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Suppression of Low Frequency Oscillation in


Traction Network of High-speed Railway Based
on Auto Disturbance Rejection Control
Article January 2016
DOI: 10.1109/TTE.2016.2554468

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Transactions on Transportation Electrification

Suppression of Low Frequency Oscillation in


Traction Network of High-speed Railway Based on
Auto Disturbance Rejection Control
Guinan Zhang, Zhigang Liu, Senior Member, IEEE, Shulong Yao, Yicheng Liao, Student Member, IEEE and Chuan
Xiang
AbstractThe traction blockade in multiple Electric Multiple
Units (EMUs) depots is caused by the low frequency oscillation
(LFO) of high-speed railway traction network overvoltage. In
order to suppress LFO, a strategy for optimizing the load
characteristics of EMUs rectifier by using the auto disturbance
rejection control (ADRC) is put forward. First, a first-order
mathematical model is established to describe the characteristics
of EMUs rectifier. Second, the nonlinear state observer and
feedback control law are designed for state observation and
disturbance estimation. By constructing a new nonlinear state
error feedback function, the ADRC is improved. This functions
convergence effect is better than the linear state error feedback
function, and it can solve the problem of the jitter problem of
control force to some extent. Third, the outer loop controller for
PWM rectifier voltage is designed. The improved ADRC can deal
with the contradiction between overshoot and rapidity effectively.
Its performance is better than traditional proportional integral
(PI) controller, which is applied in all of the EMUs at present.
Finally, the full model of EMUs-traction network electrical
coupling system (ETNECS) is constructed. Compared with
multivariable controller, the simulation results show that the
improved ADRC can ensure the ETNECS stability and suppress
the LFO more efficiently1.
Index Terms LFO, auto disturbance rejection control,
nonlinear state error feedback function, the chain-circuit model,
full model of ETNECS.

I. INTRODUCTION

t present, China has the largest number of EMUs in the


world. For example, within the range from Xuzhou to
Bengbu of Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway, the number
of average daily moving EMUs is close to the upper limit of
150 pairs. During 2009-2014, the low frequency oscillation
(LFO) overvoltage occurred in the Electric Multiple Units
(EMUs) depots of Beijing, Shenyang, Zhengzhou, and some
other cities [3], [4], [5]. With the larger voltage oscillation
amplitude of the traction network, the protection logic
operation of the grid side rectifier of EMUs is triggered and
results in traction blockade, which makes the EMUs lose
traction [1]. This phenomenon has also occurred in Germany,
USA, Switzerland and France [2], [6], [11].
This study is partly supported by National Nature Science Foundation of
China (No. U1434203, 51377136), Sichuan Province Youth Science and
Technology Innovation Team (2014TD0012).
The authors are with the College of Electrical Engineering, Southwest
Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China.
Corresponding author. Prof., Zhigang Liu and Dr., Guinan Zhang, the
College of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu
610031, China. Tel.: +8613688370299. (e-mail: liuzg_cd@126.com,
zgn_2008@126.com;)

In recent years, there are many researches on the LFO. In


[2], the research of LFO caused by multiple vehicles was
implemented, and the significant influence regarding vehicle
number and control system parameters was discussed.
Through the adjustment of PI controller parameters in power
converters, the stability of vehicle converters was enhanced in
[11]. A single-phase dq-decomposition method was adopted
on EMUs control, and the dominant poles triggering LFO
were figured out in [1]. In [31], the effect of semiconductor
switching on the stability limit of the traction power system is
investigated. In [9], locomotive input admittance has been
measured to analyze low frequency instability on AC Rail
Networks. In order to achieve better dynamic performance, the
derivation of a linear-quadratic (LQ)-optimized multivariable
control and advanced multivariable control concept have been
used in [29], [30]. Considering the drawbacks of distinct cross
coupling between active and reactive power, undesired DC
offset and overshoot in current transients, a high-performance
ICC scheme with transient-free current response and improved
voltage controller design were proposed in [32]. Besides,
some designs and researches of the active filter for traction
systems has been done to provide reactive power
compensation and harmonic damping/compensation [7], [10],
which are not effective in damping LFO.
1) There are some unknown disturbances, parameter
uncertainties and non-modeling dynamics effect existing in
actual EMUs PWM rectifier and the traction network, which
makes the DC-link voltage deviate from the predetermined
value.
2) When multi EMUs are accessed to the traction network,
the ideal control effect cannot be obtained through the
traditional linear control method such as the classic PI or
improved PI control strategy, which is sensitive to the system
disturbance.
3) The actual operation parameters of traction network and
EMUs are not full considered during the modeling and
simulating of ETNECS.
ADRC proposed by Han in 1998 [12], [13], [14], is a
nonlinear controller for an uncertain system. The method can
estimate and compensate the external disturbances and
parameter variations, and the accurate model is not required.
BogdanM. Wilamowski, former Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE
TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS,
pointed out that ADRC turns modern control theory on its
head, and the implication of this change of direction proved to
be enormous both in theory and practice [14], [15]. The core
advantage of ADRC includes that the state variables of the
system can be observed by expanding the observer, observing

