACTION
1.
An action is the suit filed in court for the enforcement or protection of a
right, or the prevention or redress of a wrong, while a cause of action is the basis
for the filing of the action.
2.
The right of action is the right to commence and maintain an action, it is a
remedial right that depends on substantive law, while a cause of action is a
formal statement of the operative facts that give rise to such remedial right
which is a matter of statement and is governed by procedural law. The right of
action which is procedural in character is the consequence of the violation of the
right of the plaintiff. Hence, there is no right of action where there is no cause of
action.
2.1
The distinction is best used to explain the principle that the existence of a
cause of action may only be ascertained from the allegations of the complaint. 69

HOW MANY SUITS CAN BE FILED FOR A CAUSE OF ACTION


Same Objective Test if a party has only one objective in filing two cases, there exists
identity of causes of action and reliefs based on the same objective standard.70

66

Supra, Section 1, Rule 2

67

Supra, Section 2, Rule 2, PNOC v. Court of Appeals, GR No. 165433, February 6, 2007

68

Navao v CA, 251 SCRA 545

69

Equitable Bank v CA, 425 SCRA 544

70

Clark Development Corporation v Mondragon Leisure Resorts, 517 SCRA 203

1.

A party may not institute more than one suit for a single cause of action.71

2.
The practice of splitting a cause of action is discouraged because it breeds
multiplicity of actions, clogs the dockets of the courts and operates to cause
unnecessary expense to the parties.
3.
If a party institutes more than one suit, the filing of one or a judgment upon
the merits in anyone is available as a ground for the dismissal of the others.72
This is also known as Splitting a Cause of Action.
3.1
The remedy of the defendant is to file a motion to dismiss. If the action is
pending when the second action is filed, the dismissal is based on litis pendentia
or if a final judgment has been rendered in the first action when the second is
filed, the dismissal is based on res judicata.
3.2
Note though that the rule does not confine itself to a dismissal of the
second action. As to which action is to be dismissed would depend on judicial
discretion and attendant circumstances.
4.
The rule on splitting a cause of action applies not only to complaints but
also to counter-claims and cross-claims.73
5.

The singleness of a cause of action is determined as follows:

5.1
In an action Ex Delicto or one arising from the fault or negligence of a
defendant, the singleness of a cause of action lies in the singleness of the delict
or wrong violating the right of a person. If however, one injury results from
several wrongful acts, only one cause of action arises. Example: A party who is
injured could not maintain an action for damages based on a breach of the
contract of carriage against the owner of the vehicle in which he was riding and
another action for quasi-delict against the driver/owner of the offending vehicle.
The recovery under one remedy necessarily should bar recovery under another.
This, in essence, is the rationale for the proscription in our law againt double
recovery for the same act or omission which, obviously stems from the
fundamental rule against unjust enrichment.74

71

Supra, Section 3, Rule 2

72

Supra, Section 4, Rule 2

73

Mariscal v. Court of Appeals, 311 SCRA 51

74

Joseph v Bautista, 170 SCRA 540

5.2
In an action Ex Contractu or one arising out of or is founded on a contract,
the rules are as follows:
(a)
In a single or indivisible contract, only one cause of action arises from a
single or several breaches. Example: In a contract of sale of personal property by
installments, the remedies of the unpaid seller is alternative, they are: (1) elect
fulfillment (2) cancel the sale, should the vendees failure to pay cover two or
more installments, and (3) foreclose the mortgage on the thing sold if one has
been constituted should the vendee fail to pay two or more installments. 75
(b)
If the contract provides for several obligations, each obligation not
performed gives rise to a single cause of action. But if upon filing of the complaint
several obligations have already matured, all of them shall be integrated into a
single cause of action. Example: Contract for delivery of goods in part or over a
period.
(c)
If the contract is divisible in its performance, and the future performance is
not yet due, but the obligor has already manifested his refusal to comply, the
contract is entire and the breach is total. Thus, there can only be one action.76
This is known as the Doctrine of Anticipatory Breach.
IF A PARTY HAS SEVERAL CAUSES OF ACTION
1.
He can join his causes of action77 as he may in one pleading assert, in the
alternative or otherwise, as many causes of action as he may have against the
opposing party. It is the assertion of as many causes of action as a party may
have against another in one pleading alone.
2.
It has also been defined as the process of uniting two or more demands or
rights of action in one action.78
3.

Joinder is subject to the following conditions:

3.1
Party joining the causes of action shall comply with the rule on joinder of
parties, which provides that : All persons in whom or against whom any right to
relief is respect to or arising out of the same transaction is alleged to exist,
whether jointly, severally or in the alternative, may except as otherwise provided
in these rules, join as plaintiffs or be joined as defendants in one complaint,
where any question of law or fact common to all such plaintiffs or to all such
75 Articles

1484,1486, NCC

76

Blossom & Co v Manila Gas Corporation, 55 Phil 226

77

Supra, Section 5, Rule 2

78

1 C.J.S., Actions 61

defendants may arise in the action.79 Note that the common question of law or
fact is relevant only when there are multiple plaintiffs or defendants.
3.2
Joinder does not allow the inclusion of special civil actions or actions
governed by special rules . Example: An action for a sum of money cannot be
joined with an action for iIlegal detainer
3.3
Where causes of action are between same parties but pertain to different
venues or jurisdictions, joinder may be allowed in the RTC provided one of the
causes of action falls within its jurisdiction and venue lies therein.
3.4
When the claims in all causes of action are principally for recovery of
money, the aggregate amount shall be the test of jurisdiction.
EFFECT OF MISJOINDER
1.
Upon motion of a party or on the initiative of the court, a misjoined cause
of action may be severed and proceeded with separately.80
2.

Misjoinder is not ground for a motion to dismiss.

RULE 3

PARTIES TO CIVIL ACTIONS

WHO MAY BE PARTIES TO A CIVIL ACTION


1.
Only natural or juridical persons or entitles authorized by law may be
parties in a civil action.81 They are called: Plaintiff he is one who has interest in
the subject of the action and obtaining the relied demanded. He may be the
claimant in the original complaint, the counter-claimant in the counter claim, or
cross-claimant in a cross-claim or the third party plaintiff and the Defendant he
is one who has an interest in the controversy adverse to the plaintiff. He may be
the original defending party, the defendant in a counter-claim, or cross-defendant
in a cross-claim.
1.1
For ready reference, a counter-claim is any claim which a defending
party may have against an opposing party.82 A cross-claim is a claim by one party
against a co-party arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject
79

Supra, Section 6, Rule 3

80

Supra, Section 6, Rule 2

81

Supra,,Section 1, Rule 3

82

Supra, Section 6, Rule 6

matter either of the original action or of a counter-claim therein.83A third party


claim is a claim that a defending party may, with leave of court, file against a
person not party to an action for contribution, indemnity, subrogation or any other
relief, in respect to his opponents claim.84
2.

Juridical persons include:

2.1
The state or any of its political subdivisions, while considered as juridical
entities, they can sue but as a general rule, they cannot be sued without its
consent. It is deemed to have given consent when: (a) it enters into a private
contract (b) it enters into a business operation unless it is an incident of its
primary government function (c) it sues a private party, unless the suit is to resist
a claim (d) when there is a failure to abide with what the law or contract provides.
A suit is considered as against the state when: (a) it is against the Republic of the
Philippines (b) it is against a government agency or office without juridical
personality (c) it is against the officers or agents of the government and involves
a financial liability.
2.2
Corporations, institutions and entities for public interest or purpose,
created by law, like government agencies and water districts.
2.3
Corporations, partnerships, and associations for private interest or
purpose to which the law grants juridical personality, separate and distinct from
that of a shareholder, partner or member.
2.4
A partnership having capital of P 3,000.00 that fails to comply with
registration requirements.85
2.5
A dissolved corporation within a 3 year period after dissolution to settle its
86
affairs.
2.6
A foreign corporation cannot be a plaintiff in suit when it is transacting
business in the Philippines without a license.
3.
Entities authorized by law are (a) recognized labor organizations (b)
estate of a deceased person87 (c) Roman Catholic Church88
83

Supra, Section 8, Rule 6

84

Supra, Section 11, Rule 6

85 Article

1772 in relation to Article 1768, NCC

86

Section 122, BP 68

87

Nazareno v. Court of Appeals, 343 SCRA 637

88

Versoza v. Fernandez, 49 Phil 627

4.
Entities without legal personality referring to 2 or more persons not
organized as an entity with juridical personality enter into a transaction, they may
be sued under the name by which they are generally or commonly known but in
their answer to the complaint, their names and addresses must be revealed. 89
4.1

It can also cover a corporation by estoppel90 or partnership by estoppel91

5.
A sole proprietorship may not be a party as it is neither a natural, juridical
or entity allowed or authorized by law. If one sues as such, the action may be
dismissed on the ground of lack of capacity to sue. It does not possess a juridical
personality separate and distinct from the personality of the owner of the
enterprise.92It cannot sue or file or defend an action in court.93
WHEN PARTIES IMPLEADED ARE NOT AUTHORIZED TO BE PARTIES
1.
Where the plaintiff is not a natural or juridical person, or an entity
authorized by law, a motion to dismiss may be filed on the ground that the
plaintiff has no legal capacity to sue. Do not confuse it with one who has capacity
to sue but he is not the real party in interest as the ground for dismissal then is
failure to state a cause of action.94
2.
Where it is the defendant who is not any of the above, the complaint may
be dismissed on the ground that the pleading asserting the claim states no
cause of action or failure to state a cause of action , because there cannot be a
cause of action against one who cannot be a party to a civil action.
PARTIES IN INTEREST
1.
A real party in interest is the party who stands to be benefited or injured by
the judgment or party entitled to the avails of the suit. Unless otherwise
authorized by law of the rules, like in a class suit, all actions must be prosecuted
or defended in the name of the real party in interest. 95

89

Supra, Section 15, Rule 3

90

Section 21, BP 68

91 Article

1825, NCC

92

Mangila v Court of Appeals, 387 SCRA 162, Yao Ka Sin Trading v Court of Appeals, 209 SCRA 763

93

Juasing Hardware v Mendoza, 115 SCRA 783

94

Balagtas v. Court of Appeals, 317 SCRA 69

95

Supra, Section 2, Rule 3

1.1
A real party in interest-plaintiff is one who has a legal right, while a real
party in interest-defendant is one who has a correlative obligation, whose act or
omission violates the legal rights of the former.96 Hence, the determination of who
is a real party in interest goes back to the elements of a cause of action.
Evidently, the owner of the right violated stands to be the real party in interest as
plaintiff and the person responsible for the violation is the real party in interest
defendant.97
1.2
To be a real party in interest, the interest must be real, which is a present
substantial interest as distinguished from a mere expectancy or a future,
contingent, subordinate or consequential interest. It is an interest that is material
and direct, as distinguished from a mere incidental interest in the question.98
1.3
Illustrations: (a) In a case where a lawful possessor is disturbed in his
possession, it is the possessor, not necessarily the owner, who can bring an
action to recover the possession. 99 (b) The parties to a contract are the real
parties in interest in an action upon it based on the doctrine of relativity of
contracts under Article 1311, NCC, unless it conveys a benefit to a person not a
party thereto (c) Actions under Articles 1313 and 1381, NCC when the contracts
are entered into in fraud of creditors. (d) Suits by corporations must be in its
name, not that of the stockholders or members.
2.
When a suit is not brought in the name of the real party in interest, it may
be dismissed on the ground that the complaint states no cause of action. 100 Note
that the dismissal is not due to lack of or no legal capacity to sue nor lack of legal
personality, as the latter is not ground for dismissal for under the 1997 Rules of
Civil Procedure.
2.1
It states no cause of action because it is not being prosecuted in the name
of the real party in interest.
2.2
Lack of Legal Capacity to Sue means that the plaintiff is not in exercise of
his civil rights, does not have the necessary qualification to appear or does not
have the character or representation he claims. Example: Trustee or Minor, as
distinguished from Lack of Legal Personality means that the plaintiff is not the
real party in interest. Dismissal is based on the fact that the complaint states no
cause of action

96

Gan Hock v. Court of Appeals, 197 SCRA 223

97

Lee v. Romillo, 161 SCRA 589

98

Samaniego v. Aguila, 334 SCRA 438

99

Philippine Trust Company v. Court of Appeals, 320 SCRA 719

100

Tankiko v Cesar, 302 SCRA 559

3.
Legal standing means a personal and substantial interest in the case such
that the party has sustained or will sustain direct injury as a result of the act being
challenged. The term interest is material interest, an interest in issue, and to be
affected by the decree, as distinguished from mere interest in the question
involved, or a mere incidental interest. Moreover, the interest must be personal
and not one based on a desire to vindicate the constitutional right of some third
or unrelated party.
3.1
However, the concept of standing because of its constitutional
underpinnings is very different from questions relating to whether or not a
particular party is a real party-in-interest. Although both are directed towards
ensuring that only certain parties can maintain an action, the concept of standing
requires an analysis of broader policy concerns. The question as to who the real
party-in-interest is involves only a question on whether a person would be
benefited or injured by the judgment or whether or not he is entitled to the avails
of the suit.101
3.2
Locus standi is defined as a right of appearance in a court of justice on a
given question. In private suits, standing is governed by the real-parties-in
interest rule found in Section 2, Rule 3 of the Rules of Court which provides that
every action must be prosecuted or defended in the name of the real party-ininterest.102 In other cases, locus standi is a partys personal and substantial
interest in a case such that he has sustained or will sustain a direct injury as a
result of the governmental act being challenged. It calls for
more than
generalized grievance. The term interest means a material interest, an interest
in issue affected by the decree, as distinguished from a mere interest in the
question involved or a mere incidental interest.103 Unless a persons
constitutional rights are adversely affected by the statute or ordinance, he has no
legal standing.
4.
Be that as it may, we have on several occasions relaxed the application of
these rules on legal standing:
In not a few cases, the Court has liberalized the locus standi requirement when
a petition raises an issue of transcendental significance or paramount importance
to the people. Recently, after holding that the IBP had no locus standi to bring
the suit, the Court in IBP v. Zamora nevertheless entertained the Petition therein.
It noted that the IBP has advanced constitutional issues which deserve the
attention of this Court in view of their seriousness, novelty and weight as
precedents.104
101

Kilosbayan, Inc. vs. Morato, 246 SCRA 540

102Baltazar

vs. Ombudsman, G.R. No. 136433, December 6, 2006

103

Velarde v Social Justice Society, 392 Phil 618, IBP v Zamora, 338 SCRA 81

104

Velarde v. Social Justice Society, supra at note 22, citations omitted.

4.1
Objections to a taxpayers suit for lack of sufficient personality, standing or
interest are procedural matters. Considering the importance to the public of a
suit assailing the constitutionality of a tax law, and in keeping with the Courts
duty, specially explicated in the 1987 Constitution, to determine whether or not
the other branches of the Government have kept themselves within the limits of
the Constitution and the laws and that they have not abused the discretion given
to them, the Supreme Court may brush aside technicalities of procedure and take
cognizance of the suit.105
4.2
There being no doctrinal definition of transcendental importance, the
following determinants formulated by former Supreme Court Justice Florentino P.
Feliciano are instructive: (1) the character of the funds or other assets involved in
the case; (2) the presence of a clear case of disregard of a constitutional or
statutory prohibition by the public respondent agency or instrumentality of the
government; and (3) the lack of any other party with a more direct and specific
interest in raising the questions being raised.106
CLASSIFICATION OF REAL PARTIES IN INTEREST
1.
Indispensable Party is a party without whom no final determination can be
had of an action.107 They are those with such an interest in the controversy that a
final decree would necessarily affect their rights, so that the courts cannot
proceed without their presence. Example: owners of property over which
reconveyance is asserted are indispensable parties without whom no relief is
available and without whom the court can render no valid judgment.108
1.1
Without the presence of indispensable parties to the suit, the judgment of
the court cannot attain real finality. 109 Strangers to a case are not bound by the
judgment rendered by the court.110

105

Bugnay Construction and Development Corporation v. Hon. Laron, G.R. No. 79983, 10 August 1989,
176 SCRA 240, 251, citing Kapatiran ng mga Naglilingkod sa Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas, Inc. v. Tan, G.R.
No. 81311, 30 June 1988, 163 SCRA 371, 378.
106

Francisco v. Nagmamalasakit na mga Manggagawang Pilipino, Inc., supra at note 30, citing Kilosbayan,
Incorporated v. Guingona, Jr., 232 SCRA 110 (1994)
107

Supra, Section 7, Rule 3

108

Valenzuela v Court of Appeals, 363 SCRA 779

109

Domingo v Scheer, 421 SCRA 468

110

Lucman v Malawi, GR No. 159794, December 19, 2006

1.2
The essential tests of an indispensable party: (a) May relief be afforded
the plaintiff without the presence of the other party? (b) May the case be decided
on the merits without impairing the substantial rights of the other party?111
2.
Necessary Party is a party who is not indispensable but who ought to be
joined as a party if complete relief is to be accorded as to those already parties or
for a complete determination or settlement of the claim subject of the action.112 A
necessary partys presence is necessary to adjudicate the whole controversy but
whose interests are so far separable that a final decree can be made in their
absence without affecting them.
2.1
Example: If the plaintiff only sues a one of his joint debtors, the joint debtor
who is not sued is merely a necessary party. As a consequence, the plaintiff only
recovers the share of the debt due from the joint debtor defendant.
2.2
A necessary party is to be impleaded as a party for complete
determination of an action, while an indispensable party is impleaded for a final
determination of an action.
3.
Pro-Forma Party or nominal party is one who is joined as a plaintiff or
defendant not because such party has any real interest in the subject matter or
because relief is demanded, but merely because the technical rules of pleadings
require the presence of such party on the record.113
PERSONS WHO CAN SUE IN BEHALF OF A REAL PARTY IN INTEREST
The following may sue in behalf of a real party in interest
1.
Representatives- actions are allowed to be prosecuted / defended by a
representative or by one acting in a fiduciary capacity but the beneficiary shall be
included in the title and shall be deemed to be the real party in interest.114
Examples of representatives are: (a) trustee of an express trust (b) a guardian,
executor or administrator, or (c) a party authorized by law or the Rules.
1.2
An agent acting in his own name and for the benefit of an unknown
principal may sue or be sued without joining the principal except when the

111

PNB v. Militar, 467 SCRA 377

112

Supra, Section 8, Rule 3

113

Samaniego v. Aguila, 334 SCRA 438

114

Supra, Section 3, Rule 3

contract involves things belonging to the principal. This refers to an agency with
an undisclosed principal.115
2.
Husband and Wife- as a general rule shall sue or be sued jointly, except
as provided by law. 116 Non joinder of partys husband is not fatal. It is a mere
formal defect.117
2.1
They are required to sue and be sued jointly as they are joint
administrators of the Absolute Community or the Conjugal Partnership.118
2.2
The exceptions provided by law are when the property relations of
husband and wife are governed by the rules on separation of property119 or one
is disposing of exclusive property. 120
2.3
Note that the legal provision against the disposition of conjugal property by
one spouse without the consent of the other has been established for the benefit,
not of third persons, but only for the spouse for whom the law desires to save the
conjugal partnership from damages that might be caused. No other party can
avail of the remedy other than the aggrieved spouse.121
3.
Minors or Incompetents may sue or be sued with the assistance of father,
mother, guardian or, if he has none, a guardian ad litem. 122
3.1
A guardian ad litem is a special guardian appointed by the court in which a
particular litigation is pending to represent or assist a minor or an incompetent
person involved in or has interest in the property subject of litigation. His status
as such exists only in that particular litigation in which the appointment occurs.
3.2
Note that the appointment of a guardian ad litem may occur in the
following: for minor heirs when substituting for a deceased party123,

115 Article

1883, NCC

116

Supra, Section 4, Rule 3

117

Miranda v Besa, 435 SCRA 532

118 Articles

96 and 124, Family Code

119 Article

145, Family Code

120 Article

111, Family Code

121

Villaranda v Villaranda, 423 SCRA 571

122

Supra, Section 5, Rule 3

123

Supra, Section 16, Rule 3

incompetency or incapacity of a party124, service of summons on a minor or


incompetent125 , and when the best interest of the child require it.126
JOINDER OF PARTIES
Joinder of Parties refers to the act of uniting several parties in a single suit either
as plaintiffs or defendants.
1.
The rule on joinder of parties states that: All persons in whom or against
whom any right to relief in respect to or arising out of the same transaction is
alleged to exist, whether jointly, severally or in the alternative, may except as
otherwise provided in these rules, join as plaintiffs or be joined as defendants in
one complaint, where any question of law or fact common to all such plaintiffs or
to all such defendants may arise in the action.127
2.
Joinder of Parties, as a rule, is permissive when there is a question of law
or fact common to all the plaintiffs or defendants. This means that the right to
relief or to resist the action arises out of the same transaction or event or series
of transactions or events. Example: action by passengers of a common carrier
for injuries sustained in an accident, there is no community of interest, the extent
of the interest is limited to the extent of damages being claimed by each.
3.
It becomes compulsory when the parties to be joined are indispensable
parties.128
4.
The exception to compulsory joinder of parties is when the subject of the
action is proper for a class suit. The subject matter of the controversy is proper
for a class suit when it is one of common or general interest to many persons so
numerous that it is impractical to join all as parties.129 All the parties who are
interested in the action as plaintiffs or defendants are all indispensable parties
but not all need to be joined.
5.

The three requisites of a class suit are:

5.1
The subject matter of the controversy is one of common or general
interest to many persons. There must be an indivisible right affecting many
124

Supra, Section 18, Rule 3

125

Supra, Section 10, Rule 14

126 Article

222, Family Code

127

Supra, Section 6, Rule 3

128

Supra, Section 7, Rule 3

129

Supra, Section 12, Rule 3

individuals whose particular interest is of indeterminable extent and is incapable


of separation. This requires that the benefit to one is a benefit to all. Example: A
suit filed by minors represented by their parents, in behalf of themselves and
others equally concerned with the preservation of the countrys resources, their
generation as well as generations yet unborn to compel the DENR Secretary to
cancel all timber license agreements and to cease and desist from receiving,
accepting, processing, renewing or approving new timber license agreements130.
The interest must be common and not independent of each member of the class
and should not conflict with each other. For this reason, owners of subdivision
lots in a subdivision cannot sue as a class because their interest is only in their
respective lots.131
5.2
The parties affected are so numerous that it is impracticable to join all as
parties
5.3
The parties bringing or defending the class suit are found by the court to
be sufficiently numerous and representative as to fully protect the interest of all.
5.4
To comply with the 2nd and 3rd requisite, the Complaint most allege: (1)
existence of a subject matter which is of common or general interest to many
persons, and (2) existence of a class and the number of persons belonging to
that class
6.
Improper for a class suit is when a claimant is interested only in collecting
his claims and has no concern in protecting the interests of the others132 or each
of the plaintiffs has a separate claim or injuries not shared in common by the
others. Hence, each must prove his own damages.133
7.
It can be brought by the plaintiffs as a class or may be filed against the
defendants as a class
7.1
Any party in interest shall have the right to intervene to protect his
individual interest.
7.2
The general rule, is that the party bringing the suit in his own name and
that of others similarly situated has the right to control the suit, but, it shall not be
dismissed or compromised without the approval of the court.134

130

Oposa v Factoran, 224 SCRA 792

131

Tuason v. Register of Deeds, 157 SCRA 613

132

Cadalin v POEA Administrator, 238 SCRA 721

133

Newsweek Inc. v. IAC, 142 SCRA 171

134

Supra, Section 2, Rule 17

EFFECTS OF FAILURE TO JOIN AN INDISPENSABLE PARTY OR A


NECESSARY PARTY
1.
If there is a failure to join an indispensable party, the court must order the
plaintiff to amend his complaint for the purpose of impleading the indispensable
party.
1.1
If the plaintiff fails, refuses or the party cannot be sued because he is a
non-resident defendant in a personal action, the complaint must be dismissed.135
2.
If there is a failure to join a necessary party, the pleader in the pleading in
which a claim is asserted without joining a necessary party shall (a) set forth the
name of the necessary party, if known and (b) state the reason for omission.
2.1
If the court finds the reason for the omission is not meritorious, it may
order the inclusion of the omitted necessary party if jurisdiction over his person is
obtained.
2.2
If pleader fails to comply with order for inclusion without justifiable cause, it
shall be deemed a waiver of the claim against the party,but the non-inclusion
does not prevent the court from proceeding with the action, and the judgment
therein shall be without prejudice to rights of such necessary party.136
3.
Misjoinder of parties is not a ground for dismissal. Parties may be dropped
or added by order of the court on motion of any party or on its own initiative at
any stage of the action and on such terms that are just. Any claim against a
misjoined party may be severed and proceeded against separately.137
3.1
A party is misjoined when he is made a party to the action although he
should not be impleaded. A party is not joined when he is supposed to be joined
but is not impleaded.
3.2
While misjoinder or non-joinder is not a ground for dismissal, the failure to
obey the order of the court to drop or add a party is a ground for dismissal.138
IF A PARTY TO BE JOINED AS A PLAINTIFF DOES NOT CONSENT OR
CANNOT BE OBTAINED

135

NDC v Court of Appeals, 211 SCRA 422

136

Supra, Section 9, Rule 3

137

Supra, Section 11, Rule 3

138

Supra, Section 3, Rule 17

1.
The non-consenting party may be made a defendant and the reason
therefor shall be stated in the complaint. 139He will be known as the unwilling coplaintiff.
WHO WILL PLAINTIFF SUE IF HE IS UNCERTAIN
1.
If the plaintiff is uncertain against who of several persons he is entitled to
relief, he may join any or all of them as defendants in the alternative, although a
right to relief against one may be inconsistent with a right of relief against the
other.140
2.
An example is in an action where the owner of goods is not sure whether
they were lost in transit or while it was on deposit in the warehouse of the
arrastre operator. He may sue the shipper or the operator of the warehouse in
the alternative although the right against the shipper is based on admiralty while
that against the operator is based on contract. Another is an action for damages
arising from loss of goods due to a collision.
IF THE IDENTITY/NAME OF THE DEFENDANT IS UNKNOWN
1.
He may be sued as the unknown owner, heir, devisee or by such other
designation as the case may require, when the identity or name is discovered,
the pleading must be amended accordingly. 141 An example is an action to recover
real property from several unknown heirs of a common ancestor.
EFFECT OF DEATH OF A PARTY
1.
When a party dies and his claim is not extinguished, it shall be the duty of
counsel of the deceased party to inform the court within 30 days after such
death of the : (a) fact of death (b) name and address of the legal representative
of the deceased party.142. If counsel fails to comply, he may be subject to
disciplinary action.
1.1
Once notice is given, the court shall order the legal representative to
appear and be substituted within 30 days from notice.

139

Supra, Section 10, Rule 3

140

Supra, Section 13, Rule 3

141

Supra, Section 14, Rule 3

142

Supra, Section 16, Rule 3

1.2
Examples of actions that survive are those arising from delict,143 tortuous
conduct,144 recovery of real or personal property145 recovery of money arising
from a contract, express or implied
1.3
Examples of actions that do not survive are personal actions of support,
annulment and legal separation. The court in this instance will just dismiss. No
substitution is required. The remedy is to file a claim before the probate court
under Rule 86.
2.
The purpose of substitution is the protection of the right of every party to
due process. 146The non compliance renders the proceedings infirmed because
the court acquires no jurisdiction over the person of the legal representative of
the deceased.147
2.1
If no substitution occurs despite knowledge or notice of the death of a
party the proceedings undertaken shall be considered null and void as it amounts
to a lack of jurisdiction as the need for substitution is based on the right of a party
to due process.
2.2
Note though that in an ejectment case, the non substitution of the
deceased by his legal representatives because of the failure of counsel to inform
the court does not deprive it of jurisdiction. The judgment may be enforced not
only against the defendants but also against the members of their family, their
relatives, or privies who derived their right of possession from the deceased
defendant.148
3.
Note that heirs may be allowed to be substituted for the deceased without
requiring the appointment of an executor or administrator and the court can
appoint a guardian ad litem for minor heirs. When the defendant does not have
any heirs, the court shall require the opposing party to procure the appointment
of an executor or administrator. This can also occur when no legal representative
is named or if one is named, he fails to appear within the specified period. The
expenses if any, can be recovered as costs.
3.1
Heirs may designate one or some of them as their representative before
the trial court.149
143 Aguas

v Llamas, 5 SCRA 959

144

Melgar v. Buenviaje, 179 SCRA 196

145

Board of Liquidators v Kalaw, 20 SCRA 987

146

Torres v Court of Appeals, 278 SCRA 79

147

Brioso v Mariano, 396 SCRA 549

148

Florendo v. Coloma, 129 SCRA 304

149

San Juan v. Cruz, G.R. No. 167321, July 31, 2006

4.
There is no requirement for summons as it is the order of substitution and
its service that effects the substitution of the deceased by his representative.
5.
The effect of death is to terminate the attorney-client relationship. A
deceased client has no personality and cannot be represented by an
attorney.150Neither does he become counsel for the heirs of the deceased unless
his services are engaged by the heirs.151
DEATH/SEPARATION OF A PUBLIC OFFICER
1.
If sued in his public capacity and he dies, resigns or otherwise ceases to
hold office. The action may be maintained and continued by or against his
successor, if within 30 days after successor assumes the office or such time as
granted by the court it is satisfactorily shown by a party that there is a
substantial need for continuing and maintaining it and that the successor adopts
or continues or threatens to continue the action of his predecessor.152
2.
Before substitution and there is no express assent, the public officer shall
be given reasonable notice of the application and be accorded an opportunity to
be heard.
3.
The requisites for a valid substitution of a public officer who has sued or
been sued in his official capacity are: (a) satisfactory proof by any party that there
is a substantial need for continuing or maintaining the action (b) the successor
adopts or continues or threatens to adopt or continue the acts of his predecessor
(c) the substitution is effected within 30 days after the successor assumes office
or within the time granted by the court, and (d) notice of the application to the
other party.153
4.
The failure to make the substitution is ground for the dismissal of the
action.

EFFECT OF DEATH OF THE DEFENDANT ON A CONTRACTUAL MONEY


CLAIM
1.
If the action is for the recovery of money that arises from a contract,
express or implied, and the defendant dies before entry of a final judgment the
rule is it will not be dismissed but shall be allowed to continue until entry of
judgment, a favorable judgment obtained shall be enforced in the manner
150

Lavina v. Court of Appeals, 171 SCRA 691

151

Lawas v Court of Appeals, 146 SCRA 173

152

Supra, Section 17, Rule 3

153

Rodriguez vs. Jardin, G.R. No. 141834, July 30, 2007

provided by the rules for prosecuting claims against the estate of a deceased
person.154
2.
Hence, in case of the death of the obligor the rules are: (a) If he dies
before the action is filed, a money claim must be filed in the testate or intestate
proceedings (b) if he dies during the pendency of an action, the action continues
until entry of judgment, and the judgment claim is then filed with the testate or
intestate proceedings. It must be noted that a money claim judgment need not be
proven because it is conclusive. Note further, that if property has been levied
upon before death, it can disposed of in the manner provided by the rules on
execution of judgments because it has already been segregated from the estate.
If there is a deficiency, a money claim can be filed subsequently.
2.
If the claim does not arise from a contract, like claims for recovery,
enforcement of a lien or torts, the rules are: (a) if he dies before the action is
filed, it may be filed against the executor or administrator (b) if already filed , it
continues to final judgment and may be executed on as against the executor or
administrator.155
3.
In a case for ejectment where the defendant died before the case could be
decided and without being able to testify on his counterclaim for damages. The
trial court dismissed the ejectment suit and ordered the plaintiff to pay the wife of
the defendant moral damages and attorneys fees. The plaintiff contends on
appeal that the counterclaim should have been dismissed pursuant to Rule 3,
Section 21 (old rule). Held: The argument is misplaced, defendant was the
plaintiff in his counterclaim, the rule is not applicable as it pertains to a defendant
who dies before final judgment. In this case, it is the plaintiff who died and all that
is required is a timely motion for substitution. No recovery though can be allowed
as no evidence was adduced.156
4.
If a claim involves a conjugal debt that was not brought and one of the
spouses die before filing, the claim must be brought in the testate or intestate
proceedings of the deceased spouse.157
5.
If it is the plaintiff who dies, the rules are: (a) if action is purely personal to
him, the action is abated (b) if action is not purely personal, it continues but
counsel must give notice of death.
EFFECT ON INCOMPETENCY/INCAPACITY ON AN ACTION

154

Supra, Section 20, Rule 3

155

Supra, Section 7, Rule 39

156

UST v Court of Appeals, GR No. 124250, October 18, 2004

157 Alipio

v Court of Appeals, GR No. 134100, September 29, 2000

1.
The court, upon motion with notice, may allow the action to be continued
by or against the incompetent or incapacitated person assisted by his guardian or
guardian ad litem.158
EFFECT OF A TRANSFER OF INTEREST PENDING LITIGATION
1.
The action may be continued by or against the original party, unless the
court upon motion directs the person to whom interest is transferred to be
substituted in the action or joined with the original party. 159
2.
The rule refers to a transfer pendente lite. The transferee pendente lite
shall stand exactly in the shoes of the transferor. Consequently, any judgment will
be binding upon him.
3.
A transferee pendent elite does not have to be included or impleaded by
name in order to be bound by the judgment because the action or suit may be
continued for or against the original party or the transferor and still binding on the
transferee.160
4.
In a case on appeal where the transferee pendente lite did not appeal, he
nevertheless was benefited by the appeal of the transferor pendent lite. 161
INDIGENT/PAUPER LITIGANT
1.
An indigent or pauper litigant is one who litigates on a claim that he has no
money, or property sufficient and available for food, shelter and basic necessities
for himself and his family.162
2.
An indigent or pauper litigant must file an ex-parte application for authority
to litigate as an indigent that is too be resolved by the court after hearing.
2.1
Attached to the motion is an affidavit attesting to the fact that he does not
earn a gross income of PHP 4,000.00 in Metro-Manila, or PHP 3,000.00
elsewhere and has no real property with a fair market value of PHP 50,000.00.
2.2
Said affidavit must be supported by another affidavit of a disinterested
person. Note that recently, an indigent litigant has been defined as one (a) whose
158

Supra, Section 3 and 18, Rule 3

159

Supra, Section 19, Rule 3

160

State Invetsment House, Inc. v Court of Appeals, 318 SCRA 47

161

Jocson v Court of Appeals, GR 88297, March 22, 1990

162

Supra, Section 21

gross income and that of their immediate family does not exceed an amount
double the monthly minimum wage of an employee and (b) who does not own
real property with a fair market value as stated in the current tax declaration of
more than PHP 300,000.00.
2.3
If there is any falsity in the affidavit or that of the disinterested person, it
shall constitute sufficient ground to dismiss the action or strike out the pleading,
without prejudice to whatever criminal liability is incurred.163
3.
The effect of being allowed to litigate as an indigent or pauper litigant are:
(a) exemption from the payment of docket fees and other lawful fees (b)
exemption from TSN fees which the Court may order to be furnished but, the
amounts due shall be a lien on a favorable judgment unless the Court orders
otherwise.
4.
The allowance to litigate as an indigent or pauper litigant can be contested
at any time before judgment is rendered by any adverse party. If found to be
meritorious, the proper fees are assessed and are to be collected. If it is not paid,
execution shall issue on the payment thereof without prejudice to other
sanctions.
5.

On appeal, a motion to litigate as an indigent or pauper litigant is allowed.

WHEN SOLICITOR GENERAL IS REQUIRED TO APPEAR


1.
In any action involving the validity of any treaty, law, ordinance, executive
order, presidential decree, rule or regulation, the court, in its discretion, may
require the appearance of the Solicitor General, who may be heard in person or
through a representative duly designated by him.164
RULE 4 VENUE OF ACTIONS
VENUE DEFINED AND DISTINGUISHED
1.
Venue is the place where the action is to be commenced and tried. It has
also been defined as the proper location for the trial of a case.
2.
Distinguishing it from jurisdiction: (a) venue is the place where action is
commenced and tried, jurisdiction is the authority of a court to hear and decide
the action (b) venue may be waived, jurisdiction over the subject matter cannot
be waived, but that over the person can be waived (c) venue may be the subject
163

Section 19, Rule 141, Rules of Court

164

Supra, Section 22, Rule 3

of a written agreement, jurisdiction cannot be subject of a written agreement165


(d) a court cannot motu-propio dismiss on improper venue, while if it has no
jurisdiction, a court can motu-propio dismiss the action.
3.
Venue establishes a relation between the plaintiff and defendant, while
jurisdiction establishes a relation between the court and subject matter.
4.
Improper venue is not jurisdictional. To illustrate: If a case for illegal
detainer is filed in the MTC-Manila but should have been filed in the MTC-Baguio
as the property is located in Baguio, the dismissal is due to improper venue as
every MTC has jurisdiction over illegal detainer cases. Territorial jurisdiction
applies only in criminal cases where venue is also jurisdictional.
RULES ON VENUE
1.
If it is a Real Action or one that affects title to or possession of real
property, or an interest therein, it shall be commenced and tried in the proper
court which has jurisdiction over the area wherein the real property involved or a
portion thereof is situated. Forcible Entry and Detainer actions are to be
commenced and tried in the Municipal Trial Court which has jurisdiction over the
area wherein the real property involved, or any portion thereof, is situated.166
1.1
Is the complaint for cancellation of a real estate mortgage with damages, a
real or personal action? It is a real action, the controlling factor in determining
venue of such a case is the primary objective for which it is filed. An action for
cancellation of a real estate mortgage is necessarily an action affecting title to
real properties since the primary objective is to recover the properties that the
bank had foreclosed on.167
2.
If it is a Personal Action or one that is brought for the recovery of personal
property, for the enforcement of a contract or recovery of damages for its breach
of for the recovery of damages due to injury to person or property or such all
other actions shall be commenced or tried where the plaintiff or any of the
principal plaintiffs reside or any of the defendants reside, or if a non-resident
defendant, where he may be found at the election of the plaintiff168
2.1
Reside means the place of abode, whether permanent or temporary, as
distinguished from domicile or the fixed permanent residence, where if one is
absent he intends to return.
165

NOcum v Tan, 470 SCRA 639

166

Supra, Section 1, Rule 4

167

Go v UCPB, GR No. 156187, November 11, 2004

168

Supra, Section 2, Rule 4

2.2
In personal actions, it is the residence of the proprietor, not the business
address of the sole proprietorship that is considered to determine venue as a
sole proprietorship has no legal personality. 169
2.3
R engaged the services of L as geodetic surveyor to subdivide two parcels
of land located in Batangas. As payment for Ls services, R agreed to given him
one lot. After the survey, R delivered to L possession of one lot as payment for
his services. However, R failed to deliver to L the tile of the lot. L, who resides in
Quezon City, filed with the RTC of Quezon City an action against R for specific
performance to compel R to deliver to him the title to the lot. R moved to dismiss
on the ground of improper venue, contending that since his is a real action, the
complaint must be filed in the RTC of Batangas where the lot is situated. Is R
correct? No, R is not correct. This action for specific performance is a personal
action. The venue therefore, was properly laid in Quezon City where the plaintiff
resides. It is not a real action because plaintiff L is not seeking the recovery of the
lot as he is already in possession thereof. He is merely asking the delivery of the
title to him, which is a personal action.170
3.
If the defendant is a non-resident or one who does not reside and is not
found in the Philippines and the action affects the personal status of the plaintiff,
or any property of said defendant located in the Philippines, the action may be
commenced and tried in the court of the place where the plaintiff resides, or
where the property or any portion thereof is situated or found. 171
3.1
Actions affecting the personal status of the plaintiff refers to personal
actions of annulment of marriage, nullity of marriage, legal separation,
declaration of presumptive death
3.2
The provision refers to a Quasi in Rem action in which an individual is
named as a defendant, and the purpose of the action is to subject his interest
therein to an obligation or lien burdening the property.
3.3
A non-resident alien who cannot be found can sue and be sued as by filing
his complaint, he submits to the jurisdiction of the Court, even if he has never
been able to enter the Philippines.172

169

Mangila v Court of Appeals, 387 SCRA 162

170

Dimo Realty & Development, Inc. et al. v.


Dimaculangan, G.R. NO. 130991, March 11, 2004
171

Supra, Section 3, Rule 4

172

Dilweg v Philipps, 12 SCRA 243

THE RULES ON VENUE ARE NOT APPLICABLE


1.
In cases where a specific rule or law provides otherwise as below
illustrated:
1.1
Quo Warranto proceedings may be instituted in the Supreme Court, Court
of Appeals or the Regional Trial Court exercising territorial jurisdiction over the
area where the respondent/s reside. If the Solicitor General commences the
action, he may do so in the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals or the Regional
Trial Court of Manila.173
1.2
The criminal or civil action for damages due to libel can only be instituted
either in Regional Trial Court of the place where he holds office or in the place
where the alleged libelous article was printed and first published; and if the
offended parties are private individuals, the venue shall be in the Regional Trial
Court of the place where the libelous article was printed and first published or
where any of the offended parties actually resides at the time of the commission
of the offense.174
1.3
Intracorporate Controversies are to be filed in the Regional Trial Court
where the principal office of the corporation is located. 175
2.
Where the parties have validly agreed in writing before the filing of the
action as to exclusive venue.176
2.1
Any agreement as to venue must be in writing and for exclusivity, the
intent must be clear, otherwise, it will be interpreted to allow for an additional
venue.
2.2
The freedom of the parties to stipulate on the venue is however subject to
the usual rules on contract interpretation. Where the provision appears to be onesided as to amount to a contract of adhesion, the consent of the parties thereto
may well be vitiated and the venue stipulation will not be given effect.177
2.3
The rule on venue is party oriented. It looks to the convenience of the
parties. Thus the rule on venue as to real actions presumes that the place where
173

Supra, Section 7, Rule 66

174 Article

360, Revised Penal Code

175

RA 8799, and A.M. 01-02-04-CS, March 13, 2001

176

Supra, Section 4, Rule 4

177

Sweet Lines v Teves, 83 SCRA 361

the subject real property is located is convenient to the parties. Hence, the rule
as to venue can yield to an agreement as to exclusive venue. Section 4, Rule 4
applies to both real and personal actions as long as the requisites are met.
2.4
Venue as stipulated in the promissory note shall govern notwithstanding
the absence of a stipulation as to venue in an accompanying surety agreement
as the latter can only be enforced in conjunction with the former. 178
HOW VENUE IS QUESTIONED
1.
Venue may be questioned in (a) in a motion to dismiss179 , or (b) in an
answer by way of an affirmative defense180. If it is not questioned, it is deemed
waived.
RULE 5-UNIFORM PROCEDURE IN TRIAL COURTS
1.
The procedure in Municipal Trial Court shall be the same as in the
Regional Trial Court, except when (a) a provision applies only, expressly or
impliedly, to a particular court, or (b) In civil cases covered by the Rules on
Summary Procedure
2.
An example of a provision that applies only to a Municipal Trial Court is
that which refers to an appeal taken from an order of the lower court dismissing
the case without trial on the merits.181

PROCEDURE IN REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS


RULE 6- KINDS OF PLEADINGS
PLEADING DEFINED
1.
It is a written statement of the respective claims and defenses of the
parties submitted to the court for appropriate judgment.182
178

Philippine Bank of Communications v Lim, 455 SCRA 714

179

Supra, Section 1 (c) ,Rule 16

180

Supra, Section 6, Rule 16

181

Supra, Section 8, Rule 40

182

Supra, Section 1, Rule 6

1.1
Pleadings are necessary to secure the jurisdiction of the court so that the
subject matter can be presented for its consideration in the manner sanctioned
by the rules of procedure.
1.2
They are intended to secure a method by which the issues may be
properly laid before the court.183
1.3
They are designed to present, define and narrow the issues, to limit proof
to be submitted in the trial, to advise the court and the adverse property of the
issues and what are relied upon as causes of action or defenses.
2.
The pleadings that are allowed are: (a) Claims of a party are asserted in
the complaint, counterclaim, cross-claim, 3rd party complaint (4th..), or
complaint in intervention (b) Defenses of a party are alleged in the answer to the
pleading asserting a claim against him (c) Reply to the answer184
2.1
Under the Rules on Summary Procedure, the only pleadings allowed are
the complaint, compulsory counterclaim, cross claim pleaded in the answer, and
the answers thereto.
CONSTRUCTION OF PLEADINGS
1.

