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DOI 10.1007/s00170-005-2616-y

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Eyup Bagci · S¸eref Aykut

**A study of Taguchi optimization method for identifying optimum surface
**

roughness in CNC face milling of cobalt-based alloy (stellite 6)

**Received: 4 December 2004 / Accepted: 15 February 2005 / Published online: 21 December 2005
**

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2005

Abstract The aim of this work is to develop a study of Taguchi

optimization method for low surface roughness value in terms of

cutting parameters when face milling of the cobalt-based alloy

(stellite 6) material. The milling parameters evaluated are feed

rate, cutting speed and depth of cut, a series of milling experiments are performed to measure the surface roughness data.

The settings of face milling parameters were determined by

using Taguchi experimental design method. Orthogonal arrays of

Taguchi, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, the analysis of variance

(ANOVA) are employed to find the optimal levels and to analyze

the effect of the milling parameters on surface roughness. Confirmation tests with the optimal levels of cutting parameters are

carried out in order to illustrate the effectiveness of Taguchi optimization method. It is thus shown that the Taguchi method is

very suitable to solve the surface quality problem occurring the

face milling of stellite 6 material.

Keywords Analysis of variance (ANOVA) · Face milling ·

Stellite 6 · Surface roughness · Taguchi optimization method

1 Introduction

Various kinds of cobalt-based alloys called ‘stellite’ have been

used in fields requiring high heat and corrosion resistance and

high wear strength, such as the nuclear, aerospace, and gasturbine industries [1, 2]. Because of their good quality, studies

on the production of new kinds of cobalt-based alloys are still

E. Bagci (u)

TUBiTAK-UME,

National Metrology Institute,

P.K. 54, 41470, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey

E-mail: eyup@gyte.edu.tr

Tel.: +90 262 679 5000

Fax: +90 262 679 5001

S. Aykut

Institute of Science and Technology,

Marmara University,

Istanbul, Turkey

being carried out extensively. At the same time, some other products such as wires, plates, and welding electrodes made from

these alloys have been used successfully in different fields. Cobase superalloys rely primarily on carbides formed in the Co

matrix and at grain boundaries for their strength and the distribution, size, and shape of carbides depends on processing condition. Solid solution strengthening of Co-base alloy is normally

provided by tantalum, tungsten, molybdenum, chromium, and

columbium [1–3]. These alloys existing in a variety of more than

20 commercially available today, are being used extensively in

high temperature applications requiring superior wear resistance,

corrosion resistance, and heat resistance [3, 4].

The main usage area of cobalt based superalloys is the place

where corrosion and temperature resistance are needed. Having

more percentage of chrome in alloys gives better magnetic properties, corrosion resistance, and the working ability in higher

temperatures. However, the most certain property is the resistance to temperature [5]. In recent years, cobalt has an important

place especially in medicine applications and manufacturing of

corrosion resistant materials. Most certain properties in the used

area:

•

•

•

•

**High creep resistance,
**

High structural stability,

Resistance to thermal creep,

Resistance to high thermal corrosion.

**The cutting force or the surface roughness models are widely
**

used for predicting the cutting force [6–8] and the surface roughness [9–13], respectively. These models are needed to monitor

the process to obtain machining accuracy and process efficiency.

Until now, most of the developed surface roughness models have

been used for the prediction of surface texture and the quantitative analysis of the machined surface. However, in general,

the insert runout errors in a cutter body cannot be avoided in

a face-milling operation and it quantitatively affects the analysis

of the cutting force and the surface roughness. Consequently, it

is difficult to determine an optimal feed rate based on the surface

roughness model, since it will be affected by the insert run out

errors [14].

