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ISSN: 0717-7925

revistadelaconstruccion@uc.cl

Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile

Chile

Validation of the Polygon-Of-Voids Tool for Asphalt Mixtures with RAP

Revista de la Construccin, vol. 13, nm. 1, abril, 2014, pp. 56-63

Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile

Santiago, Chile

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[ 56

Validacin de la herramienta de polgono de huecos para las mezclas asflticas con RAP

Carlos Rodolfo Marn Uribe (Autor Principal)

Facultad de Ingeniera

Departamento de Ingeniera y Gestin de la Construccin

crmarin@uc.cl

Facultad de Ingeniera

Departamento de Ingeniera y Gestin de la Construccin

gthenoux@ing.puc.cl

Cdigo: 0214

Fecha de Recepcin: 01.01.2014.

Fecha de Aceptacin: 01.04.2014.

Abstract

Durability of an asphalt mixture is directly related to the optimum asphalt binder content, which guarantees coverage of the aggregate particles and

suitable volumetric properties to ensure a good performance in service, producing an asphalt mixture that is less susceptible to aging and moisture

damage. Previous research has shown that the polygon-of-voids tool, or polyvoids, is an analytical technique to determine the optimum asphalt binder

content of asphalt mixtures with virgin aggregates based on the specification limits of voids, allowing a saving in time and material. However, current

trends to develop new asphalt mixtures which incorporate reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) have created additional challenges given the nature of the

design of a mixture containing aggregates with residual asphalt that make the property measurement of the bulk specific gravity of the RAP aggregate

difficult. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of the polygon-of-voids tool for the design of recycled hot-mix asphalt. The results

show that the method of substitution, where the value of the actual specific gravity of the RAP aggregate

is assumed as the bulk specific gravity

of the RAP aggregate

, gives the optimum asphalt contents closest to those determined by the traditional Marshall method for the design of

asphalt mixtures.

Keywords: Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (Rap); Polyvoids; Asphalt Mixes; Volumetric Properties.

INTRODUCTION

Generally, the design process of an asphalt mixture initially

consists of a volumetric design and subsequently of mechanical

or empirical tests to verify the design. The quality of the asphalt

mix can vary due to many factors such as variations in asphalt

binder content and particle size, which usually occur during

production in the plant, and variations in temperature and

compaction energy, which can happen during compaction in the

field, so that the compacted mixture on site may have different

volumetric parameters and mechanical properties from those

considered in the design (Garnica et al, 2005). It is desirable that

the mixture produced in the plant has uniform properties and

characteristics similar to those of the design of the laboratory

mix, which seeks to select the materials (aggregate, asphalt

binder, mineral filler, additives), the grading, the optimum

asphalt binder content, the mixing and compaction

temperatures, and the volumetric properties of the mixture, so

that the requirements chosen for a particular project are met.

The goal of the design process of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) is to

select a single optimum asphalt binder content that allows to

balance appropriately the properties looked for by the designer

and that ensures adequate service performance regarding

common failures such as fatigue, low temperature cracking and

permanent deformation. That is to say, to find the optimum

asphalt binder content which ensures a thickness of asphalt film

that delays aging of the mixture and subsequent cracking,

sufficient stiffness to meet the demands of traffic without

distorting or rutting, and convenient volumetric properties

which have historically been related to their performance and

durability. For any state of a compacted geo-material there are

2014, 13(1), 56 - 63

other geo-material is shown in Table 1.

Over the years, designers have established maximum and

minimum standards for these volumetric properties in order to

exclude those asphalt mixtures which have a poor performance.

For instance, low air voids may produce rutting and shove while

high air voids causes accelerated aging, high permeability,

brittleness, premature cracking, raveling and moisture damage

(McLeod, 1959; Asphalt Institute, 2007). The distribution of air

voids also affects the presence and movement of water in

asphalt mixtures. Water in asphalt mixture has harmful effects

on the pavement structure, which weakens the adhesion

between aggregates and asphalt and the cohesion of the

mixture itself, producing disintegration and subsequent failure

of the pavement structure. Voids in the mineral aggregate

quantify the area between the aggregate particles filled

with air and the effective asphalt binder content, control the

minimum asphalt binder content in the mixture and are

basically related to the asphalt covering of the aggregate

particles, the durability and stability (McLeod, 1956; Kandhal et

al, 1998; Attia et al, 2009).

is the measure used to ensure

proper asphalt film thickness on the aggregate particle for

acceptable durability of the mixture.

