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A Text-based model

for the disambiguation


of the temporal
of the verb
standard

interpretation
in modern
Arabic

By
Aboudi

Jawad Hassan

A Thesis presented
to the Department of
Modern Languages in the Faculty
of
Arts of Salford
University
in fulfilment
of the
for the
requirements
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Summerof 1987

-of

,3

Dedication

To
My parent
My Uncle Rasheed and
my Cousin

Mansour

Arabic Transliteration
Symbol

Description

/b/

Voiced bilabial

/t/

Voiceless

/t/
/d/
/d/

Velarized voiceless unaspirated


Voiced dental stop
Velarized voiced dental stop

stop

unaspirated

dental

/k/
/g/
/'/
/f/

Voiceless
velar stop
Voiceless
uvular stop
Glottal
stop
Voiceless
labio-dental

/s/
/z/

Voiceless alveolar fricative


Voiced alveolar fricative

stop

Velarized
fricative
voiced alveolar
Voiceless
groove fricative
p alatal
Voiced palatal
groove fricative
Voiceless
dental-alveolar
fricative
Voiced dental alveolar
fricative
Voiceless
uvular fricative
Voiced uvular fricative
fricative
Voiceless
pharyngeal

/9/

Voiced pharyngeal

/S/ VeLari

fricative
nasal
nasal
lateral

Voiced
Voiced
Voiced
Voiced

/r/
/w/

Voiced alveolar
Voiced bilabial

/y/

Voiced

/a: /

long open front

/a/
/u: /
/u/
/i: /
/i/

short open front vowel


long close rounded back vowel
short close rounded back vowell
long close front vowel
short close front vowel

roll
continuant
continuant
vowel

(N. B. If a velarized
consonant occurs in a word then the whole of
the reset of the word is velarized,
and all the vowels are realized by relatively
back allophones)

Table (1)
(1)

This

table

is taken

from MP Williams

(1987)

ed

v oiceCe4 s
M Lve L cr
Fri GU ri e

fricative

/h/
/m/
/n/
/1/

palatal

stop

fricative

/z/
/S/
/j/
/T/
/D/
/x/
/g/
/H/

glottal
bilabial
alveolar
alveolar

dental

Acknowledgement

I would

like

to

supervisor

my

whose help
Also

my

Dr.

like

Williams

I live

those

all

this

research

progress.

This

My mother,

who taught

for

to remember.

to thank

me while

thanks

sincere

M. P.

and kindness

I would

helped

1)

to express

who

was

in

includes:
me when and how to

use my common sense,


2)

My uncle

and cousins,

essentials

to keep this

Last

not

but

least

who cut

down on their

research
my thanks

going

are due to

Mrs. Pat Fleming for her forebearance


typing

this

work.

on.

while

Table

of Contents
Page

Introduction

(1)

1-7

(2)

2.1

Critical

2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2

Arab Grammarians (TAGs)


Traditional
Exponents of The Basrah School
Kufa
""

2.3

Arabists

2.3.1
2.3.2

Review

8-10

interested
Those
who
are
Arabic (CA)
interested
Those
who
are
Standard

Arabic

11-12
12-18
18-22

in Classical
23-30
in Modern

(MSA)

30-34

2.4

Modern Arab Linguists

(MALS)

2.5

Assessment of the views reviewed

40-49

2.6

This work's views

49-54

3.1

The model

55-56

3.2

The morphosyntactic

34-39

(3)

3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2

3.3.3
3.3.4
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.5

3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3

3.5.4
3.5.5

component

56-64
64-67
67-71
72-73

Forms (A) and B


Form (D)
(ka: na)
qad

The semantic component


States
- Activities

73-76
76-77

77-79
79-81

Accomplishments
- Achievements

82-83
83-90
90-93
93-105

The interclausal
component
in
Arabic
time
Reference
time
Types
of
adverbs
of
dependency
temporal
Types
of
the
determination
Rules
governing
the temporal interpretation

of

105=108

The Data

data
The
the
authenticity
of
is
data
from
the
The
sources
which
selected

Arabic
the
-

newspaper

from which

data is selected
data
The
under analysis
The
classification
of the data
-

109-111
112-113

the

114
115-120
120-123

(4)
4.1

The Analysis

4.2

Method of presentation

4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2

First pair
Text (i)
Text (ii)

128
129-138
138-145

4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2

Second pair
Text (iii)
Text (iv)

145
146-148
149-154

4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2

Third pair
Text (v)
Text (vi)

155-158
159-163

4.6

Text (vii)

164-168

5.1

General discussion

169-172

5.2

Implications

172-174

5.2

Conclusion

174-176

124-125

of arabic

125-127

(5)

Bibliography

177-181

Appendix (A)
(B)

182-212
213-245

(C)

246-254

L
Abstract
This

thesis

begins

by showing

in disambiguating

the temporal

Modern Standard

Arabic.

in translation,

depending

text

the temporal

of determining

forms.

in this

Also

suggested
it

by applying

The motivation

and English

to improve

texts

the quality

on the subject

and modern Arab linguists

held

by
are

Two).

Three)

a method of dealing

(Chapter

is provided

three
large

speakers

clauses
Three)

in order

is then given

corpus
of Arabic

research is the felt

of short

viewed
or

a
to show the

a realistic
news reports

(Chapter

Four).

need for translators

to be made aware of this


of the work they are

with

of the text

of decontextualized

in chapter

native

for this

the views

Arabists

to a fairly

by and for

work,

analyzed

The approach

Arabic

is

of the target

and coherence

of the thesis

of the texts
of our data.

produced

by the clauses

based on an examination

part

authenticity

test

this

not as a combination

description

or the semantic

represented

(Chapter

is proposed,

problem

as a whole,

in

shows how,

of the verb-form

(Chapter

reviewed

In the body of the thesis


this

forms

interpretation

Arab grammarians,

critically

forms

the cohesion

to show the need for

traditional

it

point,

plays

One).

(Chapter

In order

of the verb

from this

of the verb

and cripples

misleading

the text

on the morphologically-based

solely

of the situations

classifications

that

part

interpretaions

Proceeding

interpretations

temporal

important

the

problem

involved

in.

in order
The

of

approach that
interested

is proposed should also be of benefit

in studying

(Chapter Five).

and teaching

translation

to those

as a process

CHAPTER ONE : THE INTRODUCTION

On one occasion during my five-year

experience

news department at the Iraqi

the foreign
a news report

like

(A)

as an editor

in

News Agency, I was handed

the following

to translate

al'ijtima:
lilmuqa: ta9a

9u alTa: ni:
miyya
al'isla:

Into English: -

Jada (Wa: s)
9ugida
munazzamati
saba: Ha 'ams bimagarr
1'isla:
9u
lmu'tamari
al'ijtima:
mi: bijadda
lilmaktab
lTa: ni:
mi: limuga: ta9at
al 'isla:
'i: 1
'isra:

9u allaDi:
yastamiru
wayuna: giSu 1'ijtima:
mi: alyaumiyn maSru: 9a lqa: nu: n al'isla:
'i:
l
'isra:
limuqa:
ta9at
wa lla: 'iHa almuwaHad
la: t
9a: ti mudiri al 'ittisa:
da: xili: ya li'ijtima:
l'igli:
lilmaka: tibi
mi: ya
mi: ya al'isla:
ia: nlb
limuqa: ta9at 'isra: 'i: l 'ila:
'ixtisa:
mi: ya
sa: t almaka: tib al'igli:
al'isla:
mi: ya limuga: ta9at 'isra: 'i: l wa lgiya: m
bibarna: mij 9amal : isla: mi: limuwa: jahat al9adu:
l'iitima:
9 mudi: ru:
'i: li:
al'isra:
wa yuSa: rik fi:
dawla
l
fi:
'i:
91Sri:
'isra:
n
tib
ta9at
muga:
maka:
'isla: mi: ya
'tamaru.
'anna
algimma almu:
wa mimma yuDkar
'
'isla: mi: ya aTTa: liT bimakka qad awssa: bi'inSa:
'iga:
'isra:
i:
l
ta9at
limuga:
'isla:
wa
mat
mi:
maktab
al 9arabi: ya
tansi: q wata9a: wun bayn almakaitib

ya limuwa: jahat

wa l'islami:

al9adu: al'isra:

As speed is one of the top priorities


I hastily

translated

it

lli:

(1)

In any journalistic

as follows:

The Second Meeting For The


Islamic Bureau For boycotting
Israel

Jedda (SPA): bureau for


The second meeting of the Islamic
Israel
boycotting
morning at the
was held yesterday
headquarters
of the Islamic
of the Organization
Conference (OIC) in Jeddah.
(1)

For the Arabic

text

see text

(1)

appendix

(B)

work,

2
Participants
in the meeting which continues
for
two days discuss the unified
Islamic
draft
law for
boycotting
Israel,
the statute
of the meetings of
the regional
bureaux'
liaison
the tasks of
officers,
the regional
bureaux and the possibility
of
launching
a campaign to counter the Israeli
enemy.
Heads of bureaux in twenty
part in the meeting.

Islamic

take

countries

Islamic
The third
Summit Conference at Mecca previously
bureau for boycotting
recommended to establish
an Islamic
Israel
an to establish
co-ordination
and co-operation
between the Arab and Islamic
bureaux to counter the Israeli
enemy.
When I reread
detected

a striking

translated
finished,
still

the reader

I attributed

was further

confirmed

in articles

carried

in the course

Like

other

by other

two main

of this

Arabic

equivalents.
not transcending

having

forms

and
are

made by the

either

I was even told

in Arabic,

that

this

The reporter's

was a

claim

above

of many such examples

in verbal

Having

observed

of time

expression
and will

in

substantiate

work.

of Arabic

translators

These assumptions

and (yaf9alu)
however,

and English

assumptions

or elsewhere,

(fa9ala)

the borders

of the

started

checked,

above is solvable

people,

at school,

the conferees

Arab news agencies.

convention

professional

were taught

was told

to me by the discovery

the problem

this

clause

language.

of the

as a common linguistic
I believe

In the first

to an error

versed

who was well

feature

texts

After

my habit,

in the conference.

the problem

or by the reporter.

always

the conference

he/she

or discussing

conventional

Arabic

was told

in the second,

participating

by the reporter,

as is

text

contradiction.

text,
while

At first,
typist

the translated

about

and their

English

were made at a level

of the clause.

Rigidly

the

following

it

3
these

assumptions

texts.

is

That

may yield

because the temporal

can be invalidated

I therefore

incohesive

by information

suggest that

and incoherent
interpretation

the

an example such as the above should be

define

the temporal

linguistic

the time
the other

we look

interpretation

(fa9ala),

situation

hand refers

only

the beginning

include

time

The following

version

(B)

the

whose beginning

to a situation

my suggested

in Arabic

of which

conventionally

to

represents

forms

the perfect

conventionally

and continues

reporting.

at the example above,

again

helps

of the other.

(yaf9alu),

of reporting.

form or the clause

of the

the above situation


of

and contextually.

each of the two main verb

In the above terms,


extra

If

specified.
that

we can notice

interpretation

temporal

can be precisely

of the clause

from beyond the clause borders.

looked at as a complete whole linguistically


By so doing

translated

of

denotes
falls

before

Imperfect,
co-occurs

and go beyond the


the

translated

text

solution:

The Second Meeting Of The Islamic


Israel
For Boycotting

Bureau

Bureau for
The second meeting of the Islamic
Israel
boycotting
morning at
started
yesterday
the headquarters
of the Islamic
of the Organization
(OIC) in Jedda.
Conference
in the meeting which continues
for two
Participants
draft
Islamic
law for
days are discussing
the unified
Israel,
boycotting
the statute
of the meetings of the
bureaux'
liaison
the tasks of these
regional
officers,
bureaux and the possibility
a campaign to
of launching
counter the Israeli
enemy.
Heads of bureaux in twenty
taking part in the meeting.

Islamic

countries

an

are

Islamic
The third
Summit Conference at Mecca previously
bureau for
recommended to establish
an Islamic

on
with

boycotting
Israel
and to establish
co-ordination
and
between the Arab and Islamic
bureaux to
co-operation
counter the enemy.
At this

stage

news report

interpretation

text

level

gives

this

belief

is

(fa9ala)

with

the key to the translator.


that

level

at the text

the translator

of

type

of

to disambiguate
forms.
(yaf9alu)

It

is my
at-the,

What reinforces

of each of the above forms

the repetition
yields

this

or signals,

of each of these

the alternation

that

as in this

which helps

offers

the temporal
belief

one may ask what clues

a different

interpretation

of the form

example:

ijtima: 9 9ilmi:
Hawla jira: Hat altajmi:
fi alriya: d

(C)

al riya:

d maktab alSarq

alawsat

',
'ams
disa
9ugida fi:
9a
min
mass:
assa:
assa:
li min tanzzi:
ijtima: 9 9ilmi:
Hawla jira: Hati ltajmi:
d atta: bi9 liwaza: rat
mustaSfa: qiwa al'amn bilriya:
adda: xiliyya
alsa9u: diyya.

mi

9 allaDi:
9u ida
ha: Da lijtima:
waSa: raka fi:
bisa: lati
lijtima:
9a: t bil'ida:
ra al9a: mma lilxadama: t
'u
lda:
'atibba:
biwaza:
xiliyya
rat
altibbiyya
ha: Da lmaja: l min mustaSfa lmalik
mutaxassisu: n fi:
xa: lid alja: m19i: wamustaSfa: alquwa: t almusallaHa
d waja: m19at almalik
bilriya:
almarkazi
wa lmustaSfa:
fa 'ila:
fiaysal
bilmantaqa
aSSargi: yya bil'ida:
mustaSfa:
d (1)
bilriya:
qiwa: al'a'mn
A professional
meeting on
Surgery in Riyadh
Plastic
Riyadh

(al
-

Sharq al awsat bureau)

A professional
by the
organized
Saudi Ministry
of
yesterday
o'clock
(i)

See text

meeting on plastic
surgery
forces hospital
security
of the
Interior
was held in Riyadh at six
evening.

(c) appendix

(B)

5
in this field
Specialized
took part
physicians
in the meeting which was held in the meeting hall
for medical
of the Ministry's
public
administration
the
These physicians
represented
services.
hospitals
the armed
of King Khalid University,
forces,
hospital,
King Faisal
the central
and the
forces.
security
Unlike

example

(A),

one is straightforward.

this

indicates

an extralinguistic

both

before

fall

received

the time

different

in example

whose beginning
(fa9ala)

of reporting.
interpretation

temporal

(fa9ala)
and ending

here therefore
its

from

counterpart

(A).

Let us see now if

level

situation

Here

a temporal

also yields

from

its

this

example:

the repetition

counterpart

of

interpretation

in example

(A).

(yaf9alu)

at the text

for the form different

To trace

that

let

us have

'ir
biljaza:
nadwa duwaliyya
ji: ya fi:
San al'inta:
masa: n19i
alHadi: d wa ssulb

(D)

d al9arabi:
(qana: ) :- ya9gidu alittiHa:
ajjaza: 'ir
gala: ha: miS
lilHadi:
d wa sulb huna nadwa duwaliyya
'ijtima:
9a: t aldu: ra al9a: di: ya aTTa: liTa wa'aarba91:
'ida: ratih.
limajlis

wa tuna: giS annadwa taHta 9: nwa: ni


linta: jiyya'fi:
masa: ni91 1Hadi: d wassulb 9adadan min
bitaba: dul alxibara:
t walmaha: ra: t
almawdu: qa: t almuta9alliga
bilinta:
jiyya
jiyya.
wal9awa: mii almurtabita
attaknalu:
WaHaqi: qiyya
kaqudara: ti 1'inta: j alnazariyya
biyya wassiya: na 'ida: fa 'ila:
mawdu: 9
waltadri:
'ba9di masa: n19 alHadi: d wassulb
fi:
jiyya
al'inta:
al9arabiyya
tastamirru
yawmai: n
wa yuSa: rik ft nnadwa allati:
d
alittiHa:
xubara: ' min alSarika: t al'a9da: ' fi:
wa'axsa'yu: n duwaliyyu: u: n mumaTlu: n
al9arabi:
diyya
mu: 'assasa: t muxtalafa
min' alma: niyya al'ttiHa:
walya: ba: n wabu: landa:
wa lnamsa: walmajar wafaransa:
(1)

See text

(3)

appendix

(B)

(1)

6
Symposium About
An International
in Iron and Steel
Productivity
be held in Algeria.
Factories
will
Union (AISU) will
symposium following
session of its board

(QNA). The Arab Iron and Steel


Algiers
hold here after
tomorrow an international
the meetings of the forty-third
ordinary
of directors.

be held
in the symposium which will
Participants
in iron and steel
under the slogan "productivity
discuss a number of topics.
These are
factories"
will
to exchanging technolgical
expertise,
relating
to do with productivity
maintenance and the factors
practical
production
and training
such as the theoretical,
in some Arab iron and steel
Productivity
capabilities.
factories
will
also be discussed.
Experts from firms members in the union and
international
take part in the two-day
will
specialists
These specialists
will
represent
various
symposium.
in the Federal Republic of Germany,
organizations
Hungary, France, Japan and Poland.
Austria,

Unlike

its

denotes

counterpart

All
single

has led me to hypothesize

form cannot

interpretation
temporal
higher

After
stated

can be specified

after
a

the

form as a

temporal
level.

However,

unambiguously

shown briefly

my hypothesis,

how to approach

naturally

beyond the clause


translated

borders
texts.