All pleadings are to be liberally construed so as to do substantial justice.185

2.
While such is the rule, a party is strictly bound by the allegations,
statements or admissions made in his pleadings and cannot be permitted to take
a contradictory position.186
2.1
In case there are ambiguities in pleadings, the same must be construed
most strongly against the pleader and that no presumptions in his favor are to be
indulged in. This rule proceeds from the theory that it is the pleader who selects
the language used and if his pleading is open to different constructions, such
ambiguities are at his peril.
SPECIFIC KINDS OF PLEADINGS
1.
Complaint- which is the pleading alleging the plaintiffs cause of action or
causes of action.
183

Santiago v. De Los Santos, 61 SCRA 146

184

Supra, Section 2, Rule 6

185

Concrete Aggregates Corporation v. Court of Appeals, 266 SCRA 88

186

Santiago v. De Los Santos, 61 SCRA 146

1.1
The names/residences of the plaintiffs and defendants must be stated in
the complaint187
2.
Answer- which is a pleading in which a defending party sets forth his
defenses188.
2.1
Its essential purpose is to secure joinder of the issues and not to lay down
evidentiary matter.189
2.2
The following are the kinds of defenses190 that may be interposed in an
answer are:
(a)
Negative Defense which is a specific denial of a material fact or facts
alleged in the pleading of a claimant essential to his cause/s of action. A specific
denial is made by191: (1) Specifically denying the material averment in the
pleading of the adverse party and setting forth the substance of the matter upon
which he relies for such denial (2) Deny only a part of the averment by specifying
that so much of it is true and deny the remainder (3) A l l e g a t i o n o f l a c k o f
knowledge or information sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of the material
averment in the pleading of the adverse party.
(b)
Affirmative Defense which is an allegation of new matter, which although
hypothetically admitting the material allegations in the pleading would
nevertheless bar or prevent recovery. They include fraud, statute of limitations,
release, payment, illegality, statute of frauds, estoppel, former recovery,
discharge in bankruptcy, or any other matter by way of confession and
avoidance.
2.3
The purpose of requiring the defendant to make a specific denial is to
make him disclose the matters alleged in the complaint which he succinctly
intends to disprove at the trial, together with the matter which he relied upon to
support the denial.192
2.4
Note that the rule that a defending party who sets up an affirmative
defense hypothetically admits the allegations does not apply if the defense set up
187

Supra, Section 3, Rule 6

188

Supra, Section 4, Rule 6

189

Naga Development Corporation v Court of Appeals, 41 SCRA 105

190

Supra, Section 5, Rule 6

191

Supra, Section 10, Rule 8

192 Aquintey

v. Tibong, GR No. 166704, December 20, 2006

is any of the grounds for extinguishment of the obligation. The effect is that the
defending party is deemed to have admitted the validity of the obligation, and if
the motion to dismiss is denied, what is left to be proven is the fact of payment or
non-payment.
2.5
Any of the grounds for a motion to dismiss may be pleaded as an
affirmative defense. He may then move for a preliminary hearing as if a timely
motion to dismiss has been filed.193
3.
Counterclaim- which is any claim which a defending party may have
against an opposing party.194
3.1
Counterclaims may be compulsory or permissive. They are distinguished
as follows: (a) In a compulsory counterclaim, it arises out of or is connected with
the transaction or occurrence constituting the subject matter of the opposing
partys claim, while in a permissive counterclaim, it does not arise out of or is
connected with the transaction or occurrence constituting the subject matter of
the opposing partys claim (b) a compulsory counterclaim is barred if not set up in
the answer, while a permissive counterclaim is not barred even if not set up (c)
the plaintiff is not required to answer a compulsory counterclaim and he cannot
be in default, while a permissive counterclaim must be answered after payment
of docket fees, otherwise a party may be held in default (d) a compulsory
counterclaim is not an initiatory pleading so as to required a certification as to
non-forum shopping, while a permissive counterclaim is an initiatory pleading.
3.2
The requisites of a compulsory counterclaim are:(a) It arises out of or is
necessarily connected w/the transaction or occurrence that in the subject matter
of the partys claim (b)It does not require for adjudication the presence of 3rd
parties over whom the court cannot acquire transaction (c) It must be cognizable
by the regular courts of justice (d) It must be within the jurisdiction of the court
both as to amount and the nature thereof, except that in an original action before
the RTC, counterclaim is considered compulsory regardless of amount (e)
It
must already be existing at the time defending party files his answer195
3.3
The requisites of a permissive counterclaim are: (a) It does not require for
adjudication the presence of 3rd parties over whom the court cannot acquire
jurisdiction (b) It must be cognizable by the regular courts of justice (c) It must be
within the jurisdiction of the court both as to amount and the nature thereof,

193

Supra, Section 6, Rule 16

194

Supra, Section 6, Rule 6

195

Supra, Section 7, Rule 6, Section 8, Rule 11

except that in an original action before the RTC, counterclaim is considered


compulsory regardless of amount
3.4
To determine whether a counterclaim is compulsory or not, the Court has
devised the following tests: (a) are the issues of fact or law raised by the claim
and counterclaim largely the same? (b) would res judicata bar a subsequent suit
on defendants claim absent a compulsory counterclaim? (c) will substantially the
same evidence support or refute plaintiffs claim as well as defendants
counterclaim? and (d) is there any logical relation between the claim and
counterclaim. If the answers are all in the alternative, it is a compulsory
counterclaim.196 Item (d) is also known as the compelling test of
compulsoriness as conducting separate trials of the respective claims of the
parties would entail a substantial duplication of effort and time by the parties and
the court.197
3.5
Illustrations of compulsoriness are: (a) expenses for cultivation even if
inconsistent with the defense of ownership in an action to recover real estate198
(b) expenses for the preservation of property in action for annulment of title on
the ground of fraud199(c) damages for usurpation of the produce in action to quiet
title200 (d) cost of improvements in an action for recovery of ownership or
possession201
3.6
A compulsory counterclaim that is not yet in existence at the time of the
filing of an answer may be presented or set-up by a supplemental pleading
before judgment.202
3.7
A compulsory counterclaim may implead persons not parties to the original
complaint as their presence is required for granting complete relief in the
determination of a counter-claim or cross claim, the court shall order them
brought in as defendants, if jurisdiction over them can be obtained. 203 Summons
must thus be served upon them as they must answer the counterclaim as they

196

Reyes De Leon v. Del Rosario, 435 SCRA 232

197

Quintanilla v. Court of Appeals, 279 SCRA 397

198

Camara v. Aguilar, 94 Phil 527

199

Maclan v. Garcia, 97 Phil 119

200

Doliente v. Blanco, 87 Phil 67

201

Baclayan v. Court of Appeals, 182 SCRA 761

202

Supra, Section 9, Rule 11, Intramuros Administration v Contacto, 402 SCRA 581

203

Supra, Section 12, Rule 6

cannot rely on the rule that the defendant in the counterclaim is deemed to have
adopted the allegations of the complaint in his answer.204
4.
A cross claim is a claim by one party against a co-party arising out of a
transaction/occurrence that is the subject matter either of the original action or
the counter-claim. It may include a claim that a party against whom it is asserted
is or may be liable to the cross claimant for all or part of a claim asserted in the
action against the cross-claimant. 205
4.1
Note that counterclaims may be asserted against an original counterclaimant and that cross-claims may also be filed against an original crossclaimant.206
5.
A reply is a pleading, the office or function of which is to deny or allege
facts in denial or avoidance of new matters alleged by way of defense in the
answer and thereby join or make an issue as to such matters.
5.1
If a reply is not filed, all new matters are deemed controverted. If plaintiff
wishes to interpose any claims arising out of the new matters so alleged, such
claims shall be set forth in an amended/supplemental complaint.
5.2
If the defense is based on an actionable document, it must be replied to,
otherwise it is admitted.
6.
A 3rd Party Complaint is a claim that a defending party may, with leave of
court, file against a person, not a party, called 3rd
party defendant for
contribution, indemnity, subrogation or any other relief in respect of his
opponents claim.207
6.1
Examples: (a) Contribution- A sues X for collection of money based on a
promissory note signed jointly and severally with Y. X may file a complaint
against Y for contribution (b)Indemnity- S, as surety, is sued for recovery of the
obligation of M. S may file a complaint against M for whatever amount he may be
adjudged to pay as surety (c)Subrogation- X, as lessor, sues Y, as lessee for
repairs. Y may file a complaint against his sub-lessee who filed to comply with
the obligation to repair (d) Other Relief- X bought land from Y. Later X is sued by
A for recovery of the land. X may file a complaint against Y for his warranty
against eviction.
6.2
An answer to a 3rd party complaint
may include (a) defenses,
counterclaims or cross-claims, including such defenses that the 3rd Party Plaintiff
204

Lafarge Cement Philippines, Inc. v Luzon Continental Land Corporation, 443 SCRA 522

205

Supra, Section 8, Rule 6

206

Supra, Section 9, Rule 6

207

Supra, Section 11, Rule 6

may have against the original plaintiffs claim, and (b) In proper cases, he may
assert a counter-claim against the original plaintiff in respect to his claim against
the 3rd party plaintiff.208 An example is: a reinsurer (3rd party defendant) may set
up in his answer the defense alleged by defendant insurer that loss is caused by
plaintiff insured. However the 3rd party defendant cannot file a counterclaim
against the original plaintiff as there is no privity of contract between them.
WHEN NEW PARTIES CAN BE BROUGHT
1.
If the presence of others besides the parties is required for the granting of
full relief in the determination of a counter-claim or cross- claim the court shall
order them to be brought in as defendants, if jurisdiction over them can be
obtained209.
RULE 7 PARTS OF A PLEADING
PARTS OF A PLEADING
1.
The parts of a pleading are Caption, Body, Signature, Address, Verification
and Certification against Forum Shopping.
SPECIFICS OF THE PARTS OF A PLEADING
1.
The Caption sets forth the (a) Name of the court (b) Title of the action, this
includes an indication of the name of the parties, who are required to be named
in the original complaint/petition. In subsequent pleadings, the name of the first
party on each side is sufficient with an appropriate indication when there are
other parties. (c) Docket Number , if one has already been assigned. 210
1.1
In an appeal, the rules211 requires all names to be indicated in the Notice
of Appeal and Record on Appeal

208

Supra, Section 13, Rule 6

209

Supra, Section 12, Rule 6

210

Supra, Section 1, Rule 7

211

Supra, Sections 5 and 6, Rule 41

1.2
In case of a variance between the caption and allegations, the latter will
prevail. The court may grant a relief warranted by the allegations and proof even
if no such relief is prayed for.212
2.
The Body sets forth its designation, the allegations or a partys claims /
defenses, the relief prayed for, and the date of the pleading.
2.1
The allegations in the body shall be divided unto paragraphs so numbered
to be readily identified. Each shall contain Statement of a single set of
circumstances so far as it can be done with convenience. A paragraph may be
referred to by its number in all succeeding pleadings.
2.2
Headings must be used when 2 or more causes of action are joined, the
statement of the first shall be prefaced by : First Cause of Action etc. When: 2 or
more paragraphs are addressed to one or several causes of action in the
complaint, they shall be prefaced by: Answer to the First Cause of Action and so
on. If it addresses several causes of action, the paragraphs shall be prefaced
accordingly.
2.3
Relief should be specified but it may add a general prayer for such further
or other relief as may be deemed just and equitable. The relief does not
constitute a part of the statement of the cause of action. It does not serve to limit
or narrow the issues presented.213It is the material allegations, not the legal
conclusions that determines the relief that a party is entitled to.214 A court may
grant a relief not prayed for as long as warranted by the allegations and the
presented proof.
2.4

Every pleading is required to be dated.

3.
Signature and Address- every pleading must be signed by the party or
counsel representing him, stating in either case his address which should not be
a post office box.
3.1
Note the word or because a party may litigate / defend Pro Se or for
himself without aid or counsel. This applies even if a party is already represented
by counsel.
3.2
Only the signature of either party operates to validly convert a pleading
from one that is unsigned to one that is signed.215
212

Lorbes v. Court of Appeals, 351 SCRA 716

213

UBS v. Court of Appeals, 332 SCRA 534

214

Banco Filipino Savings and Mortgage Bank v. Court of Appeals, 332 SCRA 241

215

Republic v. Kenrick Development Corporation, 351 SCRA 716

3.3
Significance of Counsels Signature it is a Certificate by him that: (a) He
has read the pleading (b)To the best of his information, knowledge and belief
there is good ground to support it (c) It is not interposed for delay
3.4
If the pleading is unsigned it produces no legal effect. However, the court
in its discretion can allow the deficiency to be remedied if it shall appear that it
was due to inadvertence and not intended for delay.216
3.5

An address is required for service of pleadings or judgments

3.6
Disciplinary action may be imposed on counsel in relation to the rule when
(a) He deliberately files an unsigned pleading (b)
Signs a pleading in
violation of the Rule (c)
Alleges scandalous or indecent matter (d) Fails to
promptly report to the court a change in his address
4.
A Verification is an affidavit that the affiant has read the pleading and that
the allegations therein are true and correct of his personal knowledge and/or is
based on authentic records..
4.1
The verification requirement is intended to secure an assurance that the
allegations in the pleading are true and correct and not the product of the
imagination or a matter of speculation and that it is being filed in good faith.217
4.2
If a pleading that is required to be verified is not verified or contains a
verification that does not comply with what is required by the rules, it shall be
treated as an unsigned pleading.
4.3
The court may order the correction of the pleading or act on an unverified
pleading if the attending circumstances are such that strict compliance would not
fully serve substantial justice, which after all, is the basic aim of the rules of
procedure.218
4.4
A pleading need not be verified, except when otherwise specifically
required by law or the rules219.

216

Supra, Section 3, Rule 7

217

Sarmiento v. Zaratan, GR No. 167471, February 5, 2007

218

Robert Development Corporation v. Quitain, 315 SCRA 150

219

Supra, Section 4, Rule 7

4.5
A Verification is required under rules governing (a) cases covered by the
Rules on Summary Procedure (b) Petition for relief from judgment / order 220 (c)
Petition for review221 (d) Appeal by certiorari222 (e)Petition for annulment of
judgment 223 (f) Injunction224 (g) Receivership225 (h) Support226 (i) 69) Certiorari,
Prohibition or Mandamus 227 (j) Quo Warranto228 (k) Expropriation229 (l) Forcible
Entry / Detainer230 (m) Indirect Contempt 231(n) Petition for a writ of habeas
corpus, writ of amparo, writ of habeas data (o) Petition for cancellation or
correction of entries in the Civil Registry (p) Petition for the constitution of a
family home (q) Petition for Declaration of Absolute Nullity of Marriage,
Annulment of a Voidable Marriage, Legal Separation (r) Petition for Guardianship
(s) Applications for TRO or Injunction.
5.
Certification against Forum Shopping is executed by the plaintiff or
principal party who shall certify under oath in the Complaint or Initiatory Pleading
asserting a claim or relief or in sworn certification annexed thereto and
simultaneously filed therewith : (a)
That he has not therefore commenced
any action or filed any claim involving the same issues in any court, tribunal or
quasi judicial agency and to the best of his knowledge, no such other claim or
action is pending therein (b) If there is such other pending action or claim, a
complete statement of the present status thereof (c) That if he should thereafter
learn that the same or similar action has been filed or is pending, he shall report
that fact within 5 days therefrom to the court wherein his complaint / initiatory
pleading has been filed.232

220

Supra, Section 3, Rule 38

221

Supra, Section 1, Rule 42

222

Supra, Section 1, Rule 45

223

Supra, Section 4, Rule 47

224

Supra, Section 1, Rule 58

225

Supra, Section 1, Rule 59

226

Supra, Section 1, Rule 61

227

Supra, Sections 1,2,3, Rule 65

228

Supra, Section 1, Rule 66

229

Supra, Section 1, Rule 67

230

Supra, Section 3, Rule 70

231

Supra, Section 3, Rule 71

232

Supra, Section 5, Rule 7

5.1
The lack of a certification is not curable by amendment, but such shall be
cause for dismissal of the complaint. The dismissal shall be without prejudice
unless otherwise provided, upon motion and after hearing.233
5.2
The non-complaince with any of the undertakings or the submission of a
false certificate shall constitute indirect contempt without prejudice to
corresponding administrative and criminal actions. Provided, that if the acts of the
party or counsel clearly constitute will and deliberate forum shopping, it shall then
be ground for summary dismissal with prejudice, and shall constitute direct
contempt as well as cause for administrative sanctions.
5.3
Forum Shopping exists when as a result of an adverse opinion in one
forum, a party seeks a favorable opinion, other than by appeal or certiorari, in
another, or when he institutes two or more actions or proceedings grounded on
the same cause, on the gamble that one or the other court would make a
favorable disposition. The most important factor in determining the existence of
forum shopping is the vexation caused the courts and parties-litigants by a party
who asks different courts to rule on the same or substantially the same reliefs.234
5.4
It also occurs when a party attempts to have his action tried in a particular
court or jurisdiction where he feels he will receive the most favorable judgment.
5.5
It has been said to exist also where the elements of litis pendentia are
present or where a final judgment in one case will amount to res judicata in
another. Hence, the following requisites concur: (a) identity of parties, or at least
such parties represent the same interests in both actions (b) identity of rights
asserted and relief prayed for, the relief being founded on the same facts, and (c)
identity of the two preceding particulars is such that any judgment rendered in the
other action will, regardless, of which party is successful, amount to res judicata
in the action under consideration. 235
5.6
The purpose of the certification against forum shopping is to prohibit and
penalize the evils of forum shopping.236 Forum Shopping is a deplorable practice
because it results in unnecessarily clogging of the already heavily burdened
docket of the courts.237
5.7
The execution of the certification is required to be accomplished by the
petitioner himself as it is the petitioner himself who has actual knowledge of
233

Castillo v Court of Appeals, 426 SCRA 369

234

Benguet Electric Cooperative, Inc. v Flores, 287 SCRA 449

235

TADI v Solilapsi, 394 SCRA 269

236

BA Savings Bank v Sia, 336 SCRA 484

237

Ruiz v Drilon, 209 SCRA 695

whether or not he has initiated similar actions or proceedings in different courts


or agencies.
5.8
If there are several plaintiffs, the general rule is that all of them must sign
but it must be noted that there is jurisprudence to the effect that: (a) the
execution by one of the petitioners or plaintiffs in a case constitutes substantial
compliance where all the petitioners, being relatives and co-owners of the
properties in dispute, share a common interest in the subject matter of the
case.238 (b) the case is filed as a collective raising only one cause of action or
defense239 (c) the signing by 1 spouse substantially complies as they have a
common interest in the property240 or is signed by husband alone is substantial
compliance as subject of case is recovery of conjugal property241 (d) 2 of the
parties did not sign as they were abroad. It was considered reasonable cause to
exempt them from compliance with the requirement that they personally execute
the certificate242
5.9
If the plaintiff or petitioner is a juridical person, it can only execute the
certification through properly delegated individuals.243 Note though that there are
corporate officers who may sign the certification without need of a board
resolution, namely: (a) Chairperson of the Board (b) President (c) General
Manager or Acting General Manager (d) Personnel Officer, and (e) Employment
Specialist in a labor case. 244 The submission in the motion for reconsideration of
the authority to sign the verification and certification constitutes substantial
compliance with procedural requirements.245
5.10 Counsel has been allowed to sign the certification in the following
instances: (a) Where the counsel is the Solicitor General has been deemed to be
substantial compliance246 (b) Certification by acting regional counsel of NPC was
accepted because it was his basic function to prepare pleadings and to represent
NPC Mindanao as such he was in the best position to know and certify if a

238

Cavile v Heirs of Clarito Cavile, 400 SCRA 255, Gudoy v Guadalquiver, 429 SCRA 722

239

HCC Construction and Development Corporation v Emily Homes Subdivision Homeowners


Association, 411 SCRA 504
240

Dar v Alonso Legasto, 339 SCRA 306

241

Docena v Lapesura, 355 SCRA 658

242

Hamilton v Levy, 344 SCRA 821

243

National Steel Corporation v. Court of Appeals, 388 SCRA 85

244

Cagayan Valley Drug Corporation vs. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 545 SCRA 10

245 Asean
246

Pacific Planners vs. City of Urdaneta, 566 SCRA 219

Commissioner of Internal Revenue v SC Johnson, 309 SCRA 87

similar action was pleading or had been filed247 (c) Certification was signed by
counsel. The procedural lapse may be overlooked in the interest of substantial
justice.248 (d) Certification was executed by an in house counsel is sufficient
compliance with the Rules249 (e) With respect to a corporation, the certification against
forum shopping may be signed for and its behalf by a specifically authorized lawyer who
has personal knowledge of the facts required to be disclosed in such document. 250
5.11 The Supreme Court has gone to the extent of invoking the power to
suspend the rules by disregarding the absence of the certification in the interest
of substantial justice.251
5.12 As a general rule, the certification cannot be filed at a later date. However,
in some instances the Supreme Court has allowed the late filing when special or
compelling reasons justify the same, such a the substantive merit of the case. 252
5.13 Problem: The rule in Section 1, Rule 17 is that the plaintiff may dismiss his
complaint by filing a notice of dismissal at any time before service of the answer
or of a motion for summary judgment. As a general rule, such dismissal is without
prejudice. Suppose P filed a complaint against D, and before service of the
answer or of motion for summary judgment, P caused the dismissal of his
complaint by filing a notice of dismissal. Months later, P filed the same complaint
against D. In the certification on non-forum shopping appended to the second
complaint, P failed to mention about the prior filing and dismissal of the first case.
Is Ps failure to mention about the prior filing and dismissal of the first case fatal?
No. An omission in the certification on non-forum shopping about any event or
case which would not constitute res judicata or litis pendentia is not fatal. In the
problem presented, the dismissal of the first case would not constitute res
judicat253a precisely because such dismissal is without prejudice to the refilling of
the case.254

247

Robern Development Corporation v Quitain, 315 SCRA 150

248

Sy Chin v Court of Appeals, 345 SCRA 673

249

Mercury Drug Corporation v Libunao, 434 SCRA 404

250 Athena
251

Computers, Inc. v Reyes, 532 SCRA 343 (September 5, 2007)

De Guia v. De Guia, 356 SCRA 287

252

Loyola v. Court of Appeals, 245 SCRA 477, Roadway Express v. Court of Appeals, 264 SCRA 696, Sy
v. Landbank, 336 SCRA 419, Shipside Incorporated v. Court of Appeals,352 SCRA 334, Ateneo De Naga v.
Manalo, 458 SCRA 325
253

Sevilleja v. Laggui, 362 SCRA 715

254

Roxas v. Court of Appeals,363 SCRA 207

5.14 Also, a case pending before the Ombudsman cannot be considered for
purposes of determining forum shopping as the power of the Ombudsman is only
investigative in character and its resolution cannot constitute a valid and final
judgment because its duty is to file the appropriate case before the
Sandiganbayan.
DISTINGUISH BETWEEN VERIFICATION / CERTIFICATION
1.
The distinctions are: (a) A verification is a sworn statement that the
allegations are true and correct based on personal knowledge and/or authentic
records, while a certification states that no action or claim involving the same
issues have been filed or is pending (b) A verification is required in complaints,
initiatory pleadings and some responsive pleadings, while a certification is
required only in complaints and initiatory pleadings (c) A defect in a verification is
curable by amendment or an order to verify, while that in a certification cannot be
cured by amendment (d) A defect in the verification does not immediately give
rise to a ground for dismissal, while a defect in a certification gives rise to a
ground for dismissal (e) a verification may be signed by counsel, while a
certification must be signed by a party.
RULE 8 MANNER OF MAKING ALLEGATIONS IN PLEADINGS
HOW ALLEGATIONS ARE MADE IN A PLEADING
1.
In general, a pleading must contain in a methodical and logical form a
plain concise and direct statement of the ultimate facts on which the party
pleading relies for his claim or defense255
1.1
Ultimate facts are the essential facts constituting the plaintiffs cause of
action. A fact is essential if it cannot be stricken out without leaving the statement
of the cause of action insufficient.
1.2
Examples of ultimate facts: (a) That an obligation has been constituted,
that party must comply, that there is no compliance (b) That party is the owner of
property, that he has a right to its use/possession, that he has been
dispossessed
1.3
A pleading must only aver ultimate facts as no conclusions are supposed
to be averred. Conclusions are for the court to make.

255

Supra, Section 1, Rule 8

2.
Mere evidentiary facts or those that are necessary for the determination of
the ultimate facts are to be omitted. Evidentiary facts are the premises upon
which conclusions of ultimate facts are based.
2.1
Examples of evidentiary facts are: (a) That the obligation as covered by a
promissory note was executed before specified persons or that defendant has
several letters indicating intention to/or not to pay (b) How property was acquired
2.2
They are not supposed to be averred as evidentiary matters must be
presented to the court during the trial of the case, not in the pleadings.
3.

Laws may be pleaded only if the pleading is an Answer.

PLEADING ALTERNATIVE CAUSES OF ACTION OR DEFENSES


1.
A party may set forth two or more statements of a claim or a defense
alternatively or hypothetically, either in one cause of action or defense or in
separate causes of actions or defenses. If two or more statements are made in
the alternative and if one of them if made independently would be sufficient, the
pleading is not made insufficient by the insufficiency of one or more of the
alternative statements.
2.
The provision recognizes the possibility that the liability of the defendant
may possibly be based on two causes of action or that the defendant may
possibly have alternative defenses, even if they may conflict with each other.
2.1
Examples of alternative causes of actions: (a) allegations for breach of
contract of carriage and tort, or (b) allegations for breach of contract and fraud,
while examples of alternative defenses are: (a) defense of failure to repurchase
by plaintiff and that property was inherited, or (b) debt has been paid or that it
has prescribed, or (c) fraud attended the execution of the contract, but even
assuming that the contract is valid, the action has prescribed.
3.
The object of the provision is to relieve a party from making a definite
election in cases where his claim or defense might fall within two different
substantive classes. Hence, a party may state as many claims/defenses as he
has regardless of inconsistency.
3.1
It does not require that all the alternative causes of action/defenses be
sufficient for the plaintiff/defendant to be entitled to relief. It is enough that one of
them if made independently would be sufficient to support a cause of action or
defend against it. Hence, the pleading is not made insufficient by the insufficiency
of one or more of the alternative statements.
Supra, Section 2, Rule 8

3.2
Overruling of one does not bar other defenses. However, if not set up,
determination of one shall bar the determination of the other.
HOW TO PLEAD CONDITIONS PRECEDENT
1.
A condition precedent as determined by common usage are matters which
must be complied with before a cause of action of action arises.
2.
Hence, a general averment of the performance or occurrence
conditions precedent is required.256

of all

3.
Examples of conditions precedent are: (a) tender of payment is required
before consignation257 (b) exhaustion of administrative remedies before resort to
judicial action (c) that earnest efforts at a compromise have been exerted, the
suit being one between members of the same family (d) that prior resort to
conciliation has been undertaken to no avail
4.

The failure to comply is an independent ground for a motion to dismiss.258

PLEADING CAPACITY TO SUE AND TO BE SUED


1.
The following must be averred: (1) capacity to sue or be sued (2) authority
of a party to sue or be sued in a representative capacity (3) legal existence of an
organized association of persons that is made a party.259
1.1
Note the cross reference to Sections 1 and 3, Rule 3 referring to who may
be parties and representative parties, and to Section 1(d), Rule 16 referring to a
motion to dismiss on the ground of lack of legal capacity to sue, meaning that a
party is not in possession of his civil rights, does not have the qualification to
appear, or does not have the character or representation claimed.
2.
A party desiring to raise the issue of lack of legal capacity shall do so by
specific denial, which shall include such supporting particulars as peculiarly
within the pleaders knowledge.
HOW TO AVER FRAUD, MISTAKE, CONDITION OF MIND
256

Supra, Section 3, Rule 8

257 Article

1256, NCC

258

Supra, Section 1(j), Rule 16

259

Supra, Section 4, Rule 8

1.
Fraud and mistake must be stated with particularity. It is not enough for the
pleading to just allege fraud.
1.1

It must state the time, place and specific acts constituting the fraud.

2.
Condition of mind, such as malice, intent, knowledge may be averred
generally.260
2.1
Based on human experience, it is difficult to state the particulars of a
condition of the mind.
HOW TO AVER/ PLEAD A JUDGMENT/DECISION OF A DOMESTIC/FOREIGN
COURT, JUDICIAL/QUASI-JUDICIAL OFFICER TRIBUNAL BOARD
1.
It is sufficient that a general allegation of the existence of the judgment is
made, without setting forth matter showing jurisdiction to render it. 261
1.1

Jurisdiction in this case is presumed.

IF ACTION/DEFENSE IS BASED ON AN ACTIONABLE DOCUMENT


1.
Where the action or defense is based on an actionable document or the
written document upon which the plaintiff or defendant relies for his claim or
defense, it is pleaded by (a) setting forth the substance of such document in the
pleading and attaching the original/copy as an annex or (b) setting it forth
verbatim in the pleading.262
2.
It is contested by specifically denying it under oath and setting forth what
he claims to be the fact.
2.1

A mere denial is insufficient as the same must be under oath or verified.

2.1
The requirement does not apply if: (a) adverse party is not/does not
appear to be a party to the actionable document. Example: Heirs are sued on a
document executed by a person they will inherit from (b) when compliance with
an order for an inspection of the original document is refused.263 (c) when the
document is not an actionable document but is merely evidence of the claim or
existence of the actionable document . Example: demand letters (d) when the
party who has the benefit of an implied admission waives the benefit. Example:
he presents evidence as to genuineness and due execution
260

Supra, Section 5, Rule 8

261

Supra, Section 6, Rule 8

262

Supra, Section 7, Rule 8

263

Supra, Section 8, Rule 8

3.
The effect of not specifically denying an actionable document under oath
lead to the admission of its genuineness and due execution. It thus means that
the party executed the document or was executed by someone authorized by
him, it was in the words/figures set forth in the pleading, and that the formal
requirements of law have been observed. Thus, there is no need to present it
formally in evidence because it is an admitted fact.
3.1
A party though is not barred from interposing other defenses as long as it
is not inconsistent with the implied admission. Examples of inconsistent defenses
are: forgery, lack of authority to execute the document, that it was signed in
another capacity, it was not delivered or the words/figures as pleaded are not the
same as when the document was signed . On the other hand, consistent
defenses are: fraud, payment, want or illegality of consideration, usury,
prescription, release or waiver or estoppel.
HOW ARE OFFICIAL ACT/DOCUMENTS AVERRED
1.
It is sufficient to aver that document was issued or the act is done in
compliance with law. 264 Example: Issuance of Certification to file action by Lupon
Tagapayapa chair.
HOW ARE SPECIFIC DENIALS MADE
1.
A specific denial is made265 by: (a) Specifically denying the material
averment in the pleading of the adverse party and setting forth the substance of
the matter upon which he relies for such denial, this is known as an absolute
denial (b)Deny only a part of the averment by specifying that so much of it is true
and deny the remainder, this is known as partial denial (c) Allegation of lack of
knowledge or information sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of the material
averment in the pleading of the adverse party, this is known as denial by
disavowal of knowledge.
A negative pregnant denial is a denial pregnant with an admission of the substantial facts
alleged in the pleading.266

264

Supra, Section 9, Rule 8

265

Supra, Section 10, Rule 8

266

Caneland Sugar Corporation v. Alon, 533 SCRA 28, (September 12, 2007)

1.1
If the denial is a mere repetition of the allegations in the complaint it is
considered a negative pregnant denial which is conceded to actually be an
admission. Example: A complaint alleges: Plaintiff extended a loan to Defendant
in the amount of P500,000.00 on July 27, 2006 in Baguio City. The defendant in
his answer alleges: Defendant specifically denies that Plaintiff extended a loan
to Defendant in the amount of P500,000.00 on July 27, 2006. The answer is a
mere repetition of the allegations made in the complaint. The answer is vague as
to what it really denies. Is it the existence of a loan that is denied? Is it the
amount? The date? The place?
1.2
When the complaint alleges that: the sum of PHP 10,000.00 is a
reasonable sum to be allowed plaintiff as and for attorneys fees. If the
defendants denial is a mere repetition, then it is an admission that any sum less
than PHP 10,000.00 is reasonable.
1.3
If allegations are not denied in the prescribed manner, a party is deemed
to have made a general denial which is tantamount to an admission. 267
1.4
A denial by disavowal of knowledge will amount to an admission, if to the
knowledge of the court, it is so plainly and necessarily within the defendants
knowledge that the averment of ignorance must be untrue.
1.5
Exceptions to the rule that matters are admitted by the failure to make a
specific denial are: (a) the amount of unliquidated damages268 (b) conclusions
which are not required to be denied as only ultimate facts must be alleged, and
(c) non-material allegations as only those that are material have to be denied.
1.6
Note that when the allegations pertain to (a) allegations of usury in a
complaint to recover usurious interest, or (b) genuineness and due execution of
an actionable document, the specific denial is required to be made under oath
otherwise they are admitted.

STRIKING OUT OF A PLEADING OR MATTER CONTAINED THEREIN


1.
If the pleading or any matter therein is sham, false, redundant, immaterial,
impetinent or scandalous, the court can order the pleading or matter contained
therein to be stricken therefrom (a) upon motion made by a party before
responding to a pleading (b) if no responsive pleading is allowed / permitted by

267

Supra, Section 11, Rule 8

268

Supra, Section 11, Rule 8

the Rules, upon motion by a party within 20 days after service of the pleading, or
(c) upon the Courts own initiative269
RULE 9 EFFECTS OF FAILURE TO PLEAD
1.
The general effect of the failure to plead is that the defenses / objections
not so pleaded in an Answer or a Motion to Dismiss are deemed waived.
1.1
However, if it appears from the pleadings or evidence on record that (a)
the Court has no jurisdiction over the subject matter (b) there is another action
pending between the same parties for the same cause, or (c) the action is barred
by prior judgment or statute of limitations, the court shall dismiss the claim.270
These defenses are not barred if not set up
2.
A compulsory counterclaim or a cross-claim not set up shall also be
barred.271 Note that this is in consonance with the requirement of the Rules that a
compulsory counterclaim or cross claim existing at the time of the filing of the
answer must be contained therein272 but if it arises after the filing of an answer, it
may be set up in a supplemental pleading before judgment273 or if failure is due
to oversight, inadvertence, excusable neglect or when justice requires, it may be
set up by amendment with leave of court before judgment.274
WHAT RESULTS IF DEFENDANT / DEFENDING PARTY FAILS TO ANSWER
WITHIN THE TIME ALLOWED
1.
If there is failure to plead within the time allowed, the defendant may be
declared in default upon compliance with the following: (a) the plaintiff must file a
motion to declare the defendant in default (b) serve notice of his motion to
defendant, which must include a notice of hearing (c) at the hearing, show proof
of failure on the part of the defendant to file his answer within the reglementary
period.275
1.1

A court cannot motu propio declare a defendant in default.

269

Supra, Section 12, Rule 8

270

Supra, Section 1, Rule 9

271

Supra, Section 2, Rule 9

272

Supra, Section 8, Rule 11

273

Supra, Section 9, Rule 11

274

Supra, Section 10, Rule 11

275

Supra, Section 3, Rule 9

2.
Default is a procedural concept that occurs when the defending party fails
to file his answer within the reglementary period.
2.1
It does not occur from the failure of the defendant to attend the pre-trial,
where absence is a cause for the court to order presentation of evidence exparte or at the trial, where absence will be construed as a waiver to assail the
evidence against him or is a waiver of the right to adduce evidence.
2.2
Note the exceptions to the concept that default is triggered by the failure of
the defending party to file the required answer, as a default judgment has been
held to lie if (a) a party refuses to obey an order requiring him to comply with the
various modes of discovery276, or (b) if a party or managing agent of a party
willfully fails to appear before the officer who is to take his deposition.277
3.
It is an error to declare a defendant in default where an answer has
already been filed.278
4.
Note that the rule is different if covered by the Rules on Summary
Procedure, where a motion to declare defendant in default is prohibited. 279
4.1
Instead, the court can motu proprio or upon a motion render judgment as
may be warranted by the facts alleged in the complaint and limited to what is
prayed for.280
5.
A declaration in default is not an admission of the truth or the validity of the
plaintiffs claims.281
ONCE DECLARED IN DEFAULT
1.
The court has two options,it: (a) can proceed to render judgment granting
the claimant such relief as his pleading may warrant, unless, (b) the Court in its
discretion requires the claimant to submit the evidence. Such reception may be
delegated to the Clerk of Court, who must be a member of the Bar.

276

Supra, Section 3 (c), Rule 29

277

Supra, Section 5, Rule 29

278

Cathay Pacific Airways v. Romillo, Jr., 141 SCRA 451

279

Section 19 (h), 1991 Rules of Summary Procedure

280

Section 6, II, 1991 Rules of Summary Procedure

281

Monarch Insurance v. Court of Appeals, 333 SCRA 7

2.
The extent of the relief that may be awarded shall not exceed the amount
or be different in kind from that prayed for nor award unliquidated damages.282
2.1
Hence, even if there is proof to indicate a greater relief, the court will
refrain from awarding it.
3.
The defaulted defendant is nevertheless entitled to notice of subsequent
proceedings but he cannot take part in the trial.283
4.
Effect of Partial Default, where a pleading asserting a claim states a
common cause of action against several defending parties, some of whom
answer while others do not , the court shall try the cause against all upon the
answers thus filed and render judgment upon the evidence presented. 284
4.1
It is not within the authority of the court to divide a case by first hearing the
case ex parte as against the defaulted defendants and render a judgment against
them, then proceed to hear the case as against the non-defaulted defendants.285
WHAT ARE THE REMEDIES OF A DEFAULTED DEFENDANT
1.
The available remedies of a defendant who is declared in default are as
follows:
1.1
Motion to Set Aside Order of Default under oath, filed at any time after
notice of declaration in default and before judgment. Defendant must show by an
Affidavit of Merit stating that failure to file an answer was due to FAME and that
he has a meritorious defense
1.2
Motion for New Trial on the ground of FAME if the trial court has rendered
judgment but it has not yet become final
1.3
Appeal the judgment by default, not the order as it is interlocutory, and
cannot be appealed, within 15 days from notice of judgment.
Note that if in the meantime, a motion to set aside order of defendant has been
denied, it can be assigned as an error in the appeal. The non- filing of a motion to
set aside or for a new trial does not bar an appeal.
On appeal, the judgment may be assailed on the ground that the judgment is
excessive or is different in kind from that prayed for or that the plaintiff failed to
282

Supra, Section 3 (d), Rule 9, Vlason v. Court of Appeals, 310 SCRA 26

283

Supra, Section 3 (a), Rule 9

284

Supra, Section 3 (c), Rule 9

285

Heirs of Mamerto Manguiat, et al. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 150768, August 20, 2008

prove his material allegations or that the decision is contrary to law. However, he
is prohibited from seeking a reversal or modification on the basis of evidence
submitted before the appellate court, as to allow it would mean that he is
retaining the right to adduce evidence, which he lost in the trial court.286
1.4
Petition for Relief from Judgment based on FAME, provided no appeal has
been taken within 60 days from notice and 6 months from entry of judgment.287
1.5
Action to Annul Judgment based on extrinsic or collateral fraud , which is
such that a party is induced or prevented from presenting his case or having a
full and fair trial, within 4 years from discovery of the fraud.
1.6
Certiorari, if improperly declared in default or motion to set aside was
denied and is tainted with grave abuse of discretion, which is filed within 60 days
from notice or judgment order resolution or 60 days from notice of the denial of a
motion for reconsideration.288
2.
If despite a declaration in default, the court subsequently acts on motions
for extension or a motion for a bill of particulars, the effect is that the order of
default is deemed lifted. The trial court is not considered to have acted with grave
abuse of discretion.289
CASES WHERE NO DEFAULT LIES
1.
In the following cases, default does not lie: (a) annulment of marriage (b)
declaration of nullity of marriage (c) legal separation (d) expropriation, and (e)
forcible entry, illegal detainer and the other actions covered by the Rules on
Summary Procedure.
1.1
Regarding items (a) to (c), the court shall order the prosecuting attorney to
investigate whether or not collusion exists, and if there is no collusion, to
intervene for the state in order to see that the evidence so presented is not
fabricated.290
RULE 10 AMENDED AND SUPPLEMENTAL PLEADINGS

286

Rural Bank of Sta. Catalina, Inc. vs. Land Bank of the Philippines, G.R. No. 148019, July 28, 2004

287

Supra, Rule 38

288

Supra, Rule 65

289

Republic of the Philippines vs. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 148154, December 17, 2007

290

Supra, Section 3,(e), Rule 9

WHAT ARE AMENDMENTS


1.
Amendments consist of: (a ) Adding or striking out an allegation or the
name of any party (b) Corrections of mistakes in the name of a party or mistaken
or inadequate allegation or description in any other respect.
1.1
The purpose for allowing amendments is so that the actual merits of the
controversy may speedily be determined without regard to technicalities and in
the most expeditious and inexpensive manner. 291
2.

The kinds of amendments are:

2.1
Formal Amendments which are defects in the designation of the parties,
other clerical or typographical errors that may summarily be corrected provided
no prejudice is caused the adverse party and are allowed at any stage, at the
Courts own initiative or on motion.292
2.2

All other amendments are considered Substantial Amendments

WHEN AMENDMENTS CAN BE MADE


1.
Formal and Substantial amendments can be made once as a matter of
right before a responsive pleading is served, or in case of a Reply, at any time
within 10 days after it is served.293
1.1
Prior to the filing of an answer, the plaintiff has the absolute right to amend
the complaint whether a new cause of action or change in theory is introduced. 294
1.2
Note that the filing of a motion to dismiss does not bar an amendment as it
is not a responsive pleading and does not preclude the right to the plaintiff to
amend his complaint.295
1.3
In fact, even if the motion to dismiss has been granted, the plaintiff can still
amend his complaint before the dismissal becomes final as long as no answer
has of yet been served and the order dismissing the complaint has not yet
become final. 296
291

Supra, Section 1, Rule 10

292

Supra, Section 4, Rule 10

293

Supra, Section 2, Rule 10

294

Remington Industrial Sales Corporation v Court of Appeals, 382 SCRA 499

295

Remington Industrial Sales v. Court of Appeals, 382 SCRA 499

296

Bautista v. Maya-Maya Cottages, Inc., 476 SCRA 416

2.
After the filing of a responsive pleading, Substantial amendments require
leave of court, but leave may be refused if it appears to the court that the motion
was on made with intent to delay. Orders related to leave shall be made upon
motion filed in court, with notice to the adverse party and opportunity to be
heard.297
2.1
That the amendments should not substantially alter the cause of action or
defense is no longer the rule as the Rules now allow the pleading of alternative
causes of action/defenses298 and that all such causes or defenses must be
pleaded in accordance with the rule on waiver.299
2.2
The Trial Court may refuse leave or amendments when: (a) A responsive
pleading has been filed and the motion for leave to amend is made with intent to
delay (b) The purpose is to confer jurisdiction as the court must first acquire
jurisdiction before it can act.300 Note the instance when the amendment is made
as a matter of right (c) The purpose is to cure the defect of a non-existent cause
of action. Example: An amendment of the complaint to correct its having been
filed prematurely or when the obligation was not yet due.
2.3
If no leave is obtained, the pleading has no standing and may be stricken
from the records
2.4
Problem: Complaint is filed against several defendants. Some defendants
answer, the others have not yet filed their answers. Amendments will be allowed
as a matter of right against those who have not filed answers, and with leave of
court, as against those who have filed their answers.301
3.
Substantial amendments can also be made when it is necessary to
conform to the evidence. This occurs when issues are tried with the express or
implied consent of parties. If such, they are treated in all respects as if they have
been raised in the pleadings302, thus paving the way for an amendment of the
pleadings to conform to the evidence. This is made upon motion of any party,
even after judgment though the failure to amend does not affect the result of the
trial. Example: Increased claim for the payment of damages or made to authorize
presentation of evidence. This occurs when evidence is objected to at the trial on
the ground that it is not within the issues made by the pleadings, the court may
297

Supra, Section 3, Rule 10

298

Supra, Section 2, Rule 8

299

Supra, Section 1, Rule 9

300

Tirona v Alejo, 367 SCRA 17, Gaspar v Dorado, 15 SCRA 331

301

Siasoco v Court of Appeals, 303 SCRA 186

302

Bernardo v Court of Appeals, 263 SCRA 660

allow the pleadings amended and shall do so with liberality to authorize


presentation of evidence.303
3.1
Thus , the failure of a complaint to state a cause of action may be cured
by (a) Presentation of evidence to prove that cause of action followed by an
amendment to conform to evidence, or (b) Evidence is objected to and the trial
court sustains the objection, this is then followed by an amendment with leave of
court to authorize presentation of evidence. Same remedies may be resorted to
when a party fails to raise a defense in his pleading.
THE EFFECTS OF AN AMENDED PLEADING
1.

It supersedes the pleading that it amends

2.
Admissions in the superseded pleading may be received in evidence
against the pleader because it is not expunged from the records and admissions
in the superseded pleading are in the nature of judicial admissions made by a
party in the course of the proceedings which do not require proof and ordinarily
cannot be contradicted except by showing that it was made through palpable
mistake or that no such admission was made.304
3.
Claims or defenses alleged in the superseded pleading but not
incorporated in the amended pleading shall be deemed waived.305
HOW IS AN AMENDED PLEADING FILED
1.
A new copy of the entire pleading incorporating the amendments which
shall be indicated by appropriate marks shall be filed.306
1.1
Note that the date of filing of amended pleadings does not retroact to the
date of the filing of the original pleading. Hence, the statute of limitations runs
until the filing of the amendment, but, an amendment that merely supplements
and amplifies facts originally alleged in the complaint relates back to the date of
the commencement of the action and is not barred by the statute of limitations
that expired after service of the original complaint. Example: The statement of a
cause of action is imperfect and is corrected by an amended complaint, the plea
of prescription relates to the time of filing but the rule will not apply if a new
defendant is impleaded in the amended complaint and prior to its filing
prescription has set in.
303

Supra, Section 5, Rule 10

304

Supra, Section 4, Rule 129

305

Supra, Section 8, Rule 10

306

Supra, Section 7, Rule 10

WHAT IS A SUPPLEMENTAL PLEADING


1.
A supplemental pleading setting forth transactions, occurrences or events
which have happened since the date of the pleading sought to be supplemented
Example: Setting up counterclaims after an answer has been filed.307
2.
A supplemental pleading is always upon motion, and on such terms as are
just and upon reasonable notice and the adverse party is given 10 days from
notice of order admitting the supplemental pleading to plead thereto.308
3.
A supplemental pleading is meant to supply deficiencies in aid of an
original pleading, not to entirely substitute the latter.309 Thus, when the cause of
action stated in the supplemental complaint is different from the cause of action
mentioned in the original complaint, the court should not admit the supplemental
complaint.310
DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN AN AMENDED PLEADING AND A SUPPLEMENTAL
PLEADING
1.
The distinctions are (a) An amended pleading is filed either as a matter of
right or with leave, a supplemental pleading is always with leave (b) An amended
pleading alleges matters occurring before the filing of the original pleading, while
a supplemental pleading alleges matters occurring after the filing of the original
pleading (c) An amended pleading supersedes the original pleading, while a
supplemental pleading allows the original pleading to stand.
RULE 11: WHEN RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS ARE TO BE FILED
RESPONSIVE PLEADING DEFINED
1.
A responsive pleading is one which seeks affirmative relief and/or set up
defenses.311
2.

However, a motion to dismiss is not considered a responsive pleading.

ANSWER TO THE COMPLAINT


307

Supra, Section 9, Rule 11 and Section 2, Rule 9

308

Supra, Section 6, Rule 10

309

Shoemart, Incorporated v Court of Appeals, 190 SCRA 189

310 APT
311

v Court of Appeals, 324 SCRA 533

Marcos-Araneta vs. Court of Appeals, 563 SCRA 41

1.
Within 15 days after service of summons unless a different period is fixed
by the Court.312
1.1
2.

The same period applies to third party complaints.313


If covered by the Rules on Summary Procedure, it is 10 days

3.
If the complaint is amended: (a) as a matter of right, within 15 days from
being served with a copy (b) if with leave of court, within 10 days from notice of
order admitting the same. If no new answer is filed, a previously filed answer may
serve as the answer. The same period holds for answers to amended counterclaims, cross claims, third party complaints and complaints in intervention.314
4.
If defendant is a foreign private juridical entity, within 15 days if service of
summons is made on the resident agent or within 30 days from receipt of
summons by the entity at its home office if received by the government office
designated by law.315
5.
If it is a complaint in- intervention, within 15 days from notice of the order
admitting the complaint in intervention
6.
If it is a supplemental complaint, within 10 days from notice of the order
admitting the supplemental complaint. The answer to the complaint shall serve
as the answer to the supplemental complaint if no new or supplemental answer is
filed.316
7.
If it involves a complaint served on a non-resident defendant who is not in
the Philippines through any of the modes of extra-territorial service, including by
publication, within a reasonable time which shall not be less than 60 days after
notice as the court may specify in its order granting leave to effect extra-territorial
service of summons
8.
If it involves corporate election contests or inspection of corporate books
and records disputes, within 10 days from service of summons and the
complaint.317
ANSWER TO A CROSS CLAIM OR COUNTER CLAIM
312

Supra, Section 1, Rule 11

313

Supra, Section 5, Rule 11

314

Supra, Section 3, Rule 11

315

Supra, Section 2, Rule 11, Section 128, Corporation Code

316

Supra, Section 7, Rule 11

317

Section 5, Rule 6 and Section 4, Rules 7, A.M. 01-2-04, SC

1.
The answer to a cross claim or a counter-claim shall be filed within 10
days from service.318
2.
Note that compulsory counterclaims need not be answered unless it
raises issues not covered by the complaint .
2.1
It is required that a compulsory counterclaim or a cross claim existing at
the filing of defendants answer must be included therein but, if it matures / or is
acquired after serving of answer, it may with the courts permission be presented
as such in a supplemental pleading. If already existing and not set up through
oversight, inadvertence, or excusable neglect, it may, by leave of court be set up
as such by amendment before judgment.319
REPLY
1.
It must be filed within 10 days from service of the pleading responded
to.320
2.
Note though that the filing of a reply is optional as if one is not filed, all
new matters are deemed controverted.321
3.
The exceptions are pleaded actionable documents and allegations as to
usury.
MAY THE TIME TO PLEAD BE EXTENDED
1.
Upon motion and on terms as may be just, the Court it may extend or
allow it to be filed after the time fixed by the Rules.322 The court may also, upon
like terms, allow an answer or other pleading to be filed after the time fixed by
these Rules.
2.
In cases covered by the Rules on Summary Procedure, the period cannot
be extended nor shortened.
3.

In quo warranto cases, the period may be shortened.323

318

Supra, Section 4, Rule 11

319

Supra, Sections 8,9, and 10, Rule 11

320

Supra, Section 6, Rule 11

321

Supra, Section 10, Rule 6

322

Supra, Section 11, Rule 11

323

Supra, Section 8, Rule 66

4.
A lawyer shall not, after obtaining extensions of time to file pleadings,
memoranda, or briefs, let the period lapse without submitting the same or offering
an explanation for failure to do so.324
WHEN A COMPLAINT SHOULD BE FILED
1.
A complaint is not a responsive pleading. It is to be filed upon accrual of
the cause of action or any time thereafter but before it is barred by prescription.
RULE 12 BILL OF PARTICULARS
BILL OF PARTICULARS DEFINED
1.
It is a definitive statement of any matter which is not covered with sufficient
definiteness or particularity to enable him to properly prepare his responsive
pleading.325
2.
The purpose of which is to make more particular or definite the ultimate
facts in a pleading and is not intended to supply evidentiary matters.
3.
It is to be resorted to when the complaint is deficient in details with respect
to the factual basis of each and every item claimed, but such deficiency is not
such as to amount to a failure to state a cause of action as the remedy then is to
file a motion to dismiss.326
WHEN SHOULD IT BE FILED
1.

Before filing or responding to a pleading or before filing an answer.

2.

If pleading is a reply, within 10 days from service thereof

ACTION OF THE COURT


1.
Upon filing of the motion that points out the defects complained of, the
paragraphs wherein they are contained, and the details desired.
1.1

It is a litigated motion, thus requires a notice of hearing.

324

Rabanal v Tugade, 383 SCRA 484

325

Supra, Section 1, Rule 12

326

Sabangan v Manila Railroad Company, 28 SCRA 772

2.
The clerk of court must immediately bring it to the attention of the court,
which may deny or grant the motion outright or allow the parties an opportunity to
be heard.327
2.2
If granted, whether in whole or in part, the compliance therewith must be
effected within 10 days from notice of order, unless a different period is fixed by
the Court.
3.
In compliance, the bill of particulars may be filed either in a separate or in
an amended pleading, serving a copy on the adverse party.328
3.1

Once filed, it becomes part of the pleading for which it is intended.329

EFFECT OF NON-COMPLIANCE WITH ORDER


1.
In case of failure to obey or insufficient compliance, the Court may order
the pleading or portions thereof to which the order was directed to be stricken out
or make such order as it deems just. 330 Hence, it may also dismiss for failure of
the plaintiff to obey order of the Court.331
2.
The striking out of a complaint by the lower court upon motion of the
defendant for failure of the plaintiff to comply with an order requiring him to
submit a bill of particulars as a ground for dismissal is equivalent to an
adjudication on the merits unless otherwise provided by the court.332
WHEN MUST A RESPONSE / ANSWER BE FILED
1.
After service of a bill / definitive pleading or notice of denial of the motion
for a bill of particulars, the moving party has the remaining period that he was
entitled to at the time of the filing of the motion, which shall not be less then 5
days in any event.333

327

Supra, Section 2, Rule 12

328

Supra, Section 3, Rule 12

329

Supra, Section 6, Rule 12

330

Supra, Section 4, Rule 6

331

Supra, Section 3, Rule 17

332

Vda. De Quillosa v Salazar, 14 SCRA 656

333

Supra, Section 5, Rule 12

RULE 13 FILING / SERVICE OF PLEADINGS JUDGMENTS / OTHER


PAPERS
1.
The Rule applies to all pleadings / papers as well as service thereof,
except those for which a different mode of service is prescribed. 334
FILING / SERVICE DEFINED
1.
Filing is the act of presenting the pleading or other paper to the clerk of
court.
2.

Service is the act of providing a party with a copy of the pleading / paper.