light reflection. such as using specimen blocks by eye or fingertip. and resisting fatigue [15]. microscopes. The probe comes in and out holes while traveling on the surface. and Y = the ordinate of the profile curve. profile tracing instruments. ability of distributing and holding a lubricant. coating. 1. The greatest advantage of this method is to save the effort in conducting experiments: to save the experimental time. 1 Ra = L L |Y(x)| dx (1) 0 where Ra = the arithmetic average deviation from the mean line.1 Taguchi methods Essentially. the optimal levels of process parameters can be estimated. its value is shown with a pointer or digitally. 2. Taguchi is the developer of the Taguchi method [18]. 3. . In the parameter design step. wearing.941 Fig. In this way. to reduce the cost. There are several ways to describe surface roughness. parameter design. 1. the Taguchi method uses a special design of orthogonal arrays to study the entire parameter space with only a small number of experiments [17]. There are many methods of measuring surface roughness. Surface roughness measurement probes. Taguchi methods (orthogonal array) has been widely utilized in engineering analysis and consists of a plan of experiments with the objective of acquiring data in a controlled way. A large number of experimental works have to be carried out when the number of the process parameters increases. a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) can be employed to indicate the impact of process parameters on surface roughness. the engineer uses scientific and engineering principles to determine the fundamental configuration. In addition to the S/N ratio. He considered three steps in a process’s and product’s development: system design. It can be expressed by the following mathematical relationships [16]. In system design. The analysis results of related subjects discussed above are given in the following sections. stylus type instruments. To solve this problem. 2. and control in appropriate length and circumferences. the specific values for system parameters are determined. One of them is average roughness which is often quoted as Ra symbol. traditional experimental design procedures are too complicated and not easy to use. Surface roughness profile 2 Surface roughness and measurement Surface roughness of a machined product could affect several of the product’s functional attributes. This movement is turned into electrical current by means of a coil or crystal. Tolerance design is used to determine the best tolerances for the parameters [19]. Taguchi robust design method is a powerful tool for the design of a high-quality system. etc. The tools measuring surface roughness with Fig. in order to obtain information about the behavior of a given process. A photo of the used tool while working is shown in Fig. heat transmission. measure. such as contact causing surface friction. and tolerance design. The steps applied for Taguchi optimization in this study are presented in Fig. Perthometer M1 model surface roughness tool of Mahr firm was used in experimental work. After increasing the current by using suitable units. Ra is defined as the arithmetic value of the departure of the profile from the centerline along sampling length as shown in Fig. and to find out significant factors fast. 3 Taguchi experiment: design and analysis 3.

CNC milling machine . 4. 3. Processibility parameter values are selected as recommended ISO plane milling standard values [21]. depth of cut. Ex- Table 2. The outputs studied were surface roughness (Ra ). three factors. as shown Tables 1 and 2. 90 m/min. The orthogonal array selected was the L 27 (313 ) which has 27 rows corresponding to the number of tests with three columns at three levels. Steps applied in Taguchi optimization method 3. The process parameters and their levels Sample Cutting conditions Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 A B C Depth of cut (mm) Cutting speed (m/min) Feed rate(mm/min) 0. and cutting speed) in face milling. are taken into account. 180 mm/min.25. Cutting speeds: 50. An orthogonal array L 27 (313 ) of Taguchi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Designation A Depth of cut (mm) B Cutting speed (m/min) C Feed rate (mm/min) A1 B1 C 1 A1 B1 C 2 A1 B1 C 3 A1 B2 C 1 A1 B2 C 2 A1 B2 C 3 A1 B3 C 1 A1 B3 C 2 A1 B3 C 3 A2 B1 C 1 A2 B1 C 2 A2 B1 C 3 A2 B2 C 1 A2 B2 C 2 A2 B2 C 3 A2 B3 C 1 A2 B3 C 2 A2 B3 C 3 A3 B1 C 1 A3 B1 C 2 A3 B1 C 3 A3 B2 C 1 A3 B2 C 2 A3 B2 C 3 A3 B3 C 1 A3 B3 C 2 A3 B3 C 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Fig.75 mm.25 50 100 0.50.942 Fig. For the purpose of observing the effect influence degree of cutting conditions (feed rate.2 Plan of experiments Taguchi methods which combine the experiment design theory and the quality loss function concept have been used in developing robust designs of products and processes and in solving some confusing problems of manufacturing [20]. and cutting depths are selected as 0.1 Cutting conditions and methodology Table 1. 4 Experimental setup and cutting conditions 4. 0. 140. 70. as shown in Table 2 the factors and the interactions are assigned to the columns. feed rate and cutting depth. Surface roughness is investigated by the effect of cutting rate. each at three levels.75 90 180 Experimental work is done on a CNC milling machine. feed rates: 100.50 70 140 0. 0.