I have to set
studying

In order
It

to produce

Is also

the problem

and

my aim or aims.
forms

these

cohesive

my feeling

that

the

at a level

of the clause.

that

The above may show the need for

coherent

fall

receives

the verb

at the clause

of the situation

having

that

unambiguously

specify

interpretation
than

both

and ending

interpretation.

temporal

this

here

(yaf9alu)

here therefore

(yaf9alu)

of reporting.

different

(A)

whose beginning

a situation

the time

in example

from
and
making

the translators
suggesting
quality

aware of this

an adequate

to any institute
benefits

of translation

to problems

All
different
firstly

work is

this

three

major

of the opening

clause.

sub-categories

according

news reports

in turn

them.

and
improve

will

imparts

the

This

let

attention

this

with

the

credibility

in translation,

the

alone

of students

profession

and

work is hoped to be a

based on the analysis

Arab national
into

with

it

with

from drawing
associated

like

direction.

in that

contribution

This

or involved

associated

a way to deal

suggesting

produce.

can be accrued

that

to deal

approach

of the work they

and its

problem

newspapers.
categories

These news reports

Then each major

cateogory

to the two main verb

are put at the end of this

are classified

to the aspectual

according

is divided

forms

from

taken

of news reports

class
into

of Arabic.

work in appendices

(A),

four
These
(B)

and (C).

Seven of these

news reports

are selected

to be presented

as

is
devoted
to
the
in
Four,
Chapter
analysis.
which
samples
With these seven translations,
transliteration

transliterations

is based on the pronunciation

Modern Standard Arabic whose details

are provided.
usually

associated

are given in table

(1).

My
with

8
CHAPTERTWO

Critical

2.1

This

chapter

presents

in Arabic.

aspect

a critical

The focus

one work to another

(1874)

study

of the

language.

Before

embarking

Arabic

made by B. Comrie

(1976)

us first

for

define

who in turn

linguist.

tense/aspect
like

of the grammar

study

this

and for

chapter

the above two

here are based on views

Our definitions

properties.

of their

of a layout

let

review,

Others

counterparts.

as part

study

and/or
from

varies
of the

N. Kharma (1983)

on the details

of this

the purpose

like
English

their

two properties

to the main interest

according

with

contrastively

of work on tense

review

on these

some linguists

For instance

W.Wright

literature

Review of the

in this

draws on definitions

respect

made by

(1943).

Holts

Tense is

a linguistic

property

in time relative

situation

of the verb

which

helps

it

locate

to the time of speaking or writing

the

as this

example shows
- sana9a 9aliyyun
- Ali

The verb

form

of the chair)

As for
verb

before

made a chair

= (made) above locates


the time

helps
but

it

depict

independantly

the

internal

it

the situation

(making

or writing.

of speaking

"Aspect",

the second

which

situation

(fa9ala)

kursyan

is another
temporal

from the time

property

of the

constituency

of speaking

or writing

of the
as

this

example

shows:

yarsumu Sajaratan
9indama: zurtahu
--E
was drawing a tree
him.
when I visited
The verb

form

(yaf9ulu)

= (drawing)

yarsumu)

drawing)
(was
=

indicates

On these
carried

(tense

two properties
out.

In this

some of this

chapter

incomplete

holds.

to Ali)

and aspect)

is

which

a situation

(my visit

when the second situation

(ka: na

in the above combination

a lot

has been

of research

work is going

to be

to be reviewed.

selected

The varied

selection

is discussed

of work which

in this

is

chapter

based on a number of considerations:


Arabic

in general

tense

(i)

deals
The work selected
and aspect in particular

(ii)

They represent
Modern Standard

(iii)

They present
Arabic verbs

(iv)

in this area of
They show the need for a new contribution
into account new developments
in
taking
Arabic linguistics
linguistics.

however,

temporal
believe

combination

various

of a verb

reference

Arabic

on the

temporal

of views

the clause
about

Some linguists

like

establishes

its

form and a time

believe

that

by the verb

and with

Classical

views

the clause

Makhzoumy (1966)
temporal

studies
Arabic

work takes

reference.
that

of both
(MSA)

a variety

Most of the reviewed


There are,

with

as the unit

how the clause


al-Zajiaji
temporal

adverbial.

the clause
form alone.

in Arabic

(CA)

and

value

of

of the analysis.
builds

its

(1959),
reference
Others,

by a
like

establishes

alits

10
For organizational
into

three

(Arabic

purposes

groups

or other)

interested

in

according

tongue

to the mother

and according

(CA or MSA).

here

the work reviewed

to the variety

These groups

is classified

of the

linguist
he/she

of Arabic

are:

(I)

Arab Grammarians (TAGS): - This group includes


Traditional
those Arabic-speaking
grammarians who study the temporal
(See 2.2)
value of the Arabic verb in (CA)

(ii)

This
Arabists:
native speakers

(iii)

group represents
This
of Arabic.

(A)

Those who study the temporal


verb in (CA) (See 2.3.1)

(B)

Those who study

the Arabic

linguists
is further

those
group

of the Arabic

value

verb

who are not


into
divided

in

(MSA)

(See 2.3.2)

(MALS): - This group


Modern Arab Linguists
consists
of those
the above
speakers of (MSA) who study the verb in
native
(See 2.4)
of Arabic
variety

These groups

will

hereafter

be referred

shown above instead of the full


In section
2.5, after
presenting
reference
offer

is

of the clause,

enough clues

as to whether
to the context

In Section
interpretation

it

for

by

label.
all the views

will

to disambiguate
is present,

it

to

past

be argued

that

the temporal
or future.

using

on the temporal
the clause
value
Instead

disambiguation

2.6 1 will

present my views on the temporal

of the verb

form.

the acronyms

does not

of the verb

form

one has to resort

11
2.2
All

TAGs

the grammarians

of this

but they

the Arabic

verb

with

associated

with

the divisions

they

concern,

The exponents

1-

are divided

of the

forms.

temporal

(1)
fa9ala

time

agree on the association

category

Basra

2.

Kufa
School

These are: -

of thought.

that

argue

In this

and future).

two schools

1.

forms

the

about

(past

of time

into

first

differ

of

has three

the verb

These are: -

hereafter

form

is

(A) which

associated

the past

with

(2)
2-

Yaf9alu

hereafter

form

hereafter

forms

which

is

associated

with

future.

(C) which

is

associated

with

the

(B)

(3)

3-

'If9al
future.

The exponents
form

(C)

another

of

above

the

is

form which

continuous

not

second

associated
(4)

on the

other

hand

They

time.

with

form

fa: 911 hereafter

is

or permanent

what has been said

school

so far
TAGs

Basra

ufa

I1\

It\

ABCABD
Diagram

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Conventionally
Conventionally
Conventionally
Conventionally

the perfect
the imperfect
the imperative
the active
participle

(1)

instead

(D) which

The following

situation.

claim

that
add

indicates

diagram

may explain

12
In what follows

I will

discuss

In the subsection

school.

the views
I will

after,

of the exponents
discuss

those

first

of the

of

the second school.

Exponents

2.2.1

Sibawayahi
cited

of the Basra School

is one of the

time

of

He associates

grammarian.

notional

leaders

line

into

the Basra school

the verb

with

time

and a frequently
and divides

the

and non-past:

past

wayata9da:
alf19luila:
alzama: n naHw: a qawlika
buniya lima mada: wa lima lam yamdi:
Dahaba, li'annahu
fa'iDa
qa: la Dahaba fahuwa dali: llun 9ala: anna alHadaTa
fi: ma: mada: min azzama: n.
wa'iDa qa: la sayaDhab. fa 'innahu dali:
min azzama: n
annhu. fi: ma: yustaqbal
fafi:
'istdla:

h baya: n mima mada: walam yamdi:,


lun 9ala: waqu: 9 alHadaT

llun

9ala:

kama: fi: hi
p. 35

Translation:

The verb

That is
non-past.

is

because

associated
the

with
is

verb

time

made refer

like

(went).
to

the

past

or

indicates
The form (went) for instance
an event in
the past while the form (will
go) indicates
an event
in the future.
has intrinsically
The verb therefore
to the past or non-past together
with
(1)
the occurence of an event.

Sibawayahi also argues that


form

(B) with

form*(C)

with

an indication
indication
to

form (A) is associated

future

or present

future

time

time

with past time,

when used in statements

and

when used in commands: -

fa'amTila
'uxiDat
min
wa 'amma'al. fi9l
lima: maqa: wa
laf; i 'aHda: T al'asma: 'i wabunlyat
lima yaku: n wa lam yaga9 wa ma huwa ka: 'inun wa lam
yanqat9
(1)

In translating
these quotations
to the original.
possible

I am trying

to be as close

as

13
fa'amma: bina: ' ma mada: faDahaba wamakaTa wa Hamada
wa'amma bina: ' ma lam yaga9 fa'innahu
qawlaka
'a: miran 'iDhab, wa 'ugtul
wa 'udrub wa muxbiran
bina: ' malam
yaqtul,
wayaDhab wayadrub wa kaDalika
yangati9
wahuwa ka: 'in
I p. 12

Vol.
Translation:

Verbs are forms taken from the infinitives


to what happened,
and made to refer
what will
happen but has not yet happened
and what is
happening
happening.
now and has not yet stopped
Forms referring
like
"went",
to what happened
"stayed"
Forms referring
to
and "praised".
happen and has not yet happened
what will
are
like
"go",
"kill"
and "hit",
when used in
information
Forms conveying
like
"he
commands.
kills",
"he goes" and "he hits"
to
also refer
happen but has not yet happened.
Forms
what will
to what is happening
referring
and has not
he kills
(1) (is killing),
stopped
yet are like
he goes (is going),
(is hitting).
and he hits

Like

Sibawayhi,

verb

with

Translation:

al

Zamakhshary

also

associated

the Arabic

time: 'inna al fi91 ma dalla gala:


'iqtira:
n HadaT bizama: n
p. 243
The verb is a form which
associates
an event with time.

Moreover he claims that


before

speech time

form (A) indicates

a situation

(ST)

alma: di: wahuwa adda: llu


alfi9lu
'iqtira:
gala:
ni HadaT bi zama: nin
qabla zaminka
p. 244
Translation:
The past form associates
an event
before the
with a time location
time.
speaker's

Form (B), on the other hand, according


points
(1)

to a situation

at or after

In Arabic,
the same verb
present or the future.

form

to al Zamkhshary

ST: is used to refer

to both

the

14
alfi9l
al mu4a: ri9
:- wahuwa
fi:
ma tata9tagib
sadrih

al hamza walnu: n wal ta' walya'


lilmuxa: 1ab aw
wa Dalik qawlika
yaf9al
alga: 'iba taf9al
walilga'ib
'af9al
wa lilimutakalim
wa lahu
'iDa ka: na ma9ahu: garyahu jama: 9atan
naf9al wa tusama bizzawa'id
fi: h al Ha: ddr w al
wayaStariku
mustagbal.
p. 245
Translation:

The non-past form is what is prefixed


`4s"
v"I%
(1)
by
J"
these
c:
one of
of verbs
Examples are like "you go" and "she
goes" for both the second person
and third
person
masculine singular
(2), "he goes" for
feminine
singular
"I go" for first
third
person mas. sing.,
and "we go"
person mas. and fem. singular
for the first
person mas. and fem. plural.
These are called
the "four redundancies".
Both the present and the future
are
by one
to by a verb form prefixed
referred
of the four above.

Regarding

form

(B) al

instance

that

there

for
form

(B) refer

to him form
circumstantial
it

is prefixed

are particles

exclusively

(B) refers
(la)

ZamKhshary goes into

(la: m al Ha: l)

by either

in Arabic

to the present
to the present

(sa)

or

more detail.

and refers

1.

ziadun layagra'
Ziad is reading

2.

sayaDhabu 9umarun
Omar will
go

is

prefixed

According
by the

to the future

as in these

to [I, we, she,


These are roughly equivalents
he].
(2) In Arabic one form is used for both genders.

(1)

can make

or the future.

when it

(sawfa)

which

He claims

when

two examples:

you (mas) and

15
One can argue here

also
these

when it

not only

collocates

in

al

Zaiiaii

line

with

the significance
time

(B) can also

with

exclusively
by these

when preceded

present

or future

time

to the

refer

but

prefixes

adverbs

as in

two examples:

Although
stays

future

or the

present

form

that

3.

yagra'u
ziadun al'a: n
Ziad is reading now

4.

yaktubu'aHmadun
al risa: la gaden
Ahmed will
write the
tomorrow
(1959)

in his

alZamkhshary
of the

letter

assumptions

and Sibawayhi,

about

he implicitly

between the verb

collocation

the Arabic

verb
recognizes

form and the

adverbial:
falma: di: maHasuna fi: hi 'ams wa huwa mabniyun
lfataH
'abadan naHwa "qa: ma" waqa9ada
9ala:
wa 'intalaga
wama 'aSbaha Da lik
walmustaqbal
maHasuna fi: hi gadan waka: nat fi:
'awalihi
'iHda:
al zawa'id wahi: ya ya 'aw to
kaqwlika aqu: mu wa naqu: mu
aw nu: n aw 'alif
wawa 'aSbaha Dalik
farqa
baynahu wabayna
wa 'amma fi9lu
a1Ha: l fala:
almustaqbal
yuqu: mu al 'a: n wayaqu: mu
zaidun
al 'a: n wayusali:
yusali:
gadan wa9abdallah

gadan
fa'iDa
9alayhi

'aradat
ann tuxalisuhu
87
'aw
p.
sawfa.
sa

lil'istqba:

'adxil

Translation:
The past form is compatible
It is always indeclineable
and the like.

with adverbs
like "stood",

like yesterday.
"sat",
"began"

form is compatible
The future
with adverbs like
It has one of these prefixes
( 6-c4
tomorrow.
like "I (will)
"we (will)
"you
stand",
stand",
As for the form referring
stand" and the like.
it is not different
from the preceding
present,
One can say Ziad (is) stand(ing)
now and (will)
(is) pray(ing)
tomorrow or Abdullah
now or (will)
(1)
tomorrow.
(1)

The same verb form most often


and the future.

is used to refer

C
-)(will)
to the
one.
stand
pray

to the present

16
form refer exclusively
(sa) or (sawfa) to the

If one wants to make the present


to the future,
one must introduce
verb.
Al Zajajji
time

moreover

at which

the utterance

distinguishes

the situation
about

between two notions


and the time

occurs

of time:

the

at which

is made:

the situation

9a11: abihi
alma: i: ma: taqada: wa'ata:
wa lfi9l
zamana: n la: 'aqal zama: nun wujida fi: h wa zama: nun
p. 87
xubira fi: hi 9anhu.
Translation:
the time at
two times at least:
The past form involves
which the event occured and the time at which the event
is reported.
While

agreeing

dimension

with

to the notion

between the verb


compatible

al

in their

He states

of collocation.

form and the time


relational

introduced

(1956)

Ibn Jinny

Zajjaji,

adverbial

that
only

occurs

a new

the collocation
when they

are

values:

fa mina al muHa: 1 'ann


tanqaqa 'awwala kala: mika
bi 'a: xirihi
wa Dalika kagwlaka
qumta gaden 'aw sa'aqu: mu
tams 'aw naHwa Dalik.
p. 330-331

Translation:
It is impossible to contradict
one part of your utterance
with another like saying

I stood tomorrow
yesterday.

Ibn Ya'ish

and al Sirafi
by al

times

suggested

earlier

these

two times

on the notional

(1)

or

I will

seem to develop

Zajjaji
time

when they
line.

the notion
talk

In this

remarks:

(1) Quoted in al Zajjaji

stand

(1959) p. 87 note (1)

about
concern

of the two
the order
Ibn Ya'ish

of

17
falma: ci: ma9adim ba9da
wiju: dih fayaga9 al 'ixbar
9anhu fi:
zama: n ba9da
zama: ni wijud: dih.
wa lmustagab malam yakun lahu:
wiju: d ba9d bal yaku: nu zama: n
al'ixba:
r 9anhu qabla zama: n
wiju: dih wa'ama alHa: qir
fahu: allaDi:
'ili:
hi
yail
minhu
almustagbal
wayasri:
alma: oi: fiyaku: in zama: n
al'ixba:
r 9anhu huwa zama: n
wiju: dih.
p. 2 vol. 7
Translation:
to a situation
The past form refers
The
which no longer exists.
is reported
therefore
at
situation
the time of its
a time after
occurrence.
form refers
to a situation
The future
yet and which is
which does not exist
at a time before the time of
reported
its occurence.
The present form refers
to a situation
what
which intersects
happened in the past and what will
its
Therefore,
happen in future.
time is the time at which the
reporting
exists.
situation
Each of the

involves

two times

In example
example

following

(6)

examples

according

to

Ibn Ya'ish

(5)

xaraia ziadun 'ams


Ziad went out yesterday.

(6)

ziadun gadan
sawfa yaxruj
Ziad will
go out tomorrow.

(7)

yaxruJu ziadun al 'a: n


Ziad is going out now.

- event

time

and speech time.

(5) Event Time (ET) precedes


(ET) follows

(ST) while

Speech Time (ST).

in example

(7)

In

(ET) and (ST)

are simultaneous.

Other

TAGs like

Ibn Sarrai

(1973),

al Zubaydy

(1975)

and al

'akbary

18
(19--)

keep in line

association

2.2.2

on the Arabic

views

verb

and its

time.

with

Exponents

Sibawayhi's

with

Of The Kufa School

alFara'
One of the staunchest
argues

that

accusative

of this

exponents

the Arabic

active

noun is a verb

(al

Jummal),

Fara'

al

which

(1955).

requires

to a continuous

referring

Quoted in Al Zajjaji

situation.