2.1
If a party is represented by counsel, service is made upon counsel or one
of them unless service is ordered to be made upon the party by the Court. If
there is one counsel for several parties, he is entitled to only one copy served by
the opposite side. 335
2.2
Service may also be made on a party with counsel: (a) if counsel cannot
be located or changed his given address (b) when his deposition is to be taken,
or is required to answer a written interrogatory or when a request for admission is
made, and (c) if party is ordered to show cause why he should be punished for
contempt
MODES OF FILING
1.
The modes of filing are (a) Presenting the original copies of pleadings,
appearances, motions, notices, orders, judgments and all other papers to the
clerk of court, or (b) By registered mail.336
1.1
The clerk of court shall if filing be personal, endorse on the pleading, the
date and the hour of filing.
1.2
If it by mail, the date appearing on the post office stamp / registry receipt
shall be date of the filing / deposit of court. The envelope shall be attached to the
record. It bears stressing that it is the date of mailing, not the date of receipt of
the mail matter, which shall be considered as the date of filing.337 This has been

334

Supra, Section 1, Rule 13

335

Supra, Section 2, Rule 13

336

Supra, Section 3, Rule 13

337 Ansel

v Aledo, 420 SCRA 645

the practice since mail is considered an agent of the Government.338This is also


known as the Mailbox Rule.
2.
The papers that are to be filed or served upon affected parties are
judgments, resolutions, order, pleadings subsequent to the complaint, written
motions, notices, appearances, remand, offer of judgment or similar papers.339
WHAT ARE THE MODES OF SERVICE
1.
The general rule is that pleadings, motions, notices, orders, judgments
and other papers shall be served personally or by mail.340
2.
If personally served, it may done: (a) by delivering personally a copy to
party or his counsel, or (b) leaving it in his office with a clerk or person having
charge thereof, or (3) if no person is found in the office or he has no office, by
leaving a copy between the hours of 8am to 6pm at partys / counsels residence,
if known, with a person of sufficient age and discretion residing therein.341
3.
If by mail, by depositing a copy in the post office in a sealed envelope,
plainly addressed to the party or counsel, if known, at his address / office,
otherwise, at his residence, if known, postage prepaid and with instructions to the
postmaster to return the mail to sender after 10 days if undelivered.
3.1
If no registry service is available in the locality of the addressee or sender,
service may be by ordinary mail.342
4.
If mailed by private carrier, the date of actual receipt by the court of such
pleading and not date of delivery to the carrier is deemed the date of filing of that
pleading.343
5.
It is required that judgments, final orders or resolutions shall be served
personally or by registered mail.

338

Supra, Mintu v Court of Appeals, 53 SCRA 114

339

Supra, Section 4, Rule 13

340

Supra, Section 5, Rule 13

341

Supra, Section 6, Rule 13

342

Supra, Section 7, Rule 13

343

Industrial Timber Corporation v NLRC, 233 SCRA 597, Beneco v NLRC, 209 SCRA 55

5.1
If a party is summoned by publication, and he has failed to appear,
judgments, final orders / resolutions shall also be served upon him by publication
at the expense of the prevailing party.344
6.
If service cannot be made personally or by mail, substituted service may
be availed of as long as the office and place of residence of the party or his
counsel is also unknown, service may be made by delivering a copy to the clerk
of court, with proof of failure of both personal service and service by mail. The
service is complete at the time of such delivery. 345
WHEN SERVICE IS COMPLETE
1.
Service will be deemed complete: (a) Upon actual delivery if undertaken
personally (b) Upon expiration of 10 days after mailing, unless the Court orders
otherwise if undertaken by ordinary mail (c) Upon actual receipt by addressee or
after 5 days from the date he received the 1st notice of the postmaster, whichever
date is earlier, if undertaken by registered mail346 (d) At the time of delivery to the
clerk of court, if undertaken by substituted service
WHAT IS THE RULE ON PRIORITY OF SERVICE
1.
Whenever practicable, service and filing of pleadings and other papers
shall be done personally except, with papers emanating from the court. A resort
to other modes must be accompanied by an explanation why service or filing was
not done personally. If not, it may be cause to consider the paper as not filed. 347
1.1
Where the address of the respondents counsel is 83 kilometers away
from the address of petitioners counsel, such distance makes personal service
impracticable, and a written explanation why service was not done personally
might have been superfluous. Liberal construction has been allowed in cases
where the injustice to the adverse party is not commensurate with the degree of
thoughtlessness in not complying with the procedure prescribed. 348
WHAT CONSTITUTES PROOF OF FILING
1.
Proof of filing is shown by: (a) existence of the pleading or other paper in
the records of the case (b) If not in the record, but is claimed to be: (1) filed
344

Supra, Section 9, Rule 13

345

Supra, Section 8, Rule 13

346

Supra, Section 10, Rule 13

347

Supra, Section 11, Rule 13

348

Maceda v. De Guzman vda de Macatangay, 481 SCRA 415

personally by the written / stamped acknowledgment of its filing by the Clerk of


Court on a copy, and (2) filed by registered mail by the registry receipt and the
affidavit of the person who did the mailing containing a full statement of: (a) Date
and place of depositing in the post office in a sealed envelope addressed to the
Court, with postage prepaid, and (b) Instructions are given to the postmaster to
return the mail to sender after 10 days, if undelivered.349
WHAT CONSTITUTES PROOF OF SERVICE
1.
Proof of service is shown by: (a) Written admission of the party served or
official return of the server, or affidavit of the party serving, containing a full
statement of the date, place, manner of service if served personally (b) An
affidavit of the person mailing of facts showing compliance with Section 7 of the
Rule if served by ordinary mail (c) An affidavit and registry receipt issued by the
mailing office. The registry return card shall be filed immediately upon its receipt
by the sender, or in lieu thereof, the unclaimed letter together of the sworn /
certified copy of the notice given by the postmaster to the addressee.350
2.
If service is by registered mail, proof of service consists of the affidavit of
the person mailing and the registry receipt, both of which must be appended to
the motion. Absent one or the other, or both, there is no proof of service.351
3.
Late filing of the affidavit of service may be considered as substantial
compliance with the Rules.352
4.
Failure of a party to comply with the required proof of service may be
excused where the motion is not a contentious motion and therefore, no right of
the adverse party would be affected by the admission thereof.353
NOTICE OF LIS PENDENS
1.
Is an announcement to the world that a particular property (real) is in
litigation, serving as a warning that one who acquires the property or an interest
therein does at his own risk which is filed with the Office of the Register of Deeds
of the place where the property is located.

349

Supra, Section 12, Rule 13

350

Supra, Section 13, Rule 13

351

Cruz v Court of Appeals, 388 SCRA 72

352 Ace
353

Navigation, Inc v Court of Appeals, 338 SCRA 70

PEA v Caoibes, Jr., 312 SCRA 767

1.
It shall contain (a) the names of the parties (b) object of the action or
defense (c) description of the property. 354
2.
It is only from the time of the filing of the notice for record shall a
purchaser or encumbrancer of the property affected thereby, be deemed to have
constructive notice of the pendency of the action and only of its pendency against
parties designated by their real names
3.
It is available only in an action affecting title or right of possession of real
property. Specifically in actions (a) to recover possession of real
estate
(b)to quiet title (c) to remove a cloud (d) for partition (e) other proceeding of any
kind in court directly affecting title to the land or the use or occupation thereof or
buildings thereon.355
4.
There is no such action called annotation of lis pendens A notice is
ordinarily recorded without the courts intervention. The annotation of a notice is
not proper if the action is in personam. For it to be proper, the action must be one
affecting real property.356
WHO MAY AVAIL OF IT
1.
The plaintiff or the defendant when affirmative relief is claimed in the
answer
WHEN MAY IT BE CANCELLED
1.
Upon order of the court when: It is shown that it has for the purpose of
molesting the adverse party or it is not necessary to protect the rights of the party
who caused it to be recorded.357

RULE 14 SUMMONS
SUMMONS DEFINED

354

Supra, Section 14, Rule 13

355

Viewmaster Construction Corporation v Maulit, 326 SCRA 821, Alberto v Court of Appeals, 334 SCRA
756
356 AFP
357

Mutual Benefit Assocation v Court of Appeals, 327 SCRA 203

Lim v Vera Cruz, 356 SCRA 386

1.
It is a writ issued sealed and signed by the clerk of court upon filing of a
complaint and payment of requisite legal fees358 issued to and directed to the
defendant containing the following: (a) name of the court and of the parties (b) a
direction that the defendant answer within the time fixed by the Rules, and (c)
notice that unless defendant answers, plaintiff will take judgment by default and
may be granted the relief prayed for.
1.1
To be attached thereto is a copy of the complaint and the order for the
appointment of a guardian ad litem, if any. 359
2.
It shall also contain a reminder to the defendant to observe restraint in
filing a motion to dismiss and instead allege the grounds thereof as defenses in
the answer.360
WHO SERVES SUMMONS
1.
The sheriff, his deputy, or other proper Court Officer, or for justifiable
reasons by any suitable person authorized by the court issuing the summons.361
2.
An Officer having management of a jail or institution, if a defendant is a
prisoner therein is deputized as a special sheriff for service of summons.362
SIGNIFICANCE OF SUMMONS
1.
The significance of summons is that it is the primary means by which a
Court is able to acquire jurisdiction over the person of the defendant and to give
notice that an action has been commenced against him. It is the writ by which a
defendant is notified of the action brought against him.363
2.
Jurisdiction cannot be acquired over the person of the defendant even if
he knows of the case against him unless he is validly served with summons364 or
the defendant voluntarily appears in the action.
358

Supra, Section 1, Rule 14

359

Supra, Section 2, Rule 14

360 A.M.

No. 03-1-09-SC

361

Supra, Section 3, Rule 14

362

Supra, Section 9, Rule 14

363

Cano-Gutierrez v. Gutierrez, 341 SCRA 670

364

UCPB v Ongpin, 368 SCRA 464

3.
Voluntary appearance shall be equivalent to service of summons. The
inclusion in a motion to dismiss of other grounds aside from lack of jurisdiction
over the person of the defendant shall not be deemed a voluntary appearance.365
3.1
The rule abandons previous rulings of the Supreme Court that a motion to
dismiss on the ground of lack of jurisdiction over the person be based solely on
that ground, otherwise, it is a voluntary appearance. This is so because of the
omnibus motion rule 366 that all objections then available be included otherwise
they are waived, as the only exceptions are (a) the Court has no jurisdiction over
the subject matter; (b) there is another action pending between the same parties
for the same cause; (c) or, the action is barred by prior judgment or statute of
limitations.367 These defenses are not barred if not set up.
WHAT ARE THE MODES OF SERVICE
1.
Service in person on the defendant by handling a copy thereof to the
defendant in person, or if he refuses to receive and sign for it, by tendering it to
him368
2.
Substituted service by leaving a copy of the summons at defendants
residence with some person of suitable age and discretion, then residing therein
or leaving it at defendants office or regular place of business with some
competent person in charge thereof.369
2.1
The rule presupposes that a relation of confidence exists between the
parties with whom the copy is left and the defendant, and, therefore, assumes
that such person will deliver the process to the defendant or in some way give
him notice thereof.
2.2
But, it may only be resorted to, if for justifiable causes, the defendant
cannot be served personally within a reasonable time. The impossibility of
service in person must be indicated in the return, otherwise, substituted service is
void. 370

365

Supra, Section 20, Rules 14

366

Supra, Section 8, Rule 15

367

Supra, Section 1, Rule 9

368

Supra, Section 6, Rule 14

369

Supra, Section 7, Rule 14

370

Hamilton v Rey, GR 139283, November 15, 2000

2.3
Within a reasonable time has been interpreted to contemplate a period of
time longer than that demarcated by the word prompt and presupposes a prior
attempt at personal service that failed.371 In a later case 372 it was defined as so
much time as necessary under the circumstances for a reasonably prudent and
diligent man to do, conveniently, what the contract or duty requires to be done.
One month from issuance of summons can be considered as reasonable.
Several attempts (at least 3) at personal service must be made, preferably on
separate dates. In addition the sheriff must cite why efforts were unsuccessful.
2.4
Service of summons on the defendant shall be by personal service first
and only when the defendant cannot promptly be served in person will
substituted service be availed of.373
3.
Service by publication with leave of court, obtained by the filing of a
motion in writing, supported by an affidavit of the plaintiff or some person in his
behalf, setting forth the ground that allows resort to it.374
3.1
The grounds that allow service of summons by publication are: (a) Identity
of the defendant is unknown or whereabouts of the defendant is unknown and
cannot be ascertained by diligent inquiry375 (b) Defendant does not reside and is
not found in the Philippines but the suit can be maintained against him because it
is in rem or quasi in rem376 (c) Defendant is a Philippine resident but is
temporarily out of the country.377 Note the cross reference with Section 15 and
the fact that substituted service may also be availed of.
4.
Extra-Territorial Service is allowed in suits against a non-resident
defendant not found in the Philippines can be made by:
4.1
(a) Personal service (b)
Publication in a newspaper of general
circulation in such places and for such time as the court may order, in which case
a copy of the summons and order of the court shall be sent by registered mail to

371

Laus v Court of Appeals, 219 SCRA 688

372

Manotoc v Court of Appeals, GR No. 130974, August 16, 2006

373

Samartino v Raon, 383 SCRA 664

374

Supra, Section 17, Rule 14

375

Supra, Section 14, Rule 14

376

Supra, Section 15, Rule 14

377

Supra, Section 16, Rule 14

the last known address


(c)
Or any other manner the court may deem
378
sufficient. Resort to registered mail has been deemed appropriate.379
4.2
Extra-Territorial Service can be availed of when: (a) Action affects the
personal status of the plaintiff (b) Action relates to, or the subject of which is
property within the Philippines in which the defendant has or claims a lien or
interest, actual or contingent (c) When the relief demanded, in whole or in part
consists of excluding the defendant from any interest in property located in the
Philippines (d) When the defendants property has been attached in the
Philippines.380
4.3

Resort to extra-territorial service requires leave of court.

UPON WHOM MAY SERVICE OF SUMMONS BE MADE


1.

Service of summons is to be made upon the defendant.

1.1
If the defendant is: (a) Entity without juridical personality it is to be served
upon any one of them or upon person in charge of the office or place of business
maintained in such name BUT such shall not bind individually any person whose
connection with the entity has, upon due notice, been severed before the action
was brought381 (b) A minor, insane or otherwise incompetent it is to be served
upon him personally and his guardian / or guardian ad litem. In addition, in case
of a minor, service may also be made on his father or mother382 (c) Republic of
the Philippines it is to be served on the Solicitor General 383 (d) Province, City,
Municipality or similar public corporation it is to be served on the executive head,
or on such other officers as the law or court may direct384 (e) Domestic Private
Juridical Entity is to be served on the president, managing partner, general
manager, corporate secretary,
treasurer or in house counsel.385 Note the
abandonment of doctrine of substantial compliance.386 Basic is the rule that strict
compliance with the mode of service is necessary to confer jurisdiction of the

378

Supra, Section 15, Rule 14, Valmonte v Court of Appeals, 252 SCRA 92

379

Cariaga v Malaya, 143 SCRA 441

380

Supra, Section 15, Rule 14

381

Supra, Section 8, Rule 14

382

Supra, Section 10, Rule 14

383

Supra, Section 13, Rule 14

384

Supra, Section 13, Rule 14

385

Supra, Section 11, Rule 14

386

Mason v Court of Appeals, 413 SCRA 303, E.B. Villarosa and Partner Co, Ltd v. Benito, 312 SCRA 65

court over a corporation.387 (f) Foreign Private Juridical Entity is to be served


upon its resident agent. If there be no resident agent, the Government official
designated by law such as the SEC, Insurance Commissioner, Superintendent of
Banks. If none, any of its officers or agents in the Philippines. Note the required
sequence of service. In addition, if a lawyer enters an appearance without proof
of having been engaged by the foreign corporation, no voluntary appearance can
be inferred.388
AFTER SERVICE IS COMPLETE, WHAT MUST SERVER DO
1.
Within 5 days after completion, a copy of the return must be served,
personally or by registered mail, to plaintiffs counsel, and he shall return the
summons to the clerk of court who issued it together with proof of service.389
2.
Proof of service is the writing executed by the server setting forth (1) the
manner, place and date of service; (2) the paper/s which have been served with
the process and name of the person who received the same. It is required to be
sworn to if made by a person other than the sheriff or his deputy.390
2.1
If summons is by publication, proof of service consists of: (a) Affidavit of
printer, foreman, principal clerk editor, business manager or advertising manager,
copy of the publication attached, and (b) Affidavit showing the deposit of a copy
of the summons and order for publication in the post office, postage prepaid
directed to the defendant by registered mail at / to his last known address.391
RULE 15 MOTIONS
DEFINED
1.

A motion is an application for relief other than a pleading.392

REQUISITES OF A VALID MOTION

387

Santiago Sr. vs. Bank of the Philippine Islands, 566 SCRA 435

388

Litton Mills v Court of Appeals, 256 SCRA 696

389

Supra, Section 4, Rule 14

390

Supra, Section 18, Rule 14

391

Supra, Section 19, Rule 14

392

Supra, Section 1, Rule 15,

1.
Shall be in writing except when made in open court or in the course of the
hearing or trial.393 Example: a motion for continuance made in presence of
adverse party.
2.
It must state the relief sought to be obtained and the grounds on which it is
based, and if required by the rules or necessary to prove facts alleged therein, it
shall be supported by affidavits or other papers. 394
3.
It shall be set for hearing by the applicant except when the motion can be
acted upon by the court without prejudicing the rights of the adverse party.395
Example: Motion for extension of time to plead
4.
It must contain a notice of hearing addressed to all parties concerned,
specifying the time, date of the hearing which must not be later than 10 days
after the filing thereof. 396
4.1
A motion without a notice of hearing is pro-forma or a mere scrap of paper.
It presents no question which the court should decide. The rationale behind the
rule is plain: unless the movant sets the time and place of hearing, the court will
be unable to determine whether the adverse party agrees or objects to the
motion, and if he objects, to hear him on his objection. The objective is to avoid a
capricious change of mind in order to provide due process to both parties and
ensure impartiality.397
4.2
The absence of the notice of hearing will not toll the running of the
reglementary period for appeal.398 It is considered a pro-forma motion.399
5.
It must be served, together with the notice of hearing on the adverse party
at least 3 days before the date of hearing unless the court for good reason sets
the hearing earlier.400

393

Supra, Section 2, Rule 15

394

Supra, Section 3, Rule 15

395

Supra, Section 4, Rule 15

396

Supra, Section 5, Rule 15

397

Fajardo v Court of Appeals, 354 SCRA 736

398

Cledera v Sarmiento, 39 SCRA 553

399

Jehan Shipping Corporation v NFA, GR No. 159750, December 14, 2005

400

Supra, Section 4, Rule 15

5.1
The purpose of the three day notice rule is to avoid surprise upon the
opposite party and to give him time to study and meet the arguments of the
motion.401
6.
There must be proof of service of every written motion set for hearing
otherwise it shall not be acted upon.402
6.1

As a general rule, proof of service is mandatory.403

6.2
A judge can act ex-parte on a motion where the rights of the adverse party
are not affected. 404
WHEN SHOULD MOTIONS BE SET
1.
All motions must be scheduled for hearing on Friday afternoons or if it be
a non-working holiday, in the afternoon of the next working day unless the motion
requires immediate action.405This day is Motion Day.
WHAT SHOULD A MOTION CONTAIN
1.
A motion attacking a pleading referring to a motion to dismiss, or attacking
an order, judgment, or proceedings referring to a motion for reconsideration shall
include all objections then available, and all objections not so included are
deemed waived except the defenses of Lack of Jurisdiction, Litis Pendentia, Res
Judicata, Statute of Limitations.406
1.1

This is the Omnibus Motion Rule.407

1.2
The purpose of the Rule is to obviate multiplicity of motions as well as
discourage dilatory pleadings.408 Litigants should not be allowed to reiterate

401

Remonte v. Bonto, 16 SCRA 257

402

Supra, Section 6, Rule 15

403

Cruz v Court of Appeals, 388 SCRA 72

404

Sumadchat v Court of Appeals, 111 SCRA 488

405

Supra, Section 7, Rule 15

406

Supra, Section 1, Rule 9

407

Supra, Section 8, Rule 15

408

Dacanay v Alvendia, 30 SCRA 31

identical motions speculating on the possible change of opinion of the court or


judges thereof.409
1.3
It requires the movant to raise all available exceptions in a single
opportunity to avoid multiple piecemeal objections. But to apply the statutory
norm, the objections must be available to the party at the time the motion was
filed.410
2.
If motion is one for leave to file a pleading or a motion, it shall be
accompanied by the pleading or motion sought to be admitted.411 Example:
Motion for leave to admit amended complaint.
3.
As to form, the Rules applicable to pleadings shall apply to written motions
as far as it concerns captions, designation, signature and other matters.412

RULE 16 MOTION TO DISMISS


WHEN AND HOW IT CAN BE FILED
1.
By Motion, within the time for the filing of an answer but before the filing of
an answer.
1.1
The rule is not absolute as a motion to dismiss may still be filed after
answer on the ground of (a) lack of jurisdiction (b) litis pendentia (c) lack of a
cause of action, and (d) discovery during trial of evidence that would constitute
ground for dismissal.413
2.
As an affirmative defense in the answer, and in the discretion of the court,
a preliminary hearing may be had as if a motion to dismiss has been filed. If the
action is dismissed, it shall be without prejudice to the prosecution in the same /
separate action of a counter-claim pleaded in the answer.414

409

Miranda v Court of Appeals, 71 SCRA 295

410

PH Credit Corporation v Court of Appeals, 370 SCRA 155

411

Supra, Section 9, Rule 15

412

Supra, Section 10, Rule 15

413

Panganiban v Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corporation, 395 SCRA 624

414

Supra, Section 6, Rule 16

WHAT GROUNDS ARE AVAILABLE


1.

A motion to dismiss may be made on any of the following grounds:415

1.

The court has no jurisdiction over the person of the defending party

2.

The court has no jurisdiction over the subject matter of the claims

3.

Venue is improperly laid

3.1
An objection to improper venue must be made before a responsive
pleading is filed, otherwise it is deemed waived.416
4.

Plaintiff has no legal capacity to sue

4.1
This means that he is not in exercise of his civil rights, or does not have
the necessary qualification to appear or does not have the character /
representation he claims as opposed to the lack of personality to sue which
means that he is not the real party in interest, and the basis for dismissal then is
no cause of action or failure to state a cause of action. 417
5.
There is another action pending between the same parties for the same
cause
5.1

This is known as litis pendentia

5.2
The requisites for its application are: (a) Identity of the parties, or at least
such as representing the same interests in both actions (b) Identity of rights
asserted and reliefs prayed for, the relief being founded on the same facts.
Identity in both cases, is such that judgment in the pending case would,
regardless of which party is successful amount to res judicata in the other.418
5.3
As between the first and second or latter actions, apply the priority in time
rule, but the rule must yield to the more appropriate action rule. Example: An
action for declaratory relief to interpret a lease contract was filed before an

415

Supra, Section 1, Rule 16

416

Fernandez v ICB, 316 SCRA 326

417

Columbia Pictures, Inc. v Court of Appeals, 261 SCRA 144, Travelwide Assn of the Phil. v. Court of
Appeals, 199 SCRA 205
418

Victronics Computer v RTC, 217 SCRA 517

ejectment case, where the Supreme Court held that the ejectment case is the
more appropriate action.419
5.4
There is a 3rd test: Interest of Justice Rule which is a determination of
which court would be in a better position to serve the interest of justice
considering : (a) nature of the controversy; (b) comparative accessibility of the
court to the parties; (c) other similar factors.420
5.5
Three relevant conditions to determine which action should be dismissed
on the ground of litis pendentia : (a) date of filing, with preference generally given
to the first action filed to be retained (b) whether the action sought to be
dismissed was filed merely to preempt the later action or to anticipate its filing
and lay the basis for its dismissal, and (c) whether the action is the appropriate
vehicle for litigating the issues between the parties.421
5.6
Where the litigant is engaged in forum shopping, the other party may ask
for the summary dismissal of the two cases. The well entrenched rule is that a
party cannot, by varying the form of the action or adopting a different method of
presenting his case, escape the operation of the principle that one and the same
cause of action shall not be twice litigated.422
6.
The cause of action is barred by a prior judgment or by the statute of
limitations
6.1
This is known as Res Judicata, whose requisites are: (a) The existence of
a former judgment that must be final (b) Rendered by a court having jurisdiction
over the subject matter and the parties (c) It must be a judgment or order on the
merits (d) There must be between 1st / 2nd action, identity of parties / subject
matter / causes of action.
6.2
The doctrine is founded on 2 grounds: (a)
Public policy and necessity
which makes it in the interest of the state that there should be an end to litigation
(b) Litigant should be spared the hardship of being vexed twice for the same
cause
6.3
Note that there can be no res judicata in support cases as future support
cannot be compromised.423
419

Teodoro v Mirasol, 99 Phil 150

420

Roa-Magsaysay v Magsaysay, 98 SCRA 592

421

UCPB vs. Beluso, G.R. No. 159912, August 17, 2007

422

PCIB vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 114951, July 18, 2003

423

De Asis v Court of Appeals, 303 SCRA 176

6.4
A dismissal of a complaint on the ground that the plaintiff failed to
prosecute his action because of failure to cause service of summons by
publication within a reasonable time does not constitute res judicata as the court
cannot be said to have acquired jurisdiction over the person of the defendant.424
6.5
A previous final judgment denying a petition for declaration of nullity on the
ground of psychological incapacity shall bar a subsequent petition for annulment
on the ground of lack of a marriage license as the cause of action is the same,
although the ground on which the action is predicated has been varied. A party
cannot avoid the application of res judicata by varying the form of the action or
adopting a different method of presenting his case.425
6.6
Statute of Limitations or prescription is a statute establishing a period of
time from the accrual of a cause of action within which a right of action must be
exercised. If the action is not brought within the period, then it is barred.
7.

The pleading asserting the claim states no cause of action.

7.1
The Test of the Sufficiency of a Cause of Action is: Whether accepting the
veracity of the facts alleged in the complaint, the Court can render a valid
judgment upon the same in accordance with the prayer in complaint.
7.2
No presentation of evidence is required as there is a hypothetical
admission of the facts alleged in the complaint. The court can properly dismiss
without a hearing by taking into consideration the discussion in the motion and
the opposition thereto.426
7.3
Distinguishing a failure to state a cause of action/no cause of action from
lack of a cause of action427: (a) The former refers to insufficiency of allegations,
while the latter refers to insufficiency of factual basis (b) The former is raised
only in a in a motion to dismiss before responding to a complaint, while the latter
can be raised at any time (c) The former allows dismissal to be had at the early
stages of the action, while the latter allows dismissal after questions of fact have
been resolved after evidence is presented or stipulations / admissions are had.
8.
Claim or demand set forth in plaintiffs pleading has been paid, waived,
abandoned, or otherwise extinguished

424

Gardose vs. Tarroza, G.R. No. 130570, May 19, 1998

425

Maillon vs. Alcantara, G.R. No. 141528, October 31, 2006

426

Nadela v. City of Cebu, 411 SCRA 315

427

Supra, Rule 33

9.
Claim on which the action is founded is unenforceable under the
provisions of the statute of frauds.
9.1
Statute of Frauds is statute/s that deals with the enforcement and
requirements of agreements in particular circumstances. It is descriptive of
statutes which require certain classes of contracts to be in writing.428
10.

A condition precedent for filing the claim has not been complied with

10.1 In certain cases, referral of a case to the Lupon is a condition precedent


for filing a complaint in court. It is not jurisdictional. 429 It may be waived if not
raised seasonably in a motion to dismiss.430
RESOLUTION OF A MOTION TO DISMISS
1.
It shall be heard431, at the hearing, the parties shall submit arguments on
the questions of law and evidence on the questions of law and fact involved
except those not available at that time. Should the case eventually go to trial, the
evidence during the hearings shall automatically be part of the evidence of the
party presenting the same.
2.
After the hearing, Court shall either dismiss the action, deny the motion or
order amendment of the pleading, stating clearly and distinctly the reasons for
the action taken.432
2.1
It is now mandated that the Court cannot defer resolution of the motion
based on the reason that the ground relied upon does not appear to be
indubitable or sure
3.
If the motion is denied, the movant shall file an answer within the balance
of the period prescribed by Rule 11, which he was entitled to at the time of
serving the motion, but not less than 5 days in any event, counted from notice of
denial.
3.1
If ordered amended, an answer is to be filed within period prescribed by
Rule 11, counted from service of amended pleading, unless the court provides a

428

Litonjua v Fernandez, 427 SCRA 478

429

Junson v martinez, 405 SCRA 390

430

Banares v Balising, 328 SCRA 36

431

Supra, Section 2, Rule 16

432

Supra, Section 3, Rule 16

longer period. Note that it is 15 days as no answer has of yet been filed. Hence
the amendment is one that is a matter of right.433
3.2
The effect of dismissal is that subject to the right to appeal, an order
granting a motion to dismiss on the grounds of (a) prior judgment or statute of
limitations
(b) claim / demand has been paid, waived abandoned or otherwise
extinguished, or (c) is unenforceable under the statute of frauds shall bar a refiling of the same.434

RULE 17 - DISMISSAL OF ACTIONS


PLAINTIFF DISMISSAL OF HIS OWN COMPLAINT
1.

A plaintiff may cause the dismissal of his complaint by:

1.1
Filing of a notice of dismissal at anytime before service of an answer or
motion for summary judgment. Once filed, the court shall issue an order
confirming the dismissal, which is without prejudice, unless stated otherwise but,
such dismissal will operate as adjudication on the merits when filed by a plaintiff
who has once dismissed in a competent court, his action based on or including
the same claim.435 This is known as the 2 dismissal rule.
1.2
The action of the court is to confirm the dismissal. Hence, upon filing of
the notice, the complaint is considered as dismissed.436
2.
Or, by filing a motion to dismiss if an answer or a motion for summary
judgment has been served but such will not result in dismissal without the
approval of the court and upon terms and conditions as the court deems proper.
2.1
If a counterclaim has been pleaded before service of motion to dismiss
the dismissal is limited to the complaint. It shall be without prejudice to the right
of the defendant to prosecute his counterclaim in a separate action unless within
15 days from notice of the motion he manifests a preference to have it resolved
in the same action.
2.2

Unless specified, a dismissal is without prejudice.

433

Supra, Section 4, Rule 16

434

Supra, Section 5, Rule 16

435

Supra, Section 1, Rule 17

436

Bar, 1989

2.2
Note also that a class suit shall not be dismissed or compromised without
the approval of the Court.437
COURT DISMISSAL ON ITS MOTION OR THAT OF DEFENDANT
1.
The court can motu propio or upon motion of the defendant dismiss a
complaint when: (a)If, for no justifiable reason, the plaintiff fails to appear on the
date of the presentation of his evidence in chief on the complaint (b) If, for no
justifiable reason, plaintiff fails to prosecute his action for an unreasonable length
of time (c) If, for no justifiable reason, plaintiff fails to comply with Rules of Court
or any order of the Court.
1.1
A dismissal shall have the effect of an adjudication on the merits, unless
otherwise declared by the court.
1.2
Dismissal is without prejudice to the right of the defendant to prosecute his
counterclaim in the same or a separate action and shall have the effect of an
adjudication on the merits unless otherwise declared by the court.438
2.
The remedies of a plaintiff are: (a) Appeal the dismissal as it is a final
order, or (b) If without prejudice, refile the action as an order dismissing without
prejudice is not subject to appeal.
3.
At the pre-trial, the court ordered the parties to submit a compromise
agreement within a ten day period. The parties were unable to submit the
compromise agreement, thus leading to a dismissal. There is nothing in the rules
that imposes a sanction for failure to submit a compromise agreement.439
APPLICABILITY OF THE RULE
1.
The Rule also applies to dismissal by the defendant of his counterclaims
cross-claims or 3rd party claims.
1.1
Voluntary dismissal by the claimant by notice as under Section 1 of the
Rule shall be made before a responsive pleading, motion for summary judgment
is served, or if there be none, before introduction of evidence at the trial or
hearing.440

437

Supra, Section 2, Rule 17

438

Supra, Section 3, Rule 17

439

Ruiz, Jr v CA, 212 SCRA 660

440

Supra, Section 4, Rule 17

RULE 18 PRE-TRIAL
WHAT IS PRE-TRIAL
1.
It is a procedural devise intended to clarify and limit the basic issues
between the parties. Its main objective is to simplify, abbreviate and expedite
trial, or otherwise dispense with it.441
2.
It is a conference or hearing at which the court, with the cooperation of the
parties, seeks to determine definitively what precisely are the factual issues to
be tried and how each party intends to establish his position on each disputed
factual issue.
WHEN CONDUCTED
1.
After the last pleading has been served and filed. It shall be the duty of the
plaintiff to move ex-parte that the case be set for pre-trial.442
1.1
SC Adm. Circular 3-99 dated January 15, 1999 defined promptly as 5
days.
1.2
SC Administrative Matter No. 03-1-09, SC, Section A (1.2) Should the
plaintiff fail to move ex-parte to set case for pre-trial, the branch clerk of court
should issue a notice of pre-trial.
1.3
The same circular also requires that the presiding judge direct the parties
to mediation, if possible. If it fails, it will schedule the pre-trial but it may also
schedule a preliminary conference before the branch clerk of court to assist them
in (a) reaching a settlement (b) pre-marking of documents and exhibits (c)
consider other matters that will aid in the prompt disposition of the case.
1.4
The judge is also directed to consider assisting the parties in effecting a
settlement given the evidence of the parties.
2.
The last pleading is the answer to the original complaint, cross claim, or,
third party complaint and the reply.
NATURE AND PURPOSE

441

Interlining v Philippine Trust Company, 378 SCRA 521

442

Supra, Section 1, Rule 18

1.
Pre-trial is by nature mandatory and the purpose for its conduct is to take
up the following matters:443
1.1
Possibility of amicable settlement / or submission to alternative modes of
dispute resolution. The alternative modes are: (a) arbitration (b) mediation (c)
conciliation (d) early neutral evaluation (e) mini-trial, or (f) any combination of the
foregoing.444
1.2

Simplification of the issues

1.3

Necessity / desirability of amendment to the pleadings

1.4
Possibility of obtaining stipulations or admissions of fact and of documents
to avoid unnecessary proof
1.5

Limitation of number of witnesses

1.6

Advisability of a preliminary reference of issues to a commissioner

1.7
Propriety of judgment on the pleadings, summary judgment, or dismissing
the action if a valid ground therefor be found to exist. H e n c e , a m o t i o n f o r
judgment on the pleadings or summary judgment must be filed as in a pre-trial
the court merely determines its propriety.
1.8

Advisability of suspending the proceedings

1.9

Such other matters as may aid in the prompt disposition of the action

UPON WHOM NOTICE OF PRE-TRIAL IS TO BE SERVED


1.

It shall be served on counsel, or party if not represented by counsel.

1.1

Counsel is charged with the duty to notify the party.445

2.
Notice is so important that it would be grave abuse of discretion for the
court to allow plaintiff to present his evidence ex parte for failure of the defendant
to appear before the pre-trial who did not receive through counsel a notice of pretrial.

443

Supra, Section 2, Rule 18

444

RA 9285, Alternative Dispute Resolution Act of 2004

445

Supra, Section 3, Rule 18

2.1
Accordingly, there is no legal basis to consider a party notified of the pretrial and to consider that there is no longer any need to send a notice because it
was counsel who suggested the date of pre-trial.446
WHOSE PRESENCE IS REQUIRED AT PRE-TRIAL
1.
The parties and counsel are required to be present during the pre-trial. A
party may be excused if: (a) A valid cause is shown therefore (b)A representative
shall appear duly authorized in writing to do the following: (1) enter into amicable
settlement; (2) submit to alternative modes of dispute resolution; (3) enter into
stipulations / admissions of fact / documents.447
EFFECT OF FAILURE TO APPEAR
1.
If plaintiff fails to appear despite due notice, he may be declared nonsuited and the complaint is dismissed. The dismissal shall be with prejudice,
unless otherwise ordered by the court.
1.1
His remedy is to appeal order of dismissal because it is a final resolution.
If dismissed without prejudice, he can refile the complaint
2.
If defendant fails to appear despite due notice, plaintiff is allowed to
present his evidence ex-parte and the court may render judgment on the basis
thereof. 448
3.
What is penalized is the failure to appear of
defendant, and not their respective counsel.449
4.

either the plaintiff or the

As a rule, there can be no second pre-trial unless both parties consent.450

WHAT MUST BE FILED BEFORE PRE-TRIAL


1.
A pre-trial brief must be filed and served on the adverse party at least 3
days before the pre-trial containing:451
446 Agulto

v Tecson, 476 SCRA 395

447

Supra, Section 4, Rule 18

448

Supra, Section 5, Rule 18

449

Paredes v. Verano

450

Young v Court of Appeals, 204 SCRA 584

451

Supra, Section 6, Rule 18

1.1
Statement of willingness to enter into an amicable settlement, the desired
terms or to submit to alternative modes of dispute resolution
1.2

Summary of admitted facts / proposed stipulation of facts

1.3

Issues to be tried or resolved

1.4
Number of witnesses / names, abstract of testimonies, approximate
number of hours that will be required for presentation of their respective evidence
1.5
Copies of all documents intended to be presented which statement of the
purposes of their offer
1.6
Manifestation of their having availed of or their intention to avail of
discovery procedure, or need for referral of any issues to commissioners
1.7

Applicable law / jurisprudence

1.8
Available trial dates of counsel for complete presentation of evidence
which must be within a period 3 months from the first day of trial.452
2.
Note that the failure to file a brief shall have the same effect as failure to
appear.
3.
Neither can the court conduct a pre-trial without the parties filing their pretrial briefs.453
PRE-TRIAL ORDER
1.
Proceedings shall be recorded. Upon termination, court shall issue an
order which shall recite in detail: (a) matters taken up (b) action taken thereon (c)
amendments allowed to the pleadings (d) agreements / admissions made by the
parties as to any of the matters taken which shall be binding and conclusive upon
the parties454 (e) explicitly defining and limiting the issues to be tried.
2.
Pre-trial is primarily intended to make certain that all issues necessary to
the disposition of a case are properly raised. Thus, to obviate the element of
surprise, parties are expected to disclose at a pre-trial conference all issues of
law and fact which they intend to raise at the trial, except such as may involve

452

Section 6, SC Adm. Circular 3-99, January 15, 1999

453

Vera vs. Rigor, et al. G.R. No. 147377, August 10, 2007

454

Heirs of Conahap v Regana, 458 SCRA 741

privileged or impeaching matters. The determination of issues at a pretrial


conference bars the consideration of other questions on appeal.455
2.1
The object of a pre-trial order is to control the subsequent course of the
action as trial shall be limited to the issues stated in the pre-trial order,456, unless
modified to prevent manifest injustice. 457
2.2. Notwithstanding, courts are not required to resolve all issues raised in
pleading unless necessary for the resolution of the case. 458
RULE 19 INTERVENTION
WHO MAY INTERVENE
1.
A person who has a (a) legal interest in the matter in litigation (b) has legal
interest in the success of either of the parties (c) has an interest against both or
(d) is so situated as to be adversely affected by a distribution or other disposition
of property in the custody of the court or an officer thereof. 459
1.1
Examples are (a)an action for payment of money, where personal property
of the defendant is attached, a 3rd person claiming the attached property can
intervene (b) action by alleged owners of the land sought to be foreclosed.
1.2
The interest which entitles a person to intervene in a suit must be in the
matter in litigation and of such direct and/or immediate character that intervenor
will either gain or lose by direct legal operation and effect of judgment. 460
2.

Intervention does not lie for a transferee pendente lite. 461

HOW AND WHEN CAN A PERSON INTERVENE

455

Son vs. Son, 251 SCRA 556; PPA vs. City of Iloilo, 406 SCRA 88

456

Supra, Section 5, Rule 30

457

Supra, Section 7, Rule 18

458

IBAA vs. IAC, 167 SCRA 450

459

Supra, Section 1, Rule 19

460

Roxas v Dinglasan, 28 SCRA 430

461

Supra, Section 19, Rule 3

1.
Filing of a motion for leave of court to intervene, attaching thereto a copy
of the pleading in intervention, which is then served on the original parties at any
time before rendition of judgment by the trial court.462
1.1
The court may refuse leave when (a) It will unduly delay or prejudice the
adjudication of the rights of the original parties. Example: Delay or laches in
bringing intervention, or (b) Intervenors rights may be fully protected in a
separate proceeding. Example: Attachment of real property subject of a
mortgage
2.
The pleadings in intervention are (a) Complaint in Intervention, if he
asserts a claim against either or all of the original parties, or (b) Answer in
Intervention, if he unites with the defending party in resisting the claim of the
plaintiff. 463
3.
If granted, a complaint in intervention is to be replied to within 15 days
from notice of the order admitting the same unless a different period is fixed by
the court.
4.
No intervention is allowed in a land registration case as the remedy is to
file an opposition.
4.1
Neither is it allowed in cases covered by the Rules on Summary
Procedure.
5.
Intervention is merely collateral or accessory or ancillary to the principal
action and not an independent proceeding. Hence, with the final dismissal of the
original action, the complaint in intervention can no longer be acted upon.464
6.

An order denying a motion for intervention is appealable.465

RULE 20 CALENDAR OF CASES


MAINTENANCE OF THE COURT CALENDAR
1.
The clerk of court, under the direct supervision of a judge, shall keep a
calendar for (a) pre-trial (b) trial (c) trials that were adjourned or postponed (d)
those with motions set for hearing.
462

Supra, Section 2, Rule 19

463

Supra, Section 3, Rule 19

464

Barangay Matictic v Elbinias, 148 SCRA 83

465

Foster-Gallego v Galang, 435 SCRA 275

2.
In fixing the calendar, preference is given to habeas corpus, election
cases, special civil actions and those required by law.466
ASSIGNMENT OF CASES
1.
The assignment of cases shall always by raffle done in open session of
which adequate notice shall be given to afford interested parties the opportunity
to be present.467
The purpose is to obviate public suspicion regarding
assignment of cases to predetermined judges.468
RULE 21 SUBPOENA
WHAT IS A SUBPOENA
1.
A process directed to a person requiring him to attend and testify at the
hearing or trial of an action, or at any investigation conducted by competent
authority, or the taking of his deposition
KINDS OF SUBPOENA
1.
The kinds of subpoena are: (a) Subpoena Ad Testificandum if it directs
and requires a person to attend and testify, or (b) Duces Tecum if it requires him
to bring books/documents/or other things under his control.469
BY WHOM ISSUED
1.
A subpoena is issued by (a) The court before whom the witness is
required to attend (b) The court where deposition is to be taken (c) Officer or
body authorized by law to do so in connection with investigations that it may
conduct (d) Any justice of the Supreme Court/Court of Appeals in any case or
investigation pending within the Philippines470
1.1
A request by a party for the issuance of a subpoena does not require
notice to other parties to the action.471
466

Supra, Section 1, Rule 20

467

Supra, Section 2, Rule 20

468 Ang

v Bello, 163 SCRA 358

469

Supra, Section 1, Rule 21

470

Supra, Section 2, Rule 21

471 Adorio

v Bersamin, 273 SCRA 217

2.
In taking depositions, the clerk of court shall not issue a subpoena duces
tecum without a court order.472
3.
Absent any proceeding, suit or action, commenced or pending before a
court, a subpoena may not issue.473
WHEN IS A WITNESS NOT BOUND BY A SUBPOENA
1.
Witness resides more than 100 kilometers from his residence to the place
where he is to testify by the ordinary course of travel. 474 This is also called the
viatory right of the witness or the right not to be compelled to testify in a civil case
if he lives more than 100 kilometers from his residence to the place where he is
to testify by ordinary course of travel.
1.1
If the viatory right is invoked, a witness can still be compelled to testify by
the taking of his deposition in a place within 100 kilometers from where he
resides, observing the following steps: (a) Party desiring to take deposition shall
give reasonable notice in writing to every other party in the action stating the
time, place, name and address of the person whose deposition is to be taken.
There should be proof of service of the notice (b) Proof of service of notice to
take deposition shall be presented to the clerk of court of the place where
deposition is to be taken (c) On the basis of such proof of service, the clerk upon
authority and under seal of the court, shall issue the subpoena but a subpoena
duces tecum cannot be issued without an order of the Court (d) Subpoena is to
be served on witness whose deposition is to be taken.475
2.
Witness is a detention prisoner, if no permission of the court in which his
case is pending is obtained or if the witness is a prisoner sentenced to death,
reclusion perpetua or life imprisonment and is confined in a penal institution, if
authority of the Supreme Court to bring out the prisoner has not been obtained.
The court should examine and study the application properly to determine if it is
being made for a valid purpose.476
FORM AND CONTENTS OF SUBPOENA
1.
A subpoena must contain the following: (a) Name of the court (b) Title of
action/investigation and is to be directed to the person whose attendance is
required. If duces tecum, in addition, it must contain a reasonable description of
472

Supra, Section 5, Rule 21

473

Collado v Bravo, 356 SCRA 411

474

Supra, Section 10, Rule 21

475

Supra, Section 5, Rule 21

476

Supra, Section 2, Rule 21

the books, documents, things demanded which is must appear to the Court to be
prima facie relevant.477
WHAT ARE THE GROUNDS TO QUASH A SUBPOENA
1.
If duces tecum, it may be quashed on the following grounds: (a)
It is
unreasonable and oppressive (b) Relevancy of the books, documents or things
do not appear (c) Person in whose behalf subpoena is issued fails to advance
the reasonable costs of the production thereof (d) The witness fees and
kilometrage allowed by the rules were not tendered when subpoena was served.
Under A.M. No. 04-2-04-SC, witness fees shall be PHP 200.00 a day inclusive of
all expenses
2.
If ad testificandum, it may be quashed on the following grounds: (a)
Witness is not bound by the subpoena (b) Witness fees and kilometrage allowed
by rules were not tendered when the subpoena was served. 478
HOW IS A SUBPOENA SERVED
1.
In the same manner as personal or substituted service of summons,
original is to be exhibited and delivered to person on whom it is served
tendering the fees for one day attendance at the kilometrage allowed by Rules
except if subpoena is issued by or on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines or
an officer or agency thereof. Tender must be made so as to allow the witness a
reasonable time for preparation or travel to the place of attendance.479
1.
If duces tecum, the cost of production of books, papers or things must also
be tendered.
2.
Under A.M. No. 04-2-04-SC, the fee for service of summons is PHP
100.00 per witness.
CAN A PERSON BE COMPELLED TO APPEAR AND TESTIFY WITHOUT A
SUBPOENA
1.
Yes, when he is present in court, in which event it is as if he were in
attendance upon subpoena issued by the Court. 480
WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF DISOBEDIENCE TO A SUBPOENA
477

Supra, Section 3, Rule 21

478

Supra, Section 4, Rule 21

479

Supra, Section 6, Rule 21

480

Supra, Section 7, Rule 21

1.
The consequences of disobedience are: (a) He may be arrested and
brought before the Court where his attendance is required, the cost of warrant
and seizure shall be paid by the witness if the Court finds disobedience to be
willful and without just excuse. 481 (b) Citation in contempt by the court from
which the subpoena is issued. It not issued by a Court, then in accordance with
the applicable rule / law.482
RULE 22 COMPUTATION OF TIME
HOW COMPUTED
1.
The day of the act / event from which the designated period of time begins
to run is excluded and date of performance included.
2.
If the last day falls on a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday in the place
where the Court sits, the time shall not run until the next working day.483
2.1
Should a party desire to file any pleading, even a motion for extension of
time to file a pleading, and the last day falls on a Saturday, Sunday or a legal
holiday, he may do so on the next working day. In case the motion for extension
is granted, the due date for the extended period shall be counted from the
original due date, not from the next working day on which the motion for
extension was filed.484
EFFECT OF INTERUPTIONS
1.
Allowable period after interruption shall start to run on the day after, notice
of the cessation of the cause thereof. The day of the act that caused cessation
shall be excluded in the computation of the period.
2.
Rule on computation of time dies not apply to prescription of offenses or
causes of action. Hence, if the last day falls on a Saturday, Sunday or legal
holiday, it prescribes on the said date.

481

Supra, Section 8, Rule 21

482

Supra, Section 9, Rule 21

483

Supra, Section 1, Rule 22

484

Dela Cruz vs. Maersk Filipinas Crewing, Inc., 551 SCRA 284, AM No. 00-2-14-SC

RULES 23 TO 29 MODES OF DISCOVERY


WHAT IS DISCOVERY
1.
The methods used by the parties to a civil action to obtain information held
by the other party that is relevant to the action.
PURPOSES OF DISCOVERY
1.
The purposes of resort to discovery are: (a) It is a device to narrow down /
clarify the basic issues between the parties (b) It is a device to ascertain the facts
relevant to the issues.
1.1
Relevancy is determined by its logical tendency to prove or disprove a fact
or to make the fact more or less probable.
WHAT ARE THE MODES OF DISCOVERY
1.
The modes of discovery (a) Deposition pending action485 (b) Deposition
before action or pending appeal 486(c) Interrogatories to parties 487 (d) Request for
admission by adverse party488 (e) Production or inspection of documents /
things489 (f) Physical / mental examination of persons490
WHAT IS A DEPOSITION
1.
A deposition is the taking of the testimony of any person, whether he be a
party or not, but at the instance of a party to the action.
1.1
This testimony is taken out of court by oral examination or written
interrogatory.
WHEN CAN DEPOSITIONS PENDING ACTIONS BE TAKEN

485

Supra, Rule 23

486

Supra, Rule 24

487

Supra, Rule 25

488

Supra, Rule 26

489

Supra, Rule 27

490

Supra, Rule 28

1.
With leave of court, after jurisdiction has been acquired / obtained over
any defendant or over property which is the subject of the action as the issues
are not yet joined and disputed facts are not yet clear or if a person is confined in
a prison with leave of court only, on such terms that the Court may prescribe.
2.