4 0. Geometry of the cutting tool is shown in Fig. ultrahigh strength alloy steels. having excellent resistance to many forms of mechanical and chemical degradation over a wide temperature range. high speed tool steels.and corrosion resistance [5]. and high resistance to cavitation erosion.43–063–07W OFEN070405-ME15 Fig. and stainless steels and they are preferred for stator vanes and diaphragms in gas turbines because of their excellent thermal shock. Some of applications are in non-ferrous (super)alloys. Tool holder and inserts standards Tool holder and insert standard R220. 025) D (mm) A (mm) H (mm) ap (mm) K Inserts 18. cutting corner of contact edge causes thermal stresses and will become blind in a short time. The most preferred Table 4. 6. The coating thickness is 3–4 µm and hardness is 78 HRc. The heat that comes from tool-chip contact surface will be reflected by the coated tool to chip. which results in its wide use as a valve seat material.2 Cutting tools Because heat extraction is inevitable in the cutting process. 4. Tool holder and cutting tool geometries Various kinds of cobalt-based alloys called ‘stellite’ have been used in fields requiring high heat and corrosion resistance and high wear strength. Mechanical and technical specifications of the tool (SECO) Coating thickness (µm) Hardness (Rockwell C) Operating temperature (◦ C) Thermal expansion coefficient (10−3 ◦ K−1 ) Chamfer (mm) × (◦ C) 3-4 78 600 9. Particular attributes are its outstanding self-mated anti-galling properties. This alloy is ideally suited to a variety of hard facing processes. Cobalt is I (±0. 5. 6. where cobalt acts as a binder. Other uses of cobalt include the cemented carbide cutting materials.02 4. 4. magnets.3 Work-piece materials (stellite 6) Fig. This affect could be prevented by coating the surface of the cutting tool. 4 and 5. abrasion-resistant cemented carbides for cutting tools. The most generally used cobalt alloy.15 × 20 technique in coating is physical vapor deposition (PVD). Symmetric milling perimental setup and milling methodology are shown in Figs. Mechanical and chemical properties of tools are listed in Tables 3 and 4.76 63 75 40 5 43 ◦ C 4 .943 Table 3. high temperature hardness. 025) s (±0. PVDTiN coated tools are used.