(1)

participle

is

school

or permanent

alFara'

remarks

' yaqu: l
faqultu
alfara:
da: 'im laf; uhu
fi9lun
(ga: 'iman)
' 9ala hi wama9na: h
laf; u al'asma:
li'annahu
yansibu
ma9na: alfi9l
fayuqa: l qa: 'im qiyaman
faljiha
wa da: rib ziadan,
huwa fi: ha: 'ism laysa
allati
fi: ha: fi9lan,
waljiha
allati
laysa
fi: ha:
huwa fi: ha: fi9lun
'isman.
p. 349

Translation:
I said:
alFara'
(2)
(standing)

said: - The active


is a continuous

participle

It is a noun in
or permanent verb.
form but a verb in meaning because
it requires
noun.
an accusative

alFara'

according

or permanent

It can be said for example


"he is standing"
and he is beating
Ziad.
When it is used as a noun
it is not a verb but when it is
used as a verb it is not a noun.
form (D) the continuous
(1980) calls
to alSammara'i

form because it

refers

to a situation

in the present

or the future.

(1) We have called


(2)

this

form

The above form requires


example can be literally

(D)
an accusative
translated

in Arabic.
as "he is doing

The above
standing".

He

19

which

requires

this

only

or the future

but

can refer
also

form

that

claims

to a

to one in the past

ziadun mu9ti_ 9amran 'ams dirhaman


Ziad gave to omar yesterday
a dirham

al Makhzoumy (1966)

Most recently

(1)

the Kufa school.

supports

Concerning

(D) he remarks
Haqiqatan fi:
wa huwa fi9lun
'illa:
'ist9malih
fi:
h
ma9na: wa
'akTar 'ist9ma:
'innahu yadulu fi:
'istmra: r wu: qu: '9
9ala:
p. 23
al HadaT wadawa: mih.

la: tihi

Translation:
fact
form is in actual
The continuous
but
in
most
use
and
meaning
verb
it
to the
frequently
refers
of the occurance of the
continuity
situation.

this

the above form can only

that

He claims
the

when it

future

and when it

to a situation

has an object

in

as in

refers

in the past

is followed

by a genitive

(10)

Besides its
opinion

in

when the nunation


noun as in this

'ana: ka: tibu alrisa:


I wrote the letter.

the

future

alSammara'i

when:

(1980)

p. 38

is dropped
example

la ti

form (B),

present time reference

indicates

Quoted

lata
'ana: ka: tibun alrisa:
I will
write the letter.

to a situation

and when it

(1)

is nunated

point

example
(9)

It

(D)

example

(8)

form

al Kisa'i

Fara',
noun not

an accusative

in the present

situation
citing

from al

different

Not totally

in

al Makhzoumy"s

20
(i)

preceded

by (Sa) or

(Ii)

preceded

by the particle

(lan)

as in this

Ian yahti
It will'not

Also form (B) according


when it

of negation

example

(11)

past

(SaWfa)

is

la al matr
rain.

to him can refer


by one of these

preceded

In the

to a situation
two negative

particles

(lam) or (lamma)
(12)

Though form

the past
This

(A) according

it

the past,

when it

is

(qad)

to him can refer

preceded

can sometimes
as in these

by the Arabic

In

to any situation

before

to a situation

can refer

combination

particle

lam yahtl almatr


It did not rain.

a specific
past

be interrupted

"to

point

be"

in

(ka: na).

or preceded

by the

a situation

in the

examples

(13)

ka: n -alrajul

(14)

gad ka: n alrajul

(15)

ka: n gad wasal

wasal
wasal
alrajul

The man had arrived.


Form (A) also,
recent

according

(16)

al Makhzoumy, like
argues

that

form

preceded by (qad). as in this

it

past when it

to him, can indicate

qad ga: mat alsala: t


The time for prayer has come.

other
(C) is

exponents

of the Kufa School

not associated

with

time:

la:
(al'amr)
HaDa alf19l
yadulu 9ala: wu: qu: 9 HadaTin
fi:
zaman min al'azmina
walaknahu talab maHd
yuwa: jah bihi al muxa: tab
liHdaT mudmuhahu
fawran.
p. 24

Translation:

example: -

of thought,

21
The imperative
form does not refer
to
the occurence of an event in a time
location
but it is a pure request
addressed to the addressee
to implement it at once.
In his

detailed

very

totally

different

study,

from the others

and (B).

He believes

two forms

can only

(1980)

al Sammara'i

however,

in his

that

be disambiguated

in general

is

of forms

treatment

the time

reference

by clues

from within

not

(A)

of these
the

borders:

clause

'ila:
'anna bina: '
waqad 'aSrna:
fa9ala wabina: ' yaf9alu
la: yamkan 'ann yadulla:
9ala: azzama: n bi'aqsa: mih
waHidudih wadaga: 'iqih,
wamin huna fa'in
alfi9l
la: yafsaHu 9ani
al9arabi:
azzama: n bisiyagih
wa'inama
yataHasal
azzama: n min bina: 'i
faqad taSmil gala:
ajjumla
gala: taqri:
ziyada: t tu9i: n afl9l
Hidu: din wadiHah.
azzama: n fi:

r
p. 24

Translation
We have mentioned that the past form
to
and the non-past one do not refer
locations
time divisions,
and

particulars.
does not express
The Arabic verb therefore
The temporal reference
time by its forms.
from within
the clause
can be determined
the verb
clues helping
which contains
the time locations.
to determine clearly
He also
time

agrees

with

of form

reference

Makhzonmy gives
like

Finally
involves
claim
Arabic.

that

al Makhazonmy about

(D) but he is puzzled

future

by the designation

al

believes

(C)

to the form.

al Sammara'i

the Kufa scholars,

no time

and the

the present

reference.

the verb
To support

He also

association

with

his

claim,

counter

dismisses
time

is

that

from

al Makhozoumy's
newly

al Sammara'i

introduced
provides

into
a

22
quantity

of evidence

of being

influenced

To recap,

TAG's.

with

association
time

divisions.

with

past

time,

with

the

future.

hand,

us to the end of the


these

time

grammaraians

but differ

deny form

a new form which

form

(B) with

While
time,
(C)'s
is

the exponents

associate

future

or the

(D) and associate

it

with

of each school.

Kufa

Al

Fara'

Zamkhshary

2.

al

Kisa'i

Zajjaji

4.

al Makhzoumy

S.

al Sammara'i

Sibawayahi

2.

al

3.

al

4.

Ibn Jinny

5.

Ibn Ya'ish

6.

al Sirafi

7.

Ibn Sarraj

8.

al

Zubaydy

9.

al

'aKbary

Table
see al Sammara'i

(1980)

form

(2)

(A)
(C)

of forms

introduce

the continuity

The following

of the situation.

the

on the other

They instead

time.

1.

1.

with

and form

of the Kufa School,

with

association

Basra

(1)

associated

them on the association

with

the exponents

form

the forms

the present

of

the verb

about

of the Basra School

agreeing

permanence of the occurrence


lists

al Makhzonmy

of the views

review

agree

about

The exponents

(A) and (B) with

and accuses

by the Arabists.

brings

Al Sammara'i

(1)

to the contrary

table

or

23

2.3

The Arabists

Unlike

the TAGs,

the Arabic

associate

of completion
discuss

(CA).

In the sub-section

Those who are

al Sammara'i

reference

basically

of forms

the

property

sub-section

we will

is Classical

I will

the views

review

Arabic

of

(MSA)

(CA)

the scope of disambiguating

(A) and (B),

section

whose main concern


after,

in

in this

aspectual

In the next

is Modern Standard

interested

defines

reviewed

with

of the Arabists

whose main concern

2.3.1

While

verb

or non-completion.

the views

Arabic
those

most of the Arabists

William

Wright

(1874)

the

temporal

leaves

it

open.

He remarks:
"a Semitic perfect
or imperfect
has in and of itself
no reference
to the temporal relations
of the
speaker and other actions
which
with it".
are in juxtaposition
p. 54

Wright claims that

the Arabic verb has two temporal forms (A and B)

and the difference

between them is one of completion

completion.

The temporal

by identifying

only

of the form can be made

interpretation

he mentions

the relations

or non-

as he later

states:

It is precisely
these relations
in what sphere
which determine
of time (past, present or future)
a semitic
perfect
or imperfect
lies and by which of our tenses it
is to be expressed....
" p. 54
Wright

the

accuses

the

idea of time

"Arab

grammarians

in connection

with

of

giving

forms".

undue

importance

These grammarians

to

24

to him divide

according

form

and associate
and the
that

future.

introduced

into

al Sammara'i

(1885)

Socin

basically

(A) with

Wright's

the concept

past

of the Arabic
the

language:

and future

present

and form

(B) with

the present

led al Makhzonmy (1966)

verb's

association

an argument

which

with
exposes

to argue

time

is

newly

him to

as we have seen earlier.

criticism

sees the difference

with

past,

remarks

one of completion

association

into

time

location

between forms

or non-completion
in time

is

(A) and (B) as


their

while

secondary:

The perfect
(Form A) expresses
a
the completion
completed
action,
in the past
of which falls
either
the present
or the future;
or is
thought
in one of
of as falling
these
three
The
periods
of time.
imperfect
(form B) expresses
an
incompleted
which can likeaction
in either
three
wise fall
of these
periods.
p. 78

In reviewing

his work one notices

the relative

time

reference

that

of form

Socin recognizes

(B) as in these

implicitly

two examples

of

his:

17 -

a: 'u: 'aba: hum yabku: n


father
They came to their

weeping

18 - 'ata:
al9ayn
aSrab alma: '
He camcto the spring to drink
In

I7

simultaneous
established
hand,

form

form

env ,3
with

(B) refers

(ST) but with

in the first
(B) points

to a situation

a specific

clause.
to a situation

In

point

not
in the past

18 above
taking

place

the
on
other
.,
not

after

25
(ST) but
first

after

in the

point

also

past

in the

specified

clause.

like

Socin,

continuous

(i)

a specific

believes

al Sammara'i,
situation

ka: na or one of

in the past

when it

its

(1)

sisters

(B) can indicate

form

that

is

by.

preceded

19 - ka: na yatlu:
alqur'a: na
the Koran
He was reciting

(ii)

aSSru: 9 (2)

(If'al

one of the verbs of beginning

20 - Ja9ala yukallimu
anna: s
He began to speak with people.

About

the temporal

expresses

"our

value

[the

of form

English]

(D),

he claims

on the point

it

that

often

as in this

of"

example:
ilayka
21 - 'ana: qa: dimun
I am "on the point of"
Not totally
that
Arabic
with

is

no mention

of location

totally
about

(1911)

GW Thatcher

between the two temporal

the difference
verb

from Socin,

different

coming to thee.

one of completion

forms

thinks

of the

or non-completion

the form association

with

the property

in time The verb has two tenses: (alma: di: ) denoting


the perfect
action and the
a finished
(al muda: rl9) denoting
imperfect
To these
action.
an unfinished
the
the Arabs add a third,
(al'amr).
imperative
p. 62

(1)
(2)

These include
These include

(Zalla,
('axaDa.
qa: ma)

'asbaHa,
tafaqa;

'agHal:,
Sara9a,

'amsa:
ja9ala,

and ba: ta)


ra: Ha and

26
To him form

(B) in this

clause

22 - jalasa
anna: s yaSrabu: n alxamra
The men sat drinking
wine.
indicates

just

it

associates

the

is

form

situation

also with a specific

from

Regarding
this

an unfinished

(D),

he like

preceded

Socin

unlike

point

of time in the past.

al Makhzoumy believes

by (ka: na),

"it

who

that

expresses

when
in

a condition

e. g:

past,

23 - ka: na zindun na: 'iman


Zaid was sleeping.

'
thus

having

the same meaning as "ka: na yaktub".

(1919)

Thornton

however,

(A) and (B),

forms

time

relative

in this

agrees

but he goes further

reference

to a situation

can refer

not only

of form
after

Socin

with

by talking

(A).

He claims

a specific

regarding
the

about
that

form

(A)

in the past

point

as

example:
24 - falamma: 'alqu:,
saHaru: 'a9yun anna: s
So when they had cast, they bewitched
men's eyes.

Not totally

different

Kapliwatzky

(1942)

(A) with
present

the past
or the

from Socin
associated

and Thornton,

the completion

In this

regard

indicated

of form

and the non-completion

future.

Dr.

by form

(B) with

the

he remarks:

[form (A)] denotes


The perfect
a completed action,
most
to the past
often referring
[form (B)]
while the imperfect
denotes an incomplete
action
to the
most often referring
present or the future.
p. 9 vol.

Like

Al Sammara'i,

he believes

that

form

(A) can express

27
situation

in the

(ka: na) as in this

example:

completed

future

when it

is

preceded

by form

(B) of

25 - yaku: n 9umrun raja9


have returned.
Omar will

As for

form (D), he claims that

state"

in the past

it

can indicate

"an action

by (ka: na) as in this

when preceded

or

example

26 - ka: n sali: mun ra: kiban


Salim was riding.
On the same front,
preceding

form

(B) as in this

he further

(D) is sometimes

28 - ka: na sali:
Salim

Wright

B Cowrie

dealt

the

above combination

of

equivalent

to

(ka: na) preceding

form

example:
sa: kinan

27 - ka: na salimun
al bayat

Most recently

that

claims

in this

(1976.1985),
forms

haDa

ayskun. fi:

both
was living

temporal

with

mun

fi:

haDa albayat
house.

but in universal

In

of the verb

both works, however, he is not interested


particular

depending

admittedly

in Arabic

careful
that

with

and past
meaning.

(1976)

In Comrie
time

no explicit
meaning,
However,

while

regarding

specifications,

forms
form

form. B has imperfective

supported

In

in

approaches to aspect and tense.

Comrie's views on the Arabic verb are interesting


look.

(CA).

on

by this

and worth a
(A) and (B) he claims
(A) has perfective
and present

example:

29 - fa'llahu
yaHkumu baynahum yaw: m algi ya: ma
God will
judge between them on the Day
of Resurrection.
he claims

that

the difference

between forms

(A) and (B) cannot

be

(ka: na)

28

purely

one of completion

vs non-completion.

In the above example he claims form (B) has a future


because it

with the future

collocates

"Day of Resurrection".
[the

sentence

He moreover

example
as having

interpreted

to a sentence

meaning".

p. 79

one of location

purely

(or

not

least

at

"However the

not necessarily)

indeed

meaning

language

in a Slavonic

between the

the difference

that

argues

(Yawm algiya: ma)

adverbial

goes on to argue

imperfective

correspond

He also

is

above]

time reference

it

could

with

well

perfective

two forms

cannot

to (ST) citing

in time with respect

be

this

example:
'aji:

30 Literally

Comrie's
its
time

:I

goes like
to his

own according

form

(A),

date

but

reference

it

has perfective

form

the ripening

of the date

that

form

reference.

i. e. past

time

(A) here has both

time

adverbial
As for

reference.

time

by the form)

(indicated

in the future.

(B) on

past

time

meaning.

(A) here has RELATIVE past

Nevertheless

arrival,

has a future

the

does NOT have absolute

it

example

with

collocates
it

form

here has a present

claims

earlier

ripens",

in this

In the above example

this:

But when it

reference.

albasru

come to you when the unripe-, date ripened..


(I shall come to you when the unripe date
ripens)

argument

"when unripe

; iDa 'iHmarra

'uka

From all

perfective

reference
precedes

because
my future

the above one can conclude

meaning and relative

past

time

29
In his

works Comrie
that

claiming

future

goes on to agree

also

(B) in Arabic

form

All

time reference.

can also

Socin

with

(1885)

have a relative

by

past

or

lead him to conclude:

these claims

"The Arabic opposition


imperfective/perfective
both aspect
incorporates
tense".
p. 80
and (relative)

What is more interesting

about Comrie's

work is

finer

temporal

distinctions

like

(ka: na),

(sa)

(MSA).

In

usually

made by some tense

particles
time

(MSA) he believes

like

(qad).

markers

These moreover

are used with

the same as it

is

in

(CA) as is

claims

obvious

about
are

and (sawfa)

or

or without

between forms

But even so the difference

adverbials.

remains

that

his

In this

(A) and (B)

quotation:

Arabic,
In modern written
overt
below
tense markers as discussed
are usual even in the presence of
It
temporal adverbials,
although
remains true that the perfective
still
has perfective
past meaning
relative
imperfective
either
and the imperfective
non-past meaning. P. 80
or relative

Comries' views above bring us to an end of this


views of this

body of linguists.

In concluding

the discussion

in this

review of the

one can notice

section

the

following:
(i)

Wright,

Socin,

Thornton

between the two forms

and Thatcher
as purely

see the difference

one of aspect

- completion

non-completion.
(ii)

Kapilwatzkt*sees
tense-location

the difference
in time

giving

as one of both
precedence

aspect

to aspect.

and

vs

30
(iii)

Cowrie

sees the difference

Now in what will

2.3.2

whose

I will

discuss

is

concern

main

two forms

is

and R. B. Winder
basically

in their

reference

In

(B).

the views of those

(MSA)

(1957)

the difference

one of completion

work however they

of form

talk

between the

vs non-completion.

about

Commenting on this

the relative

time

clause:

31 - wa'inta
tuSa: hid al9a: 'ila: t taxru
mina lmadina
During it you see the families
the city.
eavin
they

no

(MSA).

Those Who Are Interested

To F. J Ziadeh

Later

follow

but gives

the other.

to each over

precedence

Arabists

as one of both

remark:
is
The imperfect
verb (taxruju)
singular.
a third
person feminine
It forms a subordinate
clause
an act that continues
expressing
during the time of the main verb
by an active
and is translated
follows
When an imperfect
participle.
an intervening
another verb without
this situation
usually
conjunction,
p. 96
obtains.

They moreover
which

talk

are called

Muqarabah)

(1).

another

about
the verbs

category

of verbs

of appropinquation

They believe

that

these

(Af9a: l al

forms

"almost".