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Transactions on Transportation Electrification

the comprehensive disturbance of the system, obtaining the


generalized state error and compensating the disturbance. The
ADRC has the inherent advantage of excellent adaptability
and robustness. When the inner parameters of the controlled
object are changed or uncertain disturbances exist, ADRC can
still have good control performance. Thus the systems
stability can be improved significantly. Then, the limitations
of absolute invariance principle and inner membrane principle
were broken completely [12], [16]. As one of the simple
robust control methods for dealing with the uncertainty,
ADRC has attracted much attention in many technical fields
like the large flexible satellite control system [17], the motor
speed control system [15], [18], the virtual inertia control for
directly-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (DPMSG) [19], the magnetic rodless cylinder in servo systems
[20] and the three-phase voltage type pulse width modulation
(PWM) rectifier [21], [22]. Since ADRC can be used to
estimate and compensate the systems dynamics disturbance,
it is possible to inhibit the LFO of ETNECS.
In this paper, a novel control scheme based on first-order
ADRC for EMU rectifier is presented. ADRC can ensure good
dynamic performance and large stability margin of ETNECS.
Because tracking differentiator (TD) in the ADRC can make
the corresponding output track the input signal without
overshoot in a finite time and extended state observer (ESO) is
robust to the system model uncertainty. In addition, the
nonlinear state error feedback function is improved to solve
the problem of the jitter problem. Simulation results show that
the proposed ADRC for EMU rectifier control scheme
provides strong ability to suppress the LFO.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section II,
the first-order mathematical model for High-speed railway
ETNECS is derived out. In Section III, the closed loop control
of EMUs PWM rectifier is designed based on ADRC. Then
the traditional ADRC is improved by constructing a new
nonlinear state error feedback function. In Section IV, the
LFO phenomenon is reproduced through the simulation of
multi EMUs accessed traction network. Then, based on the
improved ADRC, the LFO suppression strategy of EMUs
accessed traction network is verified. Finally, Section V gives
some conclusions in this paper.
II. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF ETNECS
A. High-speed railway ETNECS
High-speed railway ETNECS is composed by traction
power supply system (TPSS) and EMUs traction drive system.
TPSS is composed by the traction substation and the allparallel AT traction network, which is shown in Fig.1.

Regional
grid

AB

220kV
-BC

220kV
-BC

A
B

Traction
substation

Contact
line
Feeder line

Traction
Network

Coupling
intensified

Partition

AT substation

Flow
induced

Return
wire

M
EMUs

Rail

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of high-speed railway ETNCS.

As seen in Fig. 1, when non-linear circuits of EMUs are


accessed to traction network, there is large portion of
switching ripple in inductive current, which will increase the
disturbance to traction network and lead to the fluctuation of
related electric parameters of EMUs. In addition, the output
unstable electric parameters are introduced into the closedloop control circuit, and it will lead to the distortion of input
electric parameters. With the increasing number of EMUs in
operation, the distortion will be exacerbated and directly lead
to traction blockade.
B. The mathematic modelling of high-speed railway
ETNECS
As the traction blockade occurs, a large number of EMUs
are at standstill with only the auxiliary load powered by the
DC-link of traction converters. Hence some simplifications
can be implemented for the inverter and traction motor of
EMUs traction driver system. The equivalent circuit of
ETNECS is depicted in Fig. 2.

Zs Zeq1 in

Zn

Ug

Cf

i2 ic

Ugc

T3

T4

T1

T2

Udc
L2
C2

T3
Unit 2

id

Power supply

idc

T2

T1

Unit 1

T4

Cd RL

Uc2

Fig. 2 Equivalent circuit of ETNECS.

In Fig. 2, all the circuit parameters are converted to the


secondary side of vehicle transformer in EMUs. For the
parameters of equivalent circuit, Ug denotes input voltages of
traction transformer in substation, Zs, denotes equivalent
impedance of traction transformer, Zeq1 denotes equivalent
impedance of traction network, Cf denotes equivalent
distributed capacitance of traction network and Ugc denotes

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Transactions on Transportation Electrification

terminal voltage of equivalent distributed capacitance. Zn is the


impedance of vehicle transformer in EMUs. iac is the input
current of PWM four-quadrant converter. udc and Cd
respectively denote the DC-link voltage and DC-link
capacitance respectively. i2 denotes the current of the secondorder filter circuit composed of L2 and C2. id denotes the
equivalent input current of motor inverter on DC-link circuit.
If the single-phase converter is taken as the load of traction
network, the load current is in. As seen from the input side, Zos
is the output impedance of ETNECS source module. Zin is the
input impedance of single PWM rectifier, and Yin is the
reciprocal of Zin.
Based on definitions, the state space model of double fourquadrant converter can be formulated as.
0
0 ugc
2 Ln
d in Rn Ln 2S Ln in
i (1)

1
C
bw
d
2
dt udc S Cd 1 (Cd RL ) udc
0
0
0 1
where bw denotes systemic interference such as the switching
loss, the detection error, and the external factors. S represents
the switch state. Under the control of symmetric rule sampling
Sine PWM, the switch function can be formulated as.

S
0

Ti
T
t 2m 1 d i
2
2
Ti
T
m 1 Ti t 2m 1 d or 2m 1 d i t m Ti
2
2
1

2m 1 d

(2)
where 1 denotes the upper bridge arm on and the lower
bridge arm off, 0 denotes the upper bridge arm off and the
lower bridge arm on, Ti denotes switching period, d denotes
duty cycle and m denotes the sampling number. In order to
obtain the state space average model of the rectifier, the
switching function is decomposed into two models of low
frequency and high frequency by using the Fourier series. The
Fourier series are expanded as follows.

S d0 (1)n
n 1

2
2n t
sin(nd0 ) cos(
)
n
Ti

(3)

where d0 denotes the low frequency component. Considering


that LFO occurs in low frequency environment, the high
frequency harmonic components of the switching function are
very small and can be neglected. The state space average
model can be obtained as follows.