pen nibs. lower is better (LB). The effects of process parameters resulting from the optimization process are plotted in Figs.508 0. There are several S/N ratios available depending on type of characteristic.714 0. 2.7090 0.488 0. 9 g/cm3 183 Mpa 210 Mpa 1493 ◦ C 2993 ◦ C 43. 7.8825 8. The chemical composition mechanical properties of workpiece material is given in Table 5.09 Balans The smaller is better quality characteristics can be explained as [23]: n 1 2 S/N(η) = −10 × log (2) yi n i=1 where n = number of measurements in a trial/row.944 Table 5. Ra response table for each level of the process parameters (cutting speed. Therefore. and depth of cut) was created in the integrated manner and Ra response results are given in Table 7.465 0.327 .485 28. 8 and 9. feed rate.2572 6. Minor uses for cobalt-bearing alloys include metal-to-ceramic and metal-to-glass seals.570 0. the term ‘signal’ represents the desirable value (mean) for the output characteristic and the term ‘noise’ represents the undesirable value (S.7820 10.2852 5. On the other hand.318 0.533 0.7649 11.4733 10.4655 2.6 HRc % wt 1.381 0.0132 2.041 1.2316 9. S/N ratio values are calculated by taking into consideration Eq.07 0. Table 6.D. ANOVA is a statistically based.212 0.5951 9.307 0. or higher is better (HB) [22].2309 6. Figure 7 shows stellite 6 material’s microstructure as 100 and 200 times magnified. the S/N ratio is the ratio of the mean to the S.6561 5.1343 6. 10–12 and 19–21 in Table 6. 5 Data analysis and results 5.205 0.495 0.92 0.329 0.4915 3.218 0.D.382 0. in this case.6340 9.3815 8.1079 5.9515 13.8827 13. Taguchi uses the S/N ratio to measure the quality characteristic deviating from the desired value.1 Analysis of the S/N ratio In the Taguchi method.3391 4. objective decision-making tool for detecting any differences in average performance of groups of items tested [23].2 Analysis of variance (ANOVA) This method was developed by Sir Ronald Fisher in the 1930s as a way to interpret the results from agricultural experiments. watch springs.485 0.88 0.262 0.739 0. nominal is best (NB).9260 7. The surface roughness values measured from experiments and S/N ratio values are listed in Table 6.166 1.96 5. 2. Ra response table for the feed parameter (A) at levels 1.392 0.689 0. n = 3 and yi is the ith measured value in a run/row.2356 13.) for the output characteristic.9588 3. 5. the same procedure for S/N response table including process parameters was applied and the S/N response results are listed in Table 8. where it is most effective above 650 ◦ C in retaining the hardness and wear resistance for which these alloys are known. The Ra and S/N ratio values Experiment Surface numbers roughness value S/N ratio (dB) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 6. View of material stellite microstructure when 100 and 200 times magnified also used in hardfacing alloys.17 0. and medical and dental alloys.6271 6.6509 6.400 0.669 0. and 3 was created by using the Ra values between 1–3. Mechanical properties (a) and chemical analysis (b) of cobalt based superalloy (Stellite 6) a Density Tensile strength (N/mm2 ) Young’s modulus (N/mm2 ) Melting point Boiling point Hardness b Elements Silisyum Mangan Crom Nickel Molibden Wolfram Titanium Fe Tantal Carbon Cobalt 8. Fig.468 0.289 0.630 0.7977 4.01 2.513 0.

53 3.056822 0. The percentage contribution P can be calculated as below: P= SSd SST (4) where SSd is the sum of squared deviations.14% 23.128008 0.243224 0. The effects of process parameters (S/N response table for surface roughness) F.004 0. Source of variation Degree of freedom (DOF) Sum of squares (S) MS F ratio (F) P value (P) Contribution P (%) A B C Error Total 2 2 2 20 26 0. ANOVA results for surface roughness for steelite 6 material Fig.51 0. because Test F > Fα = 5% as shown in Table 9.147 3 0.2. The depth of cut. which is measured by the sum of the squared deviations from the total mean S/N ratio.064004 0.150596 0. This is to be accomplished by separating the total variability of the S/N ratios.ratio is a ratio of mean square error to residual.482 0. Table 9.174 2 Table 8. S/N response table for surface roughness Levels 1 2 3 ∆max − min Rank A (mm/tooth) B (m/min) C (mm) −9. the stellite 6 material surfaces. 8. Statistically.945 Table 7.88%. Ra response table for surface roughness ANOVA helps in formally testing the significance of all main factors and their interactions by comparing the mean square against an estimate of the experimental errors at specific confidence levels.39 2 −5.50 0. affect surface roughness by 17. 20. 91 −6. First. 18 3.31 3 Fig.113645 0. It can observed from Table 9 that depth of cut (A).72 1 −9.26 = 3. consecutively.363 0. and spindle speed factors present statistical and physical significance on drill bit temperature.14%. feed rate (C). ANOVA results are illustrated in Table 7.002 17. the total sum of squared deviations SST from the total mean S/N ratio ηm can be calculated as [24]: n (ηi − ηm )2 SST = (3) i=1 where n is the number of experiments in the orthogonal array and ηi is the mean S/N ratio for the ith experiment.88% 38. into contributions by each of the design parameters and the error.517 0.27% 20. 83 −7. 80 −10.55 16.121612 0. 38. and is traditionally used to determine the significance of a factor.000 0. P value reports the significance level (suitable and unsuitable) in Table 9. 9. F ratio corresponding 95% confidence level in calculation of process parameters accurately is F0.318 0.69% 100% . Ra response table for surface roughness Levels 1 2 3 ∆max − min Rank A (mm/tooth) B (m/min) C (mm) 0. In the analysis. feed.15 8.05. The percent numbers depicts that depth of cut. there is a tool called an F test named after Fisher [19] to see which design parameters have a significant effect on the quality characteristic. Percent (%) is defined as the significance rate of process parameters on drill bit temperature.27%. 23 −5. 53 −6.458 0. 26 4. and cutting speed have significant effects on surface roughness.213 1 0.37.635472 0.471 0. cutting speed (B). 50 −6.007530 7.343 0. feed rate.531 0.