32 - Ka: da 9alyyun yaqa9


down.
All almost fell
(1)

This

group

includes

(ka: da,

in Arabic

awSaka, qaruba)

have the sense of

31
Unlike

Comrie,

and GC Scott
finished

D Cowan (1958),
(1962)

hand points

to a situation

or implied

a stated

Haywood and HM Nahmad (1962)

form

argue that

at a time

situation

JA

indicated.

which

is

u) like

vowelling

pattern

(a,

permanent

quality

in that

denotes
time

a temporary

and stopped

Unlike

(a,

pattern

i)

completion

incomplete

or unfinished

at

like

afterwards.

of location

form (A) of verbs which have the

qabuHa (he was ugly)


started

Form (A) of those

or passing

the above three,

property

or

Form (B) on the other

the situation

to be.

and continues

vowelling

a completed

time.

Cowan moreover goes on to claim that

time

(A) denotes

fariHa
state

(he was happy)


it

to a
point

of

which have the


on the other

hand

started

in a given

that

the temporal

(1).

A. S. Tritton

(1943)

in time is a logical

vs non-completion.

in a given

verbs

or action,

refers

believes

consequence of that

of

He remarks

indicates
the perfect
"Normally
past
and therefore
a finished
denotes
act while the imperfect
and therefore
present
an unfinished
act.
P. 53
or future

(1)

that verbs from both


Unlike Cowan, al Samara: i (1980) believes
to permanent qualities
and do not have
refer
categories
past time reference

32
Interestingly
temporal

(1)

properties

incorporates

a third

a fact

form

while

to have only

the other

eliminating

form

Concerning
uses.

It

a conceptual

form,

it

to him can also


idea

indicate

not necessarily
the verb

allows

by overshadowing

properties

the two

verb

he goes on to argue,

The context,

one of these

the Arabic

Form (A) according

one.

besides

that

claims
with

associated

(B) can denote

in fact.

realized

(1968)

A. F. L. Beeston

or virtually

two.

(A) he further

is used to narrate

past

claims

that

the

events

like

in

form has two main

ma: ta arrajulu
The man died
It

be used descriptively

can also

an anterior

event

as in this

to depict

a situation

arising

from

example:

qad ma: ta arrajulu


He has died

The descriptive
participle

(qad)

use can be made more explicit


in front

of form

by putting

the

(A) as we have seen in the above

example.

When the above particle

has
(B)
Beeston
form
this
precedes

the
reinforces
"qad placed before an imperfect
inherited
habituality
potentiality
or
of
concepts
it may have to be
In English,
in the form.
by
terms
in
this
as possibly,
such
case
rendered
49-50
p.
often".
or
occasionally
probably,

(1) Of location

in time

and completion

vs.

non-completion

to say:

33
Most recently

V. Cantarino

(1974)

Arabic

verb

in her work about

Siding

with

Wright,

little

attention

dealing

with

the syntax

the verb,

it

the

temporal

as opposed to other
is noticeable

temporal

property

of completion

vs.

location

in time.

She states

in this

forms

of modern Arabic

the Arab grammarians

she accuses

to tense

discusses

prose.

of paying

aspects

too

of grammer.

in her work that

non-completion

of the

the verb
that

overrides

regard:

in past or present usage


Neither
has the one tense been the temporal
Each tense
of the other.
counterpart
as a modal,
rather
may be considered
that is to say each tense describes
[form (A)]
The perfect
a type of action.
for example, refers
to an action
deemed complete while the imperfect
[form (B)],
on the other hand, an action

not completed or still


But even so,
situation

these

in time

enduring.

two forms

according

as she later

says

like

situation

in time

Cowrie

temporal property

argues

relative

these

that

to

of completion

(ST) along

vol.

to her can locate

"Both tenses (forms A& B)


idea
can express the verbal
future
of the three stages:
p. 58 vol.
present or past".
Cantarino

p. 58

with

1
the

two forms

can locate

maintaining

the
the first

vs. non-completion.

In Modern Arabic,
as well as
tongues,
in the other semitic
there is a tendency to project
functions
the original
of the perfect
into an actual
and the Imperfect
temporal classification
of past versus
however,
This projection,
present.
from the original
has not detracted
function
of each in modern usage.
p. 58

With Cantarino's

views above we conclude this

of the above group of Arabists.

It

section

has become clear

on the views
that:

In

of

34
(i)

and Ziadah,

Winder

difference

Cown, Scott,

between forms

Haywood and Nahmad see the

(A) and (B) as one of completion

or

non-completion.,
(ii)

Tritton
forms

(iii)

see the difference

and Cantarino
as one of both

location

in time

Beeston

introduces

completion

first.

to the

He believes

new views.

and

in

the form

that

can have only one of three temporal

a given context

in time,

location

properties;

or non-completion

precedence

giving

between the two

completion

or non-completion,

or modality.

(MAL)

2.4 Modern Arab Linguists

TAGs, MALS concentrate

Unlike

the temporal

with

with

one group

first

He claims

tenses.

the

former

the speaker,

makes distinctions

while

to the speaker.
the notional
him,
right

is

time

the past,

the

latter

According
line

into

trilateral

to him,

speaker

sides

see

the tense

forms

and the

independently

in English

the

future

With

these
of the

of

in relation

The location

forms

(1965)

between them is

distinctions

locations.

the one ahead of him is

associates

take

A Bulos

temporal

the speaker

by him is the moment of speaking.


of English

verb

in situations

makes these

three

they

as we will

the difference

that

form

section.

between the Arabic

makes a comparison

English
that

in this

in the Arabic

interested

Mainly

or the other,

of the Arabists

the discussion

throughout

fact,

In actual

and modality.

verb

vs non-completion,

of completion

properties

in time

location

the Arabic

on associating

divides
behind

and the one


locations,
language.

the

35

To him the Arabic

temporal forms of the verb on the other hand

express the degree of the realization


of

(ST).

In this

he argues:

regard,

It [the Arabic verb] is


concerned with the completion
or incompletion
of an action,
and this gives us the perfect/
imperfect
though
opposition,
there are other nuances of aspect
and iterative.
namely, resultative
p. 35
he claims

However,
forms,

locate

so;

the native

which enable

Arabic

of Arabic

speaker

in time

the situations

or particles

adverbials
But even

that

independently

of the situations

by resorting

the

devices

to other

him to associate

cannot-distinguish

by the verb

can,

finer

like

them with. time.

divisions

of time:

in its broader
Time is thus signified
the past and
division,
the present,
divisions
the finer
the future
without
of time as expressed by the English
tense forms.
p. 35
Beeston's

views

which we have reviewed

number of modern Arab linguists.


interested

Basically
Arabic

and English

in Arabic

can either

completion

One of these

in comparative
verb

systems,

locate

seem to attract

earlier
is

al Khafaji

and contrastive

al Khafaji

the situation

study
that

claims
in time

(1972).

of the
the verb

form

or indicate

vs non-completion:
"Tense and aspect are closely
in the Arabic verbal
intertwined
Tense markers and
system.
.in
.
markers co-exist
aspectual
verbs.
Yet, it
the majority
of
here that a
is hypothesized
verb can ONLY be significantly
tense or aspect
marked for either
at any one time, though formally
it may be marked for both".
p. 472.

He, moreover

goes on to argue that

when the verb

form

is not used in

IL
with

combination

form

When the
form

locates

completion

other

ONLY locates

used in combination

is

in time

the situation
vs.

it

verb(s),

with
while

other
the

in time.

situations
forms,

verb

the

first

indicate(s)

other(s)

non-completion.
hypothesized
"It is further
here that tense markers
are always temporarally
in simple verbs
significant
and that a tense marker
initially
is always significant
in verbal phrases - Hence a
component
second or a third
in a verbal phrase is always
significant
only aspectually
and its tense marker is therefore
insignificant".
p. 476

According

in

to al Khafaji

(33)
lah

33 - ka: n 9aliyyun
yaktubu alrisa:
the letter.
Ali was writing
the first
(ST); (in

verb

the past)

indicates

Calling

form

locates
while

the situation

the second verb

form

to

relative

(yaktubu)

(writing)

non-completion.

the above hypothesis

he presents

justifications

two temporal properties

the notion

regard,

exclusiveness,

of the

in examples such as the following

become clear

His justifications

of mutual

for the temporal co-existence

34 - sayaktubu alwaladu
The boy will
write

In this

in time

addarsa
the lesson.
when he talks

about

"later

aspect".

he states:

in Arabic,
"Posteriority
as has already
by the aspectual
indicated
marker (P2+)

been said,
(1) which

is

is formally realized by the pre-base sa- or sawfa,


important
is
It
to notice,
prefix.
plus a pronominal
(1)

P2+ is
ST

a marker

which

helps

the

verb

denote

non-completion

after

36

37
idiosyncracy
about the
an interesting
behaviour
of the later-aspectual
marker in
(P2+) is the only aspectual
marker that can
the boundaries
of
with a tense marker within
p. 494
verbal form".

however,
linguistic
Arabic.
co-exist
a single
and (sawfa)

(sa)

which

of non-completion

verb

is

is a logical

connection

to a completed

between the two temporal

properties

as far

as-form

(A) points

as long

He claims

that

implies

a past

it

situation

I. S. F. [form
form without
indicate
the

required".

form

he supports
time

(B),

that

he claims

Later

there

time: -

English
to
past

or the
any adverbial
more specific
p. 33
(A)]

that

(ed)
time

Once,

Kharma makes a number of observations.

the assumption

reference.

and English

the Arabic

believes

does not
"Moreover,
the concept of completion
imply a past time,
in itself
however vague that may be?
This is what seems to be implied
the Arabic
when we use either

Regarding

of a type

specifiers

Tritton,

(A) is concerned.

as form

of

study

following

N Kharma (1983),

systems,

are then

posteriority.

in a contrastive

interested

Also

to al Khafaji

according

form

(B) has either

that

the

future

form without

or present

a context

is

vague:
"It Is also true
a context
without
time reference
of
form is vague".
he sides

Finally
locate

Beeston

with

in time

the situation

can also
Kharma is
the Arabic

denote

limited

influenced
verb

in claiming
or indicate

or unlimited

by Beeston's

and he quotes

that
the
this
p. 34
that

him in full.

only

non-completion

duration
views

not

about

form

can this
but

it

in a certain

context.

the temporal

forms

of

38

In conclusion

I confined

myself

the similarity

of views

expressed

and because of the

(i)

on forms

views

forms

between

category
(A) and (B)

(A) and (B) as purely

the form cannot

that

temporal
in time

and location

one of them in a given

can have only

It

at any one time.

have both

or non-completion

of completion

properties

of this

vs non-completion.

believes

al Khafaji

linguists

we deduce the following:

one of completion
(ii)

by other

sees the difference

Bulos

(MALs) because of

number of

of new or different

lack

In brief

in particular.

to this

context.

hand,

the other

the verb

make the task


groups

linguist

tense

assessment

a critical

five

time

reference.

he sides

with

Beeston.

must have become clear


forms,

associates

by now how the

and aspect

For Form (B),

the verb

temporal

work will

property

on

and MALs view


Let us now have

in Arabic.

systems

To

suggest.

to divide

them into

or properties

the

them easy we are going

to which

and

TAGs, Arabists

in view of what this

of assessing

according

completion

past

having

consequently

It

(A) as indicating

Kharma sees form

(iii)

These are

with.

time

(1)

Those who associate

the verb

(2)

Those who associate

the verb form with completion

with

or non-

completion
(3)

Those who argue that


properties

but gives

non-completion
(4)

Those who claim

over
that

the verb
precedence
that
the

of

form

incorporates

to the property

location

both

temporal

of completion

In time.

form incorporates

both

properties

but

or

39
give

no precedence

that

the difference

location
(5)

in time

Those who argue


three

temporal

location

between the
or completion

that

two forms

be purely

cannot

one of

with

one of

or non-completion,

The following

table

lists

the

of each group.

I (3)

1 (2)

Sibawayah i
al Zamkhshary
al Zajjaji
Ibn Jinny

Wright
Socin
Thornton
Thatcher

Kapliwatzky
Tritton
Cantarino
(Kharma)

Ibn sarraj

Winder and

for form A

(4)
(1)
Cowrie

(5)
1
Beeston
alkhafaji
(Kharma)
for form B
only

Ziadeh
only
Cowan
Scott
Haywood and
Nahmad
I Bulos

Table

(1)

argue

vs non-completion.

completion

or modality.

names of the linguists

al Sirafi
al Zubayday
al'Akbary
al Fara'
al Kisa'i
al Makhzoumy
al Sammara'i

opinion

the form can be associated

properties:

in time,

(1)

Those of this

to either.

(3)

to the others and it seems that


Comries' views are dissimilar
We decided therefore
yet.
they have not gathered followers
not
Instead we put him
them with any of the other groups.
to include
at the head of one group on his own.

40
2.5

Assessment

Of The Views reviewed

At the end of the


reviewed

last

to which

according
the verb

critically

how each group

verb

Let

us start

Members
the

of

these

with
this

group

recurrence

of

or properties,

section

the verb

associates

(1)
except

the

of

form-bound.

totally

In this

we will
form with

each group

for

previous
of

interpretation

claim

as the

on the

Sammara'i,

al

temporal

such

(3)

table

of

The above

examples

can

course,
of

be disputed

following

wayasta9rid alxubara; xila: i


'ijtima: 9ihim dira: satan
'a9addatha:
munqzmaat alfa: u: Haw: la
'asba: b 'azmat algiDa: ' fl:
'afrigiya
walHilu: 1 al mugtaraHa
1aha
wa jatadamman addira: sa 'arba9
waTa: 'iq tatana: wal almawa: rld
'afrigiya
waziyadat
ya fl:
al'ari:
wa tawas: 9 fi alrai:
al'intajiyya
watafi: r mustalzama: t al'intaj
(1)
wasiyasat
al Hawafiz.

For the Arabic

each

show
these
the

associates

35 - 9a ada majmu: 9atun "min alxubara'


fl:
ru: ma: biri'a:
sat
al'afariqa
adduktu: r 'adward su: ma almudi: r
al9a: m limunazzamat al'agDi: ya
wa zira: 9a (al fa: u: )

(1)

linguists

the

properties.

group

determination

property

i. e. at what level

properties,

form with

temporal

form with.

associates

temporal

we have regrouped

section,

text

see text

(4)

appendix

(B)

the

page.
argue
verb

by the

that

form

is

41
A team of African
(held)
(2)
experts
opened a meeting in Rome-under the
chairmanship
of Mr. Edward-Soma
the director
general of the Food and
(FAO).
Agriculture
Organization
during their
The experts
are reviewing
meeting a study prepared by the (FAO) on
the causes of the food crisis
and how to
combat it.
The study consists
of four
documents dealing
with land
in Africa,
the increasing
resources
in
expansion
of productivity,
the availability
irrigation
network,
prerequisites
and the
of production
policy.
motivation
Obviously
first

clause

above is

the text

situation

in the

future

Some members (1)


interpretation

claim

falls

group also

also

(A) does not

indicate

but one which covers

of this

argue

can be disproved

adverbial

Its

a situation

both
that

the past

at the clause

by the recurrence

Indicate
beginning
which

a
does.
totally

and non-past.

level.

of examples

lilta:
36 - ta9gidu alwakalt
ga
al d-w aliyya
warSat 9amal 'iq li: miyya
alDariyya
liba: HiTi: n min aSSaraq al'awsat
wa 'afri: qiya: Hawal nuzum
wamuma:rasat alta9a: win alfanni:
liltadri:
b
lilwaka: la addwualiyya
da min
9ala kayfi: yat al'istifa:
tuaadimaha:
al ma9u: na: t allati:
lil'agta:
ri
al waka: la addtgaliyya
al na: miyya
Like al Zajjaji
literally
Translated

border(cf

by a collocation

such as the following:

(1)
(2)

determined

the temporal

form can be determined

form and a time

(A) in the

totally

but only

in the past

(B) does not

of the verb

between the verb


This

form

to form

from beyond the clause

as a whole form

taken

totally

which

By the same token


falls

by information

but

given

example above is not

in the Arabic

by the form alone


If

interpretation

the temporal

p. 3)

42
Inna lajnata
Wa Jadi: r biDikr
a%ta: ga
alDariyya
alsu: da: niyya lilmajlis
alqawmi:
lilbiHu:
T sawfa taSrif
9ala: tan; i: m
alwarSa allati
yuSa: rik fi: ha 9adadun min
alba: Hi: Ti: n min 'afrigya:
wal9a: lam al9arabi:
tastamir
wallati:
min arra: b19 wal9Sri: n
ila:
atta: s19 wal9Sri: n min nuvambar
bitawmi: i min
tSri: n Ta: ni: almugbil
(1)
alwaka: la aldwaliyya.
Atomic Energy Agency
The Interntional
hold a regional
(IAEA) will
workshop for
from the Middle East and Africa.
researchers
The workshop is on the system and operation
aid of the (IAEA) in
of the technical
the researchers
on how
order to train
by
the technical
to utilize
aid offered
the (IAEA) to the developing
countries.
The Sudanese Commission of Atomic
the workshop
Energy will
organize
from
in which a number of researchers
take part.
Africa
and the Arab world will
be held
The IAEA-sponsored workshop will
on 24 to 29 next November.
In the above example,
level.