0
0 ugc
2 Ln
d in Rn Ln 2d 0 Ln in
1 Cd bw i2
u 0
dt u d C

1
(
C
R
)
d L dc
dc 0 d
0
0
0 1

v
1

d 0 (1 r )

2
Vtr
(4)
where vr denotes modulation wave and Vtr denotes carrier
wave.
Ideally, even without a voltage external loop controller, the
DC-link voltage can also reach the predetermined steady-state
value by controlling the current inner loop of PWM rectifier
[23]. However, there are some unknown disturbances,
parameter uncertainties and non-modeling dynamics effect
existed in actual EMUs PWM rectifier, which makes the DClink voltage deviate from the predetermined value. Therefore,

the outer loop controller is needed to realize the rapid


adjustment with voltage static error free. The voltage outer
loop of PWM rectifier usually adopts the classic PI or
improved PI control strategy, which is difficult to ensure good
dynamic performance and large stability margin. When multi
EMUs are put into operation simultaneously, the LFO of
ETNECS will appear. In this paper, the ADRC method is
adopted in PWM rectifier of EMUs. And formula (4) is
rewritten as.

udc

i 2i2
in
1
udc n
bw
vr
Cd RL
2Cd
2CdVtr

(5)

f udc , t c0vr

where f udc , t

i 2i2
i
1
udc n
bw, c0 n .
Cd RL
2Cd
2CdVtr

f udc , t not only includes switching losses and detection

error of external disturbance, but also includes the


characteristics related to the input information used to
characterize the internal dynamics of the system. (t) is the
general designation of all variables. C0 denotes the disturbance
compensation factor, which determines the strength of the
compensation, and is used as an adjustable parameter in the
controller.
III. ADRC DESIGN OF EMUS PWM RECTIFIER
ADRC mainly includes three parts, namely TD, ESO and
nonlinear states error feedback control laws (NLSEF) as
shown in Fig. 3. The given reference value Udcr for controlled
variable is input into TD, which can arrange the transition
process, and make the corresponding output track the input
signal without overshoot in a finite time. ESO can observe and
compensate the total disturbance of system. NLSFE realizes a
nonlinear combination of the input variables in the error
feedback link.
Disturbance
Udcr

TD

Udcr1 + e0

NLSEF

u0

1/b

Controlled Udc
object

Z2
ESO
Z1
Fig. 3 The first-order ADRC control structure diagram.

In Fig. 3, udcr denotes reference value of the controlled


variable. udc denotes the controlled output variable. Z1 denotes
the tracking signal of udc. Z2 denotes the observation value of
the total disturbance. u denotes the final control variable. b
denotes a dynamic compensation factor. The algorithm of each
module for the first-order ADRC control is shown as follows.
A. ADRC controller design for EMUs rectifier
1) Tracking differentiator (TD)
For the given DC-link voltage value udcr, when the input
signal changes, TD arranges the transition process, and
realizes that the corresponding output track the input signal

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Transactions on Transportation Electrification

d 2 8r | h | rh
x
sgn( x1 hx2 ),
2
2
a
x x1 hx2 ,
2

|x1 hx2 | hd
|x1 hx2 | hd

Udcr1

Udcr

TD

U dc

NLSFE

ADRC
U dc I dc
UN
*

iN

IN

uab

SPWM

COS

uL

SIN

iac
1

PLL

uN

Fig. 4 CMUs rectifier circuit based on ADRC control.

| e | sgn(e), | e | d
where fal (e, a, d )
. e denotes the
1 a
| e | d

e / d ,
systematic error. Z1 denotes the state estimation value of the
intermediate DC voltage udc. Z2 denotes the estimation value
of the total disturbance f(t). 1 and 2 denote the adjustment
coefficients of the adjustable parameters for the output error,
and good state estimation will be achieved by selecting the
appropriate value of 1, 2. The larger 1 and 2 are, the faster
the estimation converges. fal denotes the optimal control
function, which is the core of ESO control and also has a
certain filtering function. a denotes the filtering factor. d
denotes the nonlinear factor. These values can influence the
LFO of the system to some extent.
3) Nonlinear states error feedback control laws (NLSEF)
NLSEF gives the dynamic compensation to the disturbance.
The error feedback controlled variable u0 is calculated. And
the nonlinear control is below.

e0 udcr Z1

u0 k fal (e, a, d )
u u Z / b
0
2

ESO

+ +

Z1 Z1 h ( Z 2 1e bu )
Z h fal (e, a, d )
2
2

where udcr1 denotes the arranged transition process, which


tracks the given DC link voltage udcr. udc2 denote the
generalized derivative of udc1. The transition process speed is
determined by the adjustable parameter r. The value of r is
proportional to the tracking speed. h0 represents the sampling
step. h represents the integral step. x2, which is the derivative
of x1, is also approximately equal to the derivative of udcr.
2) Extended state observer (ESO)
In order to realize that the intermediate DC output voltage
udc and the controlled input u real-time track the state, and
estimate the EMUs disturbances, the design of nonlinear
second order ESO is as follows.
(7)
e Z1 udcr

idc
1/b

|a| d 0
|a| d 0

rsgn(a ),
fhan
r d a ,

where the nonlinear function can be represented by

(6)

udc1 udc1 h udc 2

udc 2 udc 2 h fhan(udc1 udcr , udc 2 , r , h0 )

control performance of the system can be adjusted by setting k


and b. The control function fal is introduced into the nonlinear
feedback to control the variable u0. fal has a filtering function,
which can even eliminate the system oscillation. The ADRC
controller has strong robustness for the disturbance of load and
system parameters, so it can be adopted in the ETNECS.
Combined with (5), a transient current control strategy
(TCCS) based on ADRC controller is presented in this paper.
The voltage and current double loop control structure is
adopted, which is as same as the control structure of PI
controller. The transient current control block diagram based
on ADRC controller is shown in Fig. 4.
-

without overshoot in a finite time. The nonlinear TD form is


shown in (6).