Without leave of court, after an answer has been served.491

WHOSE DEPOSITION MAY BE TAKEN, HOW TAKEN, BY WHOM


1.
Any person, whether a party or not, upon oral examination or written
interrogatory upon the initiative of any party.
SCOPE OF A DEPOSITION
1.
The deponent may be examined regarding any matter, not privileged ,
which is relevant to the subject of the pending action whether it relates to a claim
or a defense of any other party.
1.1
Including the existence, description, nature, custody, condition, location of
any books, documents or other tangible things and the identity and location of
persons having knowledge of relevant facts.492
2.
The taking and scope of a deposition after notice is served for its taking by
oral examination may be limited.
2.1
Upon motion seasonably filed, by a party or the person to be examined,
and for good cause shown, the court in which the action is pending may order:
(a)
Deposition not be taken (b)It be taken only at some designated place
other than that stated in the notice (c)It be taken only on written interrogatories
(d)
That certain matters shall not be inquired into (e) That scope of the
examination shall be held without anyone present except the parties to the
action, and their officers of counsel (f)That after depositions are sealed, they
shall be opened only by order of the court (g)That secret processes,
developments or research need not be disclosed (h)That parties shall
simultaneously file specified documents or information enclosed in sealed
envelopes to be opened as directed by the Court (i) That court may make any
order which justice requires to protect the party or witnesses from annoyance
embarrassment or oppression.493
491

Supra, Section 1, Rule 23

492

Supra, Section 2, Rule 23

493

Supra, Section 16, Rule 23

3.
During the taking of the deposition, it shall be taken subject to the
additional limitations:
3.1
During the taking of the deposition, on motion or petition of any party or
the deponent upon showing that the examination is being conducted in bad faith
or in such manner as to unreasonably annoy, embarrass or oppress the
deponent or a party, the court where the action is pending or the RTC of the
place where deposition is being taken may order the officer taking the
examination to cease forthwith or limit the scope as provided in Section 16.
3.2
If terminated, it shall be resumed thereafter only upon order of the Court in
which the action is pending. Upon demand of the objecting party/deponent, the
taking shall be suspended for the time necessary to make a notice for an order.
In granting/refusing such order, the court may impose upon either party or upon
the witness the requirement to pay costs/expenses as the Court may deem
reasonable.494
BEFORE WHOM MAY DEPOSITIONS BE TAKEN
1.
Within the Philippines: a judge, notary public, or person authorized to
administer oaths, at any time or place if so stipulated in writing by the parties.495
2.
In foreign countries: On notice before a secretary of the embassy or
legation or the diplomatic minister and his staff, consul general, consul, vice
consul or consular agent of the Republic of the Philippines, or before such
person or officer as may be appointed by commission or letters rogatory.496
2.1
A Commission is an instrument issued by a court of justice or other
competent tribunal to authorize persons to take a deposition or do any other act
by authority of such court or tribunal. A Commission is addressed to officers
designated by name or descriptive title.
2.2
Letters Rogatory is an instrument sent in the name and by authority of a
judge or court to another, requesting the latter to cause to be examined, upon
interrogatories filed in a case pending before the former, a witness who is within
the jurisdiction of the judge or court to whom such letters are addressed. Letters
Rogatory are addressed to a judicial authority in a foreign country and may be
applied for and issued only after a commission has been returned unexecuted.

494

Supra, Section 18, Rule 23

495

Supra, Sections 10 and 14, Rule 23

496

Supra, Sections 11, 12, and 14, Rule 23

WHO ARE DISQUALIFIED TO TAKE DEPOSITIONS


1.
A Person who is a relative within the 6th degree of consanguinity / affinity
or employee or counsel of any of the parties or relative within the same degree or
employee of counsel or is financially interested in the action. 497
TAKING OF A DEPOSITION UPON AN ORAL EXAMINATION
1.
The taking is initiated by the giving of reasonable notice in writing to every
other party to the action, which must state the time / place of the taking of the
deposition and the name and address of the person to be examined, if known, If
not known, a general description sufficient to identify him or the particular class or
group to which he belongs.
1.1
On motion of a party upon whom notice is served, the court , for cause,
may enlarge or shorten the time.498
2.
Officer taking the deposition shall put the witness under oath and shall
personally, or by someone acting under his direction and his presence record the
testimony of the witness stenographically unless the parties agree otherwise.
3.
All objections as to the qualifications of the officer taking the deposition,
the manner of taking the evidence presented, conduct of the parties or any other
objection shall be noted. Any evidence objected to shall be taken subject to the
objections.
4.
Parties served with notice, in lieu of participating in the taking of the
deposition, may submit written interrogatories, which the officer taking the
deposition shall propound to the witness and record the answers verbatim.499
5.
After the taking of the deposition, and testimony is transcribed, it is
submitted to the witness for examination and shall be read to or by him, unless
such is waived by the witness and the parties. If there are changes, in form or
substance which the witness desires to make, it shall be entered upon the
deposition by the officer with a statement as to the reason given by the witness
as why they are being made.
6.
The deposition is then signed by the witness, unless the parties by
stipulation waive the signing, or the witness is ill or cannot be found or refuses to
sign.

497

Supra, Section 13, Rule 23

498

Supra, Section 15, Rule 23

499

Supra, Section 17, Rule 23

7.
If not signed, the officer shall sign it and state on the record why it was not
signed together with reasons. If there is refusal to sign, the effect is that the
deposition then may be used fully as though signed, unless on a motion to
suppress under Sec 29 (f) , pertaining to errors or irregularities in preparation, the
Court holds that the reason for refusal to sign require rejection of the deposition
in whole or in part.500
8.
Once signed, the officer shall certify on the deposition that the witness was
duly sworn to by him and that the deposition is a true record of the testimony of
the witness. He shall then securely seal the deposition in an envelope endorsed
with the title of the action and marked deposition of _______ to be promptly
filed with the court where the action is pending or sent by registered mail to the
clerk thereof for filing.501
9.
Notice of filing shall then promptly be given by the officer to all parties502
and upon payment of reasonable charges, he is to furnish copies of the
deposition to any party or the deponent. 503
TAKING OF A DEPOSITION UPON WRITTEN INTERROGATORIES
1.
Party desiring to take the deposition upon written interrogatories shall
serve them upon every other party with notice stating: (a) name and address of
the person who will answer them (b) descriptive title and address of the person
who will take the deposition (c) Within 10 days, party served may serve crossinterrogatories on the party proposing to take the deposition (d) Within 5 days
thereafter, the latter may serve re-direct interrogatories upon the party serving
crossinterrogatories (5) within 3 days after being served of re-direct
interrogatories, a party may serve re-cross interrogatories upon party proposing
to take deposition.504
2.
A copy of the notice and copies of all interrogatories shall be delivered by
the party taking the deposition to officer designated in the notice, who shall
proceed promptly in the manner provided by Sections 17, 19 and 20 to take the
testimony of the witness in response to the interrogatories and to prepare, certify,
and file / mail the deposition attaching copies of the notice and interrogatories.505
500

Supra, Section 19, Rule 23

501

Supra, Section 20, Rule 23

502

Supra, Section 21, Rule 23

503

Supra, Section 22, Rule 23

504

Supra, Section 25, Rule 23

505

Supra, Section 26, Rule 23

3.
Officer must promptly give notice of filing / and may furnish copies to
parties and deponent upon payment of reasonable charges. 506
4.
Note that Sections 15, 16 and 18 are applicable and that by motion, it can
be asked that the deposition be upon oral examination.
EFFECT OF NON-APPEARANCE
1.
If party giving notice fails to appear and another attends in person or by
counsel, the Court may order the party giving notice to pay reasonable expenses
incurred to attend, including reasonable attorneys fees. 507
2.
If party giving notice does not serve subpoena and the witness does not
appear, court can order party giving notice to pay reasonable expenses for
attendance plus attorneys fees to a party who appears in person or by
counsel508
TAKING OF DEPOSITIONS BEFORE ACTION OR PENDING APPEAL OR
DEPOSTIONS IN PERPETUAM REI MEMORIAM
1.
A deposition before action is initiated by the filing of a verified petition by a
person desiring to perpetuate his testimony or that of any person in relation to
any matter cognizable in any court in the Philippines in the Court in the place of
residence of the expected adverse party. 509
1.1
The contents of the petition which shall be entitled in the name of the
petitioner and should show: (a) That petitioner expects to be a party to an action
in a Court in the Philippines but is presently unable to bring it or cause it to be
brought (b) The subject matter of the expected action and his interest therein (c)
The facts that he desires to establish by the proposed testimony and his reasons
for desiring to perpetuate it (d)
The names or description of the person he
expects will be adverse parties and their addresses so far as known (e) The
names and addresses of the persons to be examined and the substance of the
testimony which he expects to elicit from each and shall then ask for an order
authorizing the petitioner to take the depositions of the persons to be examined
named in the petition for the purpose of perpetuating their testimony.510
506

Supra, Section 27, Rule 23

507

Supra, Section 23, Rule 23

508

Supra, Section 24, Rule 23

509

Supra, Section 1, Rule 24

510

Supra, Section 2, Rule 24

1.2
To Perpetuate means to preserve or make available testimony for later
use at a trial by means of deposition.
2.
After the petition is completed, the petitioner shall serve a notice upon
each person named in the petition as an expected adverse party, together with a
copy of the petition stating that: he will apply to the Court at a time and place
stated therein, for the order described in the petition.
2.1
At least 20 days before the date of the hearing, the Court shall cause
notice thereof to be served on the parties and prospective deponents in the
manner provided for service of summons.
3.
If the Court is satisfied that the perpetuation of testimony may prevent a
failure of justice or delay of justice, it shall make an order designating or
describing the persons whose depositions are to be taken, specifying the subject
and whether it will be upon oral execution or written interrogatories under Rule
23.511
3.1
For purposes of applying Rule 23, references to the court in which the
action is pending shall be deemed to refer to the court in which petition for such
deposition is filed. 512
4.
A deposition taken under the Rule or although not so taken, it would be
admissible in evidence, it may be used in any action involving the same subject
matter contained in petition subsequently brought in accordance with Sections 4
and 5 of Rule 23.513
5.
A deposition pending appeal can be had If appeal is taken from a
judgment of a Court including the CA in proper cases or before the taking of an
appeal if the time therefore has not yet expired.
5.1
The Court in which judgment was rendered may allow taking of
depositions of witnesses to perpetuate their testimony for use in the event of
further proceedings in the said Court.
5.2
It is initiated by a party making a motion in said Court for leave to take
depositions upon the said notice and service thereof as if the action was
pending therein, the motion should state: (a) name and addresses of persons to
Supra, Section 3, Rule 24
511

Supra, Section 4, Rule 24

512

Supra, Section 5, Rule 24

513

Supra, Section 6, Rule 24

be examined and substance of testimony to be elicited (b) reasons for


perpetuating testimony.
5.3
If Court finds that it is proper to avoid failure or delay of justice, it may
allow the depositions to be taken and used in the same manner and under same
conditions as prescribed for depositions in pending actions.514
EFFECT OF TAKING AND USING DEPOSITIONS
1.
A party shall not be deemed to make a person his own witness by taking
his deposition.515
2.
If introduced in evidence in whole/part for any purpose other than
contradicting or impeaching the deponent, such makes the deponent the witness
of the party introducing the deposition.
2.1
But it does not apply to the use of an adverse party of a deposition as
described in Par. (b) Section 4 of Rule 23.516
USE OF DEPOSITION
1.
A deposition can be used at the trial, upon the hearing of a motion or an
interlocutory proceeding.
1.1
Any part of all of a deposition, so far as admissible under the rules of
evidence may be used against any party who was present, or represented at the
taking or had due notice thereof, in accordance with the following:
a.
May be used by any party for the purpose of contradicting or impeaching
the testimony of deponent as a witness
b.
Deposition of a party or anyone who at the time of the taking was an
officer, director, or managing agent of a public/private corporation partnership/
association which is a party may be used by an adverse party for any purpose
c.
Deposition of a witness, party or not, may be used by any party for any
purpose if the court finds that: (1) witness is dead (2)witness resides more than
100 kilometers from the place of trial/hearing or is out of the Philippines unless,
it appears that his absence is procured by the party offering the deposition (3)
514

Supra, Section 7, Rule 24

515

Supra, Section 7, Rule 23

516

Supra, Section 8, Rule 23

witness is unable to attend/testify because of age, sickness, infirmity or


imprisonment (4) party offering the deposition has been unable to procure the
attendance of the witness by subpoena (5) upon application and notice,
exceptional circumstances exist as to make it desirable in the interest of justice
and with due regard to the importance of presenting the testimony of witness in
open court, to allow the deposition to be used.
d.
If only a part of the deposition is offered in evidence by a party, the
adverse party may require him to introduce all of which is relevant to the part
introduced, and any party may introduce the other parts.517
WHEN DOES THE DEPOSITION BECOME EVIDENCE OR WHEN CAN IT BE
USED AS EVIDENCE
1.
If the deponent is a party, the opposing party can use it to prove his claim
or defense.
1.1
It may also be used to impeach or contradict the party deponent if he
testifies.
2.
If the deponent is only a witness, his deposition can only be used to
impeach/contradict him if he testifies but if Paragraph (c ) of Section 4 applies, it
can be used for any purpose.
RESOLUTION OF OBJECTIONS WHEN DEPOSITIONS ARE PRESENTED
1.
Subject to the provisions of Section 29, objections may be made at the
trial or hearing to receive in evidence any deposition or part thereof for any
reason which would require the exclusion of the evidence if the witness were
then present and testifying.
2.

Specific objections are resolved as follows:

2.1
As to notice, they are waived unless written objection is promptly served
upon the party giving the notice
2.2
As to disqualification of the officer, it is waived unless made before the
taking of the deposition or as soon thereafter as the disqualification becomes
known or could be discovered with reasonable diligence.
2.3
As to competency relevancy of evidence, as to competency of the witness
or competence, relevancy or materiality of the evidence/testimony, they are not
517

Supra, Section 4, Rule 23

waived by the failure to make them before or during the taking of the deposition
unless the ground of the objection is one which might have been obviated or
removed if presented at that time
2.4
As to oral examination and other particulars Errors and irregularities
occurring at the oral examination in the manner of taking, the form of the
questions and answers, in the oath/affirmation, or the conduct of the parties and
errors of any kind which might be obviated, removed or cured it promptly,
prosecuted, are waived, unless reasonable objection thereto is made at the
taking of the deposition.
2.5
As to the form of written interrogatories, the objections are waived unless
served in writing upon party propounding them within the time allowed for the
serving of succeeding cross or other interrogatories and within 3 days after
service of the last interrogatory authorized.
2.6
As to manner of preparation, objections as to the manner in which the
testimony is transcribed, or the deposition is prepared, signed certified, sealed,
indorsed, transmitted, filed, or otherwise dealt with by the officer are waived,
unless a motion to suppress the deposition or part thereof is made with
reasonable promptness after such defect is, or with due diligence, might have
been ascertained.518
HOW IS A DEPOSITION ACTUALLY USED AND ONCE A DEPOSITION HAS
BEEN USED, WHAT CAN ADVERSE/ OTHER PARTIES DO
1.
Generally, the deponent is called to testify. Hence he may be examined/
cross-examined as permitted at the trial under Sections 3 to 18, Rule 132. 519
2.
At the trial or hearing, any party may rebut any relevant evidence
contained in a deposition whether introduced by him or by any other party.520 This
is called rebutting a deposition.
IS USE OF THE DEPOSITION LIMITED TO THE ACTION/PENDING ACTION
WHEN IT WAS TAKEN
1.
No, because substitution of parties does not affect the right to use
depositions previously taken, when the action is dismissed and another action
involving the same subject is afterward brought between the same parties or their
representatives or successors in interest, all depositions lawfully taken and duly

518

Supra, Section 29, Rule 23

519

Supra, Section 3, Rule 23

520

Supra, Section 9, Rule 23

filed in the former action may be used in the latter as if originally taken
therefor.521
WRITTEN INTERROGATORIES
1.
The purpose of a written interrogatory is to enable any party desiring to
elicit material facts / relevant facts from any adverse party by the filing and
service upon the latter of a written interrogatory to be answered by the party
served or if party is public / private corporation or a partnership / association by
any officer thereof competent to testify in its behalf. 522
2.
An interrogatory is allowed under the same conditions as specified in
Section 1, Rule 23 as to when it is to be had.
HOW AND WHEN ANSWERED
1.
Responses, which must be signed and sworn to, must be filed within 15
days from service, unless the Court on motion and for good cause shown
extends or shortens the time523
2.
Objections, if any, may be presented to the court within 10 days after
service of notice as in the case of a motion, answers shall then be deferred until
objections are resolved, which shall be as early a time as is practicable. 524
HOW MANY INTERROGATORIES
1.
No party may, without leave of court, serve more than one set of
interrogatories to be answered by the same party.525
SCOPE AND USE
1.
It may relate to any matters that can be inquired into under Section 2, Rule
23 and the answers used for the same purpose provided for by Section 4, Rule
23.526
EFFECT OF FAILURE TO SERVE WRITTEN INTERROGATORIES
521

Supra, Section 5, Rule 23

522

Supra, Section 1, Rule 25

523

Supra, Section 2, Rule 25

524

Supra, Section 3, Rule 25

525

Supra, Section 4, Rule 25

526

Supra, Section 5, Rule 25

1.
Unless thereafter allowed by the court for good cause shown and to
prevent failure of justice, a party not served with written interrogatories may not
be compelled by the adverse party to give testimony in open court or give a
deposition pending appeal.527
DISTINGUISHING DEPOSITION UPON WRITTEN INTERROGATORIES AND
WRITTEN INTERROGATORIES
1.
Any person, party or not can be required to or compelled to give a
deposition upon written interrogatories, while only the adverse party may be
compelled to answer a written interrogatory.
2.
A deposition upon written interrogatory is taken before an officer, while an
adverse party without appearing before an officer shall answer them in writing
and under oath.
RULE 26 REQUESTS FOR ADMISSIONS
WHAT IS A REQUEST FOR ADMISSION
1.
It is a written request for the (1) admission of the genuiness of any
material and relevant document described in and exhibited with the request or (2)
the truth of any material or relevant matter of fact set forth in the request.
2.
A party may file and serve a request for admission upon any other party at
any time after the issues have been joined.528
EFFECT OF FILING AND SERVICE UPON ANY OTHER PARTY
1.
Each of the matters of which an admission is requested shall be deemed
admitted unless, within a period designated in the request, which shall not be
less than 15 days after service thereof or such period which the Court will allow
on motion, the party served files and serves upon the requesting party a sworn
statement, either denying specifically the matters is setting forth in detail the
reason why he cannot truthfully either admit / deny.
2.
Objections, if any shall be submitted to the Court within the period for
complying and prior to filing of the Sworn Statement.
2.1
Compliance is then deferred until objections are resolved which should be
done as early as practicable.529
527

Supra, Section 6, Rule 25

528

Supra, Section 1, Rule 26

529

Supra, Section 2, Rule 26

EFFECT OF ADMISSIONS
1.
It is for the purpose of the pending action only and shall not constitute an
admission by him for any purpose or used against him in any other proceeding530
1.1
Although any admission, express or implied may be allowed by the court
to be withdrawn or amended upon such terms as may be just. 531
EFFECT OF FAILURE TO SERVE
1.
Unless otherwise allowed by the Court for good cause and to prevent
failure of justice, a party who fails to serve a request for admission of material /
relevant facts at issue on the adverse party, which are or ought to be within the
latters personal knowledge, shall not be permitted to present evidence on such
facts.532
RULE 27 PRODUCTION OR INSPECTION OF DOCUMENTS OR THINGS
HOW AVAILED OF
1.

On motion of any party showing good cause, the court where the action is

pending may order, specifying the time, place and manner and prescribing such
terms and conditions as are just, that:
1.1
Any party to produce and permit the inspection, copying, photographing,
by or on behalf of a having party of any designated documents, papers, books,
accounts, letters, photographs, objects or tangible things, not privileged which
constitute or contain evidence material to any matter involved in the acition which
are in his possession and control.
1.2
Or, permit entry upon designated land or other property in his possession /
control for the purpose of inspecting, measuring, surveying or taking photographs
of the property or any designated relevant object or operation thereon.533
2.
This mode of discovery is resorted to determine the contents or status of
documents or things and/or the preservation of the same.
530

Supra, Section 3, Rule 26

531

Supra, Section 4, Rule 26

532

Supra, Section 5, Rule 26

533

Supra, Section 1, Rule 27

3.
The requisites that have to be complied with to compel the other party to
produce or allow the inspection of documents or things are: (a) the party must file
a motion showing good cause (b) notice of the filing of the motion must be served
on all parties (c) the motion must designate the papers or things that are to be
produced and inspected (d) such papers or things are not privileged (e) that they
constitute or contain evidence material to any matter involved in the litigation,
and (f) that they are in possession, control or custody of the other party.534

RULE 28 PHYSICAL / MENTAL EXAMINATION OF PERSONS


WHEN AVAILED OF
1.
In an action in which the mental or physical condition of a party is in
controversy, a court in its discretion, can order him to submit to physical / mental
examination by a physician.535
1.1
It can be ordered only upon motion for good cause shown, with notice to
the party to be examined and to all other parties, specifying the time, place,
manner, condition and scope of the examination and person/s by whom it is to be
made.536
2.
Once the examination is completed, the party examined may request that
a detailed written report of the examining physician setting forth his findings /
conclusions.
2.1
If requested and delivered, the party causing examination to be made is
entitled to request and receive from examined party a like report of the same
mental / physical examination / condition previously or thereafter made.
2.2
If request is refused, the court on motion may order delivery by the party
examined on such terms as are just. If the physician fails / refuses to make such
report, his testimony may be excluded if his testimony is offered at trial. 537
2.3
Note that a waiver of privilege is caused by requesting and obtaining a
report of the examination ordered or by taking the deposition of the examiner, the
party examined waives any privilege he may have in that action or any other
involving the same controversy regarding the testimony of every other person
who has examined or may thereafter examine him in respect of the same
534

Solidbank Corporation vs. Gateway Electronics Corporation, 553 SCRA 256

535

Supra, Section 1, Rule 28

536

Supra, Section 2, Rule 28

537

Supra, Section 3, Rule 28

mental / physical examination. 538 This refers primarily to the privilege between
doctor and patient.
RULE 29 REFUSAL TO COMPLY WITH MODES OF DISCOVERY
EFFECTS OF THE REFUSAL TO COMPLY
1.
If he refuses to answer upon being directed to do so or refuses to be
sworn, it will constitute contempt of court. A citation in contempt shall ensue after
the following steps have been followed or observed:
1.1
If the party/deponent refuses to answer any question upon oral
examination, the deposition may be completed on other matters or adjourned as
the proponent may prefer.
1.2
The proponent may then apply for an order to compel an answer in the
proper court where the deposition is being taken. This is also applicable to
interrogatories.
1.3
If granted, the court can order that answer be made and if it finds that
refusal is without substantial justification it may impose upon deponent /
counsel advising that no answer be given or both reasonable expenses and
attorneys fees in obtaining the order. If denied and the court finds application
was filed without substantial justification proponent / counsel advising application
or both may in the same manner be sanctioned.539
2.
Other consequences that are applicable to Sec 1, Rule 29, Rule 27 and
Rule 28, the Court may issue an:
2.1
order that the matters regarding which the questions are asked,
character / description of thing or land / contents of a paper or physical / mental
condition of a party shall be taken to be established in accordance with the claim
of the party obtaining the order.
2.2
order refusing to allow the disobedient party to support / oppose
designated claims / defenses or prohibiting him from introducing in evidence
the designated things / documents or items of testimony or from introducing
evidence of physical / mental condition.

538

Supra, Section 4, Rule 28

539

Supra, Sections 1 and 2, Rule 29

2.3
order striking out pleadings or parts thereof or staying proceedings until
the order is obeyed, dismissing the action or proceeding or any part thereof, or
rendering judgment by default against the disobedient party.
2.4
In lieu or in addition to orders, the disobedient party can be ordered
arrested except in relation to a physical / mental examination. 540
OTHER SANCTIONS
1.
Expenses on refusal to admit, if requested party serves a sworn denial
and party serving request proves genuineness / truth, he may apply for an order
directing the requested party to pay expenses incurred in making proof plus
attorneys fees. Order is issued except if court finds good reasons for denial or
admissions were of no substantial importance. 541
2.
Failure of a party to willfully appear before the officer taking the deposition,
after being served with a proper notice, or fails to serve answers to written
interrogatories properly served, court may on motion and notice: (a)Strike out all
or any part of the pleading of that party (b) Dismiss the action / proceeding / part
thereof (c) Enter judgment by default against that party, (d) and ,in its discretion,
order payment of reasonable expenses and attorneys fees542 but no expenses
or fees are to be assessed against the Republic of the Philippines. 543
RULE 30 TRIAL
NOTICE OF TRIAL
1.
Upon entry of a case in the trial calendar the clerk shall notify the parties
of the date of the trial in such manner as to ensure receipt of the notice at least 5
days before such date.544
MAY TRIAL BE POSTPONED / ADJOURNED
1.
Courts may adjourn a trial from day to day, and to any stated time as the
expeditious and convenient transaction of business may require but it shall
540

Supra, Section 3, Rule 29

541

Supra, Section 4, Rule 29

542

Supra, Section 5, Rule 29

543

Supra, Section 6, Rule 29

544

Supra, Section 1, Rule 30

have no power to adjourn for a longer period than one month for each
adjournment, nor more than three months in all, except when authorized in
writing by the Court Administrator of the Supreme Court.545
IF MOTION TO POSTPONE IS DUE TO ABSENCE OF EVIDENCE
1.
Can only be granted upon affidavit showing the materiality / relevancy of
the evidence and that due diligence has been used to procure it, BUT, if the
adverse party admits the facts to be given in evidence, or even if he objects or
reserves the right to object to their admissibility, the trial shall not be
postponed.546
IF DUE TO ILLNESS OF PARTY OR COUNSEL
1.
May be granted, if it appears upon affidavit or sworn certification that the
presence of party / counsel at the trial is indispensable and that character of
illness is such as to render non-appearance excusable.547
WHAT IS THE ORDER OF TRIAL
1.
Subject to Section 2, Rule 31 on separate trials and unless the court
orders for special reasons, it shall be limited to the issues stated in the pre-trial
order and shall proceed as follows:
1.1

Plaintiff adduces evidence in support of his complaint

1.2
Defendant adduces evidence in support of his defense, counterclaim,
crossclaim and 3rd party complaint
1.3
Third party defendant, if any, shall adduce evidence of his defense,
counterclaim, crossclaim and 4th party complaint.
1.4
Fourth party, and so forth, if any, shall adduce evidence of the material
facts pleaded by them.
1.5
Parties against whom any counterclaim/ cross-claim has been pleaded
shall adduce evidence in support of their defense, in the order prescribed by the
Court.

545

Supra, Section 2, Rule 30

546

Supra, Section 3, Rule 30

547

Supra, Section 4, Rule 30

1.6
The parties may then respectively adduce rebutting evidence, unless the
Court, for good reasons and in the furtherance of justice, permits them to adduce
evidence upon their original case.
1.7
Upon admission of the evidence, the case shall be deemed submitted for
decision, unless the court directs the parties to argue or submit memoranda or
any further pleadings.
TRIAL OF ISSUES
1.
The trial of issues shall be limited to the issues stated in the pre-trial order,
unless the court directs otherwise for special reasons.
2.
If several defendants or 3rd party defendants and so forth, having separate
defenses appear by different counsel, the court shall determine the relative order
of presentation of their evidence.548
MAY THERE BE AN AGREEMENT UPON THE FACTS AND SUBMISSION OF
THE CASE FOR JUDGMENT WITHOUT INTRODUCTION OF EVIDENCE
1.

Yes, provided that the agreement be in writing.

2.
If the parties agree only on some facts, trial shall be held as to the
disputed facts549
3.
There cannot be a judgment based on stipulation of facts in legal
separation, annulment of marriage and declaration of nullity.
3.1
Note that in the same cases, neither is there judgment by default,
judgment on the pleadings, summary judgment, judgment upon confession,
judgment upon compromise, judgment based on stipulation of facts.
WHAT ARE TO BE MADE OF RECORD
1.
All proceedings, including any statement made by the judge with reference
to the case, or to any of the parties, witnesses or counsel shall be made of record
in the stenographic notes.550
WHO IS TO RECEIVE EVIDENCE
548

Supra, Section 5, Rule 30

549

Supra, Section 6, Rule 30

550

Supra, Section 7, Rule 30

1.
The judge is required to personally receive the evidence. But in default /
ex-parte or when parties agree in writing it may be delegated to the clerk of court
who should be member of the bar though he has no power to resolve objections
to any question or admission of exhibits . Such shall be resolved by the court
upon submission of his report and transcripts within 10 days from termination of
the hearing.551
CAN ACTIONS BE SUSPENDED
1.
Actions may be suspended as governed by the provisions of the Civil
552
Code : (a) if willingness to discuss a compromise is expressed by one or both
parties (b) if it appears that one of the parties, before the commencement of an
action / proceeding, offered to discuss a possible compromise but the other party
refused the offer.553
RULE 31 CONSOLIDATION OR SEVERANCE
WHEN CAN CONSOLIDATION TAKE PLACE
1.
When actions involving a common question of law or fact are pending
before the court, it may order joint hearing or trial of any or all the matters in
issue in the actions, it may order all actions consolidated. Then it may make such
orders concerning proceedings therein as may tend to avoid unnecessary costs /
delay554
2.
The rationale for consolidation is to have all cases, which are intimately
related, acted upon by one branch of the court to avoid the possibility of
conflicting decisions being rendered.555
MAY THERE BE CONSOLIDATION ALTHOUGH ACTIONS ARE PENDING IN
DIFFERENT COURTS
1.
Yes, involving the consolidation of civil action with criminal action, if filed
before criminal action and trial has not yet commenced.556
551

Supra, Section 9, Rule 30

552

Supra, Section 8, Rule 30

553

Civil Code, Article 2030

554

Supra, Section 1, Rule 31

555

Philippine Airlines, Inc. vs. Zamora, 564 SCRA 50

556

Section 1, Rule 111 of the Rules on Criminal Procedure

PURPOSE OF ALLOWING CONSOLIDATION


1.
The purpose of allowing consolidation is to avoid multiplicity of suits, guard
against oppression or abuse, prevent delay, clearing of dockets, simplify the work
of trial court, save unnecessary expenses / costs.
2.
Note though that if actions involve a common question of law or fact
because they arise from a single cause of action between the same parties, the
remedy is dismissal on litis pendentia, not consolidation.
3.
An petition for the issuance of a writ of possession cannot be consolidated
with an action to annul the foreclosure notwithstanding the argument that the
former case would become groundless as the latter case is contesting the
presumed ownership on which the petition for a writ of possession is based.
Strictly speaking the petition for the issuance of a writ of possession is not a
judicial process, it is a non-litigious process that is summary in nature. In
contract, the action for annulment of foreclosure is an ordinary civil action and is
adversarial in character. The right of the petitioner in the writ of possession case
will be prejudiced by the consolidation with the annulment of foreclosure case. 557
WHEN CAN SEPARATION TAKE PLACE AND WHAT DOES IT COVER
1.
Covers any claim, cross-claim, counterclaim or third party claim or any
separate issue or of any number of claims, cross-claims, counter claims, third
party complaints, or issues in furtherance of convenience or to avoid prejudice. 558
RULE 32 TRIAL BY COMMISSIONER
WHEN RESORTED TO
1.
Trial by commissioners may be resorted to upon order of the court, which
will then refer any or all issues when:
1.1
Parties agree in writing and the commissioner may either be agreed upon
or appointed by the Court
1.2
When parties do not consent, on courts own motion or upon application of
either party, if may be directed in the following: (a)
Trial of an issue of fact
requires examination of a long account (b)
The taking of an account is
557

PNB vs. Gotesco, GR 183211, June 5, 2009

558

Supra, Section 2, Rule 31

necessary for the information of the court before judgment or for carrying
judgment / or order into effect (c) A question of fact, other than upon the
pleadings arises upon motion or otherwise, in any stage of the case, or for
carrying a judgment or order into effect.559
2.

The term commissioner may include a referee, an auditor or examiner560

3.
A commissioner is designated or authorized by an order of reference
which will specify or limit his powers, direct him to report only on or upon
particular issues or do or perform particular acts, receive or report evidence only
and fix date for beginning / closing hearings and for the filing of the report.
3.1
He shall then have and exercise the power to: (a)Regulate the proceeding
before him (b)Do all acts and take all measures necessary or proper for the
efficient performance of his duties upon the order (c)Issue subpoenas (d) Swear
witnesses (e)Unless otherwise provided, rule upon the admissibility of
evidence561
3.2
The trial shall then proceed before the commissioner/s in all respects as it
would be held in court.
PROCEDURE
1.
Commissioner takes oath and be sworn to a faithful and honest
performance of his duties562
2.
Upon receipt of the Order of Reference, and unless otherwise stipulated
he shall forthwith set a time and place for the first meeting of the parties and
counsel within 10 days after the date of the order of reference, and shall notify
parties / counsel563
3.
If parties / counsel fail to appear, he may proceed ex-parte or in his
discretion, adjourn the proceedings, giving notice to the absent party or counsel
of the adjournment564

559

Supra, Section 1, Rule 32

560

Supra, Section 2, Rule 32

561

Supra, Section 3, Rule 32

562

Supra, Section 4, Rule 32

563

Supra, Section 5, Rule 32

564

Supra, Section 6, Rule 32

4.
He shall avoid delay as he is duty bound to proceed with all reasonable
diligence. Either party on notice to other parties and the commissioner may apply
for a court order to expedite proceedings / report565
5.
If witness refuses to obey a subpoena or give evidence. It shall constitute
contempt of the appointing court 566
6.
Upon completion of trial / hearing / proceeding he shall file with the court
has report in writing upon the matters submitted to him by the order of reference.
When powers are not specified or limited, he shall set forth his findings of fact
and conclusions of law in his report. He shall also attach all exhibits, affidavits,
depositions, paper and transcripts of the testimonial evidence given 567
7.
Notice is then given by the clerk to the parties of the filing of the report,
they shall then be allowed 10 days within which to signify objections to the
findings in the report, is so desired.
7.1
Objections to the report based on grounds available to the parties during
the proceedings before the commissioner, other than as to the findings /
conclusions, shall not be considered unless made before the commissioner. 568
8.
Upon expiration of the period, the report shall be set for hearing, after
which the court shall issue an order adopting, modifying, or rejecting the report
in whole or in part or recommitting it with instructions or requiring the parties to
present further evidence to the commissioner569
9.
If the parties stipulate that the commissioners findings of facts shall be
final, only questions of law shall be thereafter considered. 570
9.1
Note that the findings of the commissioner are merely advisory and are
not absolutely binding upon the court.571
EXPENSES / COMPENSATION

565

Supra, Section 8, Rule 32

566

Supra, Section 7, Rule 32

567

Supra, Section 9, Rule 32

568

Supra, Section 10, Rule 32

569

Supra, Section 11, Rule 32

570

Supra, Section 12, Rule 32

571

Eternal Gardens Memorial Park Corporation v Court of Appeals, 282 SCRA 553

1.
They shall be reasonable as warranted by the circumstances and are to
be taxed as costs against the defeated party or apportioned as justice requires572
WHEN REFERENCE TO COMMISSIONERS IS REQUIRED BY THE RULES
1.
Reference to commissioners is required in the following cases:
(a)Expropriation under Rule 67 to determine just compensation (b)Partition under
Rule 69, when parties cannot agree as to the manner of partition.
RULE 33 DEMURRER TO THE EVIDENCE
WHO FILES AND WHEN FILED
1.
The defendant is the party who may move for the dismissal of the action
after presentation by the plaintiff of evidence on the ground that upon the facts
and the law, plaintiff has shown no right to relief.573
EFFECTS OF FILING AND RESOLUTION
1.
If granted, the action is dismissed, but if appealed and reversed, he loses
his right to prevent evidence and judgment is rendered in favor of the plaintiff574
1.1
An order dismissing a case for insufficiency of evidence is a judgment on
the merits, it is imperative that it be a reasoned decision and distinctly stating
therein the facts and the law on which it is based.575
2.
If denied, defendant may present his evidence as it does not constitute a
waiver of right to do so.
2.1
The court should set a date for reception of the evidence of the defendant.
It should not proceed to grant the plaintiff relief.576
2.2
The order of denial is an interlocutory order and is therefore not
appealable.

572

Supra, Section 13, Rule 32

573

Supra, Section 1, Rule 33

574

Quebral v Court of Appeals, 252 SCRA 353

575

Nicos Industrial Corporation v Court of Appeals, 206 SCRA 127

576

Northwest Airlines v. Court of Appeals, 284 SCRA 408

2.3
It may however be questioned by certiorari in case of grave abuse of
discretion.577
3.
It is an error on the part of the appellate court to order a remand, if
dismissal is elevated to it on appeal, it must decide on the evidence adduced by
the plaintiff.578
DISTINGUISHED FROM A MOTION TO DISMISS
1.
A motion to dismiss is usually filed before service and filing of an answer,
while a demurrer is made after the plaintiff rests his case.
2.
A motion to dismiss is based on several grounds, while a demurrer is
based only on the failure of the plaintiff to show a right to relief.
3.
A denial of the motion to dismiss will require the subsequent filing of an
answer, while the denial of a demurrer requires the subsequent presentation of
evidence.
DISTINGUISHED FROM CRIMINAL CASES
1.
In both civil and criminal actions, the basis for both is the insufficiency of
evidence.
2.
In a civil action, dismissal by demurrer is by motion only, while in a criminal
action, dismissal by demurrer is upon the courts initiative or motion giving the
prosecution an opportunity to be heard.
3.
In a civil action, leave is not required prior to filing, while in a criminal
action leave may / may not be obtained. If obtained, there is no waiver of right
to present evidence. If denied and if there is no leave, it is a waiver
4.
In a civil action, if granted, plaintiffs remedy is appeal, while in a criminal
action, if granted, there is no appeal as such will constitute double jeopardy.
RULE 34 JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS
JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS

577

Katigbak v. Sandiganbayan, 405 SCRA 558

578

Radiowealth Finance Company v Del Rosario, 335 SCRA 288

1.
Can be had if the answer fails to tender an issue or otherwise admits the
material allegations of the complaint 579
1.1

There is no motu propio rendition of judgment as it is always by motion.

2.
An answer fails to tender an issue when it fails to comply with the
requirements of specific denial or is deemed to have admitted the allegations in
the complaint. 580
2.1
An answer admits the material allegations when it expressly confesses the
truthfulness thereof or where it omits to deal with them all.
3.
Note that when an answer raises factual issues involving damages, it is
not proper to render judgment on the pleadings as presentation of evidence is
required.
WHO MAY MOVE FOR JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS
1.
Only the plaintiff in original complaint, or of the counter-claim, or of the
cross claim, or of the third party complaint may so move for judgment on the
pleadings.
2.
When a party moves for a judgment on the pleadings, and the same is
granted by the trial court, he hereby waives presentation of evidence.581
WHEN NOT ALLOWED
1.
Judgment on the pleadings is not allowed in cases of: (a) Declaration of
nullity of marriage (b) Annulment of marriage (c)Legal separation.
1.1
In these cases, the plaintiff is required to prove the material facts
regardless of whether the answer tenders an issue or not.
RULE 35 SUMMARY JUDGMENT
WHAT IS SUMMARY JUDGMENT
1.
Is a devise for weeding out sham claims or defenses at an early stage of
the litigation thereby avoiding the expense / loss of time involved in a trial.

579

Supra, Section 1, Rule 34

580

Supra, Sections 8,9 and 11, Rule 8

581 Alfarero

v. Sevilla, 411 SCRA 387

1.1
Its very object is to separate what is formal or pretended in denial or
averment from what is genuine and substantial so that only the latter may subject
a suitor to the burden of trial.
1.2

This is also known as Accelerated Judgment582

WHO MAY MOVE FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT AND WHEN


1.

Either plaintiff or defendant may move for a summary judgment:

2.
If plaintiff or a claimant in the original complaint / counterclaim / crossclaim, he may file the motion at any time after the pleading in answer to his claim
has been filed on the ground that although there is an apparent issue, the same
is sham or false.583 .
2.1
Example: Answer admits obligation but states that the amount is wrong or
less than that claimed. If plaintiff has proof that there is written acknowledgment
that as of a date or period prior to that of the filing, the defendant was aware of
the true amount, there can be summary judgment.
3.
If movant is the defending party, he may file the motion at any time before
or after he files his answer on the ground that plaintiffs claim against him is
sham or false 584
3.1
An issue is sham or false if it is not genuine. Genuine means that the
issue of fact is one that calls for the presentation of evidence.585
4.
In either case, the motion must be filed along with supporting affidavits,
depositions or admissions.
5.
The procedure for the filing and resolution of a motion for summary
judgment is as follows:
5.1
Plaintiff/Defendant serves on the defendant/plaintiff a copy of the motion
at least 10 days before the date of hearing specified in the motion.
5.2
The defendant/plaintiff may serve opposing affidavits, depositions or
admissions at least 3 days before the date of the hearing.
582

Monterey Foods Corporation v Eserjose, 410 SCRA 627, Puyat v Zabarte, 352 SCRA 738

583

Supra, Section 1, Rule 35

584

Supra, Section 2, Rule 35

585

Excelsa Industries v Court of Appeals, 247 SCRA 560

5.3

Court hears the motion.

6.
If after hearing, it finds that the motion filed by plaintiff justified, thus there
is no genuine issue as to any material fact, it will render summary judgment for
the plaintiff.
6.1

If not, it will deny, set the case for pre-trial, then trial.

6.2
If filed by the defendant and is justified, the complaint is dismissed,
otherwise the case proceeds with the filing of answer or pre-trial is set and
conducted.
FORM OF AFFIDAVITS / SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
1.
They shall be made on personal knowledge, setting forth such facts as
would be admissible in evidence and shall show affirmatively that the affiant is
competent to testify to the matters stated therein.
1.1
Certified copies of all papers / parts thereof shall be attached and served
therewith.586
2.
If affidavits have been determined to the satisfaction of the court that they
are presented in bad faith or solely for the purpose of delay, the Court may
forthwith order the offending party to pay reasonable expenses which may have
been incurred by the other party, including attorneys fees. It may also find /
adjudge, after hearing, that attending party / counsel are guilty of contempt.587
EFFECT OF THE RENDITION OF SUMMARY JUDGMENT
1.
The aggrieved party may appeal the summary judgment as such is final
judgment as defined by Section 1, Rule 41.
2.
If denied, it is not appealable as order of denial of motion is interlocutory.
2.1
Certiorari may lie if the rendering of a summary judgment is clear, plain
and patent but the court refuses or declines to render it.
WHEN CAN THERE BE A PARTIAL SUMMARY JUDGMENT

586

Supra, Section 5, Rule 35

587

Supra, Section 6, Rule 35

1.
There can be a partial summary judgment when the Court finds that a
judgment cannot be rendered upon the whole case or for all the reliefs because
there are controverted facts which require trial.
1.1
A partial summary judgment is not appealable and shall be taken together
with the judgment that a trial court will render after trial. Thus, it cannot be
executed.588
DISTINGUISHED FROM JUDGMENT ON THE PLEADINGS
1.
Summary judgment is distinguished from a judgment on the pleadings as
follows: (a) A Judgment on the Pleadings is available when there is no genuine
issue as answer fails
to tender an issue or otherwise admits material
allegations, while Summary Judgment is available when there is an apparent
issue but is a sham, fictitious or false (b) A Judgment on the Pleadings is based
exclusively on the pleadings (complaint / answer), while Summary Judgment is
based not only on pleadings but also on affidavits, depositions and admissions,
showing that except as to damages there is no genuine issue (c) A Judgment on
the Pleadings can be filed only after an answer has been filed, while in Summary
Judgment, there may or may not be an answer (d) A Judgment on the Pleadings
can only be had by the plaintiff, while in Summary Judgment, either plaintiff or
defendant may move for it (e) a motion for Judgment on the Pleadings is
required to be served on adverse party at least 3 days prior to the hearing, while
a motion for Summary Judgment requires service at least 10 days prior to the
hearing
2.
Judgment on the Pleadings is a judgment on facts as pleaded, Summary
Judgment is a judgment as summarily proven by affidavits, depositions,
admissions. If an answer tenders an issue, there can be no Judgment on the
Pleadings but there can be Summary Judgment, if issue/s is later shown to be
false, sham or fictitious.

RULE 36 JUDGMENTS, FINAL ORDERS, AND ENTRY THEREOF


WHAT IS A JUDGMENT
1.
A judgment is a final ruling by a court of competent jurisdiction regarding
the rights or other matters submitted to it in an action or proceeding.589
588

Supra, Section 4, Rule 35

589

Macahilig v. Magalit, 344 SCRA 838

2.
It is the courts official and final consideration and determination of the
rights and obligations of the parties.590
REQUISITES OF A JUDGMENT/FINAL ORDER
1.
The requisites of a judgment or final order are: (a) It must be in writing (b)
It must be personally and directly prepared by the judge (c) It must state clearly
and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based (d) It must be signed by
the judge (e) It must be filed with the clerk of court.591
1.1
Note that a judge who has been reassigned can pen a decision as long he
is still an incumbent judge.592
1.2
A decision penned by the judge after his retirement cannot be validly
promulgated and cannot acquire binding effect. In the like manner, a decision
penned during his incumbency cannot be promulgated after his retirement. When
a judge retires, all his authority to decide a case and write, sign and promulgate
the decision has also retired with him.593
1.3
It is not necessary that the judge who pens the decision is the one who
heard and tried the case.594
2.
A decision that does not state clearly and distinctly the facts and law on
which it is based leaves the parties in the dark as to how it was reached and is
especially prejudicial to the losing party who is unable to pinpoint errors for
review upon an appeal. A decision without anything to support it is a patent
nullity.595A void judgment has no legal and binding effect, force or efficacy for any
purpose.596
2.1
There is no need though for a statement of all the facts and evidence
presented. What is required is that the factual and legal basis be distinctly and
clearly set forth.597

590

46 Am Jur 2d, Judgments

591

Supra, Section 1, Rule 36

592 ABC

Davao Auto Supply v Court of Appeals, GR 113296, January 16, 1998

593

Nazareno v Court of Appeals, 378 SCRA 28

594

Serna v Court of Appeals, 308 SCRA 527, Citibank NA v Sabeniano, GR 156132, October 12, 2006

595

Miguel v JCT Group Inc, 453 SCRA 529

596

Guevarra v Sandiganbayan, 454 SCRA 372

597

Chan v Court of Appeals, 457 SCRA 502

2.2
The rule is also applicable to the denials of a petition for review or of a
motion for reconsideration598 and the resolution of a motion to dismiss. 599
2.3. Resolutions of the Supreme Court denying petitions for review of the Court
of Appeals are not decisions within the purview of the Constitution600, neither are
minute resolutions.601 When such is issued, it is understood that the challenged
decision or order, together with the findings of fact and legal conclusions are
deemed sustained.602
3.
A Memorandum Decision is one which adopts by references findings of
facts and conclusions of law contained in the decision of an inferior tribunal. Note
that this does not violate the rule as to statement of the facts and law. This kind
of a decision can only be rendered by an appellate court.
4.
A Sin Perjuicio Judgment is one which is without a statement of facts and
is to be supplemented later by the final judgment. Such a judgment is void. It
contains only the dispositive portion and reserves the making of findings in a
subsequent judgment. This shall have no effect.603
5.
A conditional judgment is one the effectivity of which depends on the
occurrence or non-occurrence of an event. Such a judgment is void because of
the absence of a disposition and cannot be executed. 604
5.1
Where the judgment is for a sum of money to be determined by another, it
is an incomplete judgment which cannot be executed.605
PARTS OF A JUDGMENT
1.
A judgment has two parts: (a) body of the decision or the ratio decidendi,
and (b) the dispositive portion or the fallo. It is the latter that is subject to

598

Section 14, Article VIII, Constitution

599

Barrazona v RTC of Baguio, GR No. 154282, April 7, 2006

600

Novino v Court of Appeals, 8 SCRA 279

601

Commercial Union Assurance,Ltd. V Lepanto Consolidated Mining Company, 86 SCRA 79

602

Complaint of Rogelio Arrienda v Justices Puno, et al, 460 SCRA 1

603

Dizon v Lopez, AM-RTJ-96-1388, 278 SCRA 483

604

Pascua v Simeon, 161 SCRA 1, Cu Unjieng v Mabalacat Sugar Company, 70 Phil 384

605

DBP v. Tanada, 56 SCRA 470

execution as it should settle and declare the rights and obligations of the party,
finally, definitively, and authoritatively.606
1.1
In case of conflict, the fallo prevails, but if the inevitable conclusion from
the body is so clear that there is a mistake in the dispositive portion, the body will
prevail.607
1.2
An ambiguity in the judgment is best addressed by a motion for a
clarificatory judgment
WHEN IS JUDGMENT RENDERED
1.
Ordinarily after trial, except in judgment on the pleadings, summary
judgment, judgment by compromise, judgment based on stipulation of facts,
judgment upon confession, order of dismissal in instances when it considered as
an adjudication on the merits, judgment in cases covered by the Rules of
Summary Procedure.
1.1
The periods for a court to render judgment is within 24 months from date
of submission for decision for the Supreme Court, within 12 months for lower
collegiate courts, within 3 months for all other lower courts.608
1.2
Extensions may be obtained from the Supreme Court on account of a
heavy caseload or other reasonable excuse. Without any extension, a delay in
disposition is tantamount to gross inefficiency.609
2.
It is the filing of the judgment or final order with the clerk of court that
constitutes rendition of judgment, not the date of the writing of the decision or
judgment, nor the signing thereof or even promulgation thereof. 610
DUTY OF THE CLERK OF COURT WHEN JUDGMENT BECOMES FINAL
1.
If no appeal or motion for reconsideration or new trial is brought within the
time provided, the judgment / final order shall forthwith be entered by the clerk in
the Book of Entries of Judgment.