the optimum surface roughness (Ra = 0. 0. The interactions among factors are indicated as in columns 1. the maximum S/N ratio varies from the min = −11 dB to max = +∞ dB. one could conclude that the machine creates the best surface roughness (Ra = 0. one can predict the optimum surface roughness performance using the cutting parameters as: Predicted Mean (Minimum roughness) = A1 + B3 + C1 − 2x(Y) = 0. 7 Confirmation tests The confirmation experiment is very important in parameter design. the maximum S/N ratio is calculated to determine whether or not the minimum surface roughness is acceptable. 7. In this research. 9. 8 Conclusions This study has discussed an application of the Taguchi method for investigating the effects of cutting parameters on the surface roughness value in the face milling of stellite 6 material. (5) Similarly. B.23 − 10. The purpose of the confirmation experiment in this study was to validate the optimum cutting conditions (A1 B3 C1 ) that were suggested by the experiment that corresponded with the predicted value. The S/N ratio could be predicted as: Predicted S/N Ratio (Maximum) = η A1 + η B3 + ηC1 − x(η) = −9. particularly when screening or small fractional factorial experiments are utilized. 11 and 12 Experimental run 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 B×C 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 A 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 B 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 C 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 B×C 0 1 2 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 2 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 2 1 2 0 2 0 1 A× B 0 1 2 1 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 2 2 0 1 0 1 2 1 2 0 A×C 0 1 2 1 2 0 2 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 0 A× B 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 0 0 1 2 2 0 1 2 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 2 A×C 0 1 2 2 0 1 1 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 2 1 2 0 0 1 2 2 0 1 6 Determination of the minimum surface roughness Using the before mentioned data.343 − 2(0.143 µm) can be obtained under the above-mentioned cutting condition in the Deckel Maho CNC vertical milling machine. and C arranged in columns 2. 5 and 6. Each Ra measurement was repeated at least three times.443) = 0. The Ra value of 0.26 − 9.143 and 0.50 + 2(7. L27 (313 ) standard orthogonal array table with factors A. In this study. respectively.93 dB A confirmation of the experimental design was necessary in order to verify the optimum cutting conditions. .138 µm.140 µm. 8. Also. (6) where η is the average value of surface roughness or S/N ratio. Therefore.138 µm is the smallest value involving in experimental measurements.138 µm) within the range of specified cutting conditions (Table 1). With this prediction.363 + 0.318 + 0. the confirmation runs with the optimum cutting condition A1 B3 C1 resulted in response values of 0.946 Table 10.147. a confirmation experiment was conducted by utilizing the level of optimal process parameters (A1 B3 C1 ) in the part surfaces.53) = − 13.