(8)

In Fig. 4, the voltage outer loop ADRC controller can make


the intermediate DC voltage udc fast track the given value udcr.
Current inner loop adopts P controller, which makes the actual
*

grid current iN better track the given grid side current iN , and
*

its output is the given value uab of the modulated signal.


Some advantages of P controller are obtained, such as the
better dynamic response and the faster adjustment of system
parameters. It is assumed that udc is a step signal contaminated
by the white Gaussian noise, which is equivalent to the
external disturbance. Fig.5 (a) and Fig.5 (b) are the input and
output waveforms of TD and ESO respectively.
1

Input of TD
Output of TD

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
12.4

12.5

12.6
Time [Second]

12.7

12.8

(a)

where k, namely the proportional coefficient of the feedback


control rate, can influence the approximation degree of the
system voltage tracking reference value. If k is too large, a big
overshoot would appear. Z2/b is the disturbance compensation.
u denotes the final control variable and b denotes the
compensation factor. In the simulation experiments, the

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Input of ESO
Output of ESO

0.5

Current /A

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Transactions on Transportation Electrification

600
200
0

200

-0.5

600
0

12.5

12.6
Time [Second]

12.7

12.8

(b)
Fig. 5 (a) Input and output waveform of TD; (b) Input and output waveform of
ESO.

In Fig. 5 (a), the system's dynamic response time is directly


affected by TD, which can quickly track the input signal and
arrange the transition process for the step signal. Beside, TD
can suppress the effect of the noise signal contained in the
output signal of the system. In Fig. 5 (b), the input of ESO and
the observed waveform of the ESO are almost coincident.
That is because that ESO can estimate the output of the system
and the unknown disturbance (including internal and external
disturbance). In other words, ESO can quickly track the total
disturbance. As a kind of nonlinear combination structure,
NLSEF obtains the error value between observations of ESO
and TD output value in the past, the current and the future
information. It can replace the PID control simply by using the
error ratio, differential and integral linear weighted sum form,
which solve the contradiction between the fast and
overshoot of PID.
B. Improvement of ADRC controller for EMUs rectifier
Based on formula (5)-(8), ADRC controller for EMUs
PWM rectifier can be described as follow.
I N k fal (udcr udc , a, d )

I 2 I dcU dc / U N

(9)
N1
I N I N I N1
u L I cos t
N N
L


u
(
t
)

N (t ) LI N cos t G [ I N sin t iN (t )]
ab
where k denotes the proportional coefficient of the outer loop
ADRC controller. G denotes the proportional coefficient of
the current inner loop proportional controller. ADRC
controller is able to estimate and compensate the dynamic
disturbance. Hence it is not sensitive to the parameter changes.
However, considering the effect of the ADRC, the system
current has a certain magnitude jitter very similar to square
wave (seen in Fig. 6). The small amplitude jitter has little

effect on simple control system. For PWM rectifier, I n is the


given value of inner loop controller. The jitter will directly
lead to a substantial increase in harmonic components of
traction network side current and result in square wave pulse,
which affects the performance of PWM rectifier, and therefore
it is necessary to improve the traditional ADRC.

0.1

0.3
0.2
0.4
Time [second]

0.5

0.6

Fig. 6 Traction network side current waveform.

There is a certain range of jitter in traditional ADRC caused


by the non-smooth of fal (e, a, ) around . And the
mutation in results in non-smooth control force. Aiming at
the problem, a novel nonlinear function fatg(x,a) is proposed
in [21]. However, in the case of larger error, the gain is larger,
which leads to control force saturation. That is, the control
performance is not as good as fal function. Since the large
disturbance of traction network is the key factor to traction
blockade, suppression effect cannot be achieved with fatg
function. In this paper, a nonlinear S type function is used,
which is continuously differentiable. The nonlinear function is
below.

fel x, x th( )
2
x2
x
e x 2
e
1 e
x x 2 x 2 x
e e
1 e x

(10)

Function value

-1
12.4

fal(x,a,d)
fatg(x,a,q)
fel(x,a)

-4

-8
-20

-10

10

20

Fig.7 Comparison of three kinds of nonlinear functions.

As seen in Fig. 7, it is obvious that, when the control


coefficient increases, the fel function will have a smaller gain,
which can effectively reduce the occurrence probability of
control input saturation.
C. Performance analysis on nonlinear state error feedback
function
Regarding the first order controlled object as shown in
formula (5), the performance analysis on new type nonlinear
state error feedback function is realized based on fel(x,a)
function.
First order controlled object can be expressed as.

x= x, t u

x, t k x

1 e x
1 e x

0 1, k 0

(11)

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Transactions on Transportation Electrification

where x, t denotes system disturbance, u denotes structure


nonlinear state feedback. The following process is realized
with the above mentioned closed loop system.
x sign x

dx
1 d x
=
dt 1 dt

x sign x x, t k x

sign x

(12)

1 e x
1 e x

x, t 2 x , t
k x

2k
4k

x x, t k x

In order to ensure that the state variable x is convergence,

d x

dt 0 is needed, and the following formula needs

to be ensured.
x

x, t
2k

That is,
x

x, t

2k

x, t

x, t

(13)