606

LRTA v Court of Appeals, 444 SCRA 125

607

Poland Industrial Limited v. NDC, 467 SCRA 500

608 Article
609 Arap
610

VIII, Section 15, Constitution

v Mustafa, A.M. No. SCC-017, March 12, 2002

Castro v Malazo, 99 SCRA 164

1.1
The date of finality shall be deemed the date of entry and shall contain the
dispositive portion and signed by the clerk which a certificate that such
judgment / final order has become final and executory.611
1.2
Note that date of entry retroacts to date of finality. Hence, both occur
simultaneously by operation of law.
2.
Judgments that are final and executory can be corrected if they pertain to:
(a) clerical errors (b) nunc pro tunc, meaning then for now, entries or those
intended to show what the judicial action was but was then omitted from the
records612 (c) whenever circumstances transpire after finality rendering its
execution unjust613 and (d) in cases of special and exceptional nature as when
facts and circumstances transpire which render execution impossible or unjust,
when necessary to harmonize the disposition with prevailing circumstances.614
3.
Correction or amendment is also allowed if the purpose is to clarify an
ambiguity caused by an omission or mistake, judgment / final order.
4.
A compromise after finality of a judgment is allowed. The basis of the
allowance is the principle of novation, which is a mode of extinguishing an
obligation.615
5.
Petition for extraordinary relief- GR 167651, San Pablo vs. marina May 10,
2005
FOR WHOM JUDGMENTS MAY BE RENDERED
1.
They may be given for or against one or more several plaintiffs or for or
against one or more several defendants.
2.
Courts, when justice demands can require parties on each side to file
adversary proceedings as between themselves to determine their ultimate rights /
obligations.616
3.
In an action against several defendants, the courts if proper may render
judgment against one or more, leaving the action to proceed against the
611

Supra, Section 2, Rule 36

612

Briones v Vasquez, 450 SCRA 482

613

Siy v NLRC, GR No. 158971, January 25, 2006

614

Industrial Timber Corporation vs. Ababon, GR No. 164518, January 25, 2006

615

Magbanua v. Uy, 458 SCRA 185

616

Supra, Section 3, Rule 36

others.617 This is a several judgment. Example: Judgment against a surety for its
admitted liability.
4.
Separate judgments may be rendered when more than one claim for relief
is presented, the court at any stage upon determination of the issues material
to a particular claim and all counter claims arising therefrom may render a
separate judgment disposing of the claim and proceeding with the others but, it
may stay execution or enforcement until rendition of subsequent judgment/s and
may prescribe such conditions to secure benefit thereof to the party in whose
favor the judgment is rendered.618 An example is when causes of action have
been joined
5.
Judgment against entity without juridical personality it shall set forth the
individual names / proper names if known of persons composing it.619

RULE 37 NEW TRIAL OR RECONSIDERATION


WHEN FILED
1.
A motion for new trial or reconsideration may be filed within the period for
taking an appeal.620
GROUNDS FOR A MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL
1.
Fraud, Accident, Mistake, Excusable Negligence which ordinary prudence
could not have guarded against and by reason of which the aggrieved party was
probably impaired in his rights.
1.1
Fraud should be extrinsic or collateral, which refers to such acts that
prevents a party from having a trial / presenting his case in court. It refers to all
kinds of deceptions, whether through insidious machination, manipulation or
concealment or misrepresentation that leads another party to error.621 Examples
are: false promise to compromise or connivance of lawyer with adverse party.
This does not include intrinsic fraud or acts of a party at trial that prevents fair
determination. Examples are: perjury, falsification.

617

Supra, Section 4, Rule 36

618

Supra, Section 5, Rule 36

619

Supra, Section 6, Rule 36

620

Supra, Section 1, Rule 37

621

Maestrado v Court of Appeals, 327 SCRA 678

1.2
Accident is a fortuitous event, circumstance, or happening; an event
happening without any human agency or if happening wholly or partly through
huma n agency, is an event which under the circumstances is unusual or
unexpected by the person to whom it happens.622 Examples are sickness of a
party, lack of notice, when the same is sent to another address.
1.3
Mistake refers to some unintentional act, omission, or error arising from
ignorance, surprise, imposition, or misplaced confidence. It pertains generally to
mistake of fact, not of law.623 Examples are failure to answer / act because he
believed it unnecessary because of a compromise or other document.
1.4
Excusable Negligence624 is an excusable omission to do something which
a reasonable man, guided by those considerations which ordinarily regulate the
conduct of human affiants, would do; or the reasonable doing of something which
a prudent or reasonable man would not do. The failure here is really that of the
party or counsel, such as a non submission on time because of distance
traveled.
2.
Newly Discovered Evidence, which the aggrieved party could not with
reasonable diligence, have discovered or produced at the trial and which would
probably alter the result.
2.1
Hence, the requisites are: (a)Evidence is discovered after trial (b)Such
could not have been discovered and produced at the trial with reasonable
diligence (c) Evidence is material, not cumulative, corroborative, or impeaching,
and is of such weight that, if admitted, could probably change the judgment.625
GROUNDS FOR MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION
1.
The grounds for a motion for reconsideration are: (a) Award of excessive
damages (b) Insufficiency of evidence to justify the decision or final order (c)
Decision / final order is contrary to law
HOW FILED / CONTENTS
1.
It shall be made in writing stating the ground/s, written notice of which
shall be served by the movant on the adverse party.

622

Jarco Marketing v Court of Appeals, 321 SCRA 375

623 Agan

v Heirs of Sps. Andres and Diosdada Nueva, 418 SCRA 421

624

Mckee v Intermediate Appellate Court, 211 SCRA 517

625

Marikina Valley Development Corporation v Court of Appeals, 294 SCRA 273

2.
If the Motion for New Trial is based on Fraud, Accident, Mistake or
Excusable Negligence, it should be supported by affidavits of merit, which may
be rebutted by affidavits.
2.1
The requirement of an affidavit is essential because obviously a new trial
would be a waste of the courts time if the complaint turns out to be groundless or
the defense ineffective.626
3.
If based on newly discovered evidence it should be supported by affidavits
of the witnesses by whom such evidence is expected to be given or by duly
authenticated documents which are proposed to be introduced as evidence.
4.
If it is a motion for reconsideration, it should point out specifically the
finding / conclusions which are not supported by the evidence / contrary to law,
making express reference to testimonial / documentary evidence or provisions
alleged to be contrary to such findings or conclusions.
4.1
If not, the motion is considered a pro-forma motion. It does not toll the
reglementary period of appeal.627
4.2
Note also that such a motion
service has the same effect628

without notice of hearing and proof of

IF A MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL IS FILED, WHAT ENSUES


1.
Court may either deny or set aside the judgment or final order and grant a
new trial629
1.1
If denied, another motion may be filed, if it is based on a ground not
existing nor available, when the first motion has filed.630
1.2
Note that a motion for new trial is an omnibus motion, thus it should
include all grounds then available as those not included are deemed waived.
2.
IF granted, the effects are (a) original order / judgment is vacated (b) the
action shall stand trial de novo (c) recorded evidence, insofar as material or

626

Yap v Tanada, 163 SCRA 464

627

Marina Properties Corporation v Court of Appeals, 294 SCRA 273, Cledera v Sarmiento, 39 SCRA 552

628

Firme v Reyes, 92 SCRA 713

629

Supra, Section 3, Rule 37

630

Supra, Section 5, Rule 37

competent to establish the issues, shall be used at the new trial without need to
for it to retaken.631
IF MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION IS FILED WHAT ENSUES
1.
Court may deny or amend its judgment / final order if it finds that
excessive damages are awarded, or that it is contrary to the evidence or the
law632
2.
If denied, no second motion for reconsideration is allowed of the judgment
or final order.
2.1
The filing of a second motion for reconsideration is a prohibited pleading.
Thus it does not toll the running of the reglementary period of appeal.633
3.
Note though that if the subject is not a judgment / final order or is an
interlocutory order which does not dispose of a case completely but leaves
something more to be done upon its merits, a 2nd motion for reconsideration may
be allowed.

OTHER MATTERS PERTAINING TO SUBJECT MOTIONS


1.
The periods for resolving the motions are: (a) MTC / RTC within 30 days
from the time it is submitted for resolution634 (b) Court of Appeals within 60 days
after if declares it submitted for resolution (c) Supreme Cour- no period is
prescribed
2.
The denial of both motions is not appealable, it is the judgment or final
order that is appealable.635
3.
A motion for reconsideration is a pre-condition to an appeal in cases of (a)
habeas corpus in relation to custody of minors (b) annulment of marriage (c)
declaration of nullity of marriage, (d) legal separation.

631

Supra, Section 6, Rule 37

632

Supra, Section 3, Rule 37

633

Hongria v Hongria-Juarde, 425 SCRA 504

634

Supra, Section 4, Rule 37

635

Barnes v Reyes, 411 SCRA 538

RULE 38 RELIEF FROM JUDGMENT, ORDERS OR OTHER PROCEEDINGS


GROUNDS UPON WHICH IT IS TO BE BASED
1.
Judgment / final order is entered, or proceeding is thereafter taken against
him through fraud, accident, mistake or excusable negligence.
1.1
These grounds likewise support the petition when there is a failure to
take an appeal.
2.
The object to the petition is that the judgment, order, or proceeding be set
aside or that the appeal be given due course.
2.1

The petition must be verified.636

3.
The other ways by which a final and executory judgment may be set aside
is by Petition for Certiorari under Rule 65 and by Annulment of Judgment under
Rule 47.637
4.
The petition is premised on equity. It should therefore be granted only in
exceptional cases.
4.1
Petitioner must be able to prove fraud, accident, mistake or excusable
negligence and the existence of a good and substantial cause of action or
defense, as the case may be.638
5.
It cannot be availed of if there is another remedy in law 639and is available
only against a final and executory judgment.640
6.
Note though that if the case is covered by the Rules on Summary
Procedure, a petition for relief is a prohibited pleading. 641
WHEN AND WHERE FILED
636

Supra, Sections 1 and 2, Rule 38

637 Arcelona
638

v Court of Appeals, 280 SCRA 20

Torno v Intermediate Appellate Court, 166 SCRA 742

639 Alquesa

v Cavada, Jr. 3 SCRA 428

640

Valencia v Court of Appeals, 352 SCRA 72

641

Sta Lucia Realty and Development Corporation v Court of Appeals, 343 SCRA 214

1.
It is to be filed within 60 days after he learns of the judgment final order /
proceeding but not more than 6 month after such judgment / final order was
entered or such proceeding taken.642
1.1
A few days after expiration of the 60 day period is not entirely fatal as long
as it is still filed within the 6 months period.643
1.2
But if it is a judgment by compromise, the 6 months period runs from date
of rendition, because a judgment upon a compromise is immediately executory
and considered to have been entered on the date it was approved by the trial
court.644
1.3
The 6 months period is reckoned from entry of judgment or final order, not
from its rendition.645 The phrase from learning means from notice of judgment
or final order646
2.
It is to be filed in the same case and in the same court where the judgment
/ final order was entered or where proceeding is taken.
2.1
A petition for relief from judgment is not an available remedy in the
Supreme Court nor in the Court of Appeals. This is the rule notwithstanding the
statement that a party in any court may file a petition. The phrase applies only to
a Municipal Trial Court or a Regional Trial Court.647

PROCEDURE
1.
Filing of verified petition accompanied by affidavits showing the ground
and the facts showing the petitioners good and substantial cause of action or
defense, as the case may be.

642

Supra, Section 3, Rule 38

643

Mago v Court of Appeals, 303 SCRA 600

644

Manipor v Ricafort, 407 SCRA 298

645

Bayog v Natino, 258 SCRA 378

646

Prudence Realty and Development Corporation v Court of Appeals, 231 SCRA 379

647

Pucson Jr. vs. MRM Philippines, Inc. G.R. No. 182718, September 26, 2008

2.
Order issued requiring adverse party to answer within 15 days from
receipt648
2.1
If warranted a writ of preliminary Injunction may be issued as may be
necessary for the preservation of the rights of the parties, upon the filing by the
petitioner of a bond to indemnify the respondent for all damages and costs
incurred if the petition is dismissed or the petitioner fails on the trial on the merits.
2.2
However, such injunction shall not operate to discharge or extinguish any
lien which the adverse party may have acquired upon property of the
petitioner.649
3.
Adverse party answers, but if he does not, he cannot be declared in
default.
4.
Court hears and may grant relief if the allegations are true or deny if not
true.
4.1
If granted, the assailed final order / judgment / proceeding is set aside and
proceedings taken as if a timely motion for new trial has been granted.650 There
are in effect two hearings: the first is as to the merits of the petition, the second is
as the merits of the principal case.
4.2
If denied, the order is not appealable651 but may be subject of certiorari
under Rule 65.
5.
Court hears the case as if a timely motion for new trial or reconsideration
has granted.
5.1
If the subject is denial of an appeal, the lower court shall be required to
give due course to the appeal and elevate the records as if a timely and proper
appeal has been made.652
6.

Judgment is rendered and is appealable

DISTINGUISHED FROM A MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL


648

Supra, Section 4, Rule 38

649

Supra, Section 5, Rule 38

650

Supra, Section 6, Rule 38

651

Supra, Section 1(b), Rule 41

652

Supra, Section 7, Rule 38

1.
They are distinguished as follows: (a) a motion for new trial is filed before
judgment becomes final, while a petition for relies if filed after a judgment
becomes final (b) a motion for new trial applies to judgments / final orders, while
a petition for relief includes proceedings (c) the grounds for a motion for new trial
includes newly discovered evidence, while a petition for relief is limited to FAME
(d) a motion for new trial is filed within the period for perfecting an appeal, while
a petition for relief is filed within 60 days from knowledge but within 6 months
from entry of judgment (e) a motion for new trial if denied allows an appeal, while
a petition for relief from judgment does not allow an appeal (f) a motion for new
trial is a legal remedy, while a petition for relief is a remedy in equity (g) a
motion for new trial requires no verification, while a petition for relief needs to be
verified.

RULE 39 EXECUTION, SATISFACTION AND EFFECT OF JUDGMENTS


EXECUTION DEFINED

1.
It is the remedy afforded for the satisfaction of a judgment.653It is the fruit
and end of a suit.654
TWO KINDS OF EXECUTION
1.
Compulsory Execution is one which issues as a matter of right, on motion,
upon a judgment or order that disposes of the action or proceeding upon
expiration of the period to appeal, if no appeal is taken or is perfected.
1.1

It also issues when appeal is duly perfected and finally resolved.

1.2
It may be applied for in the court of origin, on motion of judgment obligee
submitting certified true copies of the judgment / final orders / orders sought to be
enforced and entry thereof, with notice to the adverse party. There is no need for
return of records.
1.3. It may also be applied for in the appellate court, on motion in the same
case, when the interest of justice so requires, direct the court of origin to issue
the writ of execution in the event of the refusal of the court of origin to issue the
writ. 655
1.4. A motion is required as there may be questions / disputes as to finality or
amounts to be stated in the writ.
2.
Discretionary Execution is one that is issued, on motion, of the prevailing
party for good reasons. This is also known as execution pending appeal or
exceptional execution 656
2.1
It is filed in the trial court while it has jurisdiction over the case and is in
possession of either the original record or the record on appeal, as the case may
be, at the time of the filing of the motion.657 The court, may in its discretion, order
execution of judgment / final order even before the expiration of the period to
appeal.
2.2
If the trial court has lost jurisdiction, it is to be filed with the appellate court.
A court loses jurisdiction when there is perfected appeal and the period to appeal
has expired. When a record on appeal is required, it loses jurisdiction over the

653

Cagayan De Oro Coliseum v Court of Appeals, 320 SCRA 731

654 Ayo

v Violago Isnani, 380 SCRA 543

655

Supra, Section 1, Rule 39

656

Supra, Section 2, Rule 39

657

Philippine Nails & Wires Corpoation v Malayan Insurance Company, 397 SCRA 431

subject of the appeal upon perfection of the appeal and expiration of the period
to appeal.
2.3
The requisites of execution pending appeal are: (a) A motion by the
prevailing party with notice to the adverse party (b)There must be good reason
for execution pending appeal (c) The good reason must be stated in a special
order. They must constitute superior circumstances demanding urgency which
will outweigh the injury or damage should the losing party secure a reversal of
the judgment on appeal.658
2.4
Examples of good reasons are: proven insolvency of the debtor659
deterioration of the goods 660, prevailing partys inability to enjoy the decision, or
its becoming illusory. In a recent case, old age was found to be a good reason661
2.5
Stay of discretionary execution can be had upon approval by the proper
court of a sufficient supersedeas bond filed by the party against whom it is
directed conditioned upon performance of the judgment or final order allowed to
be executed in case finally sustained in whole in part. The bond may then be
proceeded against on motion with notice to the surety662 but, the mere filing of a
bond by a successful party allow execution pending appeal nor constitute good
ground.663
3.
There are judgments not stayed by appeal such as judgments in
injunction, to include a judgment dissolving it664 receivership, accounting and
support and such other judgments as are now or hereafter be declared to be
immediately executory, shall be enforceable upon their rendition, they shall not
be stayed by an appeal taken therefrom, unless otherwise ordered by the trial
court.
3.1
If stayed, it shall be upon such terms as to bond or otherwise as may be
considered proper for the security / protection of the rights of the adverse party.
On appeal though, the appellate court may make an order suspending,

658

Jaca v Davao Lumber Company, 113 SCRA 107

659

Lao v Mencias, 21 SCRA 1021

660

Intramuros Tennis Club, Inc. v Court of Appeals, 341 SCRA 90

661

FEBTC v Toh, Sr. 404 SCRA 590

662

Supra, Section 3, Rule 39

663

International School v. Court of Appeals, 309 SCRA 474

664

ITC v PTA, 341 SCRA 90

modifying, restoring or granting the injunction, receivership, accounting or award


of support.665
3.2
Judgments in Forcible Entry / Illegal Detainer, if against the defendant are
immediately executory.666 The same is true of a judgment by compromise.667
4.
Separate, Several or Partial Judgments may executed under the same
terms and conditions as execution of a judgment / final order pending appeal. 668
4.1
If execution is granted by the judgment/final order is reversed on appeal or
totally / partially or annulled, on appeal or otherwise, the trial court, on motion,
may issue orders of reparation or restitution of damages as equity and justice
may warrant under the circumstances.669
4.2
The phrase or otherwise applies to reversal after a petition for relief has
been granted under Rule 38 and upon a favorable judgment in a petition for
annulment of judgment under Rule 47
5.
The Court of Appeals has no authority to issue immediate execution
pending appeal of its own decision. Discretionary execution applies only to a
judgment or final order of the trial court.670
WHAT ARE / OR MAY BE THE SUBJECT OF EXECUTION
1.
Only judgments or final orders, or one which disposes of the whole subject
matter or terminates a particular proceeding or action, leaving nothing to be done
but to enforce by execution that which has been determined.
1.1
Distinguishing a final judgment or order from one which has become
final and executory. A final judgment is one that finally disposes of a case,
leaving nothing more to be done by the court in respect thereto. It is an
adjudication on the merits. Once rendered, the task of the court is ended, as far
deciding the controversy or determining rights and liabilities of litigants. Nothing
more is to be done but to await the parties next move, and ultimately, to cause
execution of the judgment once it becomes final and executory.671
665

Supra, Section 4, Rule 39

666

Supra, Section 19, Rule 70

667

Litton v Court of Appeals, 263 SCRA 40, AFPMBAI v Court of Appeals, 311 SCRA 143

668

Supra, Section 2 (b), Rule 39

669

Supra, Section 5, Rule 39

670

Heirs of the late Justice JBL Reyes v Demetria, 374 SCRA 206

671

Denso Philippines, Incorporated v IAC, 148 SCRA 280

1.2
An exception for the need to await a final judgment or order is a judgment
for support pendente lite.672 The principal case in this instance still continues.
1.3
As a rule, after a judgment becomes final and executory, execution
becomes a ministerial duty of the court.673
1.4
Execution may however be denied when: (a) judgment has been complied
with voluntarily674(b) When the judgment has been novated (c) When a petition
for relief has been filed and a writ of injunction is granted (d) When execution is
sought more than five years from entry of judgment (e) When execution is sought
against exempt property (f) when the judgment is conditional
HOW CAN A FINAL JUDGMENT / ORDER BE ENFORCED
1.
A final and executory judgment may be enforced by (a) By motion within 5
years from date of entry of judgment (b) By action after the lapse of 5 years from
date of entry of judgment but before barred by statute of limitations, which is 10
years. This is known as action to revive judgment. 675
2.
The revived judgment may also be enforced by motion within 5 years from
date of entry, and thereafter by action before it is barred by the statute of
limitations. The purpose of the action is not to re-examine the issues as the
cause of action is the judgment itself and not the merits of the original action.676
The proper venue of an action for revival of judgment depends on the determination of
whether the present action for revival is a real or personal action.677
3.
Reconciling the actions upon a judgment under Article 1144 of the Civil
Code, which prescribes in 10 years, there is no conflict as the Rules of Court
refer to the manner of execution of the judgment.
3.1
Note that this is not applicable in land registration cases or other special
proceedings but only in civil actions.
672

Supra, Section 5, Rule 61

673

Fideldia v. Songcuan, 465 SCRA 218

674

Cunanan v Court of Appeals, 25 SCRA 263

675

Supra, Section 6, Rule 39

676

Laperal v Ocampo, 410 SCRA 339

677

Infante v Aran Builders, 531 SCRA 123 (August 24, 2007)

4.
There are however instances when judgment / final order can still be
enforced by motion even after lapse of 5 years when the delay is caused or
occasioned by the actions of the judgment obligee or incurred for his benefit or
advantage.678
4.1
The liberal construction of the rule resulting in non inclusion of the period
of delay occasioned by the acts of the judgment obligee in the counting of the
period was resorted to as strict adherence to the letter of the law would result in
absurdity and manifest injustice.679
ISSUANCE, FORM, CONTENTS OF A WRIT OF EXECUTION
1.
A writ of execution shall (a) Issue in the name of the Republic of the
Philippines from the Court that granted the judgment (b)
State the name of
court, case number, title, and dispositive portion (c) Require the sheriff or other
proper officer to whom it is directed to enforce the writ according to its terms.
2.
The terms or manner so provided is as follows: (a) execution be against
property of judgment obligor, to satisfy judgment with interest, out of his real or
personal property (b)
if against real or personal property, in the hands of
personal representatives, heirs, devisees, legatees, tenants trustees of the
judgment obligor, to satisfy the judgment, with interest, out of such property (c) if
it be for sale of real / personal property, to sell it, describing it, and apply the
proceeds in conformity with the judgment, the material parts of which shall be
recited in the writ (d)if it be for delivery of the possession of real / personal
property, to deliver the possession of the same, describing it, to the party entitled
thereto and to satisfy any costs, damages, rents, profits covered by the judgment
out of the personal property of the person against whom it was rendered, and if
no sufficient personal property be present, out of real property (e) in all cases,
the writ shall specifically state the amount of interest, costs damages, rents,
profits due as of the date of issuance of the writ aside from the principal
obligation under judgment680
IF EXECUTION IS FOR SUMS OF MONEY
1.
Immediate payment on demand from judgment obligor payable in cash of
certified bank check payable to the obligee or any form acceptable to him plus
lawful fees to be turned over to the clerk of court of the court that issued the writ.

678

Camacho v Court of Appeals, 287 SCRA 611

679

Republic v Court of Appeals, 260 SCRA 344

680

Supra, Section 8, Rule 39

1.1
If judgment obligee is not present to receive the amounts, it shall be
delivered by judgment obligor to the sheriff, turning in all amounts on the same
day to the clerk of court or if not practicable, to deposit in the nearest government
depository bank of Regional Trial Court in the locality, then arrangements are
then made for remittance to clerk of court issuing the writ for delivery to the
judgment obligee. In no case shall the sheriff demand payment by check payable
to him.
2.
Satisfaction by Levy, if not paid in cash, the sheriff shall levy on the
properties of judgment obligor of any kind / nature which may be disposed of for
value and not otherwise exempt from execution.
2.1
The obligor is given the option to immediately choose which property or
part thereof may be levied upon to satisfy judgment. If not, sheriff shall levy on
personal properties first, if any, then on real properties if insufficient to answer for
judgment.
2.2
Sheriff can only sell sufficient portion of the personal / real property levied
upon when there is more property then is sufficient to satisfy judgment, on so
much of it to satisfy judgment is to be sold. The conduct of the sale shall be the
same as that of execution for the sale of property.
2.3
The effect of a levy is that it shall create a lien in favor of the judgment
obligee over the right, title and interest of the judgment obligor in such property at
the time of levy, subject to liens / encumbrances then existing. Hence, the effect
then on 3rd persons will be dependent on when their liens / encumbrances, if any,
was annotated or interposed.681
2.4
If a levy is made beyond the period of 5 years from entry of judgment. The
same is not valid as lifetime or a writ of execution is 5 years from date of entry of
judgment.682
3.
Garnishment of debts and credits. The officer may levy on debts due the
judgment obligor and other credits. Examples: bank deposits, financial interests,
royalties, commissions, and other personal property. These are not capable of
normal delivery and are in the possession and control of third parties.
3.1
Levy shall be made by serving notice on the person owing such debts or
having in his possession or control such credits to which the judgment obligor is
entitled.

681

Supra, Section 12, Rule 39

682

Supra, Section 14, Rule 39

3.2
The garnishee, shall then make a written report to the court from service
of notice stating whether or not the judgment obligor has sufficient funds or
credits to satisfy the judgment. The garnished amount shall then be delivered
directly to the judgment obligee within 10 working days from service of notice on
him requiring delivery, less lawful fees to be paid directly to the Court.
3.3
If there are 2 or more garnishees, the judgment obligor shall have the right
to indicate the garnishee/s who shall deliver, otherwise it shall be the choice of
the judgment obligee.683
4.
Writ is to be returned to the Court issuing it immediately after judgment
has been satisfied in part or in whole. If not / cannot be satisfied in full within 30
days from receipt of the writ, the officer shall report to the court and state the
reason therefor. Such writ will continue to be in effect during the period within
which judgment may be enforced by motion, the officer shall then make a report
to the Court every 30 days on the proceedings taken thereon until the judgment
is satisfied in full or its effectivity expires. The returns / reports shall set forth the
proceedings taken, filed with the court and copies promptly furnished parties. 684

EXECUTION FOR SPECIFIC ACTS685


1.
If conveyance, delivery of deeds or other specific acts are required, a
party is directed to comply if he fails to do so within the period specified, court
may direct the act to be done at the cost of the disobedient party, by some other
person appointed by the court and when so done it is as if done by the
disobedient party. If it involves real / personal property located in the Philippines,
the court in lieu of directing a conveyance thereof may by an order divest title and
vest it in others, which shall have the force and effect of a conveyance executed
in due form of law.
IF EXECUTION IS FOR THE SALE OF REAL/PERSONAL PROPERTY
1.
The property is to be sold, describing it, and applying the proceeds in
conformity with the judgment.
2.
Notice must be given as follows: (a) Perishable property posting of
written notice(of time, place, sale in 3 public places preferably in conspicuous
areas of the municipal/city hall, post office, public market, for such a time as may
683

Supra, Section 9, Rule 39

684

Supra, Section 14, Rule 39

685

Supra, Section 10, Rule 39

be reasonable depending on circumstances (b)


Personal property
posting of written notice in 3 public places for not less than 5 days (c) Real
property posting of written notice in 3 public places for at least 20 days,
describing the property, where it is to be sold, and if assessed value is in excess
of PHP 50,000.00, publishing the notice in a newspaper of general circulation
once a week for 2 consecutive weeks. In all cases written notice is also given
to judgment obligor at least 3 days before the sale except in (a) notice is given at
any time in the same manner as personal service of pleadings. 686
2.1
The contents of the notice are the place, date exact time not earlier than
9:00 am or later than 2:00 pm. The place may be agreed upon. If not agreed
upon: (a) Real/Personal property not capable of manual delivery shall be sold at
the Office of the Clerk of Court of Regional or Municipal Trial Court issuing the
writ (b) If capable of manual delivery, where personal property is located.
2.2
If there is a sale without notice, the officer is liable for punitive damages in
the amount of PHP 5,000.00 in addition to actual damages sustained by injured
person. If the notice is defaced or removed before the sale / satisfaction of the
judgment, the person so defacing or removing shall be liable to pay PHP
5,000.00 plus actual damages. These are recoverable upon motion.687
3.
The manner of sale shall be by public auction. This applies also when
property is levied upon.
3.1
Sale is made to the highest bidder, to start at the exact time stated in the
notice.
3.2. If sufficient property has been sold, no more shall be sold and any excess
property / proceeds shall be delivered to the judgment obligor or his
representative, unless otherwise directed by the court. Like when other debts due
to be paid
3.3
If sale is of real property consisting of several known lots, they must be
sold separately or if claimed by a 3rd person, he may require it to be sold
separately.
3.4
Personal property capable of manual delivery must be sold within view of
those attending and in such parcels so as to bring the highest price.

686

Supra, Section 15, Rule 39

687

Supra, Section 17, Rule 39

3.5
The judgment obligor, if present may direct the order in which the property
is to be sold when such property consists of several parcels / known lots which
can be sold to advantage separately.
3.6
No officer or his deputies, can be a purchaser, nor be interested directly or
indirectly in any purchase at such sale.688
3.7
By written consent of both judgment obligor / obligee or their duly
authorized representatives, the auction sale may be adjourned to any date or
time agreed by them. Without an agreement officer may adjourn from day to
day if it becomes necessary. 689
3.8
When a purchaser refuses to pay , the officer may again sell the property
to the highest bidder and shall not be responsible for any loss occasioned
thereby, like when it is resold for less. But, the court may order the refusing
purchaser to pay unto the Court such loss, and punish him with contempt if he
disobeys. Payment shall inure to the benefit of party entitled to execution, unless
he has been satisfied, in which case to the judgment obligor. In addition, officer
may thereafter reject all bids of such purchaser.690
3.9
The judgment obligee can be a purchaser, and if no 3rd party claim has
been filed, he need not pay the amount if it does not exceed the amount of his
judgment. If it does he shall only pay the excess. 691
3.10 If the judgment obligor pays the judgment before sale, the sale is
prevented by the payment required by execution and cost incurred therein692
3.11 A third party claimant is one who claims title to, or right of possession of
the property levied upon by the sheriff. Note that there may be a 3rd party
claimant in execution, preliminary attachment and replevin.
3.12 A third party claimant can file a 3rd party claim or a terceria by executing
an affidavit showing his title thereto, or right of possession over the property
being levied upon, stating therein the grounds of such title or right, serving a copy
thereof to the sheriff and judgment obligee. If filed, sheriff is not obliged to
proceed unless the judgment obligee files an indemnity bond in an amount not
less than value of the property. No action on the bond may enforced by the third
party claimant unless filed within 120 days from date of the filing of the bond. If
688

Supra, Section 19, Rule 39

689

Supra, Section 22, Rule 39

690

Supra, Section 20, Rule 39

691

Supra, Section 21, Rule 39

692

Supra, Section 18, Rule 39

bond is filed, a 3rd party claimant may vindicate his claim within the period or he
may institute a separate action to vindicate his claim but nothing also prevents
the judgment obligee from claiming damages in the same or separate action
against a 3rd party claimant who files a frivolous / spurious claim. Note that if writ
is issued in the name of the Republic of the Philippines, no bond is required.
Officer is to be represented by the Solicitor General, and if damages are
assessed, it is to be paid out of the National Treasury. 693
4.

After a sale, a conveyance is to be made as follows:

4.1
Real Property a certificate of sale is given stating the description of the
property, price paid for each distinct lot / parcel, whole price paid and a statement
that the right of redemption shall or will expire one year from date of registration
of the certificate694 making mention of the existence of a 3rd party claim, if any.
695 Note: the requirement of mentioning a 3rd party claim, if any, applies also to
conveyance over personal property.
4.2
The parties entitled to redeem are: (a) J u d g m e n t o b l i g o r , o r h i s
successor in interest, in whole or any part of the property, or (b) A creditor having
a lien by virtue of an attachment, judgment, mortgage on the property sold or on
some part thereof, subsequent to the lien under which the property is sold. Such
redeeming creditor is called a redemptioner.696
4.3
The judgment obligor / redemptioner may redeem the property from the
purchaser at any time within 1 year from registration by paying the amount of
purchase, plus 1% interest per month at the time of redemption, together with the
amounts of assessments / taxes paid at the purchase and interest on the same
at the same rate, and, if the purchaser be also a creditor having a prior lien to
that of the redemptioner, other than the judgment, the amount of the lien plus
interest.
4.4
Property so redeemed may be redeemed within 60 days after the last
redemption upon payment of the sum paid, w/ 2% interest thereon plus taxes /
assessments paid, and amount of liens held by redemptioner prior to his own,
and so forth.
4.5
Written notice however of redemption must be given to the officer who
made the sale and duplicate with the Registry of Deeds and if any assessments /
taxes / prior liens are paid, notice must also be given to above parties otherwise,
693

Supra, Section 16, Rule 39

694

Supra, Section 25, Rule 39

695

Supra, Section 26, Rule 39

696

Supra, Section 27, Rule 39

redemption can be effected without paying taxes / assessments / liens. Note:


Proof required of redemption under Section 30
4.6
Proof of Redemption-A redemptioner must produce to the officer, or
person from whom he seeks to redeem, and serve with notice to the officer, a
copy of judgment or final order, certified by the clerk of court or the mortgage /
other lien, certified copy by the Register of Deeds / or memorandum thereof and
affidavit showing amount due on the lien.697
4.7
If the Judgment Obligor redeems, -He must make all the payments
required to effect a redemption by a redemptioner. Thereupon, no further
redemption is allowed and he is restored to his estate. The person upon whom
redemption payment is made shall execute a Certificate of Redemption after
payment. Certificate is then filed with the Office of the Registry of Deeds.698
4.8
Pending redemption, use of the real property shall remain
with the
person in possession at the time of sale or entitled to possession afterwards may
continue to use it in the same manner as it was previously used, or to use in the
ordinary course of husbandry or to make necessary repairs to buildings thereon
while he occupies the property, but the court in proper cases, may restrain the
commission of waste on the property by injunction on the application of the
purchaser / judgment obligee with or without notice. 699
4.9
Rents, earnings and income shall belong to the judgment obligor until the
expiration of his period for redemption. Neither shall the purchaser or judgment
obligee be entitled to the same when such property is in the possession of a
tenant.700
4.10 If no redemption is made within one year from date of registration, the
purchaser is entitled to possession and conveyance or if so redeemed
whenever 60 days has elapsed and no other redemption is made and the time for
redemption has expired, the last redemptioner is entitled to possession and
conveyance but, in all cases the judgment obligor is entitled to have the entire
period of one year.
4.11 Officer shall execute the deed / or his successor in interest with the same
effect. Once done, the purchaser / redemptioner shall be substituted to and
acquire all the rights title and interest and claim of the judgment obligor to the
property as of the time of the levy. Possession shall then be given unless
697

Supra, Section 30, Rule 39

698

Supra, Section 29, Rule 39

699

Supra, Section 31, Rule 39

700

Supra, Section 32, Rule 39

property is held by a 3rd party adverse to the judgment obligor.701 Manner of


effecting transfer of possession is by writ of possession.702
4.12 If the sale is rendered ineffective as when the purchaser of real property
or his successor in interest fails to recover possession or is evicted therefrom as
a consequence of: irregularities in the proceedings concerning the sale, judgment
has been reversed or set aside pursuant to a petition for relief,property is exempt
from execution , or that 3rd person has vindicated his right to the property. He
may on motion in the same action or in a separate action recover from the
judgment obligee the price paid with interest, or so much thereof as has not been
delivered to the judgment obligor or he may on motion have the judgment revived
in his name, if a redemptioner for the whole price with interest, or so much
thereof as has been delivered to the judgment obligor. The judgment revived
shall have the same force and effect as an original judgment would have as of
the date of revived and no more.703
4.13 If it involves personal property that is capable of Manual Delivery, the
officer must deliver the property and if desired, execute and deliver a certificate
of sale, which shall conveys all right with the judgment obligor had in such
property as of date of levy on execution or preliminary attachment. 704
4.14 If Incapable of Manual Delivery, the officer must execute and deliver a
certificate of sale and such shall convey all rights to purchaser as of the date of
levy on execution or preliminary attachment. 705
EXECUTION IS FOR DELIVERY OR RESTITUTION OF REAL PROPERTY
1.
The officer shall demand of the person against whom judgment is
rendered and all persons claiming rights under him to peaceably vacate the
property within 3 working days and restore possession thereof to the judgment
oblige otherwise the officer shall oust all such persons thereon, with assistance
from peace officers employing reasonable means and place the judgment
obligee in possession.
1.1
Any costs, damages, rents, profits shall be satisfied in the same manner
as a judgment for money.
EXECUTION IS FOR REMOVAL OF IMPROVEMENTS

701

Supra, Section 33, Rule 39

702

Cometa v IAC, 151 SCRA 563, AutoCorp Group v Court of Appeals, 437 SCRA 678

703

Supra, Section 34, Rule 39

704

Supra, Section 23, Rule 39

705

Supra, Section 24, Rule 39

1.
The officer shall not destroy, demolish or remove except upon special
order of the court, issued upon motion / hearing and after the judgment obligee
had failed to remove within a reasonable time fixed by the rules.
EXECUTION IS FOR DELIVERY OF PERSONAL PROPERTY
1.
The officer shall take possession and forthwith deliver it to party entitled
thereto and satisfy any judgment for money as herein provided. 706
EXECUTION OF SPECIAL JUDGMENTS
1.
Performance of an act other than those enumerated in Section 9 and 10, a
certified copy of the judgment shall be attached to the writ of execution and
served upon party against whom it is rendered, or upon any person required
thereby, or by law, to obey the same.
1.1

If such party / person disobeys, they may be punished for contempt.707

2.
Examples of special judgments are judgments in cases for Injunction or
Quo warranto
WHAT ARE THE PROPERTIES EXEMPT FROM EXECUTION
1.
Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, the following property, and
no other, shall be exempt from execution:
(a)
The judgment obligors family home as provided by law, or the homestead
in which he resides, and land necessarily used in connection therewith;
(b)
Ordinary tools and implements personally used by him in his trade,
employment, or livelihood;
(c)
Three horses, or three cows, or three carabaos, or other beasts of burden,
such as the judgment obligor may select necessarily used by him in his ordinary
occupation;
(d)
His necessary clothing and articles for ordinary personal use, excluding
jewelry;
(e)
Household furniture and utensils necessary for housekeeping, and used
for that purpose by the judgment obligor and his family, such as the judgment
obligor may select, of a value not exceeding one hundred thousand pesos;
706

Supra, Sections 9 and 10, Rule 39

707

Supra, Section 11, Rule 39

(f)
Provisions for individual libraries and equipment of judges, lawyers,
physicians, pharmacists, dentists, engineers, surveyors, clergymen, teachers,
and other professionals, not exceeding three hundred thousand pesos in value;
(h)
One fishing boat and accessories not exceeding the total value of one
hundred thousand pesos owned by a fisherman and by the lawful use of which
he earns his livelihood;
(i)
So much of the salaries, wages, or earnings of the judgment obligor for his
personal services within the four months preceding the levy as are necessary for
the support of his family;
(j)

Lettered gravestones;

(k)
Monies, benefits, privileges, or annuities accruing or in any manner
growing out of any life insurance;
(l)
The right to receive legal support, or money or property obtained as such
support, or any pension or gratuity from the Government;
(m)

Properties specially exempted by law.

2.
But no article or species of property mentioned in this section shall be
exempt from execution issued upon a judgment recovered for its price or upon a
judgment of foreclosure of a mortgage thereon.708
3.
Claims for exemption from execution of properties must be presented
before its sale on execution by the sheriff.709
WHAT HAPPENS TO EXECUTION UPON THE DEATH OF A PARTY
1.

It may issue or be enforced:

1.1
In case of death of judgment obligee, upon application of his executor or
administrator
1.2
In case of death of judgment obligor, against his executor, administrator, or
successor in interest, IF it be for recovery of real or personal property or
enforcement of a lien.

708

Supra, Section 13, Rule 39

709

Gomez v Gealone, 203 SCRA 474

1.3
Death of judgment obligor after execution is actually levied upon any of his
property, the same may be sold for the satisfaction of the judgment obligation
and the officer must account to the executor or administrator for any surplus, if
any. 710
AS BETWEEN SEVERAL PERSONS AGAINST WHOM EXECUTION IS
DIRECTED
1.
There is a right to contribution or reimbursement if: more than a due
portion of the judgment is satisfied out of the proceeds of the sale of the property
of one of them, or, one pays, without sale, more than his proportion.
1.1
If judgment is upon an obligation of one of them, as security for another,
and the surety pays the amount, or any part thereof, either by sale of property or
before a sale, he may compel repayment from the principal.711
WHAT ARE THE OTHER REMEDIES OF THE JUDGMENT OBLIGEE IF
EXECUTION IS NOT CARRIED OUT OR JUDGMENT IS NOT SATISFIED
1.
Examination of the judgment obligor concerning his property and income
before the court or a commissioner and proceedings may thereafter may be
had for the application of his property or income towards satisfaction of judgment
but no obligor can be required to appear before a court or commissioner outside
the province or city where he resides.712
2.
Examination of the obligor of the judgment obligor upon proof shown to
the satisfaction of the court that a person, corporation or other juridical entity has
property of the judgment obligor or is indebted to him, the Court may by order
require the person, corporation or juridical entity to appear before the Court /
commissioner and be examined concerning the same.
2.1
The service of the order shall bind all credits due the judgment obligor and
all money / property of the judgment obligor in the possession / control of the
person, corporation or juridical entity.
2.2

Notice of all proceedings may also be required by the court.713

2.3
Obligor of judgment obligor may thereafter pay after writ of execution on
property has been issued, the amount of his debt or so much thereof as may be
necessary to satisfy the judgment and the sheriffs receipt shall constitute
710

Supra, Section 7, Rule 39

711

Supra, Section 35, Rule 39

712

Supra, Section 36, Rule 39

713

Supra, Section 37, Rule 39

sufficient discharge for the amount so paid or directed to be credited by the


judgment obligee on the execution714
2.4
In relation to both remedies party or other person may be compelled to
appear by subpoena and failure to obey an order, subpoena or be sworn or
answer as a witness or subscribe to a deposition is punishable by contempt. 715
3.
Order for application of property and income to satisfaction of judgment.
it may include his property or money due the judgment obligor, not exempt from
execution, in his hands or other person, corporation or juridical entity may be
applied to satisfaction of judgment subject to any prior rights over such property.
3.1
Also, if upon investigation of current income and expenses, the earnings
of judgment obligor are more than necessary for the support of his family, the
court may order that judgment be paid by monthly installments, failing in which
he may be punished for indirect contempt.716
4.
Appointment of a receiver for the property of the judgment obligor, it may
also forbid a transfer or other disposition of or interference with the property of
the judgment obligor not exempt from execution.717
4.1
Thereafter, there can be a sale by the receiver upon order of ascertainable
interest (or the real estate itself) of a judgment obligor in real estate in the place
where proceedings are had as mortgagor / mortgagee or otherwise and if his
interest can be ascertained without controversy, the receiver may be ordered to
sell and convey such interest or real estate or the interest of the obligor therein.
All proceedings to be approved by the Court before execution of the deed.718
5.
In relation to the foregoing, if it appears that a person or corporation,
alleged to have property of the judgment obligor denies or claims an interest in
the property adverse to him, the court may: (a) order judgment obligee to institute
an action against such person or corporation for the recovery of such interest or
debt (b) forbid a transfer / disposition of such interest / debt within 120 days from
notice of the order (c) punish disobedience of such order as for contempt. The
order may be modified or vacated at any time by the court that issued it, or by
the court in which the action is brought, upon terms as may be just. 719
714

Supra, Section 39, Rule 39

715

Supra, Section 38, Rule 39

716

Supra, Section 40, Rule 39

717

Supra, Section 41, Rule 39

718

Supra, Section 42, Rule 39

719

Supra, Section 43, Rule 39

WHAT IS TO BE DONE AFTER JUDGMENT IS SATISFIED


1.
Entry of satisfaction of judgment by the Clerk of Court in Court Docket and
Execution Book upon a return of the writ indicating satisfaction or admission of
satisfaction by the judgment oblige or counsel.720
2.
It can also be entered upon demand of judgment obligor when judgment is
satisfied in fact or upon notice / motion, the court may order entry without
admission721
EFFECT OF JUDGMENTS OR FINAL ORDERS
1.
The effect of a judgment / final order rendered by a court in the
Philippines, having jurisdiction to pronounce the same.
(a)
In case of a judgment / final order against a specific thing, or in respect to
probate of a will or administration of the estate of a deceased person, or in
respect to personal, political or legal condition / status of a particular person or
his relationship to another, the judgment or final order is conclusive upon the title
to the thing, the will, administration status or relationship of the person. However,
probate or granting of letters of administration shall only be prima facie evidence
of the death of the testator.722
(b)
Other cases, judgment / final order is with RESPECT TO THE MATTER
DIRECTLY ADJUDGED OR AS TO ANY MATTER THAT COULD HAVE BEEN
RAISED IN RELATION THERETO is CONCLUSIVE BETWEEN THE PARTIES
AND THEIR SUCCESSORS IN INTEREST BY TITLE SUBSEQUENT TO THE
COMMENCEMENT OF THE ACTION OR SPECIAL PROCEEDING LITIGATING
FOR THE SAME THING, UNDER THE SAME TITLE AND IN THE SAME
CAPACITY.723
(c)
In any other litigation between the same parties or their successors in
interest, that only is deemed to have been adjudged in a former judgment / final
order which appears on its face to have been so adjudged or which was actually
and necessarily included therein or necessary thereto.724
1.1
Paragraphs (a) and (b) are illustrative of the concept of res judicata that is
also known as bar by prior judgment. This exists when between the first case
where judgment is rendered, and the second case where such judgment is
720

Supra, Section 44, Rule 39

721

Supra, Section 45, Rule 39

722

Supra, Section 47 (a), Rule 39

723

Supra, Section 47 (b), Rule 39

724

Supra, Section 47 (c), Rule 39

invoked, there is identity of parties, subject matter, and cause of action. When all
three are present, the judgment on the merits rendered in the first constitutes an
absolute bar to the subsequent action.
1.2
Paragraph (c) is illustrative of what is known as conclusiveness of
judgment, when between the first case wherein judgment was rendered and the
second case wherein such judgment is invoked, there is only identity of parties,
but there is no identity of cause of action, the judgment is thus conclusive in the
second case, only as to the matters actually and directly controverted and
determined, and not as to matters merely involved therein.725
1.3
CONCLUSIVENESS OF JUDGMENT, also known as PRECLUSION OF
ISSUES or COLLATERAL ESTOPPEL OR IMMUTABILITY OF JUDGMENTS
espouses that issues actually and directly resolved in a former suit cannot again
be raised in any future case between the same parties involving a different cause
of action.726Once a case is decided with finality, the controversy is settled and the
matter is laid to rest. The prevailing party is entitled to enjoy the fruits of victory
while the other party is obliged to respect the courts verdict and comply with it.727
1.4
The doctrine of The law of the case states that whatever has once been
irrevocably established as the controlling legal rule of decision between the same
parties, whether correct on general principles or not, so long as the facts on
which the decision was predicated continue to be the facts of the case before the
court.728 This principle generally finds application in cases where an appellate
court passes on a question and remands the case to the lower court for further
proceedings. The question thus settled by the appellate court becomes the law of
the case upon a subsequent appeal. Consequently, the court reviewing the
succeeding appeal will not re-litigate the case but instead apply the ruling in the
previous appeal.729
2.
Effect of a foreign judgment/final order: (a) If upon a specific thing, the
judgment / final order is conclusive upon title to the thing (b) If against a person
it is presumptive evidence of a right between the parties and their successors
in interest by subsequent title (c) In either case, judgment / final order may be
repelled by evidence of want of jurisdiction, want of notice, collusion, fraud, clear
mistake of fact / law.730
725

Oropeza Marketing Corporation v Allied Banking Corporation, 393 SCRA 278

726

Tan v Court of Appeals, 363 SCRA 444

727

Siy v NLRC, GR No. 158971, August 25, 2005

728

Boiser v NTC, 169 SCRA

729

RCPI v Court of Appeals, GR No. 139763, April 26, 2006

730

Supra, Section 48, Rule 39

3.
Effect of judgment against a surety: When a judgment is rendered against
a party who stands as surety for another, the latter (principal) is also bound from
the time he has notice of the action or proceeding, and an opportunity at the
suretys request to join in the defense.731

731

Supra, Section 46, Rule 39

APPEALS
PRELIMINARIES
1.
As a general rule, the remedy to obtain a reversal or a modification of
judgment on the merits is appeal. This is true even if the error ascribed to the
court is lack of jurisdiction over the subject matter, or exercise of power in excess
thereof, or grave abuse of discretion in the findings of law or fact set out in the
decision.732
2.
The right to appeal is not part of due process but is a mere statutory
privilege that has to be exercised only in the manner and in accordance with the
provisions of law.733
3.
Where the judgment or final order is not appealable, the aggrieved party
may file the appropriate civil action under Rule 65. An example is a judgment in
summary proceeding case under the Family Code.
4.
On appeal, a party may not change his theory of the case. 734 Hence,
defenses not pleaded in the answer may not for the first time be raised on
appeal.735
4.1
A basic appellate rule is that the court shall not consider no error unless
stated in the assignment of errors.736
4.2
The exceptions to the rule are: (a) it is an error that affects jurisdiction over
the subject matter (b) it is an error that affects the validity of the judgment
appealed from (c) it is an error that affects proceedings (d) it is an error closely
related to or dependent on an assigned error and properly argued in the brief, or
(e) it is a plain and clerical error.
4.3
The Supreme Court is clothed with ample authority to review matters,
even if they are not assigned as errors on appeal if it finds that their
consideration is necessary in arriving at a just decision of the case.737
5.

Payment of docket fees is mandatory for the perfection of an appeal.