The temporal

collocation

does not

occur

interpretation

given

to form

at the clause
(B) In clause

1 in the above example is determined


once again by information
in the
from beyond the level of the clause by the adverbial
second clause.
One also
not

can argue

always

let

against

of the verb.

us see this

of collocation

to determine

help

unambiguously

interpretation

the notion

To support

the

that

it

does

temporal

my above counterclaim

example

37 - dawra tadri:

biya

' 19ira: q
d al9a: m linisa:
nazzama al'ittiHa:
dawra tadri: byya limas'u: la: t waHada: t attaxti:
1
diyya wa tastamirr
9 al'ittiHa:
warraqa: ba lilfuru:
'ayya: m.
'arba9at

1) Fort

the Arabic text

see text

(5)

appendix (B)

43
waHid wa9iSri: n muSa: rika fi:
watatalagga
ha: t al 'asa: siyya
addawra muHa: ddara: t Hawla al'itija:
d almustagbaliyya
1ixutati
al 'ittiHa:
wa'ahamiyyatiha:
'istixda:
(1)
m alHasiba
alilktru:
wakayfiyat
niyya.
Translation
Course

A Training

Women
The General Union of the Iraqi
(2) opened yesterday
(organized)
a 4-day
training
course for the heads of the planning
in its branches.
units
and supervision
in the course are being
The 21 participants
lectured
on the basic trends and significance
plans and how to use the
of the Union's future
work.
computer in their
In the above example

collocation

interpretation

to form

given

by the collocation
level

form

time.
situation,

Now let
group
verb

(1).
form

claim

form

determined
At the clause
before

before

the

earlier

appendix

from

clause

borders.

by examples

such as

9uma: n fl:
saltanat
9a: t alfiraq
ga: mat
allati
dira: sa gala 'aTr a mit
urabbiyya: t
l fi:
ya: t 9ala a1'atfa:
jiyya
wa tan9aqid
alxali:
al9arabiyya
lbaHrayn yawm al Ta; ri9aSr
9a: t fi:
(aya: r) ala: jri:.
watuSa: rik fiha:
jiyya
alsab9
alxali:
see (6)

time.

of the

following:

For the Arabic text


literally
Translated

reporting

interpretation

from within

reporting

(A) indicates

we excluded

above can be dismissed

38 - tuSarik
'ijtima:
bi'ijra'
al'ajnabi:
adduwal
al'ijtim:
ma: yu:
adduwal

(1)
(2)

the temporal

by clues

is determined

al Sammara'i's
the

that

totally

adverbial.

falls

which

temporal

falling

hand,

of which only

to al Sammara'i

He claims

time

totally

on the other

beginning

us return

and the

a situation

level

At the text
the

(A) above is not

of the verb

(A) indicates

but

does occur

(B)

44

wa ka: na maktab almuta: ba9a


limajlis
j
alta9a: wan lidiwal
alxali:
' dira: sa
al9arabiyya
qad na;; ama 'ijra:
Hawla 'aTr almurabbiyya:
t al'ajnabiyya:
t fl:
jiyya
kulli
'iD qa: mat
adduwal alxli:
al9arabiyya
kull
dawla gala Hida bi'ijra'
dira: satih
ijtima9
ila:
wayahdif
alfiraq
alxuru: j
binata'ij
haDihi almuSkila
muwaHHada 'iza'
'ajratha:
addira: sa allati:
wa'aTbatat
'inna azza: hira fi:
9uma: n lam to? il
al saltana
Ha: mustawa: yusabbib qalaqan miTlama yaHduT fl:
ba9d albulda: n alxalijiyya
(1)
al'uxra:.
The Sultanate
of Oman will
take Hart in the meetings of
the teams which have studied
the effects
nannies
of foreign
in the Arab Gulf
on children
be held in BOAroil)
The meetings will
States.
The seven Arab Gulf
on May 13 instant.
take part.
States will
the following
Previously
up bureau of the
(GCC) decided to
Council
Gulf co-operation
on the affects
of the foreign
conduct studies
Each
nannies in all the Arab Gulf States.
individually
conducted its own study.
state
The above meeting of the teams aimsat coming
decisions
this
concerning
up with unified
problem.
The study
Sultanate

by the
conducted
that
the problem
proved

has not yet reached a level causing alarm


in
is
it
the
cas
some other
as

Arab Gulf
In the above example,
disambiguate

interpretation
clues

states.

clause

the temporal

1 does not offer

interpretation

enough clues

of form

The temporal

is determined for the form in the example above by

from beyond the clause

border,

namely the adverbial

second clause.

(1)

(B).

to

For the Arabic

text

see text

(7)

appendix

(A)

in the

45
Now let
group

us come to group

is
that

is

One can argue

the determination

completion
examples

of the

is NOT always
such as these

39 -

of the

form-bound

totally

form-independant.

(3).

of table

the determination

argue that

non-completion

(2)

property

while
against

that

of

the

of completion
location

basing

his/her

or nonargument

two:

'ugi: ma fi:
al ma9rao
abu zabi: mu'axxaran
9a: t al Sa9biyya waguwar
asi: ni ligina:
'allati
tuwaoolH jawa: nib
tiyya
tu:
gra:
alfu:
fi:
assi: n
al nahda almuxtalifa
'iStamala
alma9rad gala: nama: DlJin
'allaDi:
finu:
walfuxa:
r
xazif
al
n
min
bihi asgi: n 9ibra alquru: n kama
gala suwar fu: tu: gra: fiyya
'iStamal
tuwaoiH jawanib annaha almuxtalifa
(1)
fi:
assi: n.

taStahir

Translation:
for
A Chinese exhibition
and photographs
products
in Abu Dhabi.
recently

folkloric
was held

included
The exhibited
articles
samples
China
for
is
Chinese
why
pottery
of
They
for
also
centuries.
well-known
included
showing the
photographs
differ
nt aspects of the Chinese
civilization.

40 -

bari: s mu'axxaran
'ugi: ma fi:
b19nwa: n makina: t wa'a: la: t
li: u: na: rdu: da: fanSi:

ma9rad

wayaddummu alma9rad makina: t


Dij
la: t nafaDatha:
li
'a:
wa naia
Sarika: t Hadi: Ta bi: 'istixda:
m
waba9oi
almawa: d al9asriyya
al rusu: ma: t walwaTTa: 'iq

(1)

For the Arabic

text

see text

(8)

appendix

/watawwarha:

(B)

or

in time

above by claiming

of completion

property

form-bound

Members of this

on

46
kama yaddum alma9rad tap: mi: ma:
ia:
ira: ti hilikubtr
wasaya: rat
nagil wa daba: ba: t wa ba9d alkaba: ri:
al mutaHarrika
wa mazalla: t
wamimma yuDkar inn 1i: u: na: rdu:
da: fanSi fanna: n wa maTTa: 1 wamuhandis
farnsa:
S fi:
wa9a: lim (1452-1519)-2a:
kifanna: n min 'ahim lawaHa: tihi
wa9urifa
lawHat alju: knda. (1)
Translation:
An exhibition
about
of Leonardo Davinci
Paris recently.

the machines and tools


(was held)
(2) started

in

The exhibition
contains
machines
designs promoted and executed by modern
firms using modern technology,
paintings
and documents.
designs for Helicopters,
Also it contains
lorries,
tanks and some mobile bridges and
parachutes.
(1452-1519)
Leonardo Davinci
was an
Italian
and
engineer
sculptor,
artist,
scientist
who 1,1ved in France and became
The Jocanda Is
famous as an artist.
One of his well-known
paintings.
In the

first

clause

denotes

example above,

(same radicals
inception.
examples

completion.

is

form

that

does not

interpretations

by information

are specified

true

(A) of the

In the second example,

and same tense)

The above temporal

namely the following

it

A form in Ex. 39,

indicate
for

the same form


completion

form

from the following


and the following

Ex. 40.

(1)
(2)

For the Arabic


Literally

text

see text

(9)

appendix

first

(B)

but

(A) in both
clauses,
B form

in

47
(2)

Members of group
temporal

other

by their
that

it

is obvious

need to go beyond the clause


temporal

different

determination
Also

by their
is

of disambiguation

(2),

from group

To counter

for

more clues

(3)

group

temporal

properties

is

examples

to support

their

of both

judged

themselves

confine

al Sammara'i's

searching

Judged
to

the above,
the

views

to determine

the

of the form.

reference

Not totally

they

shown when we discussed

at which the

is determined.

in time

that

level

the

and do not go beyond it.

of the clause

we have already

location

of

property

examples,

do not specify

moreover

claims

the

form-bound.

totally
claims,

We have already

the clause.

that

level

their

dismissed

such

claims.

Group (4)

does not differ

determining

the temporal

groups,
time

reference

of the
for

members of this

determined
disputed

interpretation
group

of the forms.

claims
at the

by the recurrence

of examples

9agada mumaTTilu:
linagl
al9arabiyya
'ams

level

the
is

reference

of the clause.

form.

time

also

t
'iitima:

Saraka fi: h, 9iSriu: n mas'u: lan


es'9
Sarika: t
yumaTilu: n 4
wayuna: giS al mujtami9u: n
9ala: mada: yawmayn 9iddat
mawqu: 9a: t tija: ryya tastahdif
tansi: q al'a9ma: 1 wa lxadama: t
9ala:
alxa: ssa binnagl aljawwi:

and relative

the clause.

claim

such as the

al Sarika:
aljawwi:

other

of determining

reference

Comrie's

of

Like

the absolute

about

the relative

that

level

talk

level

the

about
of the

To them,

of temporal

above types

instance,

from the others

of form

Comrie,
(B) is

above can be

following:

9an

each

48
mustawa alwatan al9arabi:
fi:
taHqi: q almazi: d
walta9a: wan
t
min al tansi: q bayn alSarika:
limuwa: jahat almawa: sim
al9arabiyya
almuxtilifa
wafi:
t
mugadimatiha al9uttla:
(1)
al sayfiyya.
Translation:
Representatives
from a number of
Arab airways (held)
(2) started
yesterday
a meeting.
20 officials
9
represent(ing)
(3) are
companies (took part)
in the meeting.
takingpart
The conferees
are discussing
in two days a number of
business topics.
Their
discussions
aim at co-ordinating
the work and services
of
the airways at the level of
the Arab World and achieving
more co-ordination
Form (B) In the second clause
relative

past

time

of the preceding
present
clues

time

(1)
(2)
(3)

(simultaneous

reference

form A) as Comrie

from beyond the clause


or absolute

the B form in the

For the Arabic


Literally
Also translated

third

text

borders
time

with

and others

- The above example

reference.

form has relative


is

in the above example does not


time
claim.

shows that

which determine
reference.

In this

clause.

see text

literally

(10)

appendix

(B

have

reference
It

has absolute

it

is

whether

the
the

case the clue

49

(5)

Group

one of the three

with

To support

their

temporal

claim

Concerning

clauses.
interpretation

In reviewing

their

level

it

with

of determining

the

approaches

have made us feel

This

is

2.6

This

having

After

linguists,
the

that

view

or that

clause

Let

are more Interested

properties

the need for

rather

than

in
the

form and clause-bound


a more comprehensive
in use in

interpretation
is going

section

and assessed

approach

life.

to put forward.

form as a single

incorporate

as having

the views of all

my own in this

state

of completion

interpreted

from the other

Views

the verb

unambiguously

they

of the

of the temporal

reviewed
I will

the temporal

interpretation.

limitations

what the following

Work's

temporal

temporal

that

to disambiguation

decontextualized

in the same way in

against

seems that

the

We believe

the

cite

the others.

work,

form association

they

are not different

can be argued

claim

is context-dependent.

of determining

form they

we argue against

which

however,

level

the

of the form association

properties

above,

of the

Their

groups.

the

the determination

that

argues

work upholds_

form can by itself

It

vs non-completion.
them both

This

section.

the property

either

these

by information

of

location

can however,

not
in time
be

from beyond the

borders.

me illustrate

comments at this

the above claims


point.

I will

with

some examples

substantiate

and a few

them more elaborately

in

50
the course

of this

work.

In this

example: -

41 - Tara'asa
alsayid
ya: sir 9arafa: t
ra'i: s muna; amat attaHri:
r
bagda: d yau: m
fl:
alfilistiniyya
9
al xami: s alma: di: 'ijtima:
al mailis
al9askari:
alfilistini:
biHuddu: r mumaTTili:
al'a9la:
fi:
al duwal
alquwa: t alfilistinyya
al9arabiyya.
Wa yabHaTu almajlis
xila: l
9adadan min
: ijtima: 9atihi
tata9allaqu
al mawu: 9a: t allati:
bil'aw4a: 9a al9askariya
limunazzamat
(1)
r alfilisti:
niyya.
attaHri:
Translation:
(1)

(2)

(1)
(2)

the chairman
Mr. Yasir Arafat
Liberation
of the Palestinian
(PLO) opened
Organization
(chaired)
2 in Baghdad
last Thursday a meeting for
Supreme
the Palestinian
Military
Council attended by deputies
of the
Palestinian
forces in the Arab
countries.
is discussing
The Council
a
the
concerning
number of topics
of the (PLO).
situation
military

For the Arabic


Literally

text

see text

(11)

appendix

(A)

51
If

1 is taken

clause

denoting

a situation
If

with

2, form

clause
it

before

1, on the other

clause

indicates

(A) Is

(A) is

interpreted

before

hand,

interpreted

is

as

time

taken

of

together
In this

of which

to include

and continues

the

differently.

the beginning

a situation
time

reporting

form

and finished

started

reporting.

case,

in isolation,

only

falls

and go beyond that

time.

Now let

us focus

decontextualized
indicating

If

on form
clause

(B) in the same example


2, form

an unfinished

situation

clause 2 is taken together

an unfinished
1 which

clause

look

A careful
1.

for

fails

"last

simultaneous

speech time.

on the other hand,


It

the reference

at and after

refers
time

of

Thursday".

at the above example may reveal

form

as

interpretation.

temporal

falling

with

we

specify

the temporal

(B) in clause

the following:
of

property

2 where clause

location

2 on its

in

own

to do so.

Clause
for

is

1 helps

Clause
time

2.

situation

be interpreted

with clause

have a different

(B) will

form

(B) would

If

above.

2 helps

form

specify

(A) in clause

the temporal

of

property

1 where clause

1 on its

inception
own fails

to do so.

Such observations
claim

that

interclausal
for

may tempt

the alternation
level

specifies

each of the forms.

one,

like

of form

the author

(A) with

unambiguously

form
both

of this

work,

to

(B) at an
temporal

properties

to

52
This
the

claim

can further

by counter

be reinforced

examples

such as

following:

42 -

'ami: r alkuwait
tara
'ijtima:
9an 'aminiyan
gala 'a9la:
mustawa.

'asa

Kuwait (gana: ): --tara'asa


sumu: al Sayx-ja-: bir
al'aHmad 'ami: r dawlat alkuwait
'ijtima:
9an 'ams Hadarahu alSayx
sa: lim subaH alsa: lim wazi: r addifa: 9
waSayx nawa: f al'aHmad wazi: r
waSayx sa: lim al9ali:
adda: xiliya
wakiba: r
ra'i: s alHaras alwattani:
waSSurta walHaras
adduba: t bijjaiS
alkuwaiti:
alwattani:
o
9 'isti9ra:
xila: 1 al'ijtima:
waiara:
da: xiliyan
alkiwaitiyya
al'ab9a: d al'amniyya
alma9niyya
waxa: ri: jiyan wadwar al'aihiza
'ardan
d
'amn
bilHifa:
gala:
waS9ban (1)
albila:
z
Translation:
Chairs
The Amir Of Kuwait
Meeting
Security
A High Level

Kuwait (ONA): The Amir of Kuwait His Highness


Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmed AlSabah
attended
a meeting
yesterday
chaired
Sheik Salim
the Minister
of Defence
Minister
Sabah Al Salim
,,

by
of

Sheikh Nawaf Al Ahmed A1Jabir


Interior,
Guards
Head
the
National
the
Sabah,
of
al
in
Sheikh Salim Al Ali and senior offiers
Army, Police and National
the Kuwaiti
Guards.
During the meeting,
the country's
and
situation
at the internal
security
levels
and the role of the
external
concerned in keeping law
apparatuses
and order were reviewed.

If

(1)

clause

1 in the above example

For the Arabic

text

see text

is divorced

(12)

from the

appendix

(A)

text,

form

53
(A) indicates
before
taken

together

in the clauses

A close

with

the

level
form

helps

specify
In this

(B).

43 -

to bethe

continues

This

clauses.

also

example may reveal


of form

association

Let us see now if

and ending

own cannot

the consistency
unambiguously

case when form

(A) forms

to other

applies

(A) with

that

of form

clause

completion

unambiguously

in clause

specify.

(B) at an interclausal

the temporal

wazi: r al9amal alba: kista:


yazu: ru al 'ima: ra: t

wayabHaT
ziya: ratihi
subul ta9zi:
al'ima: ra: t
al9uma: liya

interpretation

of

ni:

ila:
'abu: zabi: yaum
yasil
dim assayid sarda: r magsu: d
9iya
al9amal waSSu: 'u: n al'ijtima:
fi:
ziya: ra lidawlat
al'ima: ra: t
91dat 'ayya: m
muttaHida tastagrig

al wazi: r alba: kista: ni: xila: la


ma9a al mas'u: li: n fi:
al'ima: ra: t
z 9ila: qa: ti al ta9a: wan bayn dawalat
wa ba: kista: n fi:
almaja: lt
(1)

Translatin:
The Pakistani
Labour Visits

Minister
of
The Emirates

Abu Dhabi (GNA): - The Pakistani


Minister
Mr. Sardar
of Labour and Social Affairs,
Maqsood Ahmed will
at Abu Dhabi
arrive
next Friday starting
which (will)
a visit
last for a few days.

For the Arab text

fall

(A) is

example

'abu zabi:
aljum9a
alga:
'aHmad wazi: r
al ba: kista: ni
al9arabiya
al

(1)

both

of which

text.

of this

1' on its

clause

This

other

of this

examination

reinforces
which

time.

reporting

beginning

the

a situation

see text

(13)

appendix

(C)

54
During his visit
Minister
the Pakistani
discuss with the officials
will
of the
Emirates the means of strengthening
the
labour bilateral
relations.