2k

(14)

Assume that two positive numbers, namely m0 and w0, exist,

and function x, t satisfies.

x, t 0 x m0

IV. SIMULATION MODELLING AND VERIFICATION


A. All-parallel AT chain network model of traction network
At present, all-parallel AT power supply system is generally
adopted in high-speed railway. The mathematic models of
system mainly include equivalent circuit model, generalized
symmetrical component model and chain-circuit model.
Among them, the chain circuit model is more suitable for the
simulation calculation of traction network. In order to verify
the suppressing effect of the LFO problem, the whole chaincircuit model of traction power supply system is built.
Since the multi-conductor transmission lines are distributed
in parallel, the structure of the high-speed railway traction
network is very complicated. In general, the multi-conductor
transmission lines are mainly composed of contact wire (CW),
feeder (F), rail (R), protection wire (PW) and integrated
grounding line (IGL). And the spatial distributions of these
lines are shown in Fig. 8. Due to the large number of lines, the
reduced-order methods are mostly adopted on practical
applications [24]. However, the slight variation of line
parameters will lead to the significant change in modal
amplitude [25]. Hence the precise modeling of traction
network is very necessary.
F
(-2100,10600)

(15)

According to formulas (14)-(15), if the following formula is


true
km0

(16)
x
0

PW

km0 1 k

In accordance with d x

5000

1
1

km km .
x 0 0 , 0 0
km0 1 k km0 1 k

Obviously, as the regular state feedback is u=-kx(k>0), the


steady-state error of the closed loop system is in direct
1

(8100,7466.7)

dt 0 , the solution for the final

closed loop system is

proportion to 0 k

PW

C
C
(0,7400) (5000,7400)
CW
CW
(0,6100) (5000,6100)

(-3100,7466.7)

F
(7100,10600)

. That is, its steady state error is in

direct proportion to 0 k Consequently, the nonlinear state


.
error feedback can not only ensure the stability of closed loop
system, but also provide much better control performance than
the normal linear state feedback as well.
Nonlinear state feedback is adopted solely in this paper.
There are some certain errors with the output of the closed
loop system. However, through the disturbance estimation and
compensation by the ESO in ADRC, the non-steady-state
deviation of system can be finally achieved. In summary, the
improved ADRC is below.
I N k fel (udcr udc , a, d )

I 2 I dcU dc / U N

(17)
N1
I N I N I N1
u L I cos t
N N
L


u
(
t
)

N (t ) LI N cos t G [ I N sin t iN (t )]
ab

(-717.5,1000) (717.5,1000) (4282.5,1000) (5717.5,1000)

1000

IGL

(-3100,-400)

(0,0)

(8100,-400) IGL

Fig. 8 Spatial distribution of traction network wires (Unit: mm).

On the premise of guaranteeing the distributed parameter


characteristics, the chain network model for traction network
can be established by segmenting traction network with
particular length. The chain network model is always
composed with serial subnets and parallel subnets. As seen in
Fig.9, the traction network is divided into several serial
subnets, whose serial branches are constituted by parallel
multi-conductor transmission lines. As depicted in Fig.9,
taking the current branch as section, the -type equivalent
circuits are utilized to denote multiple transmission lines of
each subnet on both sides. And the calculation method can be
referred to [26].

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Transactions on Transportation Electrification

IGL
T

Up track

55kV

F
PW
T

F
PW
IGL

Down track
Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

Section 5

Section 4

Z 11

Z m 1

Ii

Vi

V1

Y(1)

Y11

Ym1

Y1m

Ymm

V2

Z(12)
Y (12)
2

Section 1

Y (12)
2

Z 1m

Z mm

Section 2

Y11

Ym1

YL
2

(23)

I1 Y 2

Ij

ZL

V3

Z(23)
Y (23)
2

YAT

Y1m

Y
Ymm 2

Y (34)
2

V2

V4

Z(34)

Section 3

Short-circuit impedance /ohms

Fig. 9 Section divided of all-parallel autotransformer traction.

Y (34)
2

Z(45)
(45)

I 2 Y2

Section 4

Y (45)
2

traction network, which is encapsulated as a module, is


cascaded to form the chain network model of traction network.
To validate the correctness of constructed model, the shortcircuit impedance of traction network is calculated. As an
opening downward quadratic function, the maximums of the
contact wire feeder (CWF) type short-circuit impedance
function are located within each AT segments. Under the
occurrence of contact wire rail (CWR) type fault in arbitrary
AT segments, the short-circuit impedance will firstly increase,
and then decrease (i.e. saddle-shaped distribution) along with
the increase of the distance to fault point. Considering that the
fault location corresponding to the maximum of CWF shortcircuit impedance is at the outside of AT segment, a
continuous increase trend will appear in the short-circuit
impedance [28]. The simulation results of CWR and CWF
short-circuit impedance are shown in Fig.11.

V5

Y(5)

Section 5

Fig.10 Section of Traction network equivalent circuit.

In Fig. 10, The traction network is divided into 5 sections.