732 Association

of Integrated Security Force of Bislig-ALU v Court of Appeals, 467 SCRA 483

733

Cu-Unjieng v Court of Appeals, 479 SCRA 594

734

Supra, Section 15, Rule 44

735

Commissioner of Internal Revenue v Migrant Pagbilao Corporation, GR No. 159953, October 12, 2006

736

Supra, Section 8, Rule 51

737

Boston Bank of the Philippines v Manalo, GR No. 158149, February 9, 2006

5.1
Without payment, the court does not acquire jurisdiction over the subject
matter of the action and the decision sought to be appealed becomes final and
executory.738
5.2
However, the rule is qualified: (a) the failure to pay appellate docket fees
within the reglementary period only allows discretionary dismissal, not automatic
dismissal of the appeal, (b) such power should be used in the exercise of the
courts sound discretion in accordance with the tenets of fair play and with great
deal of circumspection considering all attendant circumstances.
RULE 40- APPEALS FROM THE MTC TO THE RTC
WHERE CAN AN MTC DECISION BE APPEALED
1.
A judgment / final order of the Municipal Trial Court is appealable to the
Regional Trial Court exercising jurisdiction over the area to which the Municipal
Trial Court pertains.
2.
In the appeal, the case title remains, but party appealing is designated as
appellant, while the adverse party is designated as the party-appellee. 739
WHEN CAN APPEAL BE TAKEN
1.
15 days after notice to the appellant. If record on appeal is required 30
days after notice but the period can be interrupted by a motion for
reconsideration or for new trial, although no motion to extend time for its filing is
allowed. 740
2.
Note the fresh period rule that is now applicable to an appeal under Rule
40, Rule 41, Rule 43 and Rule 45, which allows a party intending to appeal
another 15 days from receipt of an order denying a motion for reconsideration or
new trial to file an appeal 741
HOW IS APPEAL TAKEN

738

Regalado v Go, GR No. 167988, February 6, 2007

739

Supra, Section 1, Rule 40

740

Supra, Section 2, Rule 40

741

Neypes v Court of Appeals, GR 141524, September 14, 2005

1.
By notice of appeal indicating parties, judgment or final order appealed
from statement of the material dates showing timeliness of the appeal.
2.
By record on appeal, in special proceedings or cases allowing for multiple
appeals, like probate or partition. The record on appeal shall contain the
following:
a.
Full name of the parties stated in the caption including the judgment / final
order from which appeal is taken
b.
In chronological order, copies of all pleadings, petitions, motions, and all
interlocutory orders as are related to the appealed judgment / final order for
proper understanding of the issue.
c.

Data to show that appeal was filed on time

d.
If issue of fact is to be raised, it should include reference the documentary
evidence by exhibit taken on the issue specifying the documentary evidence by
exhibit nos. or letters and testimonial evidence by the names of the witnesses. If
the whole of it is included, a statement to such effect is sufficient.
e.

If more than 20 pages include a subject index 742

3.
Note that the requirement for a Approval of record on appeal743 the trial
court may approve it, if no objection is filed by the appellee or upon its motion /
appellee direct its amendment by the inclusion of omitted matters which are
deemed essential to the determination of the issue of law or facts involved in the
appeal.If amendment is ordered, which the appellant must comply with within the
period stated, any extension or if none, within 10 days, submitting the redrafted
record for the approval of the Court. Where both parties are appellants, they may
file a joint record on appeal.744
4.
Regardless of the mode of appeal, the adverse party is to be furnished
with a copy.
WHEN PERFECTED
1.

Perfection is determined by Section 9, Rule 41:

742

Supra, Section 6, Rule 41

743

Supra, Section 7, Rule 41

744

Supra, Section 8, Rule 41

1.1
If by notice of appeal, it is perfected upon the filing of the notice in due
time. The court loses jurisdiction upon perfection and expiration of the time of
appeal of other parties.
1.2
If by record on appeal, it is perfected upon approval of record on appeal
filed in due time. Court loses jurisdiction upon approval and expiration of time to
appeal of other parties.
2.
In either case, prior to transmittal of the records, the court may issue
orders: (a)protection and preservation of the rights of the parties not involving
any matter litigated by the appeal (b)approve compromises (c) permit appeals of
indigent litigants (d)order execution pending appeal (e) allow withdrawal of
appeal.745
2.1
This is power is known as residual jurisdiction . This is also known as
retained jurisdiction which is an extension of the original jurisdiction of the court
for certain specific purposes after perfection of the appeal but before transmittal
of the records or record on appeal.
3.
In both cases, docket fees and other fees are also to be paid to the clerk
of court of the court that rendered judgment. Proof payment of the same shall be
transmitted to the appellant court together with the records / record on appeal. 746
3.1
Late payment of docket fees may be admitted when a party shows a
willingness to abide by the Rules by immediately paying the docket fee six days
after filing a notice of appeal and beyond the period for perfecting an appeal.747
3.2
Where delay in the payment of docket fee was not due to a desire to delay
or defeat the ends of justice, late payment thereof which causes no prejudice to
anyone should not result in the dismissal of the appeal.748
4.
The record or record on appeal is transmitted by the clerk of court within
15 days from perfection, together with transcripts / exhibits, which he will certify
as complete.
4.1

A copy of the transmittal shall be furnished the parties.749

WHAT HAPPENS UPON TRANSMITTAL TO THE RTC


745

Supra, Section 4, Rule 40

746

Supra, Section 5, Rule 40

747

Mactan Cebu International Airport Authority v Mangubat, 312 SCRA 466

748

Lopez v Court of Appeals, 75 SCRA 401

749

Supra, Section 6, Rule 40

1.
Within 15 days from notice, appellant shall submit a memorandum briefly
discussing errors imputed to the lower court, copy furnished the adverse party.
Within 15 days from receipt of appellants memorandum, appellee may file his
own memorandum. Failure of appellant shall be ground for dismissal of the
appeal. Upon filing / expiration, the case is submitted for decision on the basis of
the record in Municipal Trial Court and the memoranda submitted by the
parties.750
2.
When an appeal is taken from an order of the lower Court dismissing the
case without trial on the merits, the Regional Trial Court may affirm or reverse it
as the case may be:
2.1
In case it is affirmed and ground of dismissal is lack of jurisdiction over the
subject matter of the case, the Regional Trial Court, if it has jurisdiction, shall try
the case on the merits as if the case was originally filed with it. In case of
reversal, it shall be remanded back for further proceedings.
2.2
If it was tried on the merits, without jurisdiction, the Regional Trial Court on
appeal shall not dismiss the case if it has original jurisdiction, but shall decide the
case in accordance with Section 7, without prejudice to the admission of
amended pleadings and additional evidence in the interest of justice. 751
RULE 41 APPEALS FROM REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS
1.
An appeal may be taken from a judgment /final order that completely
disposes of a case, or a particular matter therein when declared by the Rules to
be appealable but no appeal can be taken from:
(a)
Order denying a motion for new trial or reconsideration. An appeal of
judgment/final order is remedy or certiorari under Rule 65. Note that this has
been omitted as of December 27, 2007752
(b)
Order denying a petition for relief from judgment or similar motion.
Certiorari under Rule 65 is remedy
(c)

Interlocutory order. Certiorari under Rule 65 or mandamus is remedy

(d)
Order disallowing or dismissing an appeal. Mandamus or petition for relief
from judgment is the remedy
750

Supra, Section 7, Rule 40

751

Supra, Section 8, Rule 40

752 A.M.

No. 07-7-12-SC

(e)
Order denying a motion to set aside judgment by consent confession,
compromise on the ground of fraud, mistake, duress or any ground vitiating
consent. A petition for relief or a petition to annul judgment under Rule 47 or
Certiorari under Rule 65 is the remedy
(f)

Order of execution. Certiorari under Rule 65 is the remedy

(g)
Judgment / final order in separate claims, counterclaims, cross claims
rd
3 party claims, while main case is pending, unless the court allows an appeal
therefrom. The object is facilitate the trial of all issues.
(h)
Order dismissing an action without prejudice. The remedy is to refile or
certiorari under Rule 65.753
2.
That declaration of presumptive death is not appealable by the state or
the other party.
2.1
Remedy of the spouse declared presumptively dead is to file affidavit of
reappearance.754
WHAT ARE THE MODES OF APPEAL OF A JUDGMENT OR FINAL ORDER OF
A REGIONAL TRIAL COURT755
1.
Ordinary appeal refers to an appeal by notice of appeal of the decision of
the Regional Trial Court in cases decided in the exercise of its original jurisdiction
raising question of fact or mixed questions of law and fact
1.1
The period of ordinary appeal is 15 days from notice of judgment / final
order appealed from. If requiring a record on appeal, it is 30 days. Said periods
are interrupted by a motion for new trial or reconsideration but no extension of
time for their filing is allowed. Note that in habeas corpus cases the period is 48
hours from notice of judgment or final order756 Note also the application of the
fresh period rule.

753

Supra, Section 1, Rule 41

754 Article

41, Family Code

755

Supra, Section 2, Rule 41

756

Supra, Section 3, Rule 41

1.2
Appellate court docket fees / lawful fees shall be paid within the period for
taking an appeal to the clerk of court of the court that rendered judgment but
failure to pay is a ground for dismissal of the complaint757
1.3
If Appeal is by Notice of Appeal, it must indicate parties, judgment or final
order appealed from, and include a statement of the material dates showing
timeliness of the appeal.758 or if by Record on Appeal it must comply with the
requirements as previously discussed in an appeal from the Municipal Trial Court
to the Regional Trial Court.759
1.4
Perfection of Appeal is as discussed under Rule 40. 760 Subsequently, it is
the duty of the clerk of court of the lower court within 30 days after perfection of
all appeals to: (a) verify correctness of the original record / record on appeal and
make a certification as to correctness (b) verify completeness of records
transmitted to appellate court (c) If incomplete, take necessary measures as may
be required to complete the records, availing of the authority that he or the court
may exercise for this purpose. (d) transmit the records to the appellate court. (e)
then furnish parties of his transmittal. 761
1.5
If efforts to complete fail, it shall be indicated in the letter of transmittal
which exhibits / transcripts are not included, the reasons why they were not
transmitted and the steps taken to make them available.
1.6
It is likewise required that the transcripts be transcribed 762 and that the
transmittal to include proof of payment of docket fees.
1.7
Prior to transmittal of record / record on appeal, the court may motu propio
or on motion to dismiss the appeal for having been take out of time or for non
payment of docket and other lawful fees within the reglementary period.763 If
transmitted already, the Court of Appeals may dismiss.
1.8
Other procedural requirements and disposition of the appeal are governed
by Rule 44:

757

Supra, Section 13, Rule 41

758

Supra, Section 5, Rule 41

759

Supra, Sections 6,7,8, Rule 41

760

Supra, Section 9, Rule 41

761

Supra, Section 10, Rule 41

762

Supra, Section 11 and 12, Rule 41

763

Supra, Section 13, Rule 41

1.9
The title of the case shall remain, party appealing shall be referred to as
appellant / adverse party-appellee.764 Counsel / guardians ad litem of parties
shall likewise be considered as such in Court of Appeals, when others appear or
are appointed, notice shall be filed and furnished adverse parties.765
1.10 If the records are not transmitted to the Court of Appeals within 30 days
after perfection of the appeal, either party may file a motion with the Regional
Trial Court, with notice to the other, for transmittal.
1.11 Upon receipt by the Court of Appeals, the clerk shall docket the case and
notify the parties. If appeal is by record on appeal, within 10 days from receipt of
notice, appellant must file with the clerk of court 7 clearly legible copies of
approved record on appeal and proof of service thereof to adverse party of 2
copies. Any unauthorized, alteration, omission or addition shall be ground for
dismissal of the appeal.766
1.12 The Clerk of the Court of Appeals should also ascertain the completeness
of the records. If incomplete, he shall inform the court and recommend measures
to complete the record within the shortest possible time but if it cannot be
completed due to insuperable or extremely difficult circumstances. The court, on
its own or upon motion, may declare the record sufficient to decide issues and
explain reason for such declaration.767
1.13 Once done, Briefs are to be filed: (a) The Appellants Brief must be filed
within 45 days from notice that all evidence, documentary / testimonial are
attached to the record, 7 copies of the brief are to be filed attaching proof of
service of 2 copies to adverse party.768 Where there are several parties, each
counsel representing one or more but not all may be served with 1 copy. If
several counsel represent one party, service may be made on any one of
them.769 The contents of the appellants brief are: (a) subject index (b)assignment
of errors (c) statement of the case (d)statement of facts (e)statement of issues (f)
arguments (g) relief (f) if not by record on appeal, an appendix, copy of judgment
/ final order appealed. 770

764

Supra, Section 1, Rule 44

765

Supra, Section 2, Rule 44

Supra, Section 3, Rule 44


766

Supra, Section 4, Rule 44

767

Supra, Sections 4 and 5, Rule 44

768

Supra, Section 7, Rule 44

769

Supra, Section 11, Rule 44

770

Supra, Section 13, Rule 44

1.14 The
Appellees Brief is to be filed within 45 days from receipt of
Appellants Brief. It is required that 7 copies be filed with proof of service of 2
copies on appellant. The contents of the appellees brief are: (a) subject index (b)
statement of facts, either a statement of acceptance or counter-statement of facts
(c) Arguments771
1.15 A Reply Brief may be filed by appellant within 20 days from receipt of the
Appellees Brief.772 No extension of time to file breifs is allowed except for good
and sufficient cause, and only if filed before expiration of the time sought to be
extended773
In lieu of briefs, memoranda may be required is required in
certiorari, prohibition, madamus, quo warranto, hebeas corpus within a nonextendible period of 30 days from notice that all evidence is attached to the
record. Failure of appellant to file his memoranda is ground to dismiss the
appeal.774
1.16 Questions of law or fact may be raised in the appeal, whether or not a
motion for new trial has been filed and must within the issues framed by the
parties.775 As a rule, a party who deliberately adopts a certain theory upon which
the case is tried and decided by the lower court will not be permitted to change
his theory on appeal. Points of law, theories, issues, and arguments not brought
to the attention of the lower court need not be , and ordinarily not be, considered
by a reviewing court, as these cannot be raised for the first time at such late
stage. Basic considerations of due process underlie this rule.776
1.17 In Criminal Cases, note the possibility of the filing of two notices of appeal
when the penalty imposed by the Regional Trial Court is life imprisonment or
reclusion perpetua, appeal is by notice to the Court of Appeals, and by notice
again to the Supreme Court. If the penalty is death, it is automatically reviewed
by the Supreme Court, but such shall be made by the Court of Appeals, which
shall render judgment, then certify it to the Supreme Court, who will then enter
the same.777
2.
Petition for Review is an appeal to the Court of Appeals of judgment /
final order of the Regional Trial Court in the exercise of its appellate jurisdiction
under Rule 42
771

Supra, Section 14, Rule 44

772

Supra, Section 9, Rule 44

773

Supra, Section 12, Rule 44

774

Supra, Section 10, Rule 44

775

Supra, Section 15, Rule 44

776

BPI v Leobrera, 416 SCRA 15

777

People v. Mateo, 433 SCRA 640, AM No. 00-5-03-SC, October 15, 2004

2.1
It is initiated by the filing of a Verified Petition for Review with the Court of
Appeals, paying at the same time to the Clerk of Court of Appeals the
corresponding docket fees and lawful fees, depositing 500 for costs, furnishing
the Regional Trial Court and adverse party with a copy of the Petition.
2.2
It is to be filed within 15 days from notice of decision sought to be
reviewed or denial of motion for new trial or motion for reconsideration. Upon
payment of docket fees and deposit for costs and before the expiration of the
period, the Court of Appeals may grant an extension of 15 days. No further
extension can be given unless for the most compelling reason, but in no case to
exceed 15 days. 778
2.3
FORM, CONTENTS, NUMBER OF COPIES. 7 copies are to be filed,
indicating the original copy intended for the Court of Appeals containing (a)full
names of parties, without impleading the lower court / judges (b)specific material
dates indicating that it is filed on time (c) statement of matters, issues,
specification of errors of fact / law and reasons / arguments relied upon
(d)accompanied by clearly legible duplicate copies or true copies of judgment of
the lower courts, certified correct by Regional Trial Court clerk of court, pleadings
and other material portions supporting the allegations of the petition (e)
certification against forum shopping / verification. NOTE: Failure to pay fees or
comply with the requirements shall be sufficient ground for dismissal.779
2.4
The appeal is deemed PERFECTED upon timely filing of the petition and
payment of docket fees. The RTC loses jurisdiction upon perfection of the appeal
and lapse of time to appeal by the other parties. The Regional Trial Court
continues to have RESIDUAL JURISDICTION until the same has been given
DUE COURSE.780
2.5
Note that except in cases covered by the Rule on Summary Procedure,
appeal shall stay the judgment / final order unless Court of Appeals or the Rules
provide otherwise
2.6
ONCE FILED, the Court of Appeals may: (a) Require the respondent to file
a comment, not a motion to dismiss, within 10 days from notice (b)Dismiss the
petition if found to be patently without merit, prosecuted manifestly for delay, or
questions raised therein are too unsubstantial to require consideration.781

778

Supra, Section 1, Rule 42

779

Supra, Sections 2 and 3, Rule 41

780

Supra, Section 8, Rule 42

781

Supra, Section 4, Rule 42

2.7
The COMMENT should be filed in 7 copies, accompanied by certified true
copies of such MATERIAL PORTIONS OF THE RECORD AND OTHER
SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS, stating: (a)Statement of whether or not he
accepts the statement of matters (b)
Point out the insufficiencies /
inaccuracies (c) State reasons why it should not be given due course. Copy of
which must be served on adverse party.782
2.8
A petition is given DUE COURSE when upon the filing of the comment or
expiration of the period to file, the Court of Appeals finds PRIMA FACIE that the
lower court has committed an error of fact / law that will warrant a reversal /
dismissal. CONSEQUENTLY, the Court of Appeals, if it deems necessary, will
order the elevation by the clerk of the Regional Trial Court of the entire record
within 15 days from notice.783
2.9
IT IS SUBMITTED FOR DECISION after the filing of last pleading or
memorandum. Prior to that though, the Court of Appeals may set it for oral
argument / or require memoranda to be submitted within a period of 15 days from
notice.784
3.
Appeal by Certiorari or Petition for Review on Certiorari which should
involve a pure question of law direct to the Supreme Court under Rule 45
3.1
A Question of Law is one that requires interpretation or application of a
law, while a Question of Fact is one that pertains to a resolution of a factual
dispute.
3.2
There is a question of law in a given case when the doubt or difference
arises as to what the law is pertaining to a state of acts, and there is a question
of fact when the doubt arises as to the truth or falsity of alleged facts. 785
3.3
This is initiated by the filing of a Verified Petition for Review on Certiorari
raising only questions of law. This mode of appeal is available to question
judgment / resolutions of the Court of Appeals, the Sandiganbayan, a Regional
Trial Court, and other Courts whenever authorized by law.786
3.4
The TIME FOR FILING is 15 days from notice of the judgment, final /
order, or resolution or of denial of petitioners motion for new trial /
reconsideration. On motion and with full payment of docket fees and deposit of
782

Supra, Section 5, Rule 42

783

Supra, Section 6, Rule 41

784

Supra, Section 9, Rule 42

785

Manila Bay Club Corporation v Court of Appeals, 245 SCRA 715

786

Supra, Section 1, Rule 45

costs, the Supreme Court on justifiable reason may grant an extension of 30


days within which to file the petition.
Docket fees and proof of service of the petition on the lower court and adverse
party must accompany the filing of the petition.787
3.5
18 copies of the petition are required to be filed, indicating the original
copy for the court. It should contain: (a) full names of parties (petitioner /
respondent) without impleading court / judge (b) indicate material dates
(c)concise statements of the matters involved and the reason / arguments relied
upon for the allowance of the petition (d) clearly legible copies of judgment / final
order / reconsideration or certified true copy and other material portion supporting
the record (e) Certificate against forum shopping and verification 788
3.6

UPON FILING, the Supreme Court can:

(a)
DISMISS (1) for failure to comply with the requirements regarding
payment, proof of service, contents and documents (2) on its own initiative
because it is without merit, prosecuted for delay, or issues are too unsubstantial
to require consideration, OR
(b)
ALLOW REVIEW, which is not a matter of right but is discretionary, when
there are special / important reasons therefor: EXAMPLES- (1) when the court a
quo has decided a matter of substance not therefore determined by the Supreme
Court or decided in a way not in accord with the law or applicable decisions of
the Supreme Court (2) when court a quo has so far departed from the accepted
and usual course judicial proceedings, or so far sanctioned such departure by a
lower court, as to call for an exercise of the power of supervision.789
3.7. If given DUE COURSE, the Supreme Court can: (a) Require elevation of
the records / or specified portions thereof within 15 days from notice 790 (b)
Require filing of pleadings, briefs, memoranda or documents as it may deem
necessary within periods / conditions it may consider appropriate and impose
sanctions for non-filing / non-compliance or unauthorized filing. This ALSO
applies to a determination as to whether it should be dismissed or denied. 791 The
RULE APPLIES TO BOTH CIVIL / CRIMINAL ACTIONS, except in cases where
penalty is death, reclusion perpetua / life imprisonment.792
787

Supra, Sections 2 and 3, Rule 45

788

Supra, Section 4, Rule 45

789

Supra, Sections 5 and 6, Rule 45

790

Supra, Section 8, Rule 45

791

Supra, Section 7, Rule 45

792

Supra, Section 9, Rule 45

3.8
The exceptions to the general rule that only questions of law may be
raised in a petition for review are:(a) when the conclusion is a finding grounded
entirely on speculation, surmises, or conjectures; (b) when the inference made is
manifestly mistaken, absurd, or impossible; (c) where there is a grave abuse of
discretion; (d) when the judgment is based on a misapprehension of facts; (e)
when the findings of fact are conflicting; (f) when the Court of Appeals, in making
its findings, went beyond the issue of the case and the same is contrary to the
admissions of both appellant and appellee; (g) when the findings of the Court of
Appeals are contrary to those of the trial courts; (h) when the findings of facts are
conclusions without citation of specific evidence on which they are based; (i)
when the facts set forth in the petition as well as in the petitioners main and reply
briefs are not disputed by the respondents; (j) when the finding of fact of the
Court of Appeals is premised on the supposed absence of evidence but is
contradicted by the evidence on record; and (k) when the Court of Appeals
manifestly overlooked certain relevant facts not disputed by the parties and
which, if properly considered, would justify a different conclusion.793
4.
By Petition for Review under Rule 43 in a case decided by the Regional
Trial Court sitting as a commercial court.794
4.1
Applies primarily to appeals from the Court of Tax Appeals and other
quasi-judicial agencies to the Court of Appeals, but is not applicable to judgments
/ final orders under the Labor Code.795
4.2
The appeal can include questions of fact, law or mixed questions of law
and fact.796
4.3
The appeal shall be taken within fifteen (15) days from notice if the award,
judgment, and final order of resolution, or from the date of its last publication, if
publication is required by law for its effectivity, or of the denial of the petitioners
motion for new trial or reconsideration duly filed in accordance with the governing
law of the court or agency a quo. Only one (1) motion for reconsideration shall
be allowed. Upon proper motion and the payment of the payment of the full
amount of the docket fee before the expiration of the reglementary period, the
Court of Appeals may grant an additional period of fifteen (15) days only within

793

Martinez v Court of Appeals, 358 SCRA 38

794 A.M.

No. 04-9-07-SC, September 14, 2004

795

Supra, Sections 1 and 2, Rule 43

796

Supra, Section 3, Rule 43

which to file the petition for review. No further extension shall be granted except
for the most compelling reason and in no case to exceed fifteen (15) days. 797
4.4
All other procedural matters and requirements are similar to a Petition for
Review under Rule 42 EXCEPT that an appeal under this Rule shall not stay the
award, judgment, final order or resolution unless the Court of Appeals deems
otherwise.798
4.6
In summary judicial proceedings under the Family Code, there is no
reglementary period within which to perfect an appeal, precisely because
judgments rendered thereunder, by express provision of Section 247 of the
Family Code, are immediately final and executory.799 Appeal by notice of appeal
is erroneous. The Court of Appeals should have dismissed as it had no
jurisdiction to review on appeal. Per Justice Panganiban, Certiorari under Rule
65 is the remedy of the State.
PROCEDURE BEFORE THE COURT OF APPEALS
RULE 46 ORIGINAL CASES FILED WITH THE COURT OF APPEALS
1.
Parties are to be designated as petitioner / respondent 800 and is to apply
to cases of Certiorari, Prohibition, Mandamus, Quo Warranto and to petitions for
annulment of judgment under Rule 47801
CONTENTS OF PETITION FILING EFFECTS OF NON COMPLIANCE
1.
Petitions filed before the Court of Appeals must contain the following: (a)
identification of the parties, a concise statement of matters involved, the factual
background of the case, and the grounds relied upon for the relief prayed for
(b)statement of material dates, and in a Rule 65 Petition, material dates are
dates of notice of judgment or final order, when a motion for new trial or
reconsideration was filed, if any, and when notice of denial was received (c)
clearly legible duplicate originals or certified true copy of the attachments
(d)certification against forum shopping (5)docket fees / deposit for cost. 802
1.1

Failure to comply is sufficient ground for dismissal of the petitions.

797

Supra, Section 4, Rule 43

798

Supra, Section 12, Rule 43

799

Republic v Bernardez-Lorino, 449 SCRA 57

800

Supra, Section 1, Rule 46

801

Supra, Section 2, Rule 46

802

Supra, Section 3, Rule 46

2.
A certified true copy is one the certification of which is made by the proper
clerk of court or his duly authorized representative.803

HOW DOES THE COURT ACQUIRE JURISIDICTION


1.
Jurisdiction over the person or the respondent is acquired by service of
order or resolution indicating initial action on the petition or voluntary submission
to jurisdiction.804
ACTION TO BE TAKEN BY THE COURT OF APPEALS
1.
The court may dismiss the petition outright with specific reasons OR
require the filing of a comment within 10 days from notice.
1.1
Only pleadings required to be filed may be filed. Other pleadings will
require leave of court.805
2.
If factual issues are to be resolved, the Court of Appeals can conduct
hearings or delegate reception of evidence on such issues to any of its members
or to an appropriate court / agency / office. 806
3.
If comment is not filed, it may be decided on the basis of the record
without prejudice to any disciplinary action against disobedient party.807
4.

The court, if the petition is not dismissed outright:

4.1
Can call the parties / counsel to a preliminary conference, the object of
which is to : (a) consider compromise agreements, except when case is not
allowed to be compromised (b) define, simplify and clarify issues (c)formulate
stipulation of facts and admissions of documentary exhibits, limit the number of
witnesses in cases falling within its original jurisdiction or those within its
appellate jurisdiction where a motion for new trial is granted on newly discovered
evidence (d) other matters that may aid in prompt disposition of the case.808
803

Paras v Baldado, 354 SCRA 141

804

Supra, Section 4, Rule 46

805

Supra, Section 5, Rule 46

806

Supra, Section 6, Rule 46

807

Supra, Section 7, Rule 46

808

Supra, Section 1, Rule 48

4.2
Record of proceedings is made and a Resolution embodying actions shall
be issued809 which shall be binding upon parties and control subsequent
proceedings unless within 5 days from notice, it can be shown by valid cause
why it should not be followed or there is need for modifications to prevent
manifest injustice810
4.3
At its own instance or by motion, to hear the parties in oral argument on
the merits of the case or on any material incident and is limited to such matters
as the court may specify in its order or resolution.811
4.4
In the conduct of oral arguments, unless authorized, only 1 counsel may
argue for a party. Duration, sequence and all related matters shall be as directed
by the Court.812
4.5
Motions are not set for hearing, and unless directed by the court, no
hearing or oral arguments shall be allowed in support thereof. The adverse party
may file objections within 5 days from notice. Upon expiration of the period, it is
submitted for resolution.813

RULE 47-ANNULMENT OF JUDGMENT


1.
Annulment of judgment covers judgments of the Regional Trial Court for
which the ordinary remedies of new trial, appeal, petition for relief or other
appropriate remedies are no longer available through no fault of the petitioner814
1.1
An important condition for the availment is that the petitioner failed to
move for new trial, or appeal from, or file a petition for relief against, or take other
appropriate remedies through no fault attributable to him.
1.2
If he failed to avail of the other remedies through his own fault, he would
then benefit from his inaction or negligence.815

809

Supra, Section 2, Rule 48

810

Supra, Section 3, Rule 48

811

Supra, Section 1, Rule 49

812

Supra, Section 2, Rule 49

813

Supra, Section 3, Rule 49

814

Supra, Section 1, Rule 47

815

Manipor v Ricafort, 407 SCRA 298

1.3
He must allege non availment of other remedies through no fault of the
petitioner, otherwise the petition will be dismissed.816
1.4
Note that the correctness of the judgment is not in issue in a petition for
annulment of judgment.817
2.
It is a remedy that may be availed of by those who are not even parties to
the judgment or to annul even judgments that have been fully executed.818
3.
It is available only on grounds of: (a)
Extrinsic Fraud but only when it
was not availed of or could have been availed of in a motion for new trial or
petition for relief or (b) Lack of Jurisdiction
3.1
There is extrinsic fraud when the unsuccessful party had been prevented
from exhibiting fully his case, by fraud or deception practice upon him by his
opponent, as keeping him away from the court, or where the defendant never
had knowledge of the suit, being kept in ignorance by the acts of the plaintiff.819
4.
The period for its filing if based on extrinsic fraud is within 4 years from its
discovery, or if based on lack of jurisdiction before it is barred by laches or
estoppel.820
FILING / CONTENTS OF THE PETITION
1.
Filing is by verified petition alleging therein with particularity, the facts and
the law relied upon for annulment as well as supporting petitioners good and
substantial cause of action / defense, as the case may be. Containing (a)
certified true copy of judgment / final order / resolution shall be attached to the
original copy intended for the court (b) affidavits of witnesses (c) certification
against forum shopping821
WHAT THE COURT OF APPEALS WILL DO UPON FILING
1.
If no substantial merit, it will be dismissed outright with specific reasons for
such dismissal.

816 Ancheta

v Ancheta, 424 SCRA 725

817

Republic v Heirs of Sancho Magdato, 340 SCRA 115

818

Malolos v Dy, 325 SCRA 827

819

Leonardo v ST Best, 422 SCRA 347

820

Supra, Section 3, Rule 47

821

Supra, Section 4, Rule 47

2.
If prima facie merit be found, it shall be given due course and summons
shall be served on the respondent. If so, procedure in ordinary civil cases shall
be followed but reception may be referred to a member of the Court or a
Regional Trial Court judge.822
EFFECT OF JUDGMENT IN A PETITION FOR ANNULMENT
1.
It shall set aside the questioned judgment / final order / resolution and
render the same null and void, without prejudice to the re-filing of the original
action in the proper court .
1.1
However, where it is set aside by reason of extrinsic fraud, the court on
motion, may order the trial court to try the case again as if a timely motion for
new trial has been granted therein.823
1.2
The prescriptive period for the re-filing of the original action shall be
deemed suspended from the filing of such original action until finality of the
judgment of annulment. However, the prescriptive period is or shall not be
suspended where extrinsic fraud is attributable to the plaintiff is original action.824
SCOPE OF RELIEF
1.
It may include award of damages, attorneys fees and other relief. If
already executed, restitution or other relief as justice / equity may warrant.825
2.
It also applies to a petition for annul the judgment of an MTC but is to be
filed with the RTC and treated as an ordinary civil action.826
2.1
All sections except Section 5 pertaining to dismissal or determination of
prima facie merit shall apply.
RULE 50 - GROUNDS FOR DISMISSAL BY THE COURT OF APPEALS
1.
In all cases that come before it, and besides on a finding that the case is
without merit, prosecuted for delay or issue is too unsubstantial to merit

822

Supra, Sections 5 and 6, Rule 47

823

Supra, Section 7, Rule 47

824

Supra, Section 8, Rule 47

825

Supra, Section 9, Rule 47

826

Supra, Section 10, Rule 47

consideration, on motion of the court or the appellee, it may dismiss the petition
on the basis of:
1.1
Failure of record on appeal to show on its face that appeal was taken
within period fixed by the Rules.
1.2
Failure to file notice of appeal or record on appeal within period within the
period prescribed by the Rules.
1.3
Failure to pay docket fees as provided under Section 5, Rule 40 and
Section 4, Rule 41.
1.4
Unauthorized alterations, omissions, additions on record on appeal as
provided under Section 4, Rule 44
1.5
Failure of appellant to serve and file required number briefs or memoranda
within provided time by these Rules
1.6
Absence of specific assignment of errors or page references to the record
as required by Section 13, paragraphs(a),(c),(d), and (f) of Rule 44
1.7
Failure of appellant to take necessary steps for the correction or
completion of the records within time limited by the Court
1.8
Failure to appear at preliminary conference under Rule 48, or comply with
orders, circulars or directives of the Court without justifiable cause
1.9

The fact that order / judgment appealed from is not appealable.827

DISMISSAL OF IMPROPER APPEAL


1.
An appeal under Rule 41 from the Regional Trial Court to the Court of
Appeals raising only questions of law shall be dismissed as issues purely of law
are not reviewable by the Court of Appeals
2.
An appeal by notice of appeal instead of petition for review from a
Regional Trial Court exercising appellate jurisdiction shall be dismissed
3.
An appeal erroneously taken to Court of Appeals shall not be transferred
but shall be dismissed outright.828
WITHDRAWAL OF AN APPEAL
827

Supra, Section 1, Rule 50

828

Supra, Section 2, Rule 50

1.
An appeal may be withdrawn as of right at any time before the filing of the
appellees brief.
1.1

Thereafter, only upon discretion of the Court.829

RULE 51 - JUDGMENT
WHEN SUBMITTED FOR JUDGMENT
1.

In Ordinary Appeals:

1.1
Where no hearing on merits is held, upon filing of the last pleading, brief,
memoranda or expiration of period to file.
1.2
Where a hearing is held, upon termination of hearing or upon filing of the
last pleading, memoranda as may be required or permitted, or expiration of
period to file
2.

In Original Actions or Petitions for Review

2.1

Where no comment is filed, upon expiration of the period to file comment

2.2

Where no hearing, same as 1.1

2.3

Where hearing is held, same as 1.2830

HOW JUDGMENT IS RENDERED


1.
Judgment is rendered by members of the court who participated in the
deliberations on the merits before assignment to a member for writing of the
decision.831
2.
Participation of all 3 justices shall be necessary at deliberation and
unanimous vote shall be required for pronouncement. If not, the clerk shall enter
the vote of dissenting justices in the record. Thereafter, Chairman of the division
refers it to the Presiding Justice, who will designate 2 justices by raffle to sit
temporarily and to form a special division of five (5) justices. The participation of

829

Supra, Section 3, Rule 50

830

Supra, Section 1, Rule 51

831

Supra, Section 2, Rule 51

all is required for deliberation. Concurrence of majority is required for


pronouncement.832
2.1
Note that in rendering judgment, harmless errors or those which do not
affect the substantial rights of the parties833 or errors that are not assigned will
not be considered unless they affect jurisdiction, validity of judgment, and of
proceedings.834
2.2
Harmless Error Doctrine means that any error or defect which does not
affect substantial rights will be disregarded by the reviewing court or tribunal. It is
followed to deal with evidence improperly admitted during trial wherein its
damaging quality and impact to the substantial rights of the litigant are examined.
If deemed slight and insignificant, the error is disregarded.835 It is not a ground for
granting of a new trial or for setting aside, modifying, or disturbing a judgment or
final order unless the refusal appears to the Court inconsistent with substantial
justice.
3.
Judgments of the Court of Appeals in the exercise of appellate jurisdiction
may affirm, reverse, or modify the judgment or final order appealed from. It may
also order or direct a new trial to be held or that further proceedings be taken.836
The decision must state clearly and distinctly the findings of fact and conclusions
of law on which it is based, which may be contained in the resolution itself or
adopted from those set forth in the judgment, final order appealed from.837
PROCEDURE AFTER JUDGMENT
1.
After signing by the justices, it shall be delivered to the clerk of court, who
shall indicate thereon the date of promulgation and cause true copies thereof to
be served upon the parties or counsel.838
2.
If no appeal, or motion for new trial or reconsideration is filed within the
period, the judgment or final resolution shall be entered in the book of Entries of
Judgment. Judgment or final resolution shall be deemed executory as of the date

832

Supra, Section 3, Rule 51

833

Supra, Section 6, Rule 51

834

Supra, Section 8, Rule 51

835

People v Teehankee, 269 SCRA 54.

836

Supra, Section 4, Rule 51

837

Supra, Section 5, Rule 51

838

Supra, Section 9, Rule 51

of entry. The record shall contain the dispositive portion, signed by the clerk with
a statement that it is final and executory.839
3.
Execution shall as a rule issue upon a motion in the proper court upon its
entry. In appealed cases, where the motion is filed with the Court of Appeals at
the time that it is in possession of the original records or record on appeal, the
resolution granting the motion shall be transmitted to the lower court from which
the case originated, together with certified copy of the judgment to be executed,
with a directive to said court to issue the proper writ for its enforcement. In
original actions, the writ shall be accompanied by a certified true copy of the
entry of judgment and addressed to appropriate officer for enforcement.840
RULE 52- MOTIONS FOR RECONSIDERATION BEFORE THE CA
1.
Judgments of the Court of Appeals can be the subject of reconsideration
within fifteen (15) days from notice thereof, with proof of service to the adverse
party. 841
2.

No second motion for reconsideration will be entertained.842

3.
It is to be resolved within sixty (60) days from submission for resolution843
and while pending, shall stay the execution unless for good reason, court directs
otherwise.844
RULE 53- MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL
1.
It can be filed at any time after appeal from the lower court has been
perfected and before the Court of Appeals loses jurisdiction, on the ground of
newly discovered evidence which could not have been discovered prior to the
trial in the court below by the exercise of due diligence and which is of such a
character as would probably change the result. The motion must be
accompanied by affidavits showing the facts constituting the grounds and the
newly discovered evidence.845

839

Supra, Section 10, Rule 51

840

Supra, Section 11, Rule 51

841

Supra, Section 1, Rule 52

842

Supra, Section 2, Rule 52

843

Supra, Section 3, Rule 52

844

Supra, Section 4, Rule 52

845

Supra, Section 1, Rule 53

2.
The Court of Appeals shall then consider the evidence and that adduced
at the trial, to determine if it will grant or refuse a new trial, or make such order,
with notice to both parties, as to the taking of further testimony, either orally in
court, by depositions, or render such other judgment as ought to be rendered
upon terms it may deem just.846 If granted, the procedure shall be the same as
that granted by a Regional Trial Court.847
2.1
Motion should be resolved within 90 days from the date it is declared to be
submitted.848
OTHER MATTERS
RULE 54 INTERNAL BUSINESS
1.
Allotment of cases shall be among the different divisions for hearing and
decision.
2.
The Court of Appeals En Banc shall make proper orders or rules to govern
allotment, the constitution of such divisions, the regular rotation of justices, filling
of vacancies, and other matters. Such will continue in force and repealed or
altered by it or the Supreme Court.849
3.
A majority of the court shall constitute a quorum for sessions en banc and
a majority of the members present shall be necessary to pass a resolution. Three
members of a division shall constitute a quorum for sessions of a division and the
affirmative vote of three members shall be necessary for pronouncement of
judgment/resolution, which shall be reached in consultation among them before
the writing of the opinion by any member of the division.850
RULE 55 PUBLICATION OF JUDGMENT/FINAL ORDER/RESOLUTIONS
1.
Judgments and Final Resolutions shall be published in the Official Gazette
and in the Reports officially authorized by the Court, in the language originally
written, together with a syllabi. If not so published, a memoranda shall be made
and published in the like manner. 851

846

Supra, Section 2, Rule 53

847

Supra, Section 4, Rule 53

848

Supra, Section 3, Rule 53

849

Supra, Section 1, Rule 54

850

Supra, Section 2, Rule 54

851

Supra, Section 1, Rule 55

1.1

The publication is to be prepared by the Reporter. 852

1.2
Those of the Supreme Court are called Philippine Reports, while those of
the Court of Appeals are called Court of Appeals Reports. 853
RULE 56 PROCEDURE IN THE SUPREME COURT
ORIGINAL CASES
1.
The cases cognizable by the Supreme Court are Certiorari, Mandamus,
Prohibition, Quo Warranto, Habeas Corpus, Disciplinary Actions against
members of the Judiciary and Attorneys, Cases affecting Ambassadors, Public
Ministers or Consuls.854
2.
In resolving the cases, applicable rules in the Court of Appeals are also
applicable in the Supreme Court.855
APPEALED CASES
1.
The only mode of appeal to the Supreme Court is by Petition for Review
on Certiorari, except in criminal cases where the penalty is death, reclusion
perpetua, and life imprisonment856
1.1
Except in appeal of criminal cases where penalty is death, reclusion
perpetua, life imprisonment, appeal by Notice of Appeal, will be dismissed857
2.
If by certiorari from the Regional Trial Court to the Supreme Court, raising
issues of fact may be referred to the Court of Appeals for decision or appropriate
action. Determination of the Supreme Court as to whether or not there are
issues of fact is final.
3.
All appealed cases shall be governed by and disposed of in accordance
with the applicable provisions of the Constitution, Rule 45 (Petition for Review on
Certiorari) Rule 48 (Preliminary Conference), Sections 1 (When submitted) 2

852

Supra, Section 2, Rule 55

853

Supra, Section 3, Rule 55

854

Supra, Section 1, Rule 56

855

Supra, Section 2, Rule 56

856

Supra, Section 3, Rule 56

857

Supra, Section 6, Rule 56

(Who renders judgment) and 5 to 11 ( Form to Execution) Rule 51, Rule 52


(Motion for Reconsideration) and Rule 56.858
GROUNDS FOR DISMISSAL OF AN APPEAL
1.
An appeal may, motu propio or upon motion of respondent, be dismissed
on (a) failure to take appeal within the reglementary period (b) lack of merit (c)
failure to pay docket and lawful fees (d) failure to comply with requirements of
proof of service and documents (e) failure to comply with any circular, directive or
order of the Supreme Court without justifiable cause (f) error in the choice or
mode of appeal (g) that it is not appealable to the Supreme Court 859
IF SUPREME COURT OPINION IS EQUALLY DIVIDED OR NECESSARY
MAJORITY CANNOT BE OBTAINED
1.
It will be deliberated further. If after deliberation, no decision is reached,
the original action commenced in the court shall be dismissed. If appealed, it
shall stand affirmed. If on incidental matters, it shall be denied.860
PROVISIONAL REMEDIES
PRELIMINARIES
1.
Provisional Remedies are temporary, auxiliary and ancillary remedies
available to a litigant for the protection and preservation of his rights pending the
main action.
1.1
They are issued in the form of writs or processes and they presuppose the
existence of a principal action, although the remedies of Injunction, Receivership
and Replevin have been allowed to exist as principal actions in proper cases.
1.2
These remedies are to be granted by the court where the principal action
is pending. Hence, an MTC has the power to grant a provisional remedy. The
exception being support pendente lite in an action for support as this is incapable
of pecuniary estimation and is thus only within the jurisdiction of an RTC.
2.
The purpose for resort to provisional remedies are: (a) preserve and
protect rights or interests while the main action is pending (b) secure the

858

Supra, Section 4, Rule 56

859

Supra, Section 5, Rule 56

860

Supra, Section 7, Rule 56

judgment (c) preserve the status quo (d) preserve the subject matter of the
action.
3.
The enumeration of provisional remedies is not exclusive as there is
jurisprudence to allow the court to exercise its equity jurisdiction when the law is
silent, obscure or insufficient. Examples are the grant of visitation rights or
temporary custody of a child861or deposit of amount paid in an action for
rescission to prevent its dissipation.862
RULE 57 PRELIMINARY ATTACHMENT

Rule 57 does not provide any lifetime for a writ of preliminary attachment unlike a writ
of execution (See: Roque vs. CA, 93 SCRA 540). What the law provides are enforcing
the writ without delay and making sheriffs return thereon without delay.
Preliminary attachment shall be discharged in any of the following instances:
1.
property attached is exempt from execution, hence, it is also exempt from
preliminary attachment (Sections 2 and 5, Rule 57);
2.
applicant has made cash deposit or filed counter bond in court (Section 12,
Rule 57);
3.
attachment was improperly or irregularly issued or enforced (Section 13, Rule
57);
4.
attachment bond is insufficient (Section 13, Rule 57);
5.
attachment affidavit is defective (Section 13, Rule 57);
6.
attachment is excessive, but discharge is limited to the excess (Section 13,
Rule 57); and
7.
judgment in the main case is rendered against the attaching party (Section 19,
Rule 57)
When the preliminary attachment is issued upon a ground which is at the same time
the applicants cause of action: ie., an action against a party who has been guilty of
fraud in contracting the debt or incurring the obligation upon which the action is
brought, the only way it can be dissolved is by a counter-bond. (FCY Const., Group Inc.
vs. CA, 324 SCRA 270)
The merits of the complaint are not triable in a motion to discharge an attachment.
(CBTC vs. CA, 197 SCRA 663)

WHAT IS PRELIMINARY ATTACHMENT


1.
It is a provisional remedy issued upon order of the court where the action
is pending to levy upon the properties of the defendant therein, the same to be

861

Tan v Adre, 450 SCRA 145

862

Reyes v Lim, 408 SCRA 560

held thereafter by the sheriff as security for the satisfaction of whatever judgment
might be rendered in favor of the attaching creditor.
2.
It can also extend to property of the defendant in the hands of 3rd persons
or money owed by 3rd persons to the defendant. This is also known as
garnishment.
3.
If judgment has become final and executory, there is a final attachment
which is also known as Levy on Execution
4.

It can be availed of at any time before entry of judgment.

D I S T I N C T I O N S B E T W E E N P R E L I M I N A R Y AT TA C H M E N T A N D
GARNISHMENT
1.
In Preliminary Attachment there are two parties, the plaintiff or proper party
and the defendant, while in Garnishment, there is an additional party in the
person of the garnishee. In the former, property is actually seized and a lien is
created thereon, while in the latter, there is no actual seizure.

GROUNDS FOR ATTACHMENT


1.
Action for recovery of money or damages other than moral / exemplary, on
a cause of action that arise from law, contract, quasi contract, delict, or quasidelict against a party who is about to depart from the Philippines with intent to
defraud creditors.
1.1
It is required that the movant be able to show that the defendant is about
to depart from the Philippines with intent to defraud creditors.863
1.2
It cannot issued when the amount of money or damages is not
specified.864
2.
Action for money or property embezzled or fraudulently misapplied or
converted to his own use by a public officer, an officer of a corporation, or an
attorney, factor, broker, agent or clerk in the course of his employment as such,
or by any person in a fiduciary capacity, or for willful violation of such duty.

863

K.O. Glass Construction Co. Inc. v. Valenzuela, 116 SCRA 563

864

Peregrina v Panis, 133 SCRA 71

2.1
Examples are when an officer of a corporation who has control of its funds
will utilize the same for his personal use or when a person appropriates the entire
property knowing that a portion thereof does not belong to him.
3.
Action to recover possession of property unjustly or fraudulently taken,
detained or converted when the property, or any part thereof, has been
concealed, removed or disposed of to prevent its being found or taken by the
applicant or authorized person.
3.1

The property referred to may be either real or personal property.

3.2
Distinguishing it from replevin: the object is to attach real or personal
property belonging to the defendant to secure satisfaction of his judgment for
recovery, while in replevin, the object of the movant is the recovery of his own
property.
4.
Action against a party guilty of fraud in contracting the debt or incurring the
obligation upon which the action is brought or in the performance thereof.
4.1
The fraud should be committed either upon contracting the debt or
incurring the obligation sued upon or in the performance thereof. A debt is
fraudulently contracted if at the time of contracting it, the debtor has a
preconceived plan or intention not to pay. 865
5.
Action against a party who has removed or disposed of his property, or is
about to do so, with intent to defraud creditors.
5.1
Mere removal or disposition, by itself, is not ground for the issuance of a
writ of preliminary attachment, notwithstanding the insolvency of the defendant or
the absence of security for the satisfaction of any judgment is alleged against the
defendant.866
5.2
Where fraudulent disposal is put in issue, the parties should be given the
opportunity to prove their claims, or at the very least, the defendant should be
given the chance to show that he has not been disposing of his property in fraud
of creditors.867
6.
Action against a party who does not reside and is not found in the
Philippines or on whom summons may be served by publication. 868
865

FCY Construction Group Incorporated v Court of Appeals, 324 SCRA 270

866

Peoples Bank and Trust Company v Syvels Incorporated, 164 SCRA 247

867 Adlawan
868

v. Torres, 233 SCRA 645

Supra, Section 1, Rule 57

HOW APPLIED FOR


1.
Generally, by motion or is incorporated in the complaint, accompanied by
an affidavit, containing the following: (a) It is executed by the applicant / or some
person who is aware or personally knows the facts (b) A sufficient cause of action
exists (c) That a ground/s as stated in Section 1 exists (d) There is no other
sufficient security for the claim sought to be enforced by the action (e) The
amount due the applicant or value of the property that he is entitled to recover, is
as much as the sum for which the Order is granted, above all legal
counterclaims869
1.1
An ordinary creditor appointed as administratrix of the estate of the
deceased cannot file a petition for preliminary attachment as that would
constitute him as a preferred creditor.870
2.
A bond must then be executed to the adverse party in the amount fixed by
the court, conditioned that the latter will pay all costs which may be adjudged and
all damages sustained by reason of the attachment, if the court shall finally
adjudge that the applicant was not entitled thereto.871
WHEN ISSUED / BY WHOM
1.
Either ex parte or on motion with notice and hearing, by the court in which
action is pending, by the Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court and must
require the Sheriff to attach so much of the property in the Philippines of the party
against whom it is issued not exempt from execution as may be sufficient to
satisfy the claim unless the other party makes a deposit or gives a bond in an
amount equal to that fixed in the order, exclusive of costs.
1.1
Several writs may be issued at the same time to the sheriffs of the courts
of different judicial regions. 872
2.
It is issued ex-parte when the ground is justified further by the fact that the
defendant might abscond or dispose of his property before the writ is issued. It
can take place even before he is summoned but note that it cannot be enforced
unless it is preceded or contemporaneously accompanied by service of
summons, together with complaint, application for attachment, affidavit, bond,
order and the writ itself.
869

Supra, Section 3, Rule 57

870

Gruenberg v Court of Appeals, 138 SCRA 471

871

Supra, Section 4, Rule 57

872

Supra, Section 2, Rule 57

2.1

This is the Prior or Contemporaneous Rule.

2.2
Note that an Alias Summons belatedly filed cannot be deemed to have
cured the fatal defect in the enforcement of the writ of preliminary attachment. 873
2.3
The prior or contemporaneous rule does not apply when: (a) Summons
could not be served personally or by substituted service despite diligent efforts
(b) Defendant is a resident but temporarily out of the PhiIippines (c) Defendant is
a non-resident of the Philippines (d) It is an action in rem or quasi in rem
BY WHOM / HOW ENFORCED
1.