Properties of voids

Air voids

Voids in mineral aggregate

Voids filled with asphalt

Marn, C. Thenoux, G.

Total voids

Porosity

Degree of saturation

Revista de la Construccin

Journal of Construction

[ 57

HOT ASPHALT MIXTURES WITH RECLAIMED

ASPHALT PAVEMENT (RAP)

When it is necessary to determine the optimum asphalt binder

content and assess the volumetric properties of HMA with

contents of RAP, one of the most important properties that

must be determined is the effective specific gravity of the RAP

aggregate

. This parameter is critical to determine

accurately the volumetric parameters of the mixture, especially

the voids in the mineral aggregate

, a value that is one of

the key properties used for the design and the assurance of the

quality of the mixture, as mentioned above. Owing to the fact

that the bulk specific gravity of the RAP aggregate

cannot be measured directly, it is necessary to estimate it. If the

source of the RAP is known and the records of the original

building are available, the bulk specific gravity

value of

the virgin aggregate established in these records could be used

as value for the

. However, if these records (of the original

construction) are not available, the

value must be

estimated in accordance with one of the methodologies

historically proposed for this (see Table 2) (Mc Daniel, 2001;

NCHRP, 2001, Horan, 2003; Anderson, 2004, Al-Qadi et al.

2012).

The implication of this is that depending on the methodology

used to determine the

, the optimum asphalt binder

content might be different from the volumetric properties

found in the new HMA, a situation that could undermine a good

performance when in service. For example, in a mixture

containing 25% RAP, an error of 0.04 in the specific gravity can

affect the

calculated by approximately 0.5 percent. This

value can make a difference between a mix being accepted or

rejected in accordance with the quality requirements imposed,

or to the fatigue life being reduced significantly (Anderson,

2004).

Where:

= bulk specific gravity of RAP aggregate

= effective specific gravity of RAP aggregate

= theoretical maximum gravity of RAP aggregate (RICE)

aggregate. Source: Self Elaboration.

Methodology

Direct

Substitution

Back calculation

of the RAP

Description

Direct measurement of the

after being

recovered.

Estimate of the

through the value of the

. The

value is assumed as that of

the

.

Estimate of the

through the value of the

. The

value is assumed as that of

the

. Then, the asphalt absorption value

of the aggregates is assumed in order to

estimate the

.

of recycled asphalt mixes

The polygon of voids, or polyvoids, is an analytical tool used to

get the job formula or the optimum asphalt binder content for

any hot asphalt mixture based only on the specifications of

voids (Sanchez et al; 2011) and its rationale is supported by the

implementation of the gravimetric and volumetric relationships

of asphalt mixtures. Using this technique the volumetric

parameters of HMA, represented by the asphalt content

and the compacted density

, can be shown graphically

and analytically. That is to say, they determine the density of

the compacted asphalt

according to their volumetric

properties: air voids

, voids in the mineral aggregate

and voids filled with asphalt

and the constants of the

bulk specific gravity of the combined aggregate - virgin

aggregate and RAP aggregates , the effective

specific gravity of the combined aggregate

and the

specific gravity of the asphalt binder

. The formulation

proposed for construction of the polygon of voids is described

below, where the compacted density of the asphalt mixture is

defined in terms of air voids (see Table 3).

Figure 1 shows the construction of a polygon, using the

mathematical formulae described above. The intersection of

these curves, corresponding to the maximum and minimum

levels required by the specifications, gives rise to the vertices of

the polygon (Sanchez et al; 2011). There are at least ten

intersections that are converted into the key points for the

determination of the polygon of voids and they are shown in

Table 4. The definition of these points is given by the

intersections of the fundamental curves.

Table 3. Mathematical formulae for construction of the polygon of voids. Source: Self Elaboration.