The traction substation, auto-transformer, and terminal of
traction network can be denoted with Y(1), YAT and Y(5),
respectively. I1 and I2 represent EMUs current. And the
parallel multi-conductor trasformission lines between sections
are equivalent to type circuits. Hence the impedance and the
admittance of branches can be denoted as mm matrix, where
m is the number of parallel lines in traction network.
Considering the actual China passenger railway and the
simulation parameters of traction transformer [27], a traction
network model adopting all-parallel AT power supply is
constructed in this paper. The major parameters of traction
network lines are shown in Tab. II, III.
The line parameters are utilized to calculate the impedance
matrixes and the distributed capacitance matrixes of uplink
track and downlink track in high-speed railway. Due to the
complexity of multi-conductor trasformission lines, there is
too much data, thus only the uplink parameters are listed in
Tab. III. The mutual impedance between IGL and overhead
lines can be neglected, because the former is in deep
underground or cable tray. The self-impedance of IGL is
0.305+j0.759 ohms.
Considering the self-impedance, mutual impedance,
capacitance to ground and distributed capacitance, this paper
adopts -type equivalent circuits to construct the subnet
models after segmentation. In Fig.16, the subnet per 1km of

CWR short-circuit
CWF short-circuit

2
1
00

10

15
20
Distance [km]

25

30

Fig. 11 Short-circuit impedance of traction network.

According to Fig. 11, the distribution for the characteristic


curves of CWR and CWF short-circuit impedance is in
accordance with the theoretic analysis in [24], which reflects
the reasonability of the high-speed railway traction network
model constructed in this paper.
B. Modeling and simulation analysis for EMUs fourquadrant rectifier based on ADRC
Compared with the traditional PI regulators, the ADRCs
have more parameters to be tuned. However, once these
parameters are set appropriately, it is effective in all the load
conditions. For the conventional PI systems, several
proportion coefficient and integral coefficient sets are needed
in order to obtain the desired voltage/current control
performance in different load conditions. Hence the ADRC
has its superiority. On the other hand, some parameters in the
ADRC have their empirical values, e.g., 1, 2, h0 etc.; thus,
the tuning procedure of the ADRC parameters is easier than
our imagination.
According to [13-23], considering the real situation of the
EMU rectifier, the parameters of rectifier ADRC controller are
set, using the trial and error method, as follows.
1) TD, r=0.5, h0=0.1.
2) ESO, a=0.5, 1=18, 2=45, b=1, h=0.1.
3) NLSEF, a=0.25, k=0.6, b=1.
A simulation model of double four quadrant EMU rectifiers
can be built using Matlab/Simulink, as seen in Fig. 12. In the
simulation, both the adjustable parameters of the ADRC and
those of the PI system have been manually tuned to their
desirable values. The total disturbance and the output of ESO
waveforms are depicted in Fig.13. Simulated based on PI
controller and ADRC controller respectively, the output
voltage waveforms are depicted in Fig. 14 and the

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Transactions on Transportation Electrification

performance indexes at DC side voltage of double pulse


rectifier are shown in Table 1.

i
3 I
N1
Transformer

Uref
Pulse
SPWM

i
IN

1
Z

g
A
B

Idc

Rectifier
g
A
B

L2
i

IN
UN U
Ud ab
Id

Cd
Rd
C2

system has been improved via the state observation, namely,


the faster response speed, the real-time disturbance
estimation and compensation. The ADRC controller indeed
plays a role of anti-disturbance.
C. Simulation of multi EMUs accessed in traction network
based on PI control
As seen in Fig.15, from the uplink traction substation in
traction network, n EMUs are assessed in the position between
A and B at a distance with 9 km. The waveforms of accessing
single EMU and 6 EMUs are respectively depicted in Fig.16
and Fig.17.

Rectifier1

IN
UN U
Ud ab
Id

1
ZZ

Uplink
Track

Uref
Pulse
SPWM1

Voltage /V

Fig. 12 EMUs rectifier circuit based on the transient current control.

4000

Zs

2000
220KV

1000

1.4

Gin1 Gout1

Tin1 Tout1

Tin1 Tout1

Tin1 Tout1

Rin1 Rout1

Rin1 Rout1

Rin1 Rout1
AT

total disturbance
Output of ESO

3000

Gin1 Gout1
A

Gin1 Gout1

1.6

AT

Fin1 Fout1

Fin1 Fout1

Fin1 Fout1

Pin1 Pout1

Pin1 Pout1

Pin1 Pout1

Tin2 Tout2

Tin2 Tout2

Tin2 Tout2

Rin2 Rout2

Rin2Rout2

Fin2 Fout2

Fin2 Fout2

Fin2 Fout2

Pin2 Pout2

Pin2 Pout2

Pin2 Pout2

Gin2 Gout2

Gin2Gout2

AT

Rin2 Rout2

AT

0
0.4

0.8
1.2
Time[second]

1.6

2.0

PI

-1

DC-link voltage Ud/V

ADRC

3000
2000
1000
1.4
0

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.0
1.6
0.8
1.2
Time[second]
Fig. 14 DC-link voltage of the rectifier for EMUs under different load
conditions.
0

0.4

3000

1000
0

-1000

-3000

35.3
very little

Peak time/s
0.0125
none

Adjustment
time /s
0.15
0.07

Voltage
fluctuation /V
70
38

As illustrated in Fig. 14 and Table 1, both PI controller and


ADRC controller can achieve the expected control effect.
Compared with PI controller, the voltage fluctuation range of
ADRC controller is only 38 V. DC-link voltage overshoot is
almost zero with a reduction of adjustment time of 0.07s. The
PI control overshoots are even more obvious than the
proposed scheme. Besides, Fig.13 shows the total disturbance
can be quickly tracked by ESO. In Fig. 14, when the EMUs
operate in 30% of rated power at 1.4s, the PI control system
has a static error, but the ADRC can still maintain good static
performance. It can be seen that the ADRC system has a very
short instability time and has far smaller voltage fluctuation
amplitude than the conventional PI control. Therefore, the
conclusion can be drawn that the performance of the control

0.2

0.4
0.6
Time [Second]

0.8

Fig. 16 Waveforms of EMUs voltage, current and DC link voltage.