If

which

will

continues
If

1 is taken

clause

and finish

start

(B) will

in the

at and after

Carefully
helps

case,

specify

example

of the verb

the consistency

helps disambiguate

These claims

will

it

I will

temporal

interpretation

propose

all

hand,

is

own fails

claim

"next

that

which

is
level

Friday".

form

that
also

of the verb form.

in the coming chapters.

form.

falling

clause
for

disambiguating
In chapter

in

form

to do so.

interclausal

a model for

the time

the clauses

in time

location

at the

of the verb

clauses.

with

situation

is revealed

another

be substantiated

chapter,

from my data.

of

2 on its

forws

if

1 which

the temporal interpretation

the next

moreover, I will

of clause

us to make yet

tempts

other

simultaneous

an unfinished

property

2 where clause

with

Each of the remaining

the above example

the temporal

This

own on the other

however,

indicates
time

together

situation

together.

the reference

examining

(B) in clause

This

latter

a situation

of reporting.

on its

the case,

the example above are taken


(B)'s

is taken

an unfinished
is not

That

the time

is taken

clauses

denote

of reporting.

it

(B) Indicates

form

after

to be the case if

any of the other

form

in isolation,

In
the

four

apply the model proposed to a sample of texts

55
CHAPTERTHREE
3.1

The Model

This

chapter

description

the model for

contains

of the data.

First

later

a full

be discussed

while

the analysis

and a

the composition

of the model will

of the data

account

be

will

given.

Before

on the details

embarking

remarks.

Our model here

components,

morphosyntactic,

some general
integrated

are drawn from

These components

(Arabs

researchers

basically

concerned

different

levels

The components

interpretation
the form
clause

borders,

semantic

and interclausal.

put

forward

at different

times

and its

the verb

by a number of
and for

association

different

they

with

are all

time

at

and interclausal).

in the

and interclausal)

semantic

that

analysis

of the verb

itself,

make

composed of three

of the model are arranged

in the final

us first

a common theme in that

share

(clausal

(morphosyntactic,
us to argue

with

is

insights

and non-Arabs)

These insights

objectives.

of the model let

nor merely
but rather

form

in order

information

through

order

to enable

the temporal

is specifiable,

from

aforementioned

not

because of

from within

information

from

the

beyond the clause

borders.

To be more specific,
isolation

to show how it

speech time
In the

in the first
can locate

(ST) and indicate

cond component,

component,

the situation

completion

the semantic

the form will


in

time

be taken

in

relative

to

or non-completion.

value

of the verb

will

be

56
to see how it

examined
form.

And finally,

the verb

of language larger

stretch

With

to the

regard

mentioned

here that

following

composing

they

are not selected

(ii)

They must be universally

of a

form

is

components,

must be

it

but after

blindly

they

specified.

careful

one of the

must satisfy

or

specific;

applicable

and serve

the objective

work.

as I know, this

synthesis

I will

In what follows

tackle

(1)

The morphosyntactic

(2)

The semantic

(3)

The interclausal

component,

3.2.1

Forms (A)
.

(fa9ala)

explain
Is often

it

clause

as. in this
44 -

for

the

first

time.

the components of the model which are: -

and

component

The Morphosyntactic

Arabic

is made here

component,

3.2

Let us first

as a constituent

They must be Arabic

As far

these

were that

(i)

of this

of the

insights

conditions:

of the

of the clause in order to

than that

The criteria

consideration.

be examined

will

interpretation

show how the temporal

interpretation

the temporal

affects

Component:
and (B) 4yaf9alu)

the designation
the case that

given

to this

component.

one word can represent

example:
kataba
"
(He) wrote

one

In

57
in the

The subject

is

above example

above form can be one word and one clause


above designation

decided

to give

the

For the

purpose

of this

following

both

incorporate
to

relative
form

the

of two types:
inclduing

as do others

location

temporal

it

pattern

vowelling

(ST) when its

three

trilateral

follow

radicals

in time
The imperative,

is

Arabic

concerned,

and quadrilateral.
(1972)

alkhafaji

often

of the model.

work..

in the verb

It

it

(A) and (B)

location

of the trilateral

follows.

,
has been

assumed here,

or non-completion].

beyond the scope of this

are mainly

believe,

initially

[viz.

properties

as the number of radicals

verbs

that

temporal

is

As the

same time,

component

each of forms

that

(ST) and completion

lies

(C),

As far

(1974),

Cantarino

at the

to this

it

analysis,

in the verb.

implicit

and Greenberg

depends upon the

verb

before

to a situation

refers

one of the

(1950)

following

vowelling

patterns:
(1)

(1)
c2)

a,

a,

a,

L
u

(3)

The Arabic quadrilatAral


situation

before

like

(45)

kataba = ktb
(He) wrote

like

(46)

fariHa
= frH + a,
(He) was glad

like

(47)

karuma = krm + a, u
(He) was generous

+ a, a
i

verb on the other hand locates

(ST) when its

four radicals

follow

the

this

vowelling

pattern:

(1)

These must be read from right


is true.
English the opposite

to left

in Arabic

while

in

58

LoLL
(1)

like tarjama = trim


(He) translated
daHraja = dHrj
(He) rolled

a, 0, a, a

Now let

locates

or quadril4tral)
three

follow

radicals

below,

in morphosyntactic

us explain
e

the Arabic

at or after

one of the three


verb

+ a, 0, a, a

terms how the verb (triliteral

the situation

triliteral

+ a, 0, a, a

vowelling

often

locates

(ST).
patterns

When its
given

the situation

at OR

(ST): -

after

(1)

0,

(2)

_
0,

_0

(3)

0u
These patterns

are coupled

with

the addition

prefixes:
('a)

(I)

(na)

(We)

(ya,

or yu)

(ta)

(He)

(She or you)

what is meant:

These examples illustrate


48 - yasbaHu
(He) swims

ya + sbH + 0, a

49 - naksiru
(We) break

na + ksr

+ 0,1

50 - takrumu
= to + krm + 0, u
(She) is generous

(1)

This

means zero

vowel

of one of the

following

59
As for

it

the quadrilatral,
(ST) when its

after

four

points

to a situation
follow

radicals

this

occuring

at or

pattern

o
, 0,1
This

is

coupled

on the-previous

mentioned

prefixes

pronominal

page.

the above

Let us exemplify

51 - yutarjim
(He) translates

= yu + trjm

+ a, 0,1

52 - yudaHriju
(He), rolls

= yu + dHrj

+ a, 0,

a few cases for

There are however,


account.

cannot

of one of the

the addition

with

for

pattern
of those

A trilateral

instance

used for

verb

can refer

prayer

which
with

the above assumption


vowelling

a past

to a situation

after

(ST) like

one

or wishes:

53 - raHamahu 'alla: h
May God have mercy on him
Or it

can refer

to a situation

54 - zawajtukuma

pronounce

at

(ST) like:

you husband and wife

Example 53 can perhaps be accounted for in terms of the theological


background involved
while example 54 in terms of pragmatics.

Similarly

prefix

a pronominal

this

verb with a non-past vowelling

a tril4teral

to a situation

can refer

before

pattern
(ST) as in

example:
55 - lam yaktub
He (did) not write

Or it

can exclusively

point

to a situation

thtsCexampleS

56 - lan yajlisa

(He) (will)

not sit

down

after

(ST) as in

and

60
57 - sayajlisu
58 - sa

isu

Both - he will
55-58

Examples

are

level

morphosyntactic

however,

These cases,
above for

all

down.

sit

irregularities

and are beyond the scope of this


do not obscure

These cases are few

(ii)

Some of them are closely

(iii)

Others,
devices

as mentioned
(2)

of our assumptions

above,

(CA) (1)

with

associated

are distinguishable

front

but related

the second temporal

with

work.

us move on to another

association

the validity

on the

These are:

a number of reasons.

(1)

Now let

language

the

entering

property

by syntactic

which

is the verb

of completion

or

non-completion.

Following

the linguists

Greenberg

(1950)],

verb
it

in Arabic

is prefixed

non-past
these

(1)
(2)

mentioned

I assume that

denotes

vowelling

a trilateral

an incomplete

by a pronominal
patterns

[al

earlier

Khafaji

mentioned

situation

and maintains
earlier

and

or a quadrilateral

or unfinished

prefix

(1972)

when

one of the

on page (

58

) as In

examples:
59 - yaqtulu
(He) kills

= ya + qtl

60 - yutarjimu
(He) translates

= ya + trim

+ 0, u
+ a, 0,

Like the verbs with past vowelling


used in wishes
patterns
and prayers
It is conventionally
true that when form (B) Is preceded by a
it
(lamma)
like
(lam)
to the
refers
or
particle
past negative
future
by
it
is
the
negative
particle
preceded
when
and
past,
it refers
to the future.
(Ian) or by (saf/sawfa)

61
Moreover

a triliteral

finished

situation

when it

one of the past

maintains
in these

or quadrilateral
drops

the pronominal

vowelling

patterns

or

and when it

prefix

or incomplete

to complete
verb

quadriliteral

u) + (a,

(a,
yu
-

pattern

with

earlier

as

can refer

as in this

to a past

a)

+ (a,

do not

prefix

and with

action

leading

0, a)

precisely

A trilateral

situations.

no pronominal

i)

0,

here some cases where the verbs

There are also

state

a complete

mentioned

(0,
ya
-

= yaqtulu

62 - tarjama
= yutarjim
(He) translated

vowelling

denotes

examples:

61 - qatala
(He) killed

refer

verb

or a
a past

to a present

example:

63 - 9arafa
(He) came to know
(1976)

Comrie

draws attention

to the above property

of form

(A)

In many languages that have a distinction


[form (A)] and
between the perfective
[form (B)] forms, the perfective
imperfective
forms of some verbs, can in fact be used to
indicate
the beginning
of the situation
(ingressive
meaning)
p. 19
But Comrie confines
clear

the above property

from the examples

position

is

further

he cites

confirmed

to state

from different

when in conclusion

verbs

as is

languages.

His

he remarks:

A possible
analysis
of this ingressive
meaning would be to say that such verbs can
be in general either
stative
or ingressive,
i. e. can in general refer to the state or
the entry into the state.
p. 20

Comrie's
research,

claims

above are accepted

we have come across

here.

examples

Indeed

throughout

where non-stative

the

form

(A),

62
is normally

which
this

with

associated

indicates

completion

inception

as

example may show:


q ha: Sim
alfari:
yaHoar mu'tamaran
duwaliyan

64 -

Sa: rakat al mamlaka fi:


addawra aTTa: mina 9aSrata
lilHima:
lilmailis
Di: 111 munzzama addwaliya
attanfi:
'ams al 'arbi:
fi:
jinaif
bada'at
allati:
almadaniya/

ya
9a: '

ha: Sim
YaHuruha: mudi: r 9a: m addifa: 9 al madani: alfariq
bin muHamad 9abdur raHman wa min bayna almawdu: 9a: t almudraja
Ha: t almamlaka
9ala jadwal 'a9ma: 1 almajlis
muna: qaSat 'iqtira:
litatwi:
al munaz; ama
r al9amal fi:
'anna mumaTTila imamlaka yar'as t1
l'iSa: ra 'ila:
watajduru
:d
l
'in9
lil
Hima:
ya almadaniya xila:
muna;; ama adduwaliya
fi assa: dis min Sawa: 1 9a: m 'alf
dawrataha:
wa 'arba9mi'a
wa
hijriyya.
(1)
sitta

Translation:
(literally
The Kingdom is participating
Council
the 18th session
of the executive
for the Civil
International
Organization
Wednesday.
was opened in Geneva last

in
participated)
of the
Protection
which

Defence, General
General of the Civil
The Director
the
Hashim bin Muhammed Abdul Rahman is attending
Among the items on the agenda is the Kingdom's
session.
to promote the organization
activities.
proposal
The representative
of the Kingdom moreover will
which
chair the next session of the organization
in June 1986.
be held in Tunisia
will
wiIf
that

form

inception

inception

together

accepted

(A) of a trilateral

further

or a quadrilateral
or non-completion

Let me explain
See text

the last
(14)

verb

Comrie's,

follows
in Arabic

or non-inception

claim.

appendix

with

(A)

it
verb

or a quadrilateral
It

or completion.

trilateral

(1)

is

our argument

that

follows
can express

form

(B) of a

can indicate

non-

and non-completion.

In the following

example:

63
65 -

Gadan muna: qaSat risa: lati


lma: jistayr
min al ba: HiT
al swaig
Tuna: gaS yawm gadin assabt biga: 9ati
d
aSSari: 9a birriya:
almuHa: dara: t bikulyati
'
jistayr
latu
lma:
HiT
9abdul
min alba:
risa:
muHsin asswa19 bl9anwan /'usu: l figh sa9l: d
bin almusaib/
lmuna: gaSa min
Vatatakawn lijnatu
adduktu: r ya9qu: b bin 9abdulwaha: b 9u4u: hay'at
muSrifan wa adduktu: r 9abdul
s bilkuliyya
attadri:
aldarwsh 9uqu: hay'at
raHma: n bin 9abdullah
9udu: an wa dduktu: r
s bikullyyat
attadri:
'ibra: hi: m aldarayni:
9udu hay'at
naS'at
al Sari: 9a wa'usu: l
s bikulayyat
attadri:
b 9udu: an. (1)
addi: n biljanu:
Translation:
An M. A. dissertation
be discussed
will
tomorrow.
An M. A. dissertation
under the title
"The Principles
of Ibn al Musaib
by Mr. Abdul Muhson Ibn
Jurisprudence"
be) discussed
Abdul Aziz al Swaig (will
the
aria
tomorrow in the lecture
ao
College in Riyad.
be) composed of
The examining board (will
staff
Dr. Yaqub bin Abdulwahab from the college
"chairman".
Dr. Abdul Rahman bin Abdullah alDarwish
"member" and Dr. Nash'at
staff
also from the college
Ibrahim al Duraini
from the staff
of the Sharia
in the south "member"
college

The first

form (B) here refers

precisely

beginning

and ending are still

to come (non-inception).

following

example on the other

hand:

abu:
66 -

to a situation

zabi: -

TuSa: rik dawlat al'ima: ra: t al9arabiyya


fi:
'ijtima:
9i lmudara: '
almuttaHida
waljawa: za: twa waljama: rik
a19a: mi: n lilhijra
li'agta:
al ta9a: wun li duwal
r majlis
llaDi
bada'a '19tibaran
j
wa
al9arabi
alxali:
min yawm 'ams.

(1) See text

(15)

appendix

(A)

whose
In the

64
Wayar'as wafd dawlat al'ima: ra: t
al9arabiya
almuttaHida
al9aqi: d sa9i: d uHamed al
kamda mudi: r 'idarat
aljinsiya
wa lhijra
biduba: y. (1)
Translation:
The United Arab Emirates
(UAE) is taking
part in the meeting of the general directors
for immigration,
passports
and customs in the
Council
countries
of the Gulf Co-operation
(GCC) which started
in Riyadh yesterday.
Colonel Said Muhammed Kamda the Director
in
Office
and Nationality
of the Immigration
Dubai is leading the UAE delegation
to the
meeting.
The first

form

the

this

of forms

account

two temporal

properties

3.2.2

This

of

location

in time

association
and/or

form

with

completion

(D).

Form D (fa: 911)


(chapter

form as we have seen earlier

among linguists.
may obscure
in this

However,

our analysis.

respect

we will

try

We will

instead

which may more or less

not

al Makhzoumy (1966) and al Khafaii

here that

form (D) often

preceded
67 -

indicates

by (ka: na) as in this

example

(16)

appendix

(A )

the

to enter
select

fray

as this

some of the views

our purpose.

(1972),

non-completion

ka: na na: 'im 9indama wasaltu


He was sleeping
when I arrived.

See text

2) caused a controversy

serve

Following

(1)

or inception).

(A) and (B) and their

us move on to discuss

let

or non-completion,

to a situation

to come (non-completion

is still

only

whose ending

After

(B) in the above example refers

it

when it

is assumed
is

65
Not frequently
situation

(ST) when it

at

when it

functions

is not

to an incomplete
by (ka: na) particularly

preceded

as in this

as a verb,

example

'axa: hu
9aliyyun, muntazirun
for his brother.
All is waiting

The determining

factor

function

non-verbal

form from which

in distinguishing
(D) is

of form

between

its

the verbal
with

replaceability

and
the verb

(D) is derived.

form

example
ia: lisun
9aliyyun
Ali is sitting

69 -

we assume, functions

the underlined

form

is replaceable

by the verb

loss

(D) can point

grammatically

68 -

In this

form

moreover

(D),

In the following

of meaning.

'aHmadun
Ahmed is

70 -

is derived

without

example on the other

much

hand:

mu9allimjn
a teacher

of form

the replaceability

it

from which

because it

verbally

(D) with

the verb

form

leads

to much loss

of meaning as in
'aHmad uy9allim
Ahmed teaches

71 -

The meaning of
necessarily

(71)

is quite

a teacher

Form (D) can,


when the three

different

from

In

(70).

(71)

All

is not

by profession.

we assume here,
radicals

have one or both

of the root

form follow

a: ,i
like

72 -

ga: til
(killer)

+ a:,

or

73 -

9a: mil = 9ml + a:,


(worker)

= qtl

temporal
this

properties

pattern:

66
(1)
forms, form

In the derived
the verb

is

prefixed

(D) denotes

one or both

by (mu) and this

vowelling

properties

when

is added

pattern

(2)
_0u

Like

mustxdim
employer

0,1

Like

a
mustgfir

74 -

= ist

+g

fr

+ mu + [0,1]

(repentent)
75 -

munkasir
(broken)

= in + ksr

+ mu + CO, i],

76 -

mujahid
(warrior)

jhd
+
a:
=

+ mu + [0,

77 -

muhaDib
(educator)

With regard
both

=D+

to the quadrilateral

temporal

properties

hDb + mu + [0,

verbs,

when the four

i]

i]

form

(D) Indicates

radicals

follow

one or

this

pattern

oL
(3)

[a,

o,

i]

78 -

and prefixed

by [mu]

muhandis
(engineer)

= mu + hnds + [a,

mutarjim
(translator)

= mu + trim

0, i]

+ (a, 0, i]

(1)

These are derived from the root form of the trilateral


infixes
by
the
or/and
prefixes
of
some
addition
verb
from
like ka: taba [(he) corresponded]
which is derived
kataba ((he) wrote].