Formula

Description

There is a specific situation when

. In this case, the equation represents

a limit because any combination of

and

may be found above this

curve called saturation curve and the equation becomes:

(2)

(

)

(1)

in the mineral aggregate of the following:

The proportion of voids filled with asphalt

is a degree of saturation,

that is, the relationship between the volume of voids filled with liquid and the

total volume of voids.

In the case that there is a 100% saturation, i.e.

, this equation

represents the saturation line and becomes:

(5)

(

)

(3)

2014, 13(1), 56 - 63

(4)

Marn, C. Thenoux, G.

Revista de la Construccin

Journal of Construction

[ 58

If one wanted to represent all the specifications of the voids for

a given asphalt mix within the plane

, there would

be a maximum area where all the specifications would be

complied with. This area is known as polygon of voids or

polyvoids. In accordance with this definition, any combination

of asphalt binder content and density inside the polygon should

simultaneously comply with all the void specifications (see

Figure 2). The job formula dealing with the content of optimum

asphalt binder is obtained by calculating the centroid of the

area of the polygon that the intersections of the curves of voids

generate (Sanchez et al, 2011).

a fourth or a fifth of the number of samples, i.e. with

approximately three samples. As Sanchez has expressed in his

reports (2011), the savings due to the acceleration of the results

are not only for the benefit of the designers of asphalt mixtures

but also for that of researchers who state that applying this

technique can evaluate between four and five different

combinations of aggregates with the same resources and time

that would be used by applying the Marshall or Superpave

method in the conventional way.

Sanchez et al, 2011) has demonstrated the application of this

tool in the analysis and design of HMA developed by both the

Marshall and Superpave methods with virgin materials.

However, due to the increase in the use of RAP in new asphalt

mixes, an interest has emerged to test whether the tool of

polyvoids allows to obtain the optimum asphalt binder content

and whether this result would be comparable to that obtained

with the traditional Marshall design proposed by the Asphalt

Institute (2007).

METHODOLOGY

study, which presents two well-defined phases. The first one is

to implement the traditional Marshall design method for each

of the proposed mixtures and thus obtain the optimum asphalt

binder content. The second phase corresponds to the

application of the tool of polyvoids in accordance with the

characteristics of the materials and the design requirements of

the mixture in order to then also ascertain the optimum asphalt

binder content. This tool was implemented with the aid of a

spreadsheet programmed by the principal author.

Subsequently, the results were calibrated in accordance with

the data presented by Sanchez-Leal (2011) and compared with

those obtained by the traditional method.

Figure 2. Definition of the polygon of voids. Source: Self Elaboration.

Vertex

1

4.53

2.414

2

5.05

2.427

3

5.91

2.393

4

5.13

2.374

5

5.08

2.376

1

4.53

2.414

Centroid

Sanchez et al (2011).

Intersection N

1

(Va)max

(Va)min

(VMA)min

(Va)min

(VMA)max

(Va)max

(VMA)max

(VFA)min

(VMA)min

(VFA)max

(VMA)min

(VFA)max

(VMA)max

(VFA)min

(VMA)max

(VFA)max

(Va)min

10

(VFA)min

(Va)max

2.397

Intersection curve

(VMA)min

The volumetric analysis in the Marshall as well as the Superpave

method for HMA design is performed by the production of

approximately 15 samples, i.e. three asphalt samples for each of

five different asphalt contents. The tool of polyvoids not only

makes a considerable saving in the design time of the asphalt

mixture possible but also in the number of samples used,

2014, 13(1), 56 - 63

5.1

Experimental Plan

During the first phase of the methodology, an experimental

plan was developed to apply the Marshall design to HMA with

different RAP contents (0%, 10%, 25%, 40%, 50% and 70%). For

the development of the entire design, various tasks were

carried out in order to characterize the materials used, define

Marn, C. Thenoux, G.

Revista de la Construccin

Journal of Construction

[ 59

the grading structure and obtain the optimum asphalt binder

content as is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Flow chart of work for the design of asphalt mixtures with RAP. Source:

Self Elaboration.