As seen in Fig. 16, when single EMUs is accessed, the


fluctuation of line voltage and line current is small, the output
voltage keeps stable at 3040V, and the voltage deviation is
205V.The current total harmonic distortion (THD) in AC
side is 15.4%. And the voltage fluctuation is within the
permissible range. Hence, the ETNCS is at stability-state.
Voltage at traction network side
2000
Voltage/current
20V / A

PI
ADRC

Overshoot/%

Line_15km
Terminal current of EMUs
Terminal voltage of EMUs
DC link voltage

5000

Tab.1 Performance indexes of DC voltage for EMUs rectifier


Control

Gin2 Gout2

Line_9km
Line_6km
Fig. 15 Simulation model of ETNCS.

Fig. 13 ADRC controller effect under 30% of rated power conditions.


4000

Downlink
Track

Voltage / Current V/ 10 A

Current at traction network side

-2000
0

0.2

0.4 Time [second] 0.6

0.8

(a)

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Terminal voltage of EMUs


Terminal current of EMUs

3000

1000
0

-1000

Voltage/Current V/A

Voltage / Current

V/A

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Transactions on Transportation Electrification

3000
Teminal voltage of EMUs
Teminal current of EMUs
DC-link voltage

2000
1000
0
-1000

-3000
0

0.2

0.4

Time [Second]

0.6

0.8

0.1

0.2

0.3
Time [second]

0.4

0.5

0.6

(b)

(c)

Fig. 17 Voltage and current waveforms with input of 6 EMUs; (a) Voltage and
current waveforms at traction network side; (b) Voltage and current
waveforms at EMUs.

Fig. 18 Voltage and current waveforms for input of 6 EMUs; (a) Voltage
waveforms at traction network side; (b) Current waveforms at traction
network side; (c) Voltage and current waveforms of EMUs.

As illustrated in Fig.17, the low-frequency modulation


signal occurs in line-side voltage and current, and the voltage
peak fluctuates between 29.8-46kV. Obviously, the
momentary fluctuation of electric quantities indicates that the
increase of load will lead to the increase of line voltage and
current fluctuation and the decrease of PI regulator dynamic
tracking performance. The fluctuations of the terminal voltage
and current of EMUs appear, which will lead to the poor
performance of four-quadrant converter and even the traction
blockade.

In Fig.18, when six EMUs are accessed, the fluctuations of


line voltage and line current are low. The output voltage is
stable at 3015V, the effective value of line current is stable at
175 A, and the voltage deviation is 85V. Obviously, output
voltage and current are able to track the given electrical
quantities quickly and without overshoot. The current total
harmonic distortion (THD) in AC side decreases to 3.16%.
The voltage fluctuations are within the permissible range. In
the steady-state performance aspect, the comparative
simulation results show that the ADRC system can always be
settled to the voltage reference value without steady-state
error, whereas the steady-state error of the PI system increases
when the load is heavier, even up to 15.3% under rated value.
In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control
scheme, the simulation model adopting multivariable control
is built. Assumed that the capacitor voltage of the two filter
circuit is U2 and the current is i2, the control block diagrams of
multivariable control and the simulation of multi EMUs
adopting multivariable control [30] is given in Fig. 19 and Fig.
20.
Reference computation U dc
U dc*
uab
i2
resonance current

D. Simulation of multi EMUs accessed in traction network


based on ADRC control
Using the proposed ADRC control strategy, when the
number of multi EMUs accessed in traction network reach 6,
the ETNECS can realize stable operation. As the number of
EMUs continues to increase, the system remains stable.
Voltage and current waveforms for input of 6 EMUs are
shown in Fig. 18.
4

x 10

Voltage /V

Voltage at traction network side

idc

-2

U dc
-4
0

0.1

0.2

0.3
Time [second]

0.4

0.5

400

iN

(U dc ,U 2 , i2 , iN )T

Current at traction network side

(U dc , iN )
200

Reference
State observer
computation
matrix L
State
T
observer

(U dc , iN )

Multivariable
matrix K

uab

Feed forward
control

(U dc ,U 2 , i2 , iN )T

Fig. 19 Control block diagrams of EMUs adopting multivariable control.

-200
0

resonance AC
current

iN

0.6

(a)
Current /A

U 2

resonance voltage

0.1

0.2

0.3
Time [second]

0.4

0.5

0.6

(b)

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Voltage/Current V/A

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Transactions on Transportation Electrification

Teminal voltage of EMUs


Teminal current of EMUs

2000
1000
0

APPENDIX
The parameters of the test system and traction conductors
are shown in TABLE I and TABLE II. The electrical
parameters of traction lines are listed in TABLE III. And the
electrical parameters of EMU rectifier are list in TABLE IV.

-1000

TAB. I
ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS OF THE TEST SYSTEM

-2000
0

0.1

0.2

0.3
Time [second]

0.4

0.5

0.6

ESS

Fig. 20 Voltage and current waveforms for input of 6 EMUs adopting


multivariable control.