Donachie MJ. Wang KK (1983) Model of cutting force pulsation on face milling. pp 446 4. Ismail F. Yang JL. cutting conditions have different cutting speed. ASME J Eng Ind 104:272–278 10. Urbasik K (1993) Generation of milled surface including tool dynamics and wear. Kline WA. Part I. Lou MS. As shown in this study. . 3. NJ 23. PA. Ann CIRP 321:21–26 9. the following can be concluded from the present study: 1.25 mm (A1). J MTDR 23(2–3):123–140 8. You SJ. 1st edn 22. Ehmann KF. Statistical results indicate that surface roughness is significantly influenced (at 95% confidence level) by cutting speed.com/cobaltpage. Minitab User Manual Release 13. Asian Productivity Organization. Devor RE.shieldalloy. Elbestawi MA. Moral FR (1970) Cobalt base superalloys. Crook P (1993) Properties and selection: nonferrous alloys and special-purpose materials. Hocheng H (2004) Taguchi analysis of delamination associated with various drill bits in drilling of composite material. References 1. USA 24. the Taguchi method provides a systematic and efficient methodology for the design optimization of the cutting parameters with far less effect than would be required for most optimization techniques. and depth of cut. and feed rate values. lubricant. Co Monograph Series. ISO 8688-1 (1989) Tool life testing in milling. 2. Ocken H (1990) The microstructure and galling wear of a laser-melted cobalt-base hardfacing alloy. Shareef IA (1986) The prediction of surface accuracy in end milling. cutting speed = 90 m/min (B3). Int J Mach Tools Manuf 44:1085–1090 21. Du R. Li C (1998) Surface roughness prediction technique for CNC end. Devor RE. Tokyo 19. Face milling. 5. Phadke MS (1989) Quality engineering using robust design. Metals Handbook. Ross PJ (1996) Taguchi techniques for quality engineering. 4. ASME J Eng Ind 115: 245–252 14. ASME J Eng Ind 106:81–88 7. Ismail F.143 µm) can be obtained under the above-mentioned cutting condition in the Deckel Maho CNC vertical milling machine. J Mater Proc Technol 84(1–3):122–129 18. Hong MS (1994) A generalized model of the surface generation process in metal cutting. Brussels 2.) in the research to see how the factors would affect surface roughness. Antony KC (1983) Wear resistant cobalt-base alloys. depth of cut. ASME J Eng Ind 108:269–279 11. Devor RE (1986) An improved method for cutting force and surface error prediction in flexible end milling systems. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 34(2): 245–255 13. letting you access and read them immediately. which are depth of cut = 0. feed rate. Sullivan CP. ASM International. ASME J Eng Ind 111:213–219 12. In this study. J Ind Technol 17:2 17. the analysis of confirmation experiments has shown that Taguchi parameter design can successfully verify the optimum cutting parameters (A1B3C1). Kapoor SG (1984) A mechanistic model for prediction of the force system face milling operation. Singapore 20. Conceptual S/N ratio and ANOVA approaches for data analysis draw similar conclusion. Yuen KM (1993) Surface topography characterization in finish milling. Fu HJ. Wear 140(2):223–233 5. J Metal 35(2): 52–60 3. Centre d’Information du Cobalt. http://www. PrenticeHill. Englewood Cliffs. Springer. J Ind Technol 15(1):1–6 16. Berlin Heidelberg New York All in-text references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate. Devor RE (1983) The effect of runout on cutting geometry and for in milling. Bristow DJ et al. Elbestawi MA. MINITAB Inc. Ruzhong Z. Further study could consider more factors ( different insert geometry.milling. Kline WW. Taguchi G (1990) Introduction to quality engineering. Harold R (1992) Analysis of variance in experimental design. Ann CIRP 43(1):483–486 15. Chen JC. materials. Tsao CC. Agarwal SC. The optimum surface roughness (Ra = 0. vol 2.html 6. cooling strategy etc. Ehmann KF (1989) Scallop removal in die milling by tertiary cutter motion. Sutherland JW. From the analysis of result in face milling using the conceptual S/N ratio approach and ANOVA.2 (2001) Making data analysis easier. Statistically designed experiments based on Taguchi methods were performed using L-27 orthogonal array to analyze surface roughness as response variable. Tang YS (1998) Design optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations based on the Taguchi method. and feed rate = 100 mm/min (C1).947 In the face milling processes. McGraw– Hill Int Edn. Yang WH. State College. Chen JC (2001) A systematic approach for identifying optimum surface roughness performance in end-milling operations.

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