The recycled material (RAP) has its origin in the milling of a layer

of asphalt in the street Colonel Souper in the Commune of

Santiago Centro (Santiago, Chile). Its characterization and that

of the virgin aggregate consists of three fundamental parts. The

first part corresponds to the separation of all aggregates,

including those of the RAP, according to size in the laboratory,

which helps to ensure a continuous distribution of particle sizes

when they are mixed in addition to facilitating the constitution

of an objective grading structure. These sizes are represented

by the sieves: " (12.7 mm), " (9.51 mm), 3/8" (9.5 mm), #4

(4.75 mm), #8 (2.38 mm), #30 (0,599mm), #50 (0,297mm), #100

(0,152 mm), # 200 (0,075 mm). In the second part the residual

asphalt content of RAP material is evaluated, and finally the

gravimetric properties of the aggregates are identified. Table 5

shows the laboratory tests carried out to define the three parts

of the characterization of the aggregates and Table 6 illustrates

the properties of the RAP aggregate.

Figure 5 shows the particle size chosen that corresponds to the

semi-dense type IV-A-12 established by the Manual of Roads of

Chile (2013) and recommended for surface layers.

The mixtures were designed while maintaining the same

grading regardless of the percentage of RAP added.

Subsequently, the values of the theoretical maximum gravity

in accordance with the standard AASTHO T209 were

obtained for all asphalt mixtures. Also, the

values were

estimated in accordance with the three methodologies

available.

The

combined

bulk

specific

gravity

measured of each blend with a different content of

RAP was determined by using the equation (6). Where is the

percentage of aggregate source and

is the aggregate bulk

specific gravity of source .

Table 5. Laboratory tests for the characterization of the aggregates. Source: Self

Elaboration.

Property

Standard test

(centrifuge method)

Determination of the properties of the gravimetric

aggregates (virgin and retrieved from the RAP)

Specific Gravity and absorption of fine aggregates

AASHTO T 164

(Method A)

aggregates

Specific weight of the solid

AASHTO T85

AASHTO T84

AASHTO T100

Property

Residual asphalt content

Average of the theoretical maximum gravity

Standard test

5.5 %

Direct method

2.643 gr/cm3

2.308 gr/cm3

Method

The samples were manufactured by the Marshall method to 75

blows per side. This method was chosen given that it is still

current in Chile and the design of asphalt mixtures by the

Superpave method has not yet been implemented. An asphalt

of the type CA-24 was used, which is the one most commonly

used in the country. The design procedure was then followed

appropriately, producing three specimens for each of a total of

five asphalt contents, based on the initial content of asphalt

binder calculated using the procedure recommended by the

Asphalt Institute (2007), which was the starting point for the

complete design of the asphalt mixture (see Table 7).

(6)

by the Marshall method, the optimum amount of asphalt binder

2014, 13(1), 56 - 63

Marn, C. Thenoux, G.

Revista de la Construccin

Journal of Construction

[ 60

is obtained by determining the average of the three values that

represent the most important design properties: air voids

(generally 4%), maximum stability and maximum density.

However, it is current practice to calculate the optimum

amount of asphalt binder for the percentage of air voids

of

reference and then check the thresholds required for the other

properties of the mixture. This is the procedure that was

applied in this study and the results are shown in Table 8.

Table 7. Asphalt binder content according to the initial procedure of the asphalt

Institute MS-4. Source: Self Elaboration.

0

10

25

40

50

70

5.5

5.0

4.1

3.3

2.8

1.7

5%

5.4

5.2

5.6

5.4

5.7

6.1

5.1

4.9

5.3

5.0

6.0

5.8

relation to the total weight of the mixture.

Table 9. Volumetric properties of control for obtaining the optimum asphalt binder

content. Source: Self Elaboration.

Volumetric

property

Symbol

Air voids

Target

value

4%

5%

Range

Observation

3% 5 %

4% 6%

calculated for

the

Chilean

conditions

for

nominal

maximum size

of

19

mm

according

to

Superpave.

Voids

in

mineral

aggregate

Minimum

13%

12% 14%

Voids filled

with asphalt

65% 80%

value for each one of the volumetric properties already defined.

Some researchers have recommended that the value of

is

limited to a maximum level, usually 1.5 - 2.0% above the

minimum value, in order to prevent a low resistance to rutting

(Christensen and Bonaquist 2006). Similarly, the

has

generally been established at 4%, ranging between 3 and 5%. In

Chile for example, the of design was established at 5% with a

range of between 4% and 6%. Table 9 shows the control values

for the volumetric properties used to establish the various job

formulae.