By the sheriff, without delay and with all reasonable diligence

1.1
Note that Rule 57 does not provide any lifetime for a writ of preliminary
attachment unlike a writ of execution. 874 What the law provides for are the
enforcement of the writ without delay and making sheriffs return thereon without
delay.
2.
He may attach only such property not exempt from execution, as may be
sufficient to satisfy the demand unless the defendant makes a deposit or gives a
counter bond in an amount equal to the bond fixed by the court or to the value of
the property attached. 875
2.1
Note that the attachment shall proceed nevertheless until there have been
proceedings undertaken to discharge the attachment. If found to be insufficient /
or is not filed, a new order of attachment may be applied for.876
3.

Attachment should be in accordance with the following:

(a)
If real property, it requires the filing with the Office of the Register of
Deeds of a copy of the order together with notice that property or interest therein
is attached.
(b)
If personal property capable of manual delivery taking it and safely
keeping it in custody after issuance of proper receipt.
(c)
If stocks / shares / interest in companies, by leaving with the president or
managing agent a copy of the writ and notice.
873

Mangila v Court of Appeals, 387 SCRA 162

874

Roque v Court of Appeals, 93 SCRA 540

875

Supra, Section 5, Rule 57

876

Supra, Section 12, Rule 57

(d)
If debts, credits, bank deposits and other like personal properties not
capable of manual delivery leaving with such persons owing debt, holding
credits or in possession a copy of the writ and notice.
(e)
If interest is in the estate of a decedent, by virtue of his being an heir,
legatee, or devisee, by serving the writ / notice on executor or administrator.
(f)
If in custodia legis copy of writ is filed if the proper court or quasi-judicial
agency and notice served on the custodian of the property. 877
3.1
Effect of attachment of debts, credits and similar personal property
persons who have them are liable to the applicant for the amount of such credits
until the attachment is discharged, judgment is satisfied or debts are paid 878
3.2
Effect if on property belonging the estate of the decedent, it will not impair
the powers of the executor / administrator or representative BUT they shall
report the attachment to the court when any petition for distribution is filed and
in the order made upon such petition the property may be awarded to the heir /
legatee / devisee , but the property attached shall be delivered to the sheriff,
subject to the claim of the heir, legatee, devisee or person claiming under him.879
3.3
There can also be an examination of the listed persons to determine if
there are properties in their possession that may be attached.880
4.
Sheriff shall also make a return without delay, containing a full statement
of his proceedings under the writ and a complete inventory of property attached,
together with a copy of a counter-bond if one has been filed, furnishing copies
thereof on the applicant.881
5.

Property is to be held and disposed of in the following manner:

5.1

If judgment is recovered by the attaching party

(a)
Paying to obligee proceeds of all sales of perishable property or others
sold pursuant to order of the court as shall be necessary to satisfy the judgment.
(b)
If there is a balance, selling so much of the real or personal property as
may be necessary to satisfy the balance, if enough for that purpose, remains in
877

Supra, Section 7, Rule 57

878

Supra, Section 8, Rule 57

879

Supra, Section 9, Rule 57

880

Supra, Section 10, Rule 57

881

Supra, Section 6, Rule 57

the hands of the sheriff or clerk of court. Note that there can be an EARLY SALE
if it is made to appear to the court in which the action is pending that the property
attached is perishable, or that the interest of all the parties to the action will be
subserved by the sale of the properties at public auction, the proceeds to be
deposited with the court to abide the judgment.882
(c)
Collecting from all persons having in their possession credits belonging to
the obligor or debts due him
(d)
If there be a balance, he proceeds to collect as upon ordinary execution. If
there be a surplus, it must be returned.
(e)
If judgment becomes executory, the surety/ies shall become charged on
the counter-bond and bound to pay the judgment obligee upon demand, the
amount due on the judgment, which amount can be recovered after notice and
summary hearing in the same action.883
(f)
If money was deposited in lieu of a bond, it is applied under direction of
the Court and if judgment is against attaching party, the whole sum deposited is
refunded. 884
A Report or Return of all proceedings must be filed with the court and copies
furnished all parties.885
5.2

If judgment is for adverse party

(a)
All proceeds of sales or money collected by the sheriff and property
attached shall be delivered to the party whose properties were attached and the
order of attachment discharged.
(b)
Claim for damages before trial, perfection of appeal, or judgment becomes
executory, with due notice to the attaching party and surety setting forth the facts
showing his right to damages in instances where there is improper, irregular or
excessive attachment, are to be awarded after hearing and is to be included in
the judgment in the main case.
(c)
If the judgment favorable to him is rendered by the appellate court, he
must claim the damages during the pendency of the appeal by filing the
application in the appellate court, before the judgment becomes executory. The
882

Supra, Section 11, Rule 57

883

Supra, Section 17, Rule 57

884

Supra, Section 18, Rule 57

885

Supra, Section 15, Rule 57

appellate court may allow the application to be heard and decided by the trial
court.
(d)
Nothing, likewise, prevents the party against whom attachment is issued
from recovering in the same action the damages awarded to him from any
property of the attaching party not exempt from execution should the bond or
deposit be insufficient. 886
WHAT ARE THE REMEDIES OF A PARTY WHOSE PROPERTIES ARE
ATTACHED
1.
Discharge the attachment by making a cash deposit or counter bond.887
Note that bond may be subject to recovery by attaching party;
1.1
A motion to discharge / dissolve is not allowed if the preliminary
attachment is issued on a ground which is at the same time the applicants cause
of action as that is tantamount to a trial on the merits. Example: action for money,
property embezzled, party guilty of fraud in incurring the obligation
2.
Discharge or set aside the attachment on the ground that it was
improperly issued or irregularly enforced, or bond is insufficient or what has been
attached is excessive, the discharge is only for the excess.888
3.
Claim for damages on account of improper, irregular, or excessive
attachment. 889
WHAT HAPPENS IF PROPERTY IS CLAIMED BY A 3RD PERSON
1.

Claim is to be initiated by affidavit.

1.1
Upon filing, the sheriff not under obligation to keep the property, unless
attaching party files a bond.
1.2
No claim for damages for the taking or keeping of the property may be
filed / enforced against the bond unless the action is filed within 120 days from
date of the filing of the bond. 890

886

Supra, Section 20, Rule 57

887

Supra, Section 12, Rule 57

888

Supra, Section 13, Rule 57

889

Supra, Section 20, Rule 57

890

Supra, Section 14, Rule 57

RULE 58 PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION


1.
A Preliminary Injunction is an order granted at any stage of an action or
proceeding prior to judgment or final order, requiring a party or a court, agency,
person to refrain from a particular act or acts. It may also require the
performance of an act, if such it is called a preliminary mandatory injunction. 891
2.
Note that Injunction may also exist as a cause of action. This is best
illustrated by the appropriate remedies for obligations to do or not to do.
Obligations to do, the remedy is specific performance. Obligation not to do,
remedy is injunction.
2.1
An example is that provided for by Article 26 of the Civil Code that allows
an injunction against one prying into the privacy of another residence, meddling
with or disturbing the private life or family relations of another or the enforcement
of an easement of light and view.
PRIMARY PURPOSE OF INJUNCTION
1.
Is to preserve the status quo or the last actual, peaceable, uncontested
status which precedes the pending controversy.
WHO MAY GRANT
1.
Court where the action is pending. If pending in the Court of Appeals or
the Supreme Court, it may be issued by the Court or any member thereof. 892
GROUNDS FOR ISSUANCE
1.
The applicant is entitled to the relief demanded, and the whole or part of
the relief consists in restraining the commission / continuance of the act/s
complained of, or in requiring the performance of an act/s, for a limited period or
perpetually.
2.
The commission / continuance / non performance of the act/s during
litigation will probably work injustice to the applicant, or
3.
That a party, court, agency or a person is doing, threatening, or is
attempting to do or is procuring or suffering to be done, some act/s in violation of

891

Supra, Section 1, Rule 58

892

Supra, Section 2, Rule 58

the rights of the applicant respecting the subject of the action and tending to
render judgment ineffectual. 893
REQUISITES FOR ISSUANCE OF AN INJUNCTION
1.
The requisites are: (a) Existence of a right to be protected, and (b) A c t s
against which the injunction is to be directed are violative of the right
2.
These must clearly appear in the allegations in the complaint, otherwise, it
may be ground for its outright denial for insufficiency, which is apparent in the
application itself or if already granted, may be dissolved.894
MAY IT BE ISSUED EX-PARTE
1.
As a general rule, the issuance requires (a) a hearing (b) reception of
evidence with opportunity to cross (c) finding that prohibited acts are threatened
to be committed or that irreparable injury would be inflicted upon the applicant.
2.
If great/irreparable injury would result before then the Court by way of an
exception on non ex-parte issuance (a) can issue a Temporary Restraining Order
for 20 days after a summary hearing or If it is of extreme urgency, it may issue
ex-parte a 72 hour Temporary Restraining Order, within which period a summary
hearing to determine whether or not the same is to be extended for the full 20
day period must be held.
2.1
Note that within the 20 day effectivity period of the Temporary Restraining
Order, the court must order the party or person to show cause why the injunction
should not be granted, determine also whether or not the preliminary injunction
should be granted, and accordingly issue the order. 895
2.2
The lifetime of a Temporary Restraining Order is 20 days if issued by a
trial court, 60 days if issued by the Court of Appeals, and until further orders if
issued by the Supreme Court. Note that when the trial court omits to state a
period, the 20 day period is deemed incorporated in the order.896
2.3
A second Temporary Restraining Order issued by the Court of Appeals
after the expiration of the first period is a patent nullity.897

893

Supra, Section 3, Rule 58

894

Supra, Section 6, Rule 58

895

Supra, Section 5, Rule 58

896

Bacolod City Water District v Labayen, 446 SCRA 110

897

Padilla v Asuncion, AM No. 06-44-CA-J, March 20, 2007

3.
A status quo order is not a temporary restraining order. It is more in the
nature of a cease and desist order, has no specified duration and does not
specifically direct the performance of an act. It lasts until revoked, may be the
subject of an agreement, and does not require the posting of a bond.

HOW OBTAINED
1.
A preliminary injunction or temporary restraining order is obtained upon (a)
filing of a verified application showing facts entitling the applicant to the relief
demanded, (b) unless exempted, filing of a bond in an amount fixed by the court,
to the effect that applicant will pay all damages that may be sustained if the court
should finally decide that applicant was not entitled thereto (c) if included in a
complaint / initiatory pleading it shall be raffled only after notice to and in the
presence of the adverse party.
2.
In any event, notice shall be preceeded by or contemporaneously
accompanied by service of summons, together with affidavit and bond but such
will not be applicable if defendant / adverse party cannot be served personally /
substituted service, is temporarily absent or is a non-resident.
3.
The matter shall thereafter be acted upon only after all parties are heard in
a summary hearing, conducted within 24 hours after sheriffs return of service.898
WHEN INJUNCTION WILL NOT ISSUE
1.
Under BP Blg. 227 amending the Labor Code, a court cannot grant
injunctive relief in cases growing out of a labor dispute as the said power is
vested in the NLRC. An exception is when the injunction is sought by a third
person whose property is levied upon to satisfy the liability of another.899
2.
Under RA 8735 and PD 1818, injunction does not lie against the execution
or implementation of government infrastructure programs, essential government
projects, including arrastre 900
3.
Under Section 55, RA 6657 of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law,
injunction cannot issue against the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council or any
of the implementing agencies.
4.
As against the Asset Privatization Trust as taken over by the Privatization
and Management Office of the Department of Finance.901

898

Supra, Section 4, Rule 58

899

Penalosa v Villanueva, 177 SCRA 78

900

Philippine Ports Authority v Pier 8 Arrastre and Stevedoring, 475 SCRA 426

901

Section 31-A, Proclamation 50-A, EO No. 323, 2000

5.
As against a court of co-equal rank or decrees of a court with concurrent
or coordinate jurisdiction.902
6.
As against quasi-judicial bodies of co-equal rank as an RTC such as the
Social Security System or the SEC
7.
By the RTC as against the Intellectual Property Office, Commission on
Elections or Workmens Compensation Commission
8.
As against the collection of a national internal revenue tax, fee or charge
imposed by the NIRC903 or the Commissioner of Customs over seizure or
forfeiture proceedings904
As against consummated acts or a judgment already executed 905

9.

10.
To transfer possession or control over property when legal title is still in
dispute or when it has not yet been clearly established or there is a lack of clear
and unmistakable right on the part of the applicant. 906
11.

To establish new relations between the parties907

12.
When it disposes of the main case without trial as the grant of injunctive
relief assumes the proposition that petitioner must prove.908
13.
To restrain a criminal prosecution 909 except: (a) to afford adequate
protection to the constitutional rights of the accused; (b) when necessary for the
orderly administration of justice or to avoid oppression or multiplicity of actions;
(c) when double jeopardy is clearly apparent; (d) where the charges are
manifestly false and motivated by the lust for vengeance; or (e) where there is
clearly no prima facie case against the accused and a motion to quash on that
ground has been denied.910

902

Ching v Court of Appeals, 398 SCRA 88

903

Filipino Metals Corporation v Secretary, Trade and Industry, 463 SCRA 616

904

Zuno v Cabredo, 402 SCRA 75

905

PNB v Adi, 173 SCRA 550

906

Cortez Estrada v Samut, 451 SCRA 275

907 Almeida
908

Levi Strauss v Clinton Apparelle, 470 SCRA 236

909 Andres
910

v Court of Appeals, 448 SCRA 68

v Cuevas, 460 SCRA 38

Roberts vs. CA, 254 SCRA 307; Brocka vs. Enrile, 192 SCRA 183

14.
In applications for restraining order and injunction against the foreclosure
of a real estate mortgage on the ground that it has been paid or not delinquent,
unless it be verified and supported by evidence of payment.
14.1 If on the allegation that interest is unconscionable, the debtor must pay the
mortgagee at least 12% per annum on the principal obligation as stated in the
application for foreclosure, which shall be updated monthly while the case is
pending.
14.2 The bond shall be equal to the amount of the outstanding debt, and the
time for its effectivity shall apply as well to a status quo order.
GROUNDS FOR OBJECTION / DISSOLUTION
1.
The application may be denied or if granted, dissolved, upon showing of
insufficiency, or while entitled to an injunction, the issuance or continuance
thereof will cause irreparable damage to the person enjoined while the applicant
can be compensated for the damages and a bond is filed or if it appears that
extent is too great, it may be modified. 911
2.
It may also be dissolved on objection to the sufficiency of the bond, or
upon finding of insufficiency, the failure of surety to justify or filing of a sufficient
bond. If it the objection is to the bond of the party enjoined, the injunction shall be
granted or restored. 912
JUDGMENTS OR ORDERS IN INJUNCTION
1.

An order discharging an injunction is immediately effective.

2.
A Final Injunction is granted if it appears that the applicant is entitled to
have the act/s permanently enjoined or confirming the preliminary mandatory
injunction.913
3.
Judgments eventually rendered may include damages against a party and
sureties. 914
4.
No injunction can issue against the acts of a co-equal court, except in a 3rd
party claim where claimant vindicates his right by a separate action.
911

Supra, Section 6, Rule 58

912

Supra, Section 7, Rule 58

913

Supra, Section 9, Rule 58

914

Supra, Section 8, Rule 58

RESOLUTION OF THE MAIN CASE OR PETITION


1.
The trial court, the Court of Appeals, the Sandiganbayan, or the Court of
Tax Appeals that issued the writ of preliminary injunction against a lower court,
board, officer or quasi-judicial agency shall decide the main case or petition
within a period of six (6) months from the issuance of the writ.915
RULE 59 RECEIVERSHIP
WHEN IS A RECEIVER APPOINTED
1.
When it appears from a verified application, and as such other proof as
the court may require, that the party applying for the appointment of a receiver
has an interest in the property or fund which is the subject of the action or
proceeding as such property / fund is in danger of being lost, removed or
materially injured unless a receiver be appointed to administer and preserve it.
2.
When it appears in an action by the mortgagee for the foreclosure of
mortgagee that the property is in danger of being wasted, dissipated or materially
injured and that its value is probably insufficient to discharge the mortgage debt
or that the parties have so stipulated in the mortgage contract.
3.
When after judgment, to preserve the property during the pendency of an
appeal, or to dispose of it according to the judgment, or to aid in execution when
the execution is returned unsatisfied or the judgment obligor refuses to apply his
property in satisfaction of the judgment or otherwise carry the judgment into
effect.
4.
Whenever in other cases, it appears that the appointment of a receiver is
the most convenient and feasible means of preserving, administering or
disposing of property in litigation.
WHO APPOINTS A RECEIVER
1.
The court where action is pending or the Court of Appeals, the Supreme
Court or a member thereof.
1.1
During appeal, the appellate court may allow the application for the
appointment to be filed in the court of origin, which can also decide on the same
to be subject to the control of said court.916

915 A.M.
916

07-7-12-SC

Supra, Section 1, Rule 59

2.
A receiver of real or personal property, which is the subject of the action,
may be appointed by the court when it appears from the pleadings or such other
proof as the judge may require, that the party applying for such appointment has:
(a) an actual interest in it, and (b) that such property is in danger of being lost,
removed, or materially injured; or whenever it appears to be the most convenient
and feasible means of preserving or administering the property in litigation.917
3.
A receiver is a person appointed by the court or by a quasi-judicial
administrative agency, in behalf of all the parties for the purpose of preserving
and conserving the property and preventing its possible destruction or
dissipation, if it were left in the possession of any of the parties. It is the duty of
the receiver to administer the assets of the receivership estate; and in the
management and disposition of the property committed to his possession, he
acts in a fiduciary capacity and with impartiality toward all interested persons.918
4.

A receiver is not an agent or representative of any party to the action.

4.1
He is an officer of the court exercising his functions in the interest of
neither plaintiff nor defendant, but for the common benefit of al the parties in
interest.
4.2
He performs his duties subject to the control of the Court, and every
question involved in the receivership may be determined by the court taking
cognizance of the receivership proceedings.
4.3
Thus, unauthorized contracts of a receiver do not bind the court in charge
of receivership. They are the receivers own contracts and not recognized by the
court as contracts of the receivership.919
WHAT ARE THE POWERS OF THE RECIEVER
1.
Subject to the control of the court, a receiver can: (a) Bring and defend
actions in his own name (b)Take and keep possession of the properties in
controversy (c)To receive rent (d)Collect debts, including power to compound and
compromise them, to pay debts (e)Make transfers (f) To divide money or other
property (g) Other acts as may be authorized by the court
2.
Funds though may only be invested by order of the court upon written
consent of all parties. No action may be filed by or against the receiver without
leave of court to prevent harassment.920
917

Commodities Storage & Ice Plant Corp. versus Court of Appeals, 274 SCRA 439

918 Arranza

versus B.F. Homes, Inc., 333 SCRA 799

919

Pacific Mechandising Corp., versus Consolacion Insurance & Surety Co., Inc., 73 SCRA 564

920

Supra, Section 6, Rule 59

3.
Should there be refusal / neglect to deliver property to a receiver it is
punishable by contempt and shall be liable for the money or value of the
property, plus damages sustained as a consequence of the refusal / neglect.921
HOW APPLIED FOR
1.

By verified application.

1.1

More than 1 receiver may be applied for and appointed by the court.

1.2

Note that receivership may be a principal action or an ancillary remedy.

2.
If application is granted the receiver shall await the filing by the applicant
of a bond executed to the party against whom the application is presented in an
amount fixed by the Court to the effect that the applicant will pay such party all
damages that he may sustain by reason of the appointment in case the same
has been procured without sufficient cause and the court in its discretion may
require an additional bond to be filed as further security for damages.922
3.
The application may be denied or receiver discharged when the adverse
party files a bond executed to the applicant to the effect that such party will pay
to the applicant all damages he may suffer by reason of acts, omissions or other
matters specified as grounds in the application.
3.1
It may also be discharged if it is shown that appointment was obtained
without sufficient cause.923
4.
Before entering upon his duties, the receiver shall be sworn to perform
them faithfully and shall file a bond executed to such person and in amount fixed
by the court, to the effect that he will faithfully discharge his duties and obey
orders from the Court.924
5.
Copies of bonds of the applicant and receiver or the adverse party shall be
served on each interested party who may except to its sufficiency or the surety.
If found to be insufficient or is not justified and a bond sufficient in amount and
surety is not filed, the application shall be denied and the receiver discharged. If

921

Supra, Section 7, Rule 59

922

Supra, Section 2, Rule 59

923

Supra, Section 3, Rule 59

924

Supra, Section 4, Rule 59

adverse partys bond is the one excepted to or found insufficient, the receiver
shall be appointed or reappointed as the case may be.925
WHEN TERMINATED
1.
When the court, motu propio or upon motion, shall determine that the
necessity for a receiver no longer exists, it shall alter due notice, settle all
accounts, direct delivery of the funds / property in his possession to the person
adjudged to be entitled to receive them and order the discharge of the receiver
from further duty.
2.
He is to be allowed compensation as circumstances will warrant to be
taxed against defeated party or apportioned as justice may require. 926
3.
Any judgment may include the amount, if any, to be awarded any party
upon any bond.927
RULE 60 REPLEVIN
The lessor in a lease with option to purchase, in choosing through replevin, to deprive
the lessee of possession of the leased equipment, waived its right to recover unpaid
rentals on the said leased items. The remedy provided by Article 1484 are alternative,
not cumulative.928

WHAT IS REPLEVIN
1.

It is a form of a principal remedy and provisional remedy / relief.

1.1
It is also a mixed action partly in rem as far as the claim for recovery of
personal property and in persona as far as the claim of damages, the object of
which is
recovery of possession of personal property applied for at the
commencement of the action or at any time before answer by the party praying
for recovery of personal property.929
HOW APPLIED FOR
925

Supra, Section 5, Rule 59

926

Supra, Section 8, Rule 59

927

Supra, Section 9, Rule 59

928

PCI Leasing and Finance Inc v Giraffe X Creative Imaging, Inc, 527 SCRA 405,(July 12, 2007)

929

Supra, Section 1, Rule 60

1.
Filing of Affidavit containing the following: (a) that applicant is the owner of
the property claimed, particularly describing it, or is entitled to possession of the
same (b)that property is a wrongfully detained by the adverse party, alleging the
cause of detention according to the best of his knowledge, information or belief
(c) that property has not been distrained or taken for a tax assessment or
payment of fine or seized under execution, preliminary attachment or in custodia
legis, or if so seized, it is exempt from seizure / custody (d) actual market value
not the probable value as declared by the applicant. Should there be a dispute, it
is to be resolved by the Court.
2.
Filing of bond in double the value of the property for return of the
property to the adverse party and payment of such sum as he may recover from
the applicant
3.
Upon filing of the affidavit and bond, the writ of replevin shall issue
requiring the sheriff to forthwith take the property in custody.930
3.1
In taking custody if concealed, he may demand delivery, if not delivered,
he may cause the building / enclosure to be broken.
3.2
Once in possession, it must be kept in a secure place and shall be
responsible for its delivery to the party entitled thereto upon receipt of his fees
and expenses.931
REMEDIES FOR RETURN OF PROPERTY
1.
Objection to the sufficiency of the bond / surety but he cannot immediately
require delivery or at any time before delivery to the applicant, by filing a bond
known as a redelivery bond executed to the applicant in double the value of the
property as stated in the applicants affidavit.
MANNER OF DISPOSITION BY SHERIFF
1.
If within 5 days after taking of the property, the adverse party does not
object to sufficiency of the bond / sureties or he objects and the court affirms its
approval of the bond or approves a new bond or if he requires return but his
bond is objected to (adverse party) and he does not forthwith file an approved
bond the sheriff shall deliver the property to the applicant, if for any reason it is
not delivered, it must be returned to the adverse party.932

930

Supra, Sections 2 and 3, Rule 60

931

Supra, Section 4, Rule 60

932

Supra, Section 6, Rule 60

2.
If claimed by a 3rd Party by affidavit, the sheriff is not bound to keep and
deliver the property unless applicant / agent on demand of the sheriff files a bond
approved by the Court to indemnify the 3rd party claimant in a sum not less than
the value of the property under replevin.
2.1

In case of disagreement as to value, the court shall determine the same.

2.2
Note that no action on the bond may be enforced unless filed within 120
days from filing.
2.3
The sheriff shall not be liable for damages for the taking and keeping of
the property to any such 3rd party if the bond is filed. Nothing also prevents the
3rd party claimant or the applicant from vindicating their rights or claims in the
same action or in a separate action.
2.4
If writ is issued in the name of RP, no bond is required and the sheriff is to
be represented by the Solicitor General and damages so adjudged are paid out
of the National Treasury. 933
3.

The sheriff must make return within 10 days after taking of the property.934

4.
The judgment shall include a determination who has a better right of
possession to and value of the property and render judgment in the alternative
for delivery thereof to the party entitled or its value in case delivery cannot be
made, and also for damages as either party may prove, with costs.
4.1
Any amount awarded a party upon any bond shall be claimed, ascertained
and granted as provided by Section 20 of Rule 57.935
5.

A writ of replevin may be served anywhere in the Philippines.

RULE 61 SUPPORT PENDENTE LITE


WHEN FILED AND HOW
1.
At the commencement of the proper action or proceeding or at any time
prior to a judgment or final order a verified application may be filed by a party
stating the grounds for the claim and the financial conditions of both parties,

933

Supra, Section 7, Rule 61

934

Supra, Section 8, Rule 61

935

Supra, Sections 9 and 10, Rule 61

accompanied by affidavits, depositions, or other authentic documents in support


thereof.936
2.
It is also available in criminal cases when: (a) child is born to offended
party allegedly because of the crime (b) civil liability arising from the criminal
action includes support for the offspring (c) civil aspect has not been waived,
reserved or instituted prior to filing of criminal action.
2.1
This application may be filed successively by the offended party, her
parents, grandparents, guardian or the State in the corresponding criminal case
during its pendency. 937
PROCEDURE
1.
Upon filing of verified application it shall be served on the adverse party,
who shall have 5 days to comment unless a different period is fixed by the court.
1.1
The comment shall also be verified and accompanied by affidavits,
depositions, authentic documents.938
2.
Hearing shall then be conducted no more than 3 days after comment is
filed or the period expires.939
3.
Court shall determine provisionally the pertinent facts and render such
orders as justice and equity may require, having due regard to the probable
outcome of the case and such other circumstances.
3.1
If granted, it shall fix the amount of money to be provisionally paid or such
other forms or support as should be provided taking into account the
necessities of the applicant and resources or means of the adverse party and
the terms or mode for providing support.
3.2
If denied, the principal case shall be tried and decided as early as
possible.940
HOW ENFORCED

936

Supra, Section 1, Rule 61

937

Supra, Section 6, Rule 61

938

Supra, Section 2, Rule 61

939

Supra, Section 3, Rule 61

940

Supra, Section 4, Rule 61

1.
If adverse party fails to comply, the court shall, motu propio or on motion,
issue an order of execution without prejudice to his liability for contempt.
2.
If support be paid by a 3rd person, after due notice and hearing in the
same case, he may obtain a writ of execution to enforce his right of
reimbursement against the person ordered to provide support. 941
RESTITUTION
1.
If upon judgment / final order The court finds that the person who has
been providing support is not liable therefor it shall order the recipient to return
the amounts paid plus interest from dates of actual payment without prejudice to
the right of the recipient to obtain reimbursement in a separate action from the
person legally obliged to give support.
1.1
Should the recipient fail to reimburse, the person who provided the same,
may, in a separate action, seek reimbursement thereof from the person obliged
to give support.942
SPECIAL CIVIL ACTIONS
RULE 62 - INTERPLEADER
WHEN PROPER
1.
Whenever conflicting claims upon the same subject matter are or may be
made against a person who claims no interest whatever in the subject matter, or
an interest which in whole or in part is not disputed by the claimants, he may
bring an action against the conflicting claimants to interplead and litigate their
several claims among themselves.943
2.
Examples of when interpleader is proper: (a) where a warehouseman is in
custody of goods being claimed by two or more persons who do not have the
same interest, or (b) two or more lessors are trying to collect from a lessee.
PROCEDURE:

941

Supra, Section 5, Rule 61

942

Supra, Section 7, Rule 61

943

Supra, Section 1, Rule 62

1.
Upon filing of the complaint, the court shall issue an order requiring the
conflicting claimants to interplead with one another.
1.1
If the interest of justice requires, it may order the subject matter be paid or
delivered to the court.944
2.
Summons shall then issued to claimants, together with a copy of the
complaint and order.945
3.
Within the time for the filing of an answer, motions to dismiss may be filed,
if denied the claimant must file an answer within the period remaining but in no
case less than 5 days.
3.1
If not, he may be declared in default and thereafter the court may render
judgment barring him from any claim in respect of the subject matter.
3.2
They may also file counter-claims, cross-claims, 3rd party claims, and
other responsive pleadings.946
4.
After the pleadings of the conflicting claimants have been filed, pre-trial
conducted, the court shall proceed to determination and adjudication of their
respective claims. The docket and other lawful fees paid by a party who filed the
complaint, as well as costs / expenses of litigation shall constitute a lien or
charge upon the subject matter, unless the court orders otherwise. 947
RULE 63 DECLARATORY RELIEF AND SIMILAR REMEDIES
WHAT IS DECLARATORY RELIEF
1.
It is a special civil action brought before the Regional Trial Court only by a
person interested in a deed, will, contract or other written instrument, or whose
rights are affected by a statute, executive order, regulation or ordinance or any
other government regulation, before breach thereof, asking the court to
determine any question of construction or validity arising therefrom, and for a
declaration of his rights or duties thereunder.948

944

Supra, Section 2, Rule 62

945

Supra, Section 3, Rule 62

946

Supra, Sections 4 and 5, Rule 62

947

Supra, Sections 6 and 7, Rule 62

948

Supra, Section 1, Rule 63

1.1
The list of what may properly be addressed by a petition for declaratory
relief is exclusive. Hence, an action for declaratory relief to determine the import
of a judgment or to resolve doubts as to citizenship is not proper.
1.2
Note that even if the subject is enumerated, the court will refuse to act if
the contract is clear and there is no doubt as to its meaning as there is no need
for construction or a declaration of rights.
2.
The similar remedies are the actions for reformation of instruments, to
quiet title or remove clouds therefrom, or to consolidate ownership under Article
1607 of the Civil Code . They may be brought as civil actions for declaratory
relief.
3.
Note that it can be brought only before a breach / violation of the statute or
instrument.
3.1
If already brought and a breach / violation is committed before final
termination, it is converted into an ordinary civil action.
3.2

The parties may then file such pleading as may be necessary or proper.949

WHO ARE THE ALLOWED PARTIES


1.
All persons who have or claim an interest which would be affected by the
declaration shall be made parties and no declaration shall as except as otherwise
provided in these Rules prejudice the rights of persons not parties to the action.
2.
If involving validity of a statute, executive order, regulation, or any other
government regulation. The solicitor general shall be notified and is entitled to be
heard upon such question.950
3.
If local government ordinance, the corresponding attorney / prosecutor of
the Local Government Unit shall be similarly notified and heard. If alleged to be
unconstitutional, the Solicitor General shall be notified and heard.951
ACTION BY THE COURT
1.
Except in actions falling under the 2nd paragraph of Section 1, the court,
motu propio, or on motion, may refuse to exercise the power to declare rights
and to construe instruments in any case where a decision would not terminate
the controversy or uncertainty that gave rise to the action, or in any case, where
949

Supra, Section 6, Rule 63

950

Supra, Section 3, Rule 63

951

Supra, Section 4, Rule 63

the declaration or construction is not necessary or proper under the


circumstances.952
RULE 64 REVIEW OR JUDGMENTS / FINAL ORDER OF THE COMELEC
AND COA
1.
A judgment / final order of COMELEC / COA is to be brought by the
aggrieved party to the Supreme Court under Rule 65 but the period for filing is 30
days from notice of the judgment or final order sought to be reviewed.
1.1
This rule was promulgated by the Supreme Court to implement Section 7
of Article IX-A of the 1987 Constitution which provides that any decision, order or
ruling of a constitutional commission may be brought to it on certiorari within 30
days from receipt of a copy thereof, having interpreted the same to refer to a
certiorari petition under Rule 65. However, if it has for its subject an interlocutory
order, it has been submitted that the periods provided for under Rule 65 will
prevail over that provided by Rule 64.
1.2
The filing of a motion for new trial / recon if allowed under the procedural
rules of the COMELEC / COA will toll the period. If denied, the aggrieved party
only has the remaining period which is no case shall be less than 5 days in any
event, reckoned from notice of denial.953
1.3
Note that only judgments/final orders of the COMELEC en banc can be
brought to the SC. What is exercised is the power of review.
2.
The bringing of a petition, shall not stay the execution of the judgment,
final order or resolution unless directed otherwise by the Supreme Court. 954
RULE 65- CERTIORARI / PROHIBITION AND MANDAMUS
The exercise of judicial function is to determine what the law is, and what the legal
rights of paties are, with respect to a matter is controversy; and whenever an officer
is clothed with that authority, and undertakes to determine those questions, he acts
judicially. (The Mun.Council of Lemery, Batangas vs. The Prov. Board of Batangas, 56
PHIL. 260)
A quasi-judicial act or function is a judicial act or function performed by one who is
not a judge.
Without jurisdiction refers to lack of jurisdiction of the court, board, or officer from
the beginning.
952

Supra, Section 5, Rule 63

953

Supra, Sections 1,2, and 3, Rule 64

954

Supra, Section 8, Rule 64

Mandamus will lie:


a.
in case any tribunal unlawfully neglects the performance of an act which the
law specifically enjoys as a duty;
b.
in case any corporation, board or person unlawfully neglects the performance
of an act which the law enjoins as a duty resulting from an office, trust, or station;
c.
in case any tribunal, corporation, board or person unlawfully excludes another
from the use and enjoyment of a right or office to which such other is legally entitled;
and
d.
there is no other plain, speedy and adequate remedy in the ordinary course of
law.
The legal right of the plaintiff (petitioner) to the thing demanded must be well
defined, clear and certain. The corresponding duty of the defendant (respondent) to
perform the required act must also be clear and specific. (Enriquez, Jr. vs. Bidin, 47
SCRA 183).
Mandamus lies only to compel performance of a ministerial duty but not to compel
performance of a discretionary duty. (Calderon vs. Sol. General, 215 SCRA 876)

The initial determination of what pleadings, documents or orders are relevant and
pertinent to the petition rests on the petitioner.955

WHAT IS CERTIORARI
1.
Special Civil Action against a tribunal board or officer exercising judicial or
quasi-judicial function which is alleged in a verified petition filed by an aggrieved
party to have acted without jurisdiction or in excess of its jurisdiction or with grave
abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction.
1.1
There is no appeal, or any plain speedy and adequate remedy in the
ordinary course of law.
1.2
Praying for the judgment annulling / modifying the proceedings of such,
tribunal board officer, tribunal and granting such incidental reliefs as law and
justice may require.956
2.
Certiorari may prosper notwithstanding the presence of an appeal when:
(a) public welfare and the advancement of public policy dictate it (b) when the
broader interest of justice requires it (c) when the writs issued are null, (d) the
questioned order amounts to an oppressive exercise of judicial authority.957
955

Condes v Court of Appeals, 528 SCRA 339 (July 27, 2007)

956

Supra, Section 1, Rule 65

957

Mallari vs. Banco Filipino Savings & Mortgage Bank, 563 SCRA 664, Leyte IV Electric Cooperative,
Inc. vs. Leyteco IV Employees Union, ALU, 537 SCRA 154

DISTINGUISHED FROM PETITION FOR REVIEW ON CERTIORARI


1.

Certiorari as distinguished from a Petition for Review on Certiorari:

(a)
In the former, the issue is whether the lower court acted without, in
excess of or with grave abuse of discretion, while in the latter the issue is based
on questions of law
(b)
In the former, it is addresses an interlocutory order prior to appeal of a
judgment when there is no appeal or any other speedy or adequate remedy,
while the latter involves a review of judgment/final order/ resolution on the merits
(c)
The former is filed within 15 days from notice of judgment / order, while
the latter is filed not later than 60 days from notice of the
resolution sought to
be assailed or denial of a motion for reconsideration
(d)
The former shall stay the judgment /final order or award, while the latter
does not stay the order or resolution unless a temporary restraining order or
preliminary injunction is issued
(e)
In the former, the petitioner/respondent are the original parties in the case
and the lower court is not impleaded, while in the latter, the aggrieved party is the
petitioner against the against the lower court, agency and the prevailing party
(f)
The former does not require the filing of a motion for reconsideration prior
to filing, while the latter requires a motion for reconsideration prior to filing
(g)
In the former, the court is exercising appellate jurisdiction, while in latter, it
is exercising original jurisdiction
(h)
The former can only be filed in the Supreme court, while the latter may be
filed with Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, or the Regional Trial Court
EXCEPTIONS TO REQUIREMENT AS TO MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION
PRIOR TO FILING A PETITION FOR CERTIORARI UNDER RULE 65
1.
The exceptions are: (a)order is a patent nullity court a quo has no
jurisdiction (b) questions have been raised in certiorari have been duly raised and
passed upon by lower court (c)urgent necessity for resolution (d)where a motion
for reconsideration will be useless (e)petitioner is deprived of due process, there
is extreme urgency for relief (f) in criminal case, relief from order of arrest is
urgent, and grant of relief by trial court is not probable (g) proceedings in lower

court are a nullity for lack of due process (h) issue is purely of law or where
public interest is involved.
WHAT IS PROHIBITION
1.
Special civil action against a tribunal, corporation, board, or person
exercising judicial, quasi-judicial or ministerial function which is alleged by an
aggrieved party to be acting or about to act without jurisdiction, in excess of its
jurisdiction or with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of
jurisdiction
1.1
There is no appeal, or any plain, speedy and adequate remedy in the
ordinary course of the law
1.2
Praying that judgment be rendered commanding the respondent to desist
from further proceeding in the action or proceeding therein or otherwise granting
such incidental reliefs as law and justice may require.958
DISTINGUISHED FROM CERTIORARI
1.
In certiorari the object is to correct the respondents acts by annulling
proceedings, while in prohibition it is to prevent the commission of an act or
stopping proceedings.
2.
In the former, the assailed acts have already been done, while in the latter
the assailed acts are about to be done or are being done.
3.
In the former, the respondent performs judicial or quasi- judicial, while in
the latter, the respondent performs judicial, quasi-judicial functions or ministerial
functions.
WHAT CONSTITUTES JUDICIAL AND QUASI-JUDICIAL POWER
1.
The exercise of judicial function is to determine what the law is, and what
the legal rights of parties are, with respect to a matter is controversy; and
whenever an office is clothed with that authority, and undertakes to determine
those questions, he acts judicially. 959
2.
A quasi-judicial act or function is a judicial act or function performed by
one who is not a judge.

958

Supra, Section 2, Rule 65

959

Municipal Council of Lemery, Batangas v Provincial Board of Batangas, 56 PHIL 260

WHAT CONSTITUTES GRAVE ABUSE OF DISCRETION


1.
Capricious and whimsical exercise of judgment as may be equivalent to
lack or excess of jurisdiction.
WHAT IS MANDAMUS
1.
It is a special civil action against a tribunal, corporation, board, or officer
alleged in a verified petition filed by an aggrieved party to have unlawfully
neglected the performance of an act which the law specifically enjoins as a duty
resulting from an office, trust or station, or unlawfully excluded another from the
use and enjoyment of a right or office to which such other is entitled.
1.1
There is no plain, speedy or adequate remedy in the ordinary course of
the law
1.2
Praying that judgment be rendered commanding the respondent,
immediately or at some other time specified by the Court to do the act required to
be done to protect the rights of the petitioner, pay damages sustained by reason
of the wrongful acts.
2 ASPECTS OF MANDAMUS
1.
The aspects of Mandamus are: (a) respondent unlawfully neglects the
performance of an act which the law specifically enjoins as a duty resulting from
an office, trust or station or (b) respondent unlawfully excludes another from the
use and enjoyment of a right or office to which such other is entitled.
2.
The legal right of the plaintiff (petitioner) to the thing demanded must be
well defined, clear and certain. The corresponding duty of the defendant
(respondent) to perform the required act must also be clear and specific. 960
3.
Mandamus lies only to compel performance of a ministerial duty but not to
compel performance of a discretionary duty. 961
3.1
In granting mandamus, respondent is commanded to perform the
particular act or required to be done and to pay the damages sustained by the
petitioner by reason of the wrongful acts of the respondent.
4.
An act is ministerial when officer or tribunal performs in a given state of
facts, in a prescribed manner in obedience to the mandate of a legal authority

960

Enriquez, Jr v Bidin, 47 SCRA 183

961

Calderon v Sol, 215 SCRA 876

without regard to the exercise of his own judgment. If given the authority to
decide how and when, it is discretionary.
5.

Mandamus does not lie to correct / enforce contractual obligations.

HOW DISTINGUISHED FROM CERTIORARI/PROHIBITION


1.
In Mandamus, the respondent is exercising ministerial power and he has
unlawfully neglected to perform it or excluded a party from occupying or enjoying
the privilege of an office to which he is lawfully entitled and the object is to
compel action.
2.
In Certiorari, the respondent is exercising judicial or quasi-judicial powers
without jurisdiction or with grave abuse of discretion amounting to an excess or
lack of jurisdiction and the object is to correct.
3.
In prohibition , the respondent is exercising judicial, quasi-judicial or
ministerial powers and he is acting or about to act without jurisdiction or with
grave abuse of discretion amounting to an excess or lack of jurisdiction, and the
object is to prevent
WHEN MAY IT BE FILED
1.
Not later than 60 days from notice of the assailed judgment, order or
resolution.
1.1
But if a timely motion for reconsideration is filed, whether required or not,
the 60 days period shall be counted from notice of the denial of the motion.962
1.2
An extension may be granted for compelling reasons but in no case to
exceed 15 days.
WHERE ELSE CAN BE FILED OTHER THAN THE COURT OF APPEALS
1.
The petition may be filed in the Supreme Court, the Regional Trial Court if
relates to an act / omission of a lower court, corporation, board, officer or person
within its territorial jurisdiction, or the Sandiganbayan, if in aid of its appellate
jurisdiction
IT IS FILED WITH THE COURT OF APPEALS
1.
Whether or not in aid of its appellate jurisdiction, when it involves acts /
omissions of quasi-judicial body, unless otherwise provided.
962

Supra, Section 4, Rule 65, as Amended by A.M. 00-2-03-SC

PARTIES TO BE IMPLEADED
1.
In addition to the public respondents, the petition shall also join the
person/s interested in sustaining the proceedings and it shall be the duty of the
private respondent to appear and defend both in his behalf and that of the public
respondents.
1.1

If costs are awarded, it shall be against private respondent only.

2.
Unless otherwise directed by the court, the public respondents shall not
appear or file an answer or comment. If elevated to a higher court the public
respondents shall be nominal parties, and unless directed shall not appear or
participate in the proceedings therein.963
ORDER TO COMMENT
1.
If petition is sufficient in form or substance, a comment will be required,
not a motion to dismiss.964
1.1
Orders expediting proceedings / temporary restraining order / injunctions
for the preservation of the rights of the parties may be issued but the filing of the
petition shall not interrupt the course of the principal case unless a Temporary
Restraining Order or Injunction is granted enjoining the public respondent from
further proceeding.965
ACTIONS THAT MAY BE TAKEN SUSBEQUENTLY
1.
Court may hear or require filing of memoranda. If it finds the allegations to
be true, it shall render judgment for the relief prayed for or to which petitioner is
entitled.
2.
It may also dismiss if patently without merit, prosecuted manifestly for
delay or issues are too unsubstantial to require consideration.966

SERVICE / ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENT

963

Supra, Section 5, Rule 65

964

Supra, Section 6, Rule 65

965

Supra, Section 7, Rule 65

966

Supra, Section 8, Rule 65

1.
Certified copy of judgment shall be served in such manger as the court
may direct and disobedience thereto shall be punished as contempt.
1.1
Execution may issue for any damages / cost in accordance with Section
1, Rule 39.967

RULE 66 -QUO WARRANTO


Quo warranto literally means by what authority. It is a special civil action to
determine the right to the use or exercise of public office or franchise and to oust the
holder from its enjoyment, if his claim is not well founded, or if he has forfeited his
right to enjoy the privilege. The action may be commenced for the Government by
the Solicitor General or by a public prosecutor; or by a person claiming to be entitled
to a public office or public position usurped or unlawfully held or exercised by another
may bring an action in his own name. Where a private person files the action, he must
prove that he is entitled to the controverted position, otherwise the respondent has a
right to the undisturbed possession of his office. (See: Castro vs. Del Rosario, 19 SCRA
196; Tecson vs. Comelc, 424 SCRA 277)

DEFINED
1.
Quo Warranto is a special civil action brought by verified petition in the
name of the Republic of the Philippines against: (a) person who usurps, intrudes
into or unlawfully holds or exercises a public office, positions or franchise (b)
public officer who performs an act that constitutes a ground for forfeiture of his
office (c) an association that acts as a corporation within the Philippines without
legally being incorporated or without lawful authority to act. 968
2.

It literally means by what authority.969

WHO CAN BRING A QUO WARRANTO PROCEEDING

967

Supra, Section 9, Rule 65

968

Supra, Section 1, Rule 66

969

Tecson v Comelec, 424 SCRA 277

1.
An individual can bring a quo warranto action in his name when he is
claiming to be entitled to a public office or position usurped or exercised by
another may bring an action.970
2.
A quo warranto action must be commenced by the Solicitor General or
Public Prosecutor when directed by the President or upon complaint or otherwise
he has good reason to believe that a cause can be established by proof.971 If by
complaint, a request for indemnity for expenses and costs may be required to be
deposited.972
WHERE ACTION IS BROUGHT
1.
Besides the Court of Appeals, the action can be brought before the
Supreme Court, a Regional Trial Court exercising jurisdiction over the area where
the respondent/s reside but, if the Solicitor General commences the action, he
may bring it before a Regional Trial Court in Manila, the Court of Appeals or the
Supreme Court.973
WHEN FILED
1.
Within 1 year from accrual of the cause of action arising from ouster or
right to hold position
PARTIES AND CONTENTS OF PETITION
1.
When the action is against the person for usurping a public office, position
or franchise, the petition shall set forth the name of the person who claims to be
entitled thereto, if any with an averment of his right to the same and that the
respondent is unlawfully in possession thereof.
1.1
All persons who claim to be entitled may be made parties, and their
respective rights may be determined in the same action.974
2.
A reduction of time for pleadings and other proceedings may be directed
by the Court to secure the most expeditious determination of the matters involved

970

Supra, Section 5, Rule 66

971

Supra, Section 2, Rule 66

972

Supra, Section 3, Rule 66

973

Supra, Section 7, Rule 66

974

Supra, Section 6, Rule 66

therein consistent with the rights of the parties. It can also take precedence over
other civil matters pending before the Court.975
CONTENTS OF JUDGMENT
1.
A judgment where the respondent is found guilty of usurping, intruding
into, or unlawfully holding or exercising a public office, position or franchise shall
state that he be ousted and altogether excluded therefrom, and that the rights of
the petitioner or relator, meaning the real party in interest, be determined as
justice requires.976
1.1
It can also include a judgment for costs977
1.2
The rights of a person entitled to public office include the right to demand
of the respondent all books and papers in his custody or control appertaining to
the office, otherwise he may be punished for contempt.978
2.
Damages if recoverable must be in another action filed within 1 year from
entry of judgment.979
DISTINGUISH BETWEEN QUO WARRANTO AND ELECTION PROTEST
1.
In Quo Warranto the issue is the disqualification / ineligibility of the
proclaimed candidate, in a Protest the issue is an irregularity in the election.
2.
If in the former, if the respondent is ineligible, the petitioner does not
occupy the position, while in the latter, the protestant can occupy the position if
he obtains a plurality of the votes.
DISTINGUISH BETWEEN QUO WARRANTO AS TO NATURE OF POSITION
1.
In quo warranto involving an elective post the issue is the eligibility of
candidate elected, while in that involving an appointive post the issue is the
legality of appointment.
2.
In the former, if the respondent is found ineligible, the 2nd highest vote
getter, even if eligible cannot be declared elected, while in the latter, the
975

Supra, Section 8, Rule 66

976

Supra, Section 9, Rule 66

977

Supra, Section 12, Rule 66

978

Supra, Section 10, Rule 66

979

Supra, Sections 10 and 11, Rule 66

resolution shall determine who has been legally


entitled to occupy the office.

appointed and declare who is

RULE 67 EXPROPRIATION
WHAT IS EXPROPRIATION
1.
The taking of private property for public purpose upon the payment of just
compensation. It is also known as exercise of the power of eminent domain.
2.
Public purpose which will justify expropriation of property generally means
such activity which will serve as convenience, safety, welfare, advantage, or
benefit to the entire community, and not to a particular individual, class or group
of persons.
2.1
Public use is one which confers some benefit or advantage to the public.
It is not confined to actual use by the public. It includes the right of use by the
public, whether it is exercised by one or some or many members of the public.
2.2
Public use contemplates indirect public benefit or advantage.980 It must be
considered in its general concept of meeting a public need or a public
exigency.981 At present, whatever may be beneficially employed for the general
welfare satisfies the requirement of public use.982
3.
The commencement of the action is necessary only when the owner
refuses to agree to sell his property or if he agrees to sell, he is not amenable to
the price.
HOW EXERCISED
1.
Filing of a verified complaint which shall state with certainty the right and
the purpose of expropriation, describing the real / personal property sought to be
expropriated, joining as defendants all persons claiming / owning or occupying
any part thereof or interest therein.
1.1

Note that the subject can be either real / personal property.983

980

Estate of Salud Jimenez v PEZA, 349 SCRA 240

981

Manosca v Court of Appeals, 252 SCRA 412

982

Reyes v NHA, 395 SCRA 494

983

Supra, Section 1, Rule 67

2.
If a local government unit intends to exercise the power of expropriation
Section 19 of RA 7610984, it must comply with the following requisites: (a) An
ordinance, not a resolution985 must be enacted authorizing local chief executive
to exercise the power of eminent domain (b) the purpose is for public use,
purpose or welfare or for the benefit of the poor and landless (c)there is payment
of just compensation, and (d) a valid and definite offer has previously been made
to the owner but was not accepted.
WHERE FILED
1.
Regional Trial Court, regardless of value as it is an action which is
incapable of pecuniary estimation.986
UPON FILING AND SERVICE OF SUMMONS
1.
The defendant may file: (a) A Manifestation that he has no objection or
defense to the action, or (b) An Answer stating all objections and defenses to the
taking of the property.
1.1
No counterclaim, cross claim or 3rd party complaint shall be allowed in the
answer or any subsequent pleading.987
1.2
The non filing of an answer does not result in the defendant being
declared in default nor does it bar him from presenting evidence as to the amount
of compensation due and to share in the distribution of the award.
2.
The plaintiff may upon making a deposit in or with an authorized
government depository of an amount equal to the assessed value of the property
for purposes of taxation may take possession of the real property.
2.1

If it involves personal property, its value as provisionally ascertained.988

2.2
Note that under Section 19 of the Local Government Code, the LGU can
take possession upon deposit with the court of fifteen (15%) percent of the Fair
Market Value based on the current tax declaration.