(2)

pattern
This the same non-past vowelling
(58)
page
on
we
mentioned
patterns

(3)

This is the same non-past


verbs.
quadrilateral

vowelling

of the three

pattern

associated

with

67
I have so far

confined
form

assumptions

about

the clarity

of this

its

details

ka: na And Its

Like

the

exponents

indicates
future
that
its
while

is only

verbs

other

Before

this

verb

(A) denotes

its

form

School

its

stating

to avoid

(ka: na) and


unnecessary

and long

our assumptions

(1)

(B) indicates

unlike

its

form

(A)

i. e.

form

(B) indicates

(an action)

a situation

present

or
hand argue

on the other

no different

from other
occuring

(an action)

this

Some

verb

time,

a situation

about

this

with

verb

argument

controversy.

that

argue

of the Kufa School

an 'action'

is

try

eye view on this

while

Exponents

time.

and serve

sisters

associated

time,

past

form

Basrah

of the

I will

follow,

us have a bird's

let

confusion

(ka: na) caused a heated

among Arab grammarians.


form,

to avoid

above

Sisters

form

previous

of the

I do the same when I discuss

model.

(ka: na) and its

about

3.2.3

(D) in order

In what will

sisters.

inclusion

to the

myself

verbs,

i. e.

in the past,
in the present

or the future.

al Sammara'i

Most recently
reference
from within

of this

verb

the clause

and unambiguous

time

(1) Like Ibn Ya'Ish

like

(1980)
other

borders.
reference.

goes further
verbs
(cf

to argue

that

the time

needs to be determined

p. 21 ) (ka: na) does not

by clues

have time

68

Entering

this

decided,

therefore,

this

to state

for

be of no help

will

it

N. Kharma (1983)

Following

of its

controversy

is

work's

assumption

assumed here

We have

work.

form.

this

about

in some

(ka: na)

that

(has no temporal value)

uses is redundant

this

as in this

example

closely

Literally:

God was knowledgeable

this

Arabic

changes

latter

has a past

use,

the predicate

us here because

and it

Arabic

time

subject

reference

into

its

as in 80:

sisters

in the nominative

ka: na zakkyun jundyan


Zaki was a soldier

introduces

case,

case as in this

is

(C. A. ).

da: rihi

the accusative

it

used in

rarely

when introducing

and predicate)

when (ka: na) or any of


formally

is

from the Koran or

in quotations

ka: na 'aHmadun fi:


Ahmed was at home

and predicate

81 -

classical
unless

(nominal

clause
80

a subject

with

associated

and has been knowledgeable)

(ka: na) does not concern

use of

(ka: na) moreover

In this

(God is

in fact

Modern Standard

nominal

ka: na bagi: ran

Inna

while
However,

'allaha

79 -

it
example

69
Another

and most important

combination
also

it

is

with

other

if

It

is

or future

with
time

in time
these

moreover,

how it

forms

can be

(A) and (B) in such


(viz.

or non-completion).

Regarding

forms
the
of
each

above locates
reference

in

location
the

first

the situation

of

(ka: na) as in

83 -

na 'aHmadun wasala
_ka:
Ahmed had arrived.

84 -

ka: na ziadun
sa usa: fir
Sliad
Or,
would travel.
Ziad was to travel

first

example above,
time

present

(past

reference
with

prefixed

(sa)

reference

(yaku: nu),

form

form

(A) indicates

in the past)
indicates

(future

(B) of

(B) indicates

reference

(present

non-completion

and

in the past).

In

completion

and in the third

non-completion

and relative
one,

past

form

and relative

(B)

future

in the past).

(ka: na),

or present time reference

elsewhere.

ayktubu

ka: na galiyun
All was writing.

the second example form

future

One

reference.

as we assumed earlier,

properties

time

Here

contradiction.

82 -

has a relative

time

temporal

to the absolute

relative

has,

without

each of

time

reference,

(B) which

reference

(A) and (B).

forms

time

is used in

examples:

In the

time

form

both

maintains

and completion

property

like

is when it

(ka: na) has a , past

assumed here that

futher

combination
time

forms

(ka: na) has a past

used in combination
present

verb

assumed that

may wonder,

(ka: na)

use of

on the other

hand has an absolute

when used in combinations

or

70
In this

example
yaku: nu 'aHmadun wasal
have arrived.
Ahmed will

85 -

(yaku: nu) has absolute

above indicates

combination

it

From the above,

is hoped,

(yaku: na) does not


of forms

reference
with

completion

laysa,

obscure

and a relative

about

past

time

the past

time

or present

assumptions

our earlier

time
of

reference
about

the time

(A) and (B) when each is used in combination

us move on to discuss
'asbaHa,

zalla,

ma: bariHa,

'adHa,

in a nominal

is

when the clause

sa: ra,

the sisters

introduced

form

with

As in the case of

into

the accusative
as in this

example:

form (B)'s

(B) but not with

can be used in

form

(A) of other

verbs

as

example:

yaktub
ma: za: la 9aliyyun
All is still
writing

87 Linguists

is put

clause

by one of the above,

Each of the above forms or their

in this

ma: za: la,

ba: ta,

'amsa:,

These are:

'asbaHa 'aHmadun ta: jiran


Ahmed has become (is) a merchant.

86 Literally

combination

(ka: na).

of

and ma: da: ma.

ma: 'infakka

ma: fati'a,

(ka: na) a predicate

that

form (A) in the

each of the above two.

Now let

time.

while

our assumptions

(ka: na) and the future

of

reference

time reference

in the future).

(past

reference

future

disagree

similarly

Some like
the last

about

these

forms'

association

with

Kharma and al Sammara'i argue, and so we believe,

five

of the forms listed

above together

with their

71
(B) forms

denote,

(ST) as this

example

than not,

duration

shows:

component

of the model,
(1)

I have not

included

following
for
the
types
of
verbs
about other
(1)

they

(2)

in their

(3)

inclusion

of assumptions

objective

of this

(1)

or continuity

ma: da: ma ziadun ya9mal


kin
Ziad is still
wir-king

88 -

In this

more often

are not

associated

use they

Among these
(i)
verbs
(ii)
verbs

with

time

are usually
about

reasons:

as other

associated

assumptions

verbs,
with

(CA)

them is of no use to the

work.

are the following


like
abuse
and
of praise
of hope like 9asa

ni9ma and bi'sa

until

72
3.2.4

qad
let

Finally
us.

is

This

about

us move on to discuss
the

(qad).

particle

two characteristics

before

form

Wright

does concern

which

and Cantarino

agree

can have when used

the particle

(A).

We uphold these views in this

(qad) signals

work.

indicated

of the situation

of the occurrence

either

the certainty

by the form as in this

(89):

example

qad Sahadtu Saipan


I did indeed see somebody.

89 Or it

a particle

helps

(A) to indicate

form

(ST) or to the introduction

90 -

When this

al

it

helps

strengthen

by (la)

example:

and

the certainty
by form

indicated

of the situation

as in this

to

has arrived.

is prefixed

moreover

prior

wafdu

The delegation

becomes (laqad),

completed

of a new situation

qad wasal

particle

occurrence

a situation

of the

(A) as this

example

shows:

lagad fahimtu 'al'a:


Now I understand.

91 When preceding
Wright

helps

(ka: na) or

this

by the

form.

(yaku: nu) are often

as In these

according

particle

to Cantarino

of the occurrence

the uncertainty

signal

indicated

situation

particle

(B),

form

Combinations
preceded

examples

92 -

ka: na gad kataba


or

93 -

aid ka: na kataba


He had written.

of form

or intercepted

of the
(A) and
by this

and

73
94 3.3

yaku: nu aid wasal


He will
have arrived.

The Semantic

In the previous
itself

is

in time
try

Component

with

associated

items

to show how other

our purpose,

assumptions

forms

other

that

and other

situations

to the

time

they

by lexical,
which

Smith

form

in

location

section

we will

considerations

the

temporal

incorporate

in this
by clauses.

represented

in the

form in the clause

light

of

considerations.

are of four

by clauses

is

features

argued

classes

These classes

place.

and semantic

it

(1983),

here

according

are distinguishable

associated

with

the clauses

such situations.

states,

activities,

accomplishments

and achievements.

States

These are situations


involve

to

and C. Smith

to take

take

syntactic

represent

These are:

3.3.1

(1967)

represented

of

and other

form affect

the situations

semantic

Z. Vendler

Following

in the clause

see the verb

These assumptions

properties
In this

we have decided

about

how the verb

form.

of the verb

To achieve

two temporal

meaning of the verb

with

interpretation

section

the

or non-completion.

and completion

associated

we have demonstrated

section

which

no change they
(198 3)

it

are static

and actionless.

have no beginning

is claimed

here that

As they

and no ending.

each situation

Following

of the above

74
moment and last

has a first
last

moment are homogeneous as this

and the

example shows

has
The exhibition
twenty
paintings.

last

first

'iHtawa alma9rad
gala : 9iSSri: n lawHa

95 -

between the first

At any point

between the

The stages

one.

one, one can claim that

contained

and the

moment of the exhibition


in the exhibition

twenty paintings

are

displayed.

This

type

of situation

as in example

involuntarily

occurs

normally

(96):
9akasa alma9ra ma9a: lima
fi:
qatar
al Hada: rati

96 -

showed aspects
in Qatar.

The exhibition
the civilization
described

The situation

A clause

involuntary.

represents

such a situation.

associated

with

form which

of the clause

the characteristics

Let us now specify


normally

above is

such a type

has no progressive

before

a state

and extending

adverbial
APD

depicting

up to the time

(91ndama wasaltu)

Mourelatos
98 -

denotes

normally

indicated

(when I arrived)

1981) as in this
ka: na 9aliyyun

9a: ti

its

Morocco is renowned for


industries.
light
A clause

holding

a situation
by the

testing

(c. f F valch

example
ya9rif

(9indama wasaltu)

has a verb

(97):

meaning as in example
bissina:

which

often

of situation

'iStahara
al magrib
al yadawiya

97 -

of

alHagiqa

(1)

time
1981 and

75
All knew the truth
(when I arrived)

knowing the truth

All's

but not

arrival

in the above example holds before and at my

immediately

In a sharp

contrast

represents

non-stative
99 -

after

to the above example

rakada

indicated

100

(2)

(when I arrived)

such situations

clauses.

the

after

cannot

This example for

be reformulated

as

instance

gala:
'iS tamal alma9ricu
suwarr-n fu: tu: gra: fiya

be reformulated
101

which

'aHmadun (91ndma wa*altu)

The exhibition
photo4agraphs.

cannot

following

by the adverbial.

representing

pseudo cleft

the

in the above example occurs at or shortly

The "running"

Clauses

is

(activity)

situation

Ahmed ran

time

my arrival.

in this

contained

clause

ma fa9alhu alma9rad 'annahu


9ala: suwar
'iStamala
fu: tu: grafiya

did is
What the exibition
it contained photographs.
(1)

When form (B) of a stative


verb is preceded by (ka: na). the form
does not have progressive
meaning as is the case with other verbs
(verbs of activity).
That is because it is a characteristic
of
of not having progressive
meaning as we mentioned on the
stative
page.
previous

(2)

Each of the clauses representing


all the remaining
classes,
indicated
when tested by the above adverbial
a situation
at or
by the adverbial.
the time indicated
after
shortly

76
Finally

it

clauses

with

is worth

mentioning

verbs

of cognition

here that

it

to denote

is

a characteristic

of

as in this

states

example
102 -

3.3.2

fahimtu al Hika: yata


I have understood
the story.

Activities

These are dynamic situations


they

have a beginning

beginning

true

terminate

Similarly

change and

the stages

are homogeneous as in this

between the beginning


that

the situation

of the

the bag.

I have carried

between the

at any point

they involve

between the

example

Hamiltu al Haqi: bata


I carried
the bag.

At any point
is

of action;

and an-ending.

and the ending


103 -

it

full

and the end,

situation

One can voluntarily

and the end of such a situation

beginning

that

claim

and still

he or she has carried

the bag.
Though this

can occur

situation

a duration

for

of time

as in"this

example
104 one can still
ending
other
cannot

raka

tu sa9atayn

I ran (for
.
claim

at any point

of the above situation


situations

two hours)
between the

that

he/she

(e. g. accomplishments)

did

beginning

and the

some running.

(section

3.3.3),

In

one

make such a claim.

Let us turn

now to the characteristics

such a situation.

A verb

in a clause

of the

clause

representing

representing
such a

77

of this

has a progressive

often

situation

has a prepositional

type

hours)

indicating

As this

situation

intransitive

range

used in clauses

(for

two

it

although

of this

type

may
can be

and (106)

(105)

105 -

dafa9tu al9araba
I pushed the cart.

106 -

sah
al-kurra:
rasamtu fi:
I drew in the notebook.

These are also

dynamic

from the previous


and the ending

as in this

in that

in this

type

one cannot

of that

a mid point

and an ending,

one cannot

making

claim

he/she

in this

and the

has drawn a circle.


the

He/she

final

end point

example

sana9tu kursyan
I made a chair.

claim

type

that

Similarly

that

he/she

leg of the chair.

finishing

between the beginning

to have done so at or after

can claim

108 -

example

are not homogeneous but different.

point

at

claim

situation.

In this

beginning

rasamtu da'iratan
I have drawn a circle.

In the above example,

however,

are different

between the

the stages

has a beginning,

type

they

example

107 -

ending

However,

situations.

type

of this

situation

still

as in

or transitive

lisa9atayn

activity.

a definite

the verb

object,

a clause

Accomplishments

3.3.3

first

of the

does not require

have an affected

like

phrase

the duration

Most often

meaning.

has made a chair

However,

he/she

after

can claim

fixing
this

the
after

it.

of situation
the situation

one cannot

terminate

has been realized.

it

at any point

For instance

and

in this

78
109 It

is

not

rakaltu
mi: lan
I ran a mile.

true

I have run a mile

that

after

the start.

Like

the previous

situation

duration

of time

explicit

110 -

if

(activity),
as in

I stop

this

a few minutes

type

can occur

over

(110)

sa: 9atayn
milan fi:
mile in two hours.

rakaotu
I ran a

But here one cannot claim that he/she ran a mile at any minute
during

two hours.

these

Now one may raise


the clause
that

of

and/or
verb

this

type

meaning as in this

characteristic
an effected

as in these

Our reply

a verb

contains

of

to this

form with

is

example:

'abni:
al bayta
I am building
the house.

111 -

Another

what are the characteristics

such a situation?

representing

the clause

progressive

the question:

is
object,

that

as this

a clause

examples

112 -

9abirtu
annahra
T crossed the river.

113 -

gati9tu
aSSajarata
I cut the tree.

situation

of this

type

requires

a range

has a transitive

an

79

A third

but

hours)
(li

that

by a prepositional

accompanied

like

is

characteristic

it

(for

sa9atayn)

is

In the activity

on the end of the situation

Finally

a clause

A clause

the

other

hours

did

hand,

(in

but

it

is

two

phrase
in this

type

natural,

one can have a

and can terminate

with

it

an explicit

How long did


with

of an activity

can be an answer to the question:

at any time.

it

a duration,

take
on

For how many

you run?

Achievements

3.3.4

involving

These are situations


have a beginning
situation.
point

because

hand,

can be an answer to the question:

you to run a mile?

is

often

sa9atayn)

an accomplishment

representing

is

on the end of the situation.

on the other

situation

control

duration

That

not arbitrary

have a control

i. e. here one cannot

(fi:

type

by a prepositional

two hours).

the end point

of situation

like

phrase

be accompanied

can not

of this

a clause

ending
and an

- A situation

in time-as

in

of this

(114)

change of state.
and these
type

They therefore,

two are intrinsic

moreover

occurs

to the

at an isolated

80
balagna

114 -

al gimma fi:
alsa: 9ah al sa: disah

We reached the hilltop


Like

"accomplishment",

and the ending

in this

are not

type,

at six o'clock.
the stages

homogeneous but different.

fa: za muHammadun f1:

115 -

between the beginning

al siba: qi

Mohammed won the race.

However,

a logical

represents
for

instance,

from the

is different

type

this

previous

of another

consequence

the race

Muhammed's winning

one.

one in that
In example

comes after

his

it
(115)

Involvement

in the race.

Let us now turn

to the

of the clause

characteristics

representing

such a situation.

A clause

representing

form which

lacks

116 -

type

this

time

did

of this
he reach

accompanied

normally

meaning as in this

progressive

type

example

his

his

destination.

can be an answer to the question:


destination?

by a prepositional

Such a clause
phrase

like

fl

type

sa9atyn

example

117 -

has a verb

wasala ga: yatahu


He reached

A clause

of situation

balagna:
We reached

al gimma fi:
the hilltop

sa9atyan
in two hours

At what
may be
as in this

81
At this

one may ask the question:

stage

between an accomplishment

clause

achievement

each of the

clause,

since

same prepositional
how long

did

is

to that

Our reply

you to reach

duration

an explicit

can have the

above clauses

the

top?

and an

to the question:

or how long

did

it

take

a letter?

you to write

clause

take

with

and can be an answer

phrase

it

How can we distinguish

involves

which

In the case of the accomplishment

simple.

duration

an explicit

like

of time

this

clause
118 -

katabtu

alrisala

I wrote

the

When I am writing
hours.
other

the

clause

minute
like

during

this

these

two

one on the

hand:

We do not

al qimma fi:

balagna:

the

reach

can in this

follow

interpretation

clauses
I will

brings
focus

produced

beyond the clause

during

minute

during

minute

be simply

of the differences

discussion

in two hours

treated

these
this

two hours

but

time.

as accomplishments

as activities.

encapsulated

achievements

achievement

in every

framework

sa9atyn

the hilltop

in every

top

the hill

we are climbing

will

in two hours.

letter

I do so in every

letter

We reached

This

sa9atyn

In the case of the achievement

119 -

Habits

fl:

between the accomplishment

us to the end of this


on the effect

by forms

borders.

section.

on the verb

and other

form

considerations

and

In what
temporal
from

or

82
The Interclausal

3.4

In Section
the

3.2

Component

of this

identified

form of the verb

previous

section

semantic

value

of the verb

distinctive

In this

section

interpretation
forms

we will
of the

see whether

previous

define

form

we have defined

section

level

at the

of the clause.

in the clause

the

type

of

constituents

of situation.

to show how the temporal

is unambiguously

specified

the categories

Moreover

we defined

of situation
at a level

by other

borders.

from beyond the clause

can be maintained

section

how the

interpretation

temporal

the variations

attempt

and considerations

we will

the

affects

help

In the

values.

has been demonstrated

of situations

that

considerations

and other

it

temporal

in the previous

categories

There we have noticed

the

3.3),

In particular

the form.
four

(Section

has been shown to what extent

it

chapter,

higher

than

in the
that

of the

clause.