2014, 13(1), 56 - 63

Direct

aggregate (gr/cm3)

0

10

25

40

50

70

is incorrect, it will affect the

VMA calculated for the mixture, which could result in durability

issues. The magnitude of the VMA error will depend on the

error of the

(Kvasnak, 2010). Figure 6 illustrates the values

of

obtained from each methodology as well as the error

bars that indicate the 95% confidence interval. As can be seen, a

lower dispersion occurs in the values of bulk specific gravity

measured by the direct method while a greater dispersion was

obtained by the method of substitution, which may be due to

the sensitivity of the measurements for the determination of

.

2,700

4%

Table 8. Optimum content of asphalt binder (%) - Marshall method. Source: Self

Elaboration.

mix (%)

2,650

Substitution

Back-calculation

2,600

2,550

2,500

2,450

2,400

2,350

Amount

of RAP in

the mix

(%)

Marshall

0

10

25

40

50

70

5.4

5.2

5.6

5.4

5.7

6.1

Polyvoids

Direct

Substitution

5.1

4.8

4.9

4.4

4.9

4.5

5.1

5.0

5.4

5.3

6.0

6.2

Backcalculation

5.1

5.0

5.5

5.4

6.1

6.4

values obtained by the direct

method are higher while the other two methods give, on

average, similar results. This could be due to the extraction

process of the asphalt binder, which can change the properties

of the aggregate and may result in a change in the amount of

fine material, which can affect the specific gravity (NCHRP,

2001). In addition, the value of

found by the direct

method is greater than that obtained by the method of

substitution (where

is substituted by

), which is

inconsistent with what is mentioned by the NCHRP (2001),

which states the first property is always smaller than the second

one for a given aggregate.

Marn, C. Thenoux, G.

Revista de la Construccin

Journal of Construction

[ 61

three methodologies (for 4% ). Source: Self Elaboration.

7,0

of asphalt binder obtained by the Marshall method, correspond

to those calculated by the substitution method of, followed by

those of the method of back-calculation and finally, very far off,

were the values of the direct method. The values obtained by

the method of back-calculation deviated from those produced

by the Marshall method from as much as 50% of RAP.

the polygon of voids for the calculation of the optimum asphalt

binder content. This procedure was repeated for each of the

percentages of addition of RAP and the three methodologies of

calculating the value of

. The optimum contents of asphalt

binder for each of the asphalt mixtures with different contents

of RAP were obtained in the same way. Table 12 shows the

values that were established for 4% of .

binder content that were established for 5% of . It can be

seen that the values closest to the optimum content of asphalt

binder obtained by the Marshall method again correspond to

those calculated by the method of substitution, followed by

those of the back-calculation method and finally, very far off,

the values of the direct method. The optimum asphalt contents

determined by the method of back-calculation deviated from

those established by the Marshall method from 70% of RAP

onwards.

7,0

6,5

6,0

6,0

5,5

5,0

4,5

4,0

0

10

25

40

50

70

% RAP

Marshall

Direct

Substitution

, one can calculate

the maximum and minimum asphalt binder content using the

polygon of voids and determine the respective ranges within

which this optimum asphalt binder can be found.

and their respective limits according to the dispersion values of

calculated using the methodologies mentioned above. It

can be seen that as more RAP is added to the asphalt mixture,

the range of values of the optimum asphalt binder becomes

larger. This means that there is a higher dispersion of possible

values of optimum asphalt binder content when RAP aggregate

is added to the asphalt mixture. Therefore, the magnitude of

the

error will depend not only on error of the

measurement but also on the RAP content in the mixture.

6,5

Back-calculation

6,5

6

5,5

5

4,5

4

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

% RAP

Marshall

Substitution

Amount of

RAP in the

mix (%)

0

10

25

40

50

70

Direct

Back-calculation

Polyvoids

Marshall

5.1

4.9

5.3

5.0

6.0

5.8

Direct

Substitution

5.0

4.6

4.7

4.2

4.7

4.3

5.0

4.8

5.2

5.1

5.8

6.0

Backcalculation

5.0

4.8

5.3

5.3

6.0

6.2

CONCLUSION

The polygon of voids, or polyvoids, is an analytical tool used to

estimate the optimum content of asphalt binder making use

only of the volumetric properties of the asphalt mixture. This

tool has been tested successfully in asphalt mixes with virgin

aggregates according to the Marshall and Superpave methods.