In the traditional instantaneous direct current control, only


the dc-link voltage reference and input current reference of
converter are considered [11]. For multivariable control,
besides the two reference quantities, the reference
computation of current and voltage in the LC second order
harmonic filter is also carried out. Thus, better electrical
output characteristics of the EMUs can be obtained by the
multivariable control in basic dynamic performance and static
performance. Compared with Fig. 17(b), the LFO of highspeed railway traction network overvoltage is suppressed as
well in Fig. 20. With multivariable control adopted in the
EMUs, the THD is around 8.6%. Beside, voltage and current
waveforms of EMUs have the unstable tendency, because the
multivariable control is still using PI controller. In
consequence, this control scheme is practical to high-power
low-frequency applications.
E. Discussion
The coefficients of the PI controller are chosen in
experiments in order to obtain good dynamic performance
near the rated load. The simulation and experimental results
shows that the performance of the system using PI control is
similar to that of the system based on the ADRC. If the
number of EMUs accessed to traction network increases, the
performance of PI control system degrades more seriously,
and this may cause the LFO. The ADRC exhibits stronger
ability against disturbances because it can realize the online
estimation of the load.

Power utility short capacity


Rated voltages
Rated power
Short-circuit voltage
Short-circuit losses
AT in ATS
Rated voltages
Rated power
Short-circuit voltage
Short-circuit losses
Earth
Earth resistivity
Rail to earth conductance
ESS and ATs earth network to earth

The application of traditional PI controller is the important


factor to cause the overvoltage LFO of high-speed railway
traction network. Aiming at this phenomenon, in this paper,
based on the characteristics of nonlinearity and coupling of
EMUs rectifier, a nonlinear controller with ADRC is designed
to optimize the load characteristics of EMUs rectifier. The
mathematic model for the ETNECS is constructed. And the
ADRC for the EMUs rectifier has been analyzed, modelled
and built. The number of EMUs accessed in traction network,
which is the main cause of the LFO, can be observed online by
an ESO. NLSEF is designed to ensure superior dynamic
performance. In addition, by constructing a new nonlinear
state error feedback function, this controller can overcome the
jitter problem. The simulation results show that the ADRC for
the EMUs rectifier can ensure the ETNECS stability and
suppress the LFO more efficiently compared with EMUs
adopting multivariable controller.

55/27.5 kV
32MVA
1.6%
57.271 kW
100 /m
2 S/km
4 S, 2 S

TAB. II
MAJOR PARAMETERS OF TRACTION NETWORK CONDUCTORS
Type
DC resistance (/km)
Calculate radius (mm)
Conductor
CW

Catenary
Rail
PW
Feeder
IGL

CuMg-150
THJ-120
UIC60
LGJ-120
2LGJ-185
TJ-95

0.1191
0.181
0.135
0.286
0.082
0.25

7.2
7.0
12.79
7.0
9.51
12.4

TAB. III
TRACTION NETWORK IMPEDANCE OF THE HIGH-SPEED RAILWAY SECTION
(10-1/KM)
T1
F1
PW1

R1
T2
F2
PW2

V. CONCLUSIONS

10 GVA
220(122.5%)/227.5kV
50/31.5/31.5 MVA
10.5%
140.7 kW

R2

T1
1.263+j4.306
0.525+j1.877
0.525+j2.078
0.519+j1.728
0.532+j1.789
0.513+j1.512
0.515+j1.507
0.516+j1.553

F1
0.525+j1.877
1.358+j5.710
0.535+j2.052
0.522+j1.375
0.563+j1.448
0.530+j1.410
0.532+j1.317
0.524+j1.253

PW1
0.525+j2.078
0.535+j2.052
3.392+j5.928
0.521+j1.582
0.556+j1.476
0.525+j1.333
0.527+j1.302
0.521+j1.355

R1
0.519+j1.728
0.522+j1.375
0.521+j1.582
1.187+j4.077
0.524+j1.542
0.508+j1.274
0.509+j1.362
0.509+j1.830

Note: T is the combination of C and J; R is the combination of two steel rails.


TAB. IV
COMPONENT PARAMETERS OF EMU RECTIFIER
System component
u
in
Ln
f0
Rn

[1]

[2]
[3]

[4]

Value
1550 V
460 A
2.3 mH
350Hz
0.1 m

System component
udc
L
C2
Cd

Value
3.0 kV
0.84mH
3.0 mF
3.3 mF

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2332-7782 (c) 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TTE.2016.2554468, IEEE
Transactions on Transportation Electrification

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Guinan Zhang received the B.S. degree in electrical
engineering from Southwest Jiaotong University,
Chengdu, China, in 2012. He is currently working
toward the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from
Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China. His
research interests include the electrical relationship of
EMU and traction in high-speed railway, and power
quality of traction power supply system.
Zhigang Liu (M06) received the PhD degree in Power
System and its Automation from Southwest Jiaotong
University of China in 2003. He is currently a full
Professor of School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest
Jiaotong University in China. His research interests are
the electrical relationship of EMU and traction, catenary
and pantograph assessment of high-speed railway.

Shulong Yao received the B.S. in electrical engineering


from Sichuan University, Chongqing, China, in 2014.
He is currently pursuing the M.S. degree in electrical
engineering from Southwest Jiaotong University. His
research research interest is stability analysis on the
traction power supply system.

Yicheng Liao received the B.S. degree in electrical


engineering from Southwest Jiaotong University,
Chengdu, China, in 2015. She is currently working
toward the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from
Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China. Her
research interest is the electrical relationship of EMU
and traction in high-speed railway.

Chuan Xiang received the B.S. degree in electrical


engineering from Southwest Jiaotong University,
Chengdu, China, in 2014. He is currently pursuing the
M.S. degree in electrical engineering from Southwest
Jiaotong University. His research research interest is the
electrical relationship of EMU and traction.

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