984

Local Government Code

985

Beluso v Muncipality of Panay, Capiz, GR No. 153974, August 7, 2006

986

Barangay San Roque v Heirs of Pastor, 334 SCRA 127

987

Supra, Section 3, Rule 67

988

Supra, Section 2, Rule 67

2.3
Under RA 8974,989 the government is required to make immediate
payment to the property owner upon filing of the complaint equivalent to the
market value as stated in the current tax declaration or the zonal value whichever
is higher, plus the value of the improvements using the replacement cost
method.990
3.
The case now proceeds to a determination of the authority of the plaintiff
to expropriate.
3.1
Thereafter, the court may dismiss the petition or issue an order of
expropriation or order of condemnation.
3.2
The order of expropriation is appealable but shall not prevent the
determination of just compensation.
3.3
Since the order of expropriation has been entered, the plaintiff cannot
dismiss or discontinue the case except on terms that the court deems just and
equitable.991
4.
The right of plaintiff to enter into the property and appropriate shall not be
delayed by an appeal. However, if appellate court determines that no right of
expropriation exists, it shall order the RTC to enforce restoration and determine
the damages that the defendant sustained. 992
5.
Just compensation is then determined by no more than 3 court appointed
commissioners. If the Court accepts their report, it will render judgment based
thereon. Such judgment is also appealable.993 The receipt by the defendant of
the compensation does not strip him of the right to appeal as the rules provide
that the plaintiff may execute its judgment as soon as it is obtained.994
5.1
Just compensation is defined as the full and fair equivalent of the property
sought to be expropriated considering the cost of acquisition, current value of like
properties, actual or potential uses and in case of lands, their size, shape and
location.995
989 An Act

to Facilitate the Acquisition of a Right of Way Site for National Governement Infrastructure
Projects and Other Purposes
990

Republic v Gingoyon, GR No. 166429, December 19, 2005

991

Supra, Section 4, Rule 67

992

Supra, Section 11, Rule 67

993

Supra, Sections 5,6,7, and 8, Rule 67

994

City of Manila v Batlle, 25 Phil 566

995

NPC v De La Cruz, GR No. 156093, February 2, 2007

5.2
As a rule, the just compensation to be determined is that which obtains at
the time of the taking of the property or the filing of the action, whichever comes
first.996The rationale is that the owner must be compensated only for what he
actually loses, regardless of appreciation or depreciation subsequent to taking
possession or filing of the action.
5.3
If upon determination of just compensation, the ownership is uncertain or
claims are conflicting, the court may order sum / sums paid to be given to the
Court for the benefit of the person adjudged in the same proceeding to be
entitled thereto but payment will be required to be given to the defendant or the
court before plaintiff can enter into or retain the property.997
5.4
The plaintiff shall have the right to enter into the property and expropriate
for public use or retain it if already entered. If defendant or counsel absent
themselves from the court or decline to receive the amount, it shall be deposited
in the court and shall have the effect of actual payment.998
5.5

Title will pass only upon full payment of the just compensation.999

5.6
Non payment does not entitle the landowner to recover possession.
However, if the government fails to pay just compensation within 5 years from
finality of judgment, the owners shall have the right to recover the property.1000
5.7
When private land is expropriated for a particular public use and that
public use is abandoned, the land expropriated: (a) shall not revert if the
acquisition is in fee simple unconditional, or (b) is re-acquired if expropriated with
a condition that if the public use is abandoned or ended, title reverts to former
owner.1001
6.
The judgment shall state definitely, by an adequate description, the
particular property or interest therein expropriated and the nature of the public
use or purpose for which it is expropriated, a certified copy of which judgment
shall be recorded in the registry of deeds and its effect shall to be shall to be vest
in the plaintiff title to the real estate for public use or purpose.1002
996

Republic v Sarabia, 468 SCRA 142

997

Supra, Section 9, Rule 67

998

Supra, Section 10, Rule 67

999

Federated Realty Corporation v Court of Appeals, 477 SCRA 707

1000

Yujuico v Atienza, Jr., 472 SCRA 463

1001

Fery v Municipality of Cabanatuan, 42 Phil 28

1002

Supra, Section 13, Rule 67

WHO PAYS FOR COSTS


1.
All costs, except that incurred by rival claimants, shall be paid by the
plaintiff unless an appeal is taken therefrom by the owner of the property and the
judgment is affirmed. Costs shall include the fees of the commissioners. 1003
RULE 68 FORECLOSURE OF REAL ESTATE
NATURE OF THE ACTION
1.
It is an action affecting interest in real property and is hence, a real action.
Thus venue is where the real property or a portion thereof is located.
1.1
If it involves several parcels of land in different provinces covered by a
single mortgage contract, it can be filed in any place where one of the parcels is
located and the judgment so rendered may be executed in the other
provinces.1004
2.

It is also an action that is incapable of pecuniary estimation.1005

WHAT SHOULD BE STATED IN THE COMPLAINT/PETITION


1.
The complaint in foreclosure of a mortgage or other encumbrance shall
set forth: (a) Date and due execution of the mortgage (b)
Its assignments, if
any (c) Names/residences of mortgagor/mortgagee (d) Description of the
mortgaged property (e)
Statement of the date of the note or other
documentary evidence of the obligation secured by the mortgage (f) Amount
claimed to be unpaid (g) Name/residences of persons having or claiming an
interest in the property subordinate in right to that of the holder of the mortgage,
all of whom shall be made defendants.1006
WHAT COURT CAN DO
1.

The action proceeds like an ordinary civil action.

2.
After trial, if the court shall find the facts to be true, it shall ascertain the
amount due the plaintiff and render judgment for the sum with an order for it to be
paid by the adverse party to the court or judgment oblige within a period of not
1003

Supra, Section 12, Rule 67

1004

El Hogar Filipino v Seva, 57 Phil 573

1005

Russel v Vestil, 304 SCRA 738

1006

Supra, Section 1, Rule 68

less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days from
entry of judgment, and that in case of default, the property will be sold at public
auction. This period is known as the Mortgagors Equity of Redemption. 1007
2.1
Distinguishing Equity of Redemption from Right of Redemption: (a) Equity
of Redemption is the equitable right of the mortgagor to redeem, while Right of
Redemption is the statutory right of the mortgagor to redeem. (b) The former is
available before auction sale, while the latter is available after auction sale (c)
The former is available only judicial foreclosure, while the latter is available only
in extra-judicial foreclosure, but by exception is allowed in judicial foreclosure
when the mortgagee is the PNB or a bank or a banking institution (d) The period
for the exercise of the former is within 90 days but no more than 120 days from
entry of foreclosure judgment, while in the latter it is one year from redemption is
within one year from date of registration of the sheriffs certificate of sale, except
when the mortgagor is a juridical person, in which case, the right to redeem must
be exercised until, but not after, the registration of the certificate of sale with the
applicable register of deeds which in no case shall be more than three months
after foreclosure, whichever is earlier.1008
3.
If not paid, upon motion, the court shall order the property sold in the
manner prescribed under Rule 39, such sale shall not affect the rights of persons
holding prior liens/encumbrances on the property or parts thereof.
3.1
Upon motion, sale shall be confirmed, and such shall operate to divest the
rights in the property of all the parties to the action and to vest their rights in the
purchaser, subject to such rights of redemption as may be allowed by law.
3.2
Note that when judicial foreclosure is resorted to there is no right of
redemption except when the law allows a redemption. Example: Section 47 of
the Philippine General Banking Law which allows a one year period for
redemption.
3.3
Upon finality of the order of confirmation or upon expiration of the period of
redemption when allowed by law, the purchaser at auction is entitled to
possession unless a third party is holding it adversely to the judgment obligor, in
which case, the purchaser at the auction sale may secure a writ of possession
from the Court ordering the sale.1009

1007

Supra, Section 2, Rule 68

1008

Section 47, Philippine General Banking Law

1009

Supra, Section 3, Rule 68

3.4
What is to be registered is the order of confirmation. If there is no right of
redemption, the title of the mortgagor is cancelled and a new one issued in the
name of the purchaser.
3.5
If with right of redemption, the annotation is to await final deed of sale
executed by Sheriff.1010
4.
Proceeds of the sale shall, after deducting the costs, be paid to the
persons foreclosing the mortgage. If there be a balance or residue, it shall be
paid to the junior encumbrancers, in the order of priority ascertained by the
Court, if none or there still be a balance or residue after payment, to the
mortgagor.1011
5.
If debt is not all due, as soon as a sufficient portion of the property has
been sold to pay the total amount, the sale shall terminate. Afterwards, no more
shall be sold, but if property cannot be sold in portions, the entire property is to
be sold with rebate of interest if proper when the full debt is paid.1012
6.
There can be a deficiency judgment if there is a balance. Upon motion, the
court shall render judgment against the defendant for the balance which may
then be the subject of execution.
6.1
If the balance is due at the time of rendition of judgment or at such time as
the remaining balance becomes due under the terms of the original contract,
which time shall be stated in the judgment.1013
7.
Note that the provisions of Section 31 as to use of premises by obligor,
Section 32 as to rents still due the obligor, and Section 34 as to recovery of price
if sale is not effective under Rule 39 are applicable insofar as they are not
inconsistent.1014
RULE 69 PARTITION

1010

Supra, Section 7, Rule 68

1011

Supra, Section 4, Rule 68

1012

Supra, Section 5, Rule 68

1013

Supra, Section 6, Rule 68

1014

Supra, Section 8, Rule 68

A partition agreement which was executed pursuant to a will that was not probated can
not be given effect.1015

OBJECT OF PARTITION
1.
Separate, divide and assign a thing that is held in common among those
to whom it may belong. The remedy may be availed of regardless of whether it
involves real or personal property, or both
WHO CAN FILE AND HOW
1.
Any person, having the right to compel partition of real estate may file,
setting forth therein the nature and extent of his title, adequate description of the
property, joining as defendants all other persons interested in the property.1016
2.
Partition and Accounting under this rule is in the nature of a quasi in rem
1017
action .
PROCEDURE
1.
If after trial, it finds for the plaintiff, it will order partition. This is known as
the order of partition
1.1
A final order decreeing partition and accounting may be appealed by the
party aggrieved thereby. 1018
2.
Thereupon, if the parties agree, the parties may undertake the partition
among themselves by proper instruments. The court shall thereupon confirm the
partition so agreed by the parties. Such partition and order of confirmation shall
then be recorded in the registry of deed of the place where the property is
situated.
2.1
If they fail to agree, the Court shall appoint not more than 3
commissioners, commanding them to set-off to the plaintiff and each party in
interest such part and proportion of the property as the court will direct. 1019

1015

Rodriguez v Rodriguez, 532 SCRA 642 (September 11, 2007)

1016

Supra, Section 1, Rule 69

1017

Valmonte v Court of Appeals, 52 SCRA 92

1018

Supra, Section 2, Rule 69

1019

Supra, Section 3, Rule 69

2.2
Before discharging their duties, the commissioners shall take an oath that
they will faithfully discharge their duties, and in so doing they shall view and
examine the real property , shall hear the preferences of the parties, determine
the comparative value of the property, and shall set apart the same to the parties
in lots or parcels as will be most advantageous and equitable, having due regard
to the improvements, situation and quality of the different parts thereof.1020
2.3
If the property cannot be divided without prejudice to the interest of
parties, the court may order it assigned to one of the parties willing to take
same, provided he pays to the other parties such amount as determined by
commissioners to be equitable, unless one of the interested parties asks that
property be sold instead.1021

the
the
the
the

2.4
A report should thereupon be made by the commissioners and filed with
the court, which shall then give the parties 10 days within which to file heir
objections to the findings. No proceeding shall pass title to the property or bind
the parties until the court shall have accepted the report and rendered judgment
thereon. Note though that the court has the option to accept or re-commit the
matter to the commissioners.1022
2.5
If actual partition of the property is made, judgment shall state definitely
the metes and bounds and adequate description of the property, the particular
portion allocated to each party and its effect is to vest to each party in the action
in severalty the portion of real estate assigned to him. If the whole property is
assigned to one after payment to the others, judgment has the effect of vesting in
the party making payment the whole of the real estate free from any interest of
the other parties. If the property is sold and proceeds divided, judgment has the
effect of vesting the property or portion sold in the purchaser free from any
interest of the parties to the action.1023 Judgment may include recovery from the
other of just share of rents and profits received by the other from the real estate
in question1024 and costs equitably apportioned among the parties.1025
2.6
This judgment is called the judgment of partition and may be the subject of
an appeal.

1020

Supra, Section 4, Rule 69

1021

Supra, Section 5, Rule 69

1022

Supra, Sections 6 and 7, Rule 69

1023

Supra, Section 11, Rule 69

1024

Supra, Section 8, Rule 69

1025

Supra, Section 10, Rule 69

RULE 70- FORCIBLE ENTRY, ILLEGAL/UNLAWFUL DETAINER


WHAT IS FORCIBLE ENTRY AND UNLAWFUL DETAINER
1.
Forcible Entry is an action brought when a person is deprived of
possession of land/building by force, intimidation, stealth or threat.
2.
Unlawful Detainer is an action brought by a lessor, vendor, vendee or
other person against whom possession of land/building is unlawfully withheld
after expiration or termination of the right to hold possession, by virtue of a
contract, express or implied.
2.1
Such action must be brought within one year after withholding such
possession. It is also known as an accion interdictal which seeks to recover
possession de facto or physical, actual or material possession.
3.
Note that it is the character or nature of the defendants possession which
will determine which of the two actions is appropriate.
4.
In addition to restitution of possession, damages and costs may also be
recovered.1026
UNLAWFUL DETAINER OR FORCIBLE ENTRY OR ACCION INTERDICTAL
DISTINGUISHED
1.
From Accion Publiciana- which is a plenary action to recover right of
possession that is brought after one year from accrual of the cause of action in a
Regional Trial Court
2.
From Accion Reivindicatoria- which is an action to recover ownership,
including possession.
WHAT IS REQUIRED FOR THE ACTION TO BE FILED
1.
In Illegal Detainer ,unless otherwise stipulated, the lessor can proceed
against lessee only after demand to pay or comply with the conditions of the
lease and to vacate is made upon the lessee
1.1
Or by serving written notice of such demand upon the person found within
the premises

1026

Supra, Section 1, Rule 70

1.2
Or by posting such notice on the premises if no person is found thereon
and the lessee fails to comply within 15 days in the case of land or 5 days in
case of building.1027
1.3
If the lease is on a month to month basis, demand to vacate is necessary
to terminate the lease upon expiration of the month so as to prevent tacita
reconduccion.1028 It is also necessary when one occupies upon tolerance or
permission without a contract as the occupant is bound by an implied promise to
vacate upon a demand.1029
1.4
If action is due to the termination of the lease due to the expiration of its
term, demand is not a prerequisite.1030Neither is it required when there is a
stipulation dispensing with the need for demand.
2.

No demand is required in Forcible Entry cases.

WHEN, WHERE FILED AND NATURE OF PROCEEDINGS


1.
Cases of Forcible Entry/Unlawful Detainer are to be filed within one year
from date of actual entry or date of last demand before the Municipal Trial Court
and shall be covered by the Rules on Summary Procedure, irrespective of the
amount of damages or unpaid rentals, unless they are covered by agricultural
tenancy laws or otherwise provided by law.1031
PROCEDURE TO BE FOLLOWED
1.
The only allowable pleadings are the complaint, compulsory counterclaim
and cross-claim pleaded in the answers and answers thereto. All pleadings are to
be verified.
2.
Upon filing of the complaint, the court may, from an examination of the
allegations in the complaint and such evidence attached thereto, dismiss the
complaint on any of the grounds for a motion to dismiss which are apparent
therein.

1027

Supra, Section 2, Rule 70

1028

Yap v Cruz, 208 SCRA 692

1029

Sps. Llobrera v Fernandez, GR No. 142882, May 2, 2006

1030

Lanuza v Munoz, 429 SCRA 562

1031

Supra, Section 3, Rule 70

Supra, Section 4, Rule 70, Article II, Section 3 (a) and (b), Rules on Summary Procedure

2.1

If not dismissed, it shall proceed to issue summons.1032

3.
If summons is issued, the defendant shall file his answer within 10 days
from receipt, serving a copy thereof to the plaintiff. It is an error on the part of the
judge to give the defendants 15 days to file an answer. 1033
3.1
Affirmative or negative defenses not pleaded are deemed waived, except
lack of jurisdiction over the subject matter.
3.2
Crossclaims or counterclaims not asserted are barred. If the answer
contains crossclaims or counterclaims, answers thereto are to be filed within 10
days from service of the answer in which they are pleaded.1034
4.
Failure to answer the complaint within the period above provided, the
court, motu proprio, or on motion of the plaintiff, shall render judgment as may be
prayed for therein: Provided, however, That the court may in its discretion reduce
the amount of damages and attorneys fees claimed for being excessive or
otherwise unconscionable. This is without prejudice to the applicability of Section
3, Rule 9 of the Rules of Court, if there are two or more defendants.1035
5.
A preliminary conference is then scheduled not later than 30 days after the
last answer is filed. The provision of Rule 18 on pre-trial shall be applicable to the
preliminary conference unless inconsistent with the provisions of this Rule.
5.1
The failure of the plaintiff to appear in the preliminary conference shall be
a cause for the dismissal of his complaint.
5.2
The defendant who appears in the absence of the plaintiff shall be entitled
to judgment on his counterclaim in accordance with Section 6 hereof. All crossclaims shall be dismissed.
5.3
If a sole defendant shall fail to appear, the plaintiff shall be entitled to
judgment in accordance with Section 6 hereof. This Rule shall not apply where
one of two or more defendants sued under a common cause of action who had
pleaded a common defense shall appear at the preliminary conference.

1032

Supra, Section 5, Rule 70, Article II, Section 4, Rules on Summary Procedure

1033

Santos vs. Tanciongco, 567 SCRA 134

1034

Supra, Section 6, Rule 70, Article II, Section 5, Rules on Summary Procedure

1035

Supra, Section 7, Rule 70, Article II, Section 6, Rules on Summary Procedure

5.4
No postponement shall be granted except for highly meritorious grounds
and without prejudice to sanctions which the court may deem to impose.1036
6.
Within 5 days after the termination of the preliminary conference, an order
shall be issued by the court stating the following matters: (a) Whether the parties
have arrived at an amicable settlement, and if so, the terms thereof (b)The
stipulations or admissions entered into by the parties (c) Whether, on the basis
of the pleadings and the stipulations and admissions made by the parties,
judgment may be rendered without the need of further proceedings, in which
event the judgment shall be rendered within thirty (30) days from issuance of the
order (d) A clear specification of material facts which remain controverted; and (e)
Such other matters intended to expedite the disposition of the case.1037
7.
Within 10 days from receipt of the order, the parties shall submit the
affidavits of their witnesses, evidences and position papers setting forth the law
and the facts relied upon.1038
7.1
The affidavits submitted shall only state the facts of direct personal
knowledge of the affiant which are admissible in evidence and must indicate their
competence to testify. A violation may subject the party or counsel to disciplinary
action and will be cause to expunge the inadmissible affidavit or portion thereof
from the record.1039
8.
The following petitions, motions, or pleadings are prohibited and shall not
be allowed to be filed:
(a) Motion to dismiss the complaint except on the ground of lack of
jurisdiction over the subject matter, or failure to comply with the preceding section
pertaining to referral to the Lupon for conciliation. The case may then be
dismissed without prejudice and may be revived upon showing of compliance.1040
The filing of a motion to dismiss after an answer is filed does not violate the rules.
What is proscribed is a motion to dismiss that stops the running of the period for
the filing of an answer and cause undue delay. 1041
(b) Motion for a bill of particulars;

1036

Supra, Section 8, Rule 70, Article II, Section 7, Rules on Summary Procedure

1037

Supra, Section 9, Rule 70, Article II, Section 8, Rules on Summary Procedure

1038

Supra, Section 10, Rule 70, Article II, Section 9, Rules on Summary Procedure

1039

Supra, Section 14, Rule 70, Article II, Section 20, Rules on Summary Procedure

1040

Supra, Section 12, Rule 70, Article IV, Section 18, Rules on Summary Procedure

1041

Heirs of Olivas v Flor, 161 SCRA 393

(c) Motion for new trial, or for reconsideration of a judgment, or for


reopening of trial; A motion for reconsideration can be filed when the case is
already pending before the appellate court.1042 And a motion for reconsideration
of rulings or pertaining to other incidents, not of the judgment is allowed1043
(d) Petition for Relief from Judgment
(e) Motion for extension of time to file pleadings, affidavits or any other
paper;
(f) Memoranda;
(g) Petition for certiorari, mandamus, or prohibition against any
interlocutory order issued by the court;
(h) Motion to declare the defendant in default;
(i) Dilatory motions for postponement;
(j) Reply;
(k) Third-party complaints; and
(l) Interventions.1044
9.
A preliminary mandatory injunction may be granted by the court upon
motion presented within 5 days from the filing of the complaint to restore him in
possession, which should be decided by the court within 30 days from filing
thereof1045 and upon motion of the plaintiff, within 10 days from perfection of an
appeal to the Regional Trial Court to restore him in possession if the court is
satisfied that the appeal of the defendant is frivolous or dilatory or that the
plaintiffs appeal is prima facie meritorious.1046
10.
The court shall then render judgment within 30 days after receipt of the
last affidavits and position papers, or the expiration of the period for filing the
same.

1042

Jakihaca v Aquino, 181 SCRA 67

1043

Lucas v Fabros, 324 SCRA 1

1044

Supra, Section 13, Rule 70, Article IV, Section 19, Rules on Summary Procedure

1045

Supra, Section 15, Rule 70, Article II, Section 10, Rule on Summary Procedure

1046

Supra, Section 20, Rule 70

10.1 However, should the court find it necessary to clarify certain material facts,
it may, during the said period, issue an order specifying the matters to be
clarified, and require the parties to submit affidavits or other evidence on the said
matters within ten (10) days from receipt of said order.
10.2 Judgment shall be rendered within fifteen (15) days after the receipt of the
last clarificatory affidavits, or the expiration of the period for filing the same.
10.3 The court shall not resort to the clarificatory procedure to gain time for the
rendition of the judgment.1047
11.
Should the defense of ownership be raised, the court shall only consider
the same if the issue of possession cannot be resolved without deciding the
issue of ownership. It shall thus be resolved only to determine possession and
any judgment shall be conclusive only on possession and shall not be a bar to
another action between the parties respecting the title to the land or building1048
12.
The judgment to be rendered by the court in favor of the plaintiff shall
include restitution of the premises, the sum justly due as arrears of rent or as
reasonable compensation for the use of the premises, attorneys fees and costs.
If the allegations are not true, it shall render judgment for the defendant for
recovery of cost. If a counterclaim is established, the court shall render judgment
for the sum found in arrears from either party and award costs as justice
requires.1049
12.1 While the general rule in ejectment cases that the recoverable damages
are fair rental value or reasonable compensation for the use or occupation of real
property, liquidated damages may be recovered if so stipulated.1050
12.2 The judgment is appealable to the appropriate Regional Trial Court, which
shall decide the case on the basis of the entire record of the proceedings in the
court of origin and such memoranda or brief as may be submitted or required1051
12.3 If judgment is rendered against the defendant, the execution shall issue
immediately upon motion, unless an appeal has been perfected and the
defendant to stay execution files a sufficient supersedeas bond if there are
rentals in arrears1052 , approved by the court and executed in favor of the
1047

Supra, Section 11, Rule 70, Article

1048

Supra, Sections 16 and 18, Rule 70

1049

Supra, Section 17, Rule 70

1050 Azcuna,

Jr. v Court of Appeals,255 SCRA 215

1051

Supra, Section 18, Rule 70

1052

Supra, Section 8, Rule 70 and De Laureano v. Adil, 72 SCRA 146

defendant to pay rents, damages and costs accruing down to the time of the
judgment appealed from, and unless, during the pendency of the appeal, he
deposits with the appellate court the amount of the rent due from time to time
under the contract or the reasonable value for use and occupation adjudged by
the court on or before the 10th day of each succeeding month or period.1053
12.4 In conformity with Section 19, Rule 70 of the 1997 Rules of Civil
Procedure, it has been consistently ruled that if no supersedeas bond is filed, the
trial court, upon motion, may correctly order execution of judgment.1054 Note that
there is no necessity for a motion for the court to fix the supersedeas bond as the
amount of the same can be ascertained from the judgment. Also, if the records of
the case have already been transmitted to the appellate court, the supersedeas
bond may be filed with the appellate court.1055
12.5 The filing of a notice of appeal and payment of the necessary docket does
not stay the execution of the decision.
12.6 The judgment of the appellate court shall however be subject to immediate
execution without prejudice to a further appeal1056
PERSONS BOUND BY A JUDGMENT IN EJECTMENT CASES
1.
In an ejectment case, the judgment is binding on: (a) a sublessee as his
right is subsidiary to that of the lessee1057 (b) a guest or successor in interest,
including members of the family of the lessee, his servants and employees1058(c)
trespassers, squatters or agents of the defendant, and (d) transferees pendente
lite.
RULE 71 CONTEMPT
WHAT IS CONTEMPT
1.
Willful disobedience or open disrespect of the orders, authority, or dignity
of a court or judge acting in judicial capacity by disruptive language or conduct or
by failure to obey the orders of the court

1053

Supra, Section 19, Rule 70

1054

Silverio v Court of Appeals, 407 SCRA 240

1055

Chua v Court of Appeals, 286 SCRA 437

1056

Supra, Section 21, Rule 70

1057

Dela Cruz v Roxas, 75 Phil 457

1058 Ariem

v Delos Angeles, 49 SCRA 343

KINDS OF CONTEMPT
1.
Direct Contempt consists of misbehaviour in the presence of or so near
a court as to obstruct or interfere with the proceedings before the same, it
includes, disrespect, offensive personalities against others, refusal to be sworn or
answer as a witness, or to subscribe to an affidavit/deposition when lawfully
required to do so.
1.1
This kind of contempt may be summarily adjudged and be punished by a
fine not exceeding PHP 2,000.00 or imprisonment of not exceeding 10 days or
both if it be by a Regional Trial Court or a fine not exceeding PHP 200.00 or
imprisonment not exceeding 1 day or both if it be by a Municipal Trial Court.
1.2
The remedy therefrom is certiorari/ prohibition, in which case the
judgment is suspended pending the petition provided the petitioner files a bond
fixed by the court which rendered the judgment and conditioned that he will abide
by and perform the judgment should the petition be decided against him. 1059
1.3
It is direct contempt if a pleading contains derogatory, offensive or
malicious statements against a particular judge when submitted in the same
court where the judge is presiding. If submitted elsewhere, it is indirect
contempt.1060
2.
Indirect Contempt consists of (a) Misbehavior of an officer of a court in
the performance of his official duties or in his official transactions;
(b)
Disobedience of or resistance to a lawful writ, process, order, or judgment of a
court, including the act of a person who, after being dispossessed or ejected from
any real property by the judgment or process of any court of competent
jurisdiction, enters or attempts or induces another to enter into or upon such real
property for the purpose of executing acts of ownership or possession, or in any
manner disturbs the possession given to the person adjudged to be entitled
thereto; (c) Any abuse of or any unlawful interference with the processes or
proceedings of a court not constituting direct contempt under Section 1 of this
Rule; (d) Any improper conduct tending, directly or indirectly to impede, obstruct,
or degrade the administration of justice; (e) Assuming to be an attorney or an
officer of a court, and acting as such without authority; (f) Failure to obey a
subpoena duly served; (g) The rescue, or attempted rescue, of a person or
property in the custody of an officer by virtue of an order or process of a court
held by him. But nothing in this section shall be so construed as to prevent the
court from issuing process to bring the respondent into court, or from holding him
in custody pending such proceedings.1061
1059

Supra, Sections 1 and 2, Rule 71

1060 Ang
1061

v Castro, 136 SCRA 453

Supra, Section 3, Rule 71

2.1
This kind of contempt may be initiated motu propio by the court against
which the contempt was committed by an order or any formal charge requiring
the respondent to show cause why he should not be punished for contempt. In
other cases, it shall be commenced by verified petition with supporting particulars
and certified true copies of documents or papers involved therein, and upon full
compliance with the requirements for the filing of initiatory pleadings in the court
concerned.
2.2
If the charges are related to the principal action pending before the court,
the petition shall so allege such fact but it shall be docketed, heard and decided
separately, unless the court in its discretion orders consolidation of the charge
and principal action for joint hearing and decision. 1062
2.3
The charge shall be filed in the Regional Trial Court if the contempt is
committed against it or a court of equal or higher rank or against an officer
appointed by it.
2.4
If against a lower court, it may be filed in the Regional Trial Court in the
place where the lower court sits or in such lower court, subject to appeal to the
Regional Trial Court.1063
2.5
This kind of contempt is punishable by a fine not exceeding P 30,000.00
or imprisonment not exceeding 6 months or both, if committed against a Regional
Trial Court. If against a Municipal Trial Court, by a fine not exceeding P 5,000.00
or imprisonment not exceeding 1 month. If it consists in a violation of a writ of
injunction, TRO or status quo order, he may also be ordered to make complete
restitution. A writ of execution may be issued to enforce a fine.1064 If it consists in
refusal or omission to do an act within his power to perform, he may be
imprisoned by order of the court until it is performed.1065
2.6
A judgment for indirect contempt is appealable to the Regional Trial Court,
but execution shall not be suspended without the filing of a bond.1066
2.7
An order dismissing a contempt charge or exoneration from such, is not
appealable.1067
1062

Supra, Section 4, Rule 71

1063

Supra, Section 5, Rule 71

1064

Supra, Section 7, Rule 71

1065

Supra, Section 8, Rule 71

1066

Supra, Section 11, Rule 71

1067

In Re, Mison, Jr, 33 SCRA 30

OTHERS
1.
If no hearings are held forthwith and the respondent has been taken into
custody, he may be released upon payment of a bond, but if he fails to appear on
the hearing of the charge, he may be ordered arrested and the bond forfeited. 1068
2.
If already imprisoned, the court may discharge the respondent if public
interest will not be prejudiced by the release.1069
APPLICABILITY OF THE RULE
The rules apply to persons, entities, bodies or agencies exercising quasi-judicial
powers or shall have suppletory effect to their rules. The RTC of the place where
the contempt is committed shall have jurisdiction.1070
DEFINING CRIMINAL AND CIVIL CONTEMPT
It is criminal contempt when the purpose is to vindicate the authority of the court
and protect its outraged dignity. It is civil contempt when there is failure to do
something ordered by the court to be done for the benefit of another party.1071

SALIENT PORTIONS OF KATARUNGANG PAMBARANGAY LAW


SCOPE OF APPLICATION
1.

All disputes will require conciliation.

2.
The exceptions are the following: (a) where one party is the government or
any subdivision or instrumentality thereof (b) where one party is a public officer or
employee, and the dispute relates to the performance of his official functions (c)
offenses punishable by imprisonment exceeding 1 year or a fine exceeding PHP
5000.00 (d) offenses where there is no private offended party (e) where the
dispute is brought by or against a corporation, partnership or juridical entity (f)
where the dispute involves real properties located in different cities or
municipalities unless the parties agree to submit their differences to amicable
settlement by an appropriate lupon (g) where dispute involves parties who
actually reside in barangays of different cities or municipalities, except when the
1068

Supra, Sections 6 and 9, Rule 71

1069

Supra, Section 10, Rule 71

1070

Supra, Section 12, Rule 71

1071

Yasay v Recto, 313 SCRA 739

barangays actually adjoin each other and the parties agree to submit their
differences to amicable settlement by an appropriate lupon (h) such other
classes of disputes which the President may determine in the interest of justice
or upon recommendation by the Secretary of Justice (Section 408, PD 1508). (i)
disputes arising from the implementation of the CARP (j) Employer-Employee
disputes (k) action to annul a judgment upon a compromise.
3.
Note however that while no petition, complaint, action or proceeding within
the authority of the lupon shall be filed directly with the court or any government
office for adjudication UNLESS there has been a confrontation before the lupon
chairman or pangkat, and that no conciliation or settlement has been reached as
certified by the lupon secretary or pangkat secretary, or unless the settlement has
been repudiated within 10 days from its date by a statement sworn before the
punong barangay to the effect that his consent is vitiated by fraud violence or
intimidation ( Section 418, PD 1508), the following cases may be filed directly: (1)
accused in under detention (2) person has otherwise been deprived of personal
liberty calling for habeas corpus proceedings (3) when action is coupled with a
provisional remedy (4) where action may otherwise be barred by prescription
(Section 412, PD 1508)
VENUE
1.
The proper venue for conciliation is as follows: (a) if between persons
actually residing in the same barangay-before the lupon of the said barangay (b)
if between actual residents of different barangays within the same city of
municipality- before the lupon where the respondent resides, if there be several
respondents- before the lupon where anyone of them resides at the election of
the complainant (c) if involving real property or any interest therein- the barangay
lupon where the property or larger portion is located (d) if arising in the workplace
where the contending parties are employed or at the institution where such
parties are enrolled for study- before the lupon of the barangay where the
workplace or institution is located.
2.
Any objection to venue shall be raised before the Punong Barangay,
otherwise they are waived. Legal questions may be submitted to the Secretary of
Justice or his duly designated representative whose ruling thereon shall be
binding.
PROCEDURE FOR CONCILIATION OR SETTLEMENT
1.

The procedure for settlement is as follows:

(a)
Initiation of complaint, orally or in writing, to the lupon chairman of the
barangay

(b)
Mediation by lupon chairman on the next working day from receipt of the
complaint, failing in which within 15 days from the first meeting, he shall forthwith
set a date for the constitution of the pangkat
(c)
The pangkat shall convene not later than 3 days from constitution to hear
the parties and explore the possibility of an amicable settlement within 15 days
from the day it convenes, which period is extendible for another 15 days, except
in clearly meritorious cases.
2.
Note however, that while prescription does not run upon filing of the
complaint and shall resume only upon receipt of the complaint or certificate of
repudiation, or certification to file action, the interruption shall not exceed 60 days
from filing of the complaint with the punong barangay. (Section 410, PD 1508)
3.
The form of the amicable settlement shall be in writing, in a language/
dialect known to the parties, signed by them and attested by the lupon/pangkat
chairman (Section 411, PD 1508).
3.1
This shall have the force and effect of a final judgment of a court upon
expiration of 10 days from date thereof unless repudiation has been made or a
petition to nullify the award has been filed before the proper court.
3.2
This does not apply to cases already pending but subsequently referred to
the lupon for amicable settlement under the last paragraph of Section 408,as the
same is submitted back to the court to serve as basis for rendition of judgment.
(Section 416, PD 1508).
3.3
The award or settlement may be enforced by execution by the lupon within
6 months from the date of the settlement. After the lapse of the said period, by
action in the appropriate city of municipal court. (Section 417, PD 1508)
4.
Note however that if a settlement is not complied with, the injured party
may bring an action against the offending party to recover the original amount of
his claim, thereby rescinding the compromise under Article 2041 of the Civil
Code which was held to qualify Article 2037 of the Civil Code as to the effect of a
compromise being considered as constituting res judicata.1072

1072

Chavez v Court of Appeals, GR 159411, March 18, 2005

REVISED RULE ON
SUMMARY PROCEDURE
RESOLUTION OF THE COURT EN BANC DATED OCTOBER 15, 1991
PROVIDING FOR THE REVISED RULE ON SUMMARY PROCEDURE FOR
METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURTS, MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS IN CITIES,
MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS AND MUNICIPAL CIRCUIT TRIAL COURTS.
Pursuant to Section 36 of the Judiciary Reorganization Act of 1980 (B.P. Blg.
129) and to achieve an expeditious and inexpensive determination of the cases
referred to herein, the Court Resolved to promulgate the following Revised Rule
on Summary Procedure:
I
APPLICABILITY
SECTION 1. Scope: - This rule shall govern the summary procedure in the
Metropolitan Trial Courts in Cities, the Municipal Trial Courts, and the Municipal
Circuit Trial Courts in the following cases falling within their jurisdiction:
A.

Civil Cases:

(1)
All cases of forcible entry and unlawful detainer, irrespective of the amount
of damages or unpaid rentals sought to be recovered. Where attorneys fees are
awarded, the same shall not exceed twenty thousand pesos (P20,000).
(2)
All other cases, except probate proceedings, where the total amount of
plaintiffs claim does not exceed one hundred thousand pesos (P100,000) or, two
hundred thousand pesos (P200,000) in Metropolitan Manila, exclusive of interest
and costs. (As amended by A.M. No. 02-11-09-SC, dated Nov. 12, 2002; this
amended took effect on November 25, 2002)
B. Criminal Cases:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Violations of traffic laws, rules and regulations;


Violations of the rental law;
Violations of municipal or city ordinances;
Violations of Batas Pambansa Blg 221073

1073 A.M.

00-11-01-SC, April 15, 2003

(5)
All other criminal cases where the penalty prescribed by law for the
offense charged is imprisonment not exceeding six months, or a fine not
exceeding one thousand pesos (P1,000), or both, irrespective of other imposable
penalties, accessory or otherwise, or of the civil liability arising therefrom:
Provided, however, That in offenses involving damage to property through
criminal negligence, this Rule shall govern where the imposable fine does not
exceed ten thousand pesos (P10,000).
This rule shall not apply to a civil case where the plaintiffs cause of action
is pleaded in the same complaint with another cause of action subject to the
ordinary procedure; nor to a criminal case where the offense charged is
necessarily related to another criminal case subject to ordinary procedure.
SEC. 2. Determination of applicability. Upon the filing of a civil or criminal
action, the court shall issue an order declaring whether or not the case shall be
governed by this Rule.
A patently erroneous determination to avoid the application of the Rule of
Summary Procedure is a ground for disciplinary action.
II
CIVIL CASES
SEC. 3. Pleadings.
A.
Pleadings, allowed. The only pleadings allowed to be filed are the
complaints, compulsory counterclaims and cross-claims pleaded in the answer,
and the answers thereto.
B.

Verification. All pleadings shall be verified.

SEC. A. Duty of court. After the court determines that the case falls
under summary procedure, it may, from an examination of the allegations therein
and such evidence as may be attached thereto, dismiss the case outright on any
of the grounds apparent therefrom for the dismissal of a civil action.
If no ground for dismissal is found, it shall forthwith issue summons which
shall state that the summary procedure under this Rule shall apply.
NOTE: That any of the grounds for dismissal under Rule 16 apply although no
motion to dismiss can be filed except on the grounds of lack of jurisdiction and
non-compliance with the requirement on conciliation.
NOTE: That the prohibition as to the filing of a motion to dismiss exists prior to
the filing of an answer but a dismissal grounded on any of the causes stated in

Rule 16 can only be effected prior to the issuance of the court of summons and
not after an answer has been filed (Heirs of Ricardo Olivas vs. Flor, 161 SCRA
393)
SEC. 5. Answer. Within ten (10) days from service of summons, the
defendant shall file his answer to the complaint and serve a copy thereof on the
plaintiff. Affirmative and negative defenses not pleaded therein shall be deemed
waived, except for lack of jurisdiction over the subject matter. Cross-claims and
compulsory counterclaims not asserted in the answer shall be considered barred.
The answer to counterclaims or cross-claims shall be filed and served within ten
(10) days from service of the answer in which they are pleaded.
SEC. 6. Effect of failure to answer. Should the defendant fail to answer
the complaint within the period above provided, the court, motu proprio, or on
motion of the plaintiff, shall render judgment as may be prayed for therein:
Provided, however, That the court may in its discretion reduce the amount of
damages and attorneys fees claimed for being excessive or otherwise
unconscionable. This is without prejudice to the applicability of Section 4, Rule 18
of the Rules of Court, if there are two or more defendants.
NOTE: Rendition by the court of judgment on account of failure to file an answer
or to appear during the preliminary conference may not require a motion (Sordan
vs. De Guzman, A.M. No. MTJ-00-1296, October 5, 2000)
SEC. 7. Preliminary conference; appearance of parties. Not later than
thirty (30) days after the last answer is filed, a preliminary conference shall be
held. The rules on pre-trial in ordinary cases shall be applicable to the preliminary
conference unless inconsistent with the provisions of this Rule.
The failure of the plaintiff to appear in the preliminary conference shall be
a cause for the dismissal of his complaint. The defendant who appears in the
absence of the plaintiff shall be entitled to judgment on his counterclaim in
accordance with Section 6 hereof. All cross-claims shall be dismissed.
If a sole defendant shall fail to appear, the plaintiff shall be entitled to
judgment in accordance with Section 6 hereof. This Rule shall not apply where
one of two or more defendants sued under a common cause of action who had
pleaded a common defense shall appear at the preliminary conference.
SEC. 8. Record of preliminary conference. Within five (5) days after the
termination of the preliminary conference, the court shall issue an order stating
the matters taken up therein, including but not limited to:
(a) Whether the parties have arrived at an amicable settlement, and if so,
the terms thereof;

(b) The stipulations or admissions entered into by the parties;


(c) Whether, on the basis of the pleadings and the stipulations and
admissions made by the parties, judgment may be rendered without the need of
further proceedings, in which event the judgment shall be rendered within thirty
(30) days from issuance of the order;
(d) A clear specification of material facts which remain controverted; and
(e) Such other matters intended to expedite the disposition of the case.
SEC. 9. Submission of affidavits and position papers. Within ten (10)
days from receipt of the order mentioned in the next preceding section, the
parties shall submit the affidavits of their witnesses and other evidence on the
factual issues defined in the order, together with their position papers setting forth
the law and the facts relied upon by them.
SEC. 10. Rendition of judgment. Within thirty (30) days after receipt of
the last affidavits and position papers, or the expiration of the period for filing the
same, the court shall render judgment.
However, should the court find it necessary to clarify certain material facts,
it may, during the said period, issue an order specifying the matters to be
clarified, and require the parties to submit affidavits or other evidence on the said
matters within ten (10) days from receipt of said order. Judgment shall be
rendered within fifteen (15) days after the receipt of the last clarificatory affidavits,
or the expiration of the period for filing the same.
The court shall not resort to the clarificatory procedure to gain time for the
rendition of the judgment.
NOTE: That hearings are not necessary unless for the purpose of clarifying
certain material facts.
III
CRIMINAL CASES
Sec. 11. How commenced. The filing of criminal cases falling within the
scope of this Rule shall be either by complaint or by information; Provided,
however, That in Metropolitan Manila and in Chartered Cities, such cases shall
be commenced only by information, except when the offense cannot be
prosecuted de officio.

The complaint or information shall be accompanied by the affidavits of the


complainant and of his witnesses in such number of copies as there are accused
plus two (2) copies of the courts files. If this requirement is not complied with
within five (5) days from date of filing, the case may be dismissed.
Sec. 12 Duty of court.
(a)
If commenced by complaint. On the basis of the complaint and the
affidavits and other evidence accompanying the same, the court may dismiss the
case outright for being patently without basis or merit and order the release of the
accused if in custody.
(b)
If commenced by information. When the case is commenced by
information, or is not dismissed pursuant to the next preceding paragraph, the
court shall issue an order which, together with copies of the affidavits and other
evidence submitted by the prosecution, shall require the accused to submit his
counter-affidavit and the affidavits of his witnesses as well as any evidence in his
behalf, serving copies thereof on the complainant or prosecutor not later than ten
(10) days from receipt of said order. The prosecution may file reply affidavits
within ten (10) days after receipt of the counter-affidavits of the defense.
Sec. 13 Arraignment and trial. Should the court, upon a consideration of
the complaint or information and the affidavits submitted by both parties, find no
cause or ground to hold the accused for trial, it shall order the dismissal of the
case; otherwise, the court shall set the case for arraignment and trial.
If the accused is in custody for the crime charged, he shall be immediately
arraigned and if he enters a plea of guilty, he shall forthwith be sentenced.
Sec. 14 Preliminary conference. Before conducting the trial, the court
shall call the parties to a preliminary conference during which a stipulation of
facts may be entered into, or the propriety of allowing the accused to enter a plea
of guilty to a lesser offense may be considered, or such other matters may be
taken up to clarify the issues and to ensure a speedy disposition of the case.
However, no admission by the accused shall be used against him unless reduced
to writing and signed by the accused and his counsel. A refusal or failure to
stipulate shall not prejudice the accused.
Sec. 15 Procedure of trial. At the trial, the affidavits submitted by the
parties shall constitute the direct testimonies of the witnesses who executed the
same. Witnesses who testified may be subjected to cross-examination, redirect
or re-cross-examination. Should the affiant fail to testify, his affidavit shall not be
considered as competent evidence for the party presenting the affidavit, but the
adverse party may utilize the same for any admissible purpose.

Except on rebuttal or surrebuttal, no witness shall be allowed to testify


unless his affidavit was previously submitted to the court in accordance with
Section 12 hereof.
However, should a party desire to present additional affidavits or counteraffidavits as part of his direct evidence, he shall so manifest during the
preliminary conference, stating the purpose thereof. If allowed by the court, the
additional affidavits of the prosecution or the counter-affidavits of the defense
shall be submitted to the court and served on the adverse party not later than
three (3) days after the termination of the preliminary conference.
If the
additional affidavits are presented by the prosecution, the accused may file his
counter-affidavits and serve the same on the prosecution within three (3) days
from such service.
Sec. 16. Arrest of accused. The court shall not order the arrest of the
accused except for failure to appear whenever required. Release of the person
arrested shall either be on bail or on recognizance by a responsible citizen
acceptable to the court.
Sec. 17 Judgment. Where a trial has been conducted, the court shall
promulgate the judgment not later than thirty (30) days after the termination of
trial.
COMMON PROVISIONS
SEC. 18 Referral to Lupon. Cases requiring referral to the Lupon for
conciliation under the provisions of Presidential Decree No. 1508 where there is
no showing of compliance with such requirement, shall be dismissed without
prejudice, and may be revived only after such requirement shall have been
complied with. This provision shall not apply to criminal cases where the accused
was arrested without a warrant.
SEC. 19. Prohibited pleadings and motions. The following pleadings,
motions, or petitions shall not be allowed in the cases covered by this Rule:
(a) Motion to dismiss the complaint or to quash the complaint or
information except on the ground of lack of jurisdiction over the subject matter, or
failure to comply with the preceding section;
(b) Motion for a bill of particulars;
(c) Motion for new trial, or for reconsideration of a judgment, or for
reopening of trial;
(d) Petition for Relief from Judgment

(e) Motion for extension of time to file pleadings, affidavits or any other
paper;
(f) Memoranda;
(g) Petition for certiorari, mandamus, or prohibition against any
interlocutory order issued by the court;
(h) Motion to declare the defendant in default;
(i) Dilatory motions for postponement;
NOTE: If motion is well grounded, it may be allowed.
(j) Reply;
(k) Third-party complaints; and
(l) Interventions.
SEC. 20. Affidavits. The affidavits required to be submitted under this
Rule shall state only facts of direct personal knowledge of the affiants which are
admissible in evidence, and shall show their competence to testify to the matters
stated therein.
A violation of this requirement may subject the party or the counsel who
submits the same to disciplinary action, and shall be cause to expunge the
inadmissible affidavit or portion thereof from the record.
SEC. 21. Appeal. The judgment or final order shall be appealable to the
appropriate regional trial court which shall decide the same in accordance with
Section 22 of Batas Pambansa Blg. 129. The decision of the regional trial court in
civil cases governed by this Rule, including forcible entry and unlawful detainer,
shall be immediately executory, without prejudice to a further appeal that may be
taken therefrom.
NOTE: That immediate execution requires proof that the losing party has been
served with notice of judgment (Dy vs. CA, 191 SCRA 585) and that notice of the
motion for execution to the adverse party is required ( Limpo vs. CA, 333 SCRA
575)
SEC. 22. Applicability of the regular rules. The regular procedure
prescribed in the Rules of Court shall apply to the special cases herein provided
for in a suppletory capacity insofar as they are not inconsistent herewith.

SEC. 23. Effectivity. This revised Rule on Summary Procedure shall be


effective on November 15, 1991.

In fact, it has been declared that the motion for extension of time within which a
party may plead is not a litigated motion where notice to the adverse party is
necessary to afford the latter an opportunity to resist the application, but an ex
parte motion made to the court in behalf of one or the other of the parties to the
action, in the absence and usually without the knowledge of the other party or
parties. (Commercial Union Assurance Company Limited, et. al. vs. Lepanto
Consolidated Mining Company, et. al., L-43342. October 30, 1978, 86 SCRA 79,
95-96; Amante vs. Sunga, et. al., L-40491, May 28, 1975, 64 SCRA 192, 195)
Therefore, as long as it is filed within the period sought to be extended, a request
for extension of time may be filed ex parte and granted without the usual
formalities applicable to motions in general. (Moya vs. Barton, 76 Phil. 831)