5,5

5,0

4,5

4,0

0

10

20

Marshall

Substitution

2014, 13(1), 56 - 63

30

40

% RAP

50

60

70

Direct

Back-calculation

80

voids as a predictor for the optimum content of asphalt binder

for hot mix asphalt with incorporation of varying amounts of

RAP, publicizing the difficulties that arose at the time of the

design. The results show that the above mentioned optimum

asphalt contents were similar to those estimated by means of a

typical Marshall design if the method of substitution is used for

the calculation of the bulk specific gravity of the aggregate of

the RAP

. This facilitates the preliminary estimate of the

Marn, C. Thenoux, G.

Revista de la Construccin

Journal of Construction

[ 62

asphalt content since the above method only requires the

calculation of the

by measurement of the

in the

laboratory, which is rather simple and quick to implement. In

the case of having the asphalt absorption property of the

aggregates, applying the method of back-calculation also gives

values close to those of the Marshall design, but they deviate as

more than 70% of RAP is incorporated in the new mix. One

advantage of this method is less dispersion in the calculation of

compared with the method of substitution, which allows

having certainty in determining the optimum asphalt binder

content. It is also important to establish that the property of the

air voids

was chosen as the criterion for the determination

of the optimum content of asphalt binder by the Marshall

method.

In summary, the tool of the polygon of voids appears promising

for estimating the optimum content of asphalt binder for

asphalt mixes containing reclaimed asphalt pavement.

However, for future research it is recommended to perform

more laboratory tests and confirm the findings of this research

using aggregates with different asphalt absorptions, RAP

sources, gradations and types of asphalt binder. Moreover, for

further validation of the polyvoids it is suggested to discuss in

detail about the dispersion of the values of

obtained by

the three methods in order to determine if there are changes in

the interpretation of the polygon of voids and volumetric

properties of the asphalt mixture.

REFERENCES

Al-Qadi, I; Aurangzeb, Q and Carpenter, (2012). Impact of high RAP

content on structural and performance properties of asphalt

mixtures. Research Report FHWA-ICT-12-002. Illinois Center

for Transportation, p.p: 3-4.

Anderson, M and Murphy, TR. (2004). Laboratory mix design using RAP:

Determining Aggregate Properties. www.asphaltmagazine.com;

Fall. Accessed: January, 2014.

Asphalt Institute. (2007). MS-4: The Asphalt Handbook (7th Edition).

ISBN13: 9781934154274.

evaluation of asphalt film thickness as a design parameter in

Superpave mix design. International Journal of Pavement

Research Technology; 2(5):205-210.

Christensen, D.W; Jr; and Bonaquist, R.F. (2006). Volumetric

requirements for Superpave mix design. NCHRP rep. 567,

Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.

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Caracterizacin geomecnica de mezclas asflticas.

Publicacin tcnica N 267, Instituto Mexicano del

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Horan, R. (2003). Effective Specific Gravity for VMA Calculations.

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Kandal, P; Foo, K, and Mallick, R. (1998). Critical review of voids in

mineral aggregate requirements in Superpave. In

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the

Transportation Research Board, No. 1609, 21-27.

Kvasnak, A; West, R, Michael, J; Loria, L; Hajj, E and Tran, N. (2010). Bulk

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Transportation Research Record: Journal of the

Transportation Research Board, No. 2180, 30-35.

Manual of Roads of Chile (2013). Direccin de Vialidad, Ministerio de

Obras Pblicas, Volumen No. 5: Especificaciones Tcnicas

Generales de Construccin, Edicin 2013, 265-268.

McDaniel, R. and Anderson, R.M. (2001). Recommended Use of

Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in the Superpave Mix Design

Method: Technician's Manual, NCHRP Report No. 452,

Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

McLeod, N.W. (1956). Relationships between density, bitumen content

and voids properties of compacted bituminous paving

mixtures. Highway Research Board, Proc; 35th Anual

Meeting, vol 35, Washington, D.C, 327-404.

McLeod, N.W. (1959). Voids requirement for dense-graded bituminous

paving mixtures. Symp; Methods of Test for Design of

Bituminous Paving Mixtures, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA,

81-112.

NCHRP (2001). Recommended Use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in

the Superpave Mix Design Method: Guidelines. National

Cooperative Highway Research Program. Research Results

Digest, Number 253. Transportation Research Board,

National Research Council.

Snchez, F.J; Garnica, P; Larreal, M and Lpez, D.B. (2011). Polyvoids:

Analytical Tool for Superpave HMA Design. Journal of

Materials in Civil Engineering; vol 23, No. 8, 1129-1137.

Snchez-Leal, F.J. (2002). Nuevo enfoque para el diseo y control de

mezclas asflticas. Terceras Jornadas Internacionales del

Asfalto, Popayn, Colombia. Conference proceeding in

spanish.

Snchez-Leal, F.J.(2004). Entrenamiento especializado: RAMCODES

asistido por Origin. Application Manual, powered by Origin.

Software Shop Pro, Inc. Latinoamrica, Bogot, Colombia.

Marn, C. Thenoux, G.

Revista de la Construccin

Journal of Construction

[ 63

Table 10. Application of the tool of polyvoids to an asphalt mixture with 0% RAP. Source: Self Elaboration.

DIRECT METHOD

Vertex

1

2

3

4

5

1

Centroid

SUBSTITUTION METHOD

BACK-CALCULATION METHOD

Inputs

2.620

Inputs

2.620

Inputs

2.620

2.719

2.719

2.719

1.010

1.010

1.010

12

14

12

14

12

14

65

80

65

80

65

80

4.53

5.05

5.91

5.13

5.08

4.53

5.10

2.414

2.427

2.393

2.374

2.376

2.414

2.397

Vertex

1

2

3

4

5

1

Centroid

4.53

5.05

5.91

5.13

5.08

4.53

5.10

Vertex

1

2

3

4

5

1

Centroid

2.414

2.427

2.393

2.374

2.376

2.414

2.397

Gmb

Gmb

Gmb

2,420

2,420

2,400

2,400

2,380

2,380

2.414

2.427

2.393

2.374

2.376

2.414

2.397

2,440

2,440

2,440

4.53

5.05

5.91

5.13

5.08

4.53

5.10

2,420

2,400

2,380

2,360

2,360

2,360

4,0

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

6,5

4,0

4,0

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

Pb

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

6,5

Pb

6,5

Pb

Table 11. Application of the tool of polyvoids to an asphalt mixture with 25% RAP. Source: Self Elaboration.

Direct method

Substitution method

Inputs

2.625

Inputs

2.586

Inputs

2.580

2.697

2.697

2.697

1.020

Vertex

1

2

3

4

5

1

Centroid

Back-calculation method

1.020

1.020

12

14

12

14

12

14

65

80

65

80

65

80

4.24

4.76

5.64

4.84

4.82

4.24

4.85

2.412

2.425

2.391

2.372

2.372

2.412

2.395

Vertex

1

2

3

4

5

1

Centroid

4.81

5.33

6.21

5.42

5.34

4.81

5.44

Vertex

1

2

3

4

5

1

Centroid

2.390

2.403

2.369

2.350

2.353

2.390

2.373

Gmb

Gmb

Gmb

2,400

2,400

2,420

2,400

2,380

2,380

2,380

2,360

2,360

2,340

2,340

2,360

4,0

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

2.386

2.399

2.366

2.347

2.350

2.386

2.370

2,420

2,420

2,440

4.90

5.42

6.30

5.51

5.42

4.90

5.51

4,5

5,0

5,5

6,0

4,5

6,5

Pb

5,0

5,5

6,0

6,5

Pb

Pb

Notes:For asphalt mixtures from 25% to 70% RAP, an asphalt density of 1.020 gr/cm 3 was used in accordance with the recommendation made by Mc Daniels (2001). In this

study the residual asphalt density of RAP was not measure.

2014, 13(1), 56 - 63

Marn, C. Thenoux, G.

Revista de la Construccin

Journal of Construction

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