This

component

concerning

time

were made about


following

(1)

adverbial,

Arabic

orientation

and sharing.

but I have opted

here for

(Smith,

1981)

Similar

Smith's

assumptions

for

the

reasons:

Smith's

assumptions share general ground with those made

about Arabic
(1)

assumptions

adopts

made by C Smith

(1)

(1974) et al who discuss the


(1972) and Cantarino
See alkhafaji
and broken sequence in Arabic
permanence of the point of reference
"complex sentence".
They also discuss the role of the time
in imparting
different
temporat
meaning to the verb form.
adverbial

83
(ii)

The assumptions
because they

(iii)

does not

she does claim

her assumptions

that

Smith's

light

in some

latest

the

of

Reference

lack

Time

system of interpretative
semantic interpretation.

three

for

this

in

in

advances

p. 102) is
to Arabic.

the-temporal

that

notions

linguistics,

interpretative

while

in the
other

capacity.

Arabic

rules

we suggest,

which relate

The core of this

assumptions - claimed to be universal

claims

(c. f.

of the verb forms in a wider context

If our argument above is accepted,

involves

and though

are universal,

applicable

claims

can account

assumptions

assumptions

Reichenbach

work

to ours.

may operate

ka: n test

namely the

to make Smith's

interpretations

3.4.1

dissimilar

own specificities,

her assumptions

that

One modification,
introduced

(v)

has its

to this

applicable

languages.

other

(iv)

claim

are not

to objectives

are geared

Though each language


Smith

Arabic

about

a clause
of time.

following

Smith, a

the clause to its


system depends on

by
Reichenbach
(1947)
made
-

in English

or other

languages

84
120 -

ka: na 9aliyyun
gad kataba
9
al 'utru: Ha al'isbu:
al wadi:

Translation
had already
last
thesis

All
the
In the

above example,

occurred

at a time

clause.

In other

"last
called

Event

at which
usually

One can notice


the

three

the

indicated

time

of the thesis

the writing

is

produced

occurred

These two notions

above.

clause

Time (RT).

is another

in the

explicitly

of time

Moreover,

time

and this

before
are
the time

is

Speech Time (ST).

from the

notions

case however.

before

to by the clause

referred

Time (ET) and Reference

the clause
called

the situation

words,

week" in the

written
week.

above that

of time

In a clause

121 -

are distinct.
like

(ET) to

(RT) related
This

is

(ST) and

not always

the

the following

'istagbal
adduktu: r sa9du: n
Hama:di: 9udu: mailis
qiyadat
aTTawra wa ra'i: su al majlisi
'ams al sayyid fa: liH
alwalani:
ti assafi: r al 'urdini:
al kibriya:
bibagda: d wa Da: lika bimuna: sabat
19iraq.
(1)
' 9amalih fi:
'intiha:

Translation
(RCC)
Command Council
The Revolutionary
member and the Speaker of the Iraqi
Assembly Dr. Sa'doun Hamadi
National
the Jordanian
yesterday
received
Ambassador to Baghdad Mr. Falih
at the end of his assignment
al Kibrayati
to Iraq.
the

(RT) and the

(1)

For the Arabic

(ET) are simultaneous


text

see text

(17)

and they
appendix

both
(A)

precede

(ST).

85
What is more,
like

clauses

the sequence

yaktubu
Zaid

zaydun al risa:

is writing

There are cases however,

to

the

(ET) and (RT) are simultaneous

for

account

cannot

notions

totally

vanishes

in

following

the

122 -

where

of these

letter
with

al'a:

now.
(ST).

which Reichenbach's

in Arabic.

(ST) as in this

lata

In such cases

of assumptions

set

(RT) does not

(ET)

relate

example

'ixtatama
wafd 'aHza: b
almu9a: rada almasriya
'ams ziya: ratahu allati:
'ayya: m
'istagraqat
'arba9ata
fi:
lkuwait.

123 -

Translation
The delegation
of the Egyptian
concluded yesterday
oppostion
parties
its visit
to Kuwait which had lasted
for four days.
In one interpretation
of the above example, the (RT) of the
relative
point

clause
or length

does not relate


of time

specified-in

These cases seem to fall


order
cases,

to make Reichenbach's
we suggest

Reichenbach's
by the claim

within
set

that

orientation

specified

orientation

will

relate

by the context.

be called

(RT2).

the matrix

"yesterday".

clause

(ET) directly

(ET) to
Henceforth

these

to replace

modifications
relates

In

for

account

of assumptions

(RT) always

(RT) can also

(ST) but to a

to

the scope of our concern.

a number of possible

claim
that

(ET) directly

(ST) via
this

(ST)

to
a point

point

of

of

86
The main linguistic
forms

the verb
of

interpretive

to

(ST).

normally

and time

with

associated

normally

at or after

before,

at,

(ST).

and after

is also claimed here that

combination

basic

value

of the

of temporal

indicates
form

of a verb

form relative

the occurrence

Adverbs

of the
of the

'ams (yesterday),

like

or lengths

to points

refer

a clause establishes

form and at least

one time

its

(RT) by a

adverbial

fi:
9ugida
assa: 9a assa: disa
9 9i1mi:
min masa: ' 'ams 'ijtima:
l min
Hat attajmi:
Hawla, jira:
tan; iAmustaSfa:
qiwa al 'amin bir
rat adda: xili:
riya: q atta: bi9 liwiza:
(1)
assa9u: di: yya.

ya

A professional
meeting about the cosmetic
by the security
surgery organized
force hospital
of the Saudi Ministry
was held in Riyadh at
of Interior
evening.
yesterday
six o'clock

See text

(2)

appendix

of

(ST) respectively.

Translation

(1)

is

but each form

value

example:

124 -

are

to the system

(B) the occurrence

and gadan (tomorrow)

alyawm (today)

What is

values

one.

(ST) while

before

situation

this

types

There are three

situation

It

adverbials.

have temporal

which

is the temporal

rules

Form (A) in Arabic

time

in Arabic

forms

(B)

as in

87
The above clause
(was held)
six

and the

temporal

a length

is

also

when the
relates
by the

adverbials
masa: '

of

clear

that

temporal

(ST) but

The following

context.

whose

(9uqida)

(was held)

(ST) and the

own cannot

are Incompatible

NOT to

form

evening)

to

adverbials

(ST).

on its

a clause

values

the situation

before

before

time

(yesterday

The verb

occurring

or point

(RT) by the verb form (9ugida)


(fi:
(at
al sa: 9a al sa: dlsa)

'ams)

are compatible.

values

to a situation

refers

It

time

and ('min

o'clock)

its

establishes

establish

or when the

to another

two examples

time

(RT) either
(1)

orientation

illustrate

adverbial

specified

the above.

125 - ga: la zaidun al 'arb19a: ' al ma: di:


fl:
innahu ka: n yanwi: alsafar
Tala: Tat 'ayya: m
Translation
Zaid said last Wednesday
in
that he was leaving
three days.

126 -

a9gid
alyawm atta: li
wa fi:
s muba: rak wa ra'i: s
arra'i:
muba: HaTa: t
alwuzara: ' alhindi
Tuna: 'i: ya (2)

Translation
following
day,
President
the
"On
Mubarak and the Indian Prime
have a round of
Minister
will
bilateral
talks.

(1)

Later in this
342)
section

study

(2)

See text

appendix

(18)

the time
(B)

adverbials

will

be classified

(see

88
The embedded clause
because

the verb

a length

of time

In

the clause

(126)

relate

before

the situation

beyond the clause

fails

(ka: na yanwi
(ST) while

alyawm alta:
to

cannot

establish

(RT).

is

from neighbouring

produced

127 -

adverbial

refers

(RT) on its

to

own because the

1i: ) (on the following


orientation

day)

does not

specified

borders.

without

it

own

(was leaving)

alsafar)

(ST) but to a time

a clause

information

(RT) on its

the time

does not establish

More importantly
precisely

to establish

the same (ST).

after

(fi:

adverbial

(125)

combination

to a situation

refers

time

in

as in this

a time
Its

clauses

adverbial

on its

own

(RT) can be established


or by the context

in which

example

(awbi: k) allajna
alwiza: riyya
tabHaT tawsiya: t al xubara: '
da
biSa'in
al Husas aljadi:
ji: naf (qana: ): - 9agadat allajna
alwiza: riyya
('awbi: k) walmukalafa
alta: bi9a limunazzamat
l
'inta: j 'ijtima:
9an
bitawzi: 9 Hup
'ams biri'a:
laha:
sat assayyid
raylu: a: nu: raqwa: n ligman wazi: r
liyya
a1Ha:
s
aldawra
ri:
ra'i:
alnaji:
annaft
daxala 'usbu9ahu
'awbi: k allaDi:
limunzzamat
aTTa: ni:

watunaqiS allajna

fi:

ha: Da

ma:
9 taqri: r lajnati
al'ijt
Hawla 'usus tawzi: 9 a1Hu; as
'ila:
liraf9
tawgi: ya: tiha:
al mutawaqa9 'ann
alwiza: ri:
wqtin la: Hiq

alxubara: '
tamhi: dan
imajlis
tu9qad fi:

by

89

wa la: talu: Hu Hata: al'a: n


fl:
dalla: 'il
tuSi: r 'ila:
al'ufuq
xuru: j munazzama 'awbi: k 9an
'i%a: r ittifagiyatiha
assa: biqa aixa: ppa
bitaHdi: d alHusas wa mustawa: al'inta:
J (1)
Translation
The Opec Ministral
Committee
Discusses The Experts Recommendations
On The New Quotas.
Geneva (QNA): - The Opec Ministral
Committee on the distribution
of the
(2) started.
production
quotas (held)
by the Nigerian
yesterday
a meeting chaired
Mr. R Rilwan Lukman, who is
oil minister,
the chairman of the current
session of the
which
organization
emergency conference
its second week.
entered
During this meeting,
the committee
is discussing
the report
of the expert
committee in order to present its
to the session of the Ministral
recommendations
Council due to be held later.
that "Opec" will
There are no signs indicating
agreements on fixing
go beyond its previous
levels.
the quotas and production

(1)
(2)

For the Arabic text


Literally
translated

see text

(19)

appendix

(B)

90
(127)

In example

the remaining

clauses

because they

either

However,

ones.

cannot

whether

they

anchoring

possibilities.

situation

indicated

This

of reference.
The determining

(RT) on its

or have dependant

its

(RT) by

precise

to

instance
(ST).

of

may anchor
Another

[VA] may

(ST) or to an unspecified

to

may lie

beyond the clause

here we believe

is

the time

the

point

borders.
adverbial

the combination.

3.4.2.

Types of Adverbs

In this

thesis,

categories:

(A)

Deictic

adverbs

deictic,

adverbs:

the situation

relates

of Time

of time

flexible

following:

(i)

'ams (yesterday)

(ii)

gadan (tomorrow)

(iii)

al'a:

n (now)

(iv)

last

(week)
(month)
(year)

are classified

into

three

main

and dependant

an adverb of this
to (ST).

own

(VA) in a

of time

have a variety

(RT) or not

by the clause

element

each of

adverbial

A (VA] for

point

precise

form and an (a)dverb

either

clause,

in the text.

clauses

build

the situation

anchor

its

establish

each can establish

of a (v)erb

Combinations

the opening

aside

have no time

from other

information

clause

leaving

above,

category

normally

Among these adverbs are the

in

91
(v)

next

(week)
(month)
(year)

(iv)

this

(week)
(month)
(year)

Sometimes

however,

some members

to an orientation
situation
this example shows:

of

point

this

category

the

relate

in another

specified

clause

128 - aa: la 'aHmadun al'aHad al ma: di:


annahu wasala qabla sa9atayn
Ahmed said last Sunday that
two hours ago
arrived
(B) Flexible

A member of this
to
this

adverbs

or clock-calender
category

(ST) or to a point

he

(CC):

the situation

relates

of orientation

mentioned

directly

either
in the

text

as

example shows

129 - uga: m fi:


min novambar
al'awwal
_t
(tSri: n aTTa: ni) al muqbil Hafla gina: 'iyya
lilmutrib
al 9ummani: al ga: 91d sa: lim bin
9ali:
qa: 9at ru: yal albart
waDalika fi:
landan
hu: l fi:
Tuna; zim al Hafla sabku:
(1)
'
aljum9a.
yawm
masa:

lilfunu:

Translation

A concert

by the Omani up and coming

pop star Salim bin All will


Hall in London on the first
November.
The concert
on Friday.

(1)

see text

(20)

appendix

will

(A)

be organized

be held in Albert
day of next
by SABCO

as

92
Examples

of this

category

(i)

yawma al

(ii)

assa: 9a assa: disa

(iii)

ni: sa: n (April)

(iv)

assayf

(C) Dependant

jum9a

specified

(Friday)
(six

o'clock)

(summer)

Adverbs

the situation

relate

are:

: an adverb

of this

category

(ST) but to a point

to

somewhere beyond the clause

of orientation

borders

as in this

example:

ista9rad
alwuzara: '
majlis
bidawlat
al'ima: ra: t al9arabiyya
'ams
'ijtima9hi
al muttaHida fi:
nata: ij a9ma: l mu'tamar algimma
9ugida
al'isla:
mi: arra: bi9 allaDi:
(1)
fi:
lmagrib fi:
wagt sabig.

130 -

Translation
Arab
The Cabinet
of the United
(UAE) reviewed
Emirates
yesterday
Islamic
the results
of the fourth
Summit Conference
which had been
in Morocco.
held earlier

Examples of this

category

include:

(I)

fi

wagtin sa: biq (earlier)

(ii)

fi:

wagtin la: Hiq (later)

(iii)

fl:

al wagt nafsi: h (at the same time)

(iv)

ba9daha (later)

(v)

fi:

See text

alyawm alta:

(41)

appendix

li:

(A)

(the

following

does not

day).

93
having

After

shown how the clause

how one temporal

we move on to consider
disambiguate

of another

Types of Temporal

3.4.3

assumed here that

is

are of two main types


(i)

sharing

(ii)

orientation

(i)

Sharing

In this

which

helps

may be syntactically

type

forms

the Temporal
- these

of temporal

Dependency between clauses

are:

dependency,

are syntactically

(RT).

establishes

Dependency

and,

or more clauses

tense

clause

reference

(RT),

establish

or independant.

dependant

It

that

can or cannot

the other,

of these

clauses

it

related

or others,
are all

is

assumed that

when two

and one of them


share

that(RT)

if

the

the same as in this

example:

131 - tuSa: riku dawlat al 'ima: ra: t al9arabiyya


9 aTTa: ni:
fi:
'a9ma: l al'ijtima:
almuttaHida
bidira: sat watawHi: d
lifari:
q al9amal almukallaf
b fi:
mana: hij wa bara: mij attadri:
la: t alsilkiyya
maja: l al'ittisa:
wa la: silki:
ya bi 'aqta: r mailis
i al9arabiyya
lxali:
alta9a: wun liduwali
assa: bi9
yu9gadu fi:
allaDi:
la: t
wa 19iSri:
n bi ma9had al 'ittiga:
bimadi: nat jadda bilmamlaka
al9arabiyya
'a9ma: luhu xamsat
assa9u: diyya
wa tastagriq
'ayya: m (1).

(1)

See text

(21)

appendix

(A)

94
Translation.
(UAE) will
The United Arab Emirates
in the second meeting of
participate
the working team formed to study
and unify the telecommunication
training
syllabus
of the member states
Council
of the Gulf Co-operation
be held on September 27
which will
in the Telecommunications
Institute
in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia).
In the above example,
the

first

Since

fails

the

related,

the second clause

to do so for

they

if

Moreover,

share

132 -

latter

we mentioned

which
helps

fails

specify

earlier.

form and are syntactically


in the second clause.

(RT) established

the

the clause
the

adverbial,

the reasons

have the same tense

two clauses

(RT) while

establishes

to establish
the

(RT) has a time

(ET) as in this

example:

'ixtatama
wafd 'aHza: b almu9a: rada
almagri: ya 'ams ziyaratahu
'arba9at
'ayya: m
'istazragat
allati:
(1)
fi:
lkuwait.
Translation
The delegation
of the Egyptian
concluded
opposition
parties
its visit
to Kuwait
yesterday
which lasted for four days.

In the above example both clauses share the (RT) established


the first

one while the time adverbial

the

(ET) computed from the shared

(1)

See text

(2) The visit

(22)

appendix

started

(RT).

in

in the second specifies


(2)

(C)

four days before yesterday

in the example.

95
It
not

should

be apparent
imply

always

should

from what has preceded

that

that

indicated

the situations

sharing

does

by the clauses

be simultaneous.

The following

example

one (RT) are not

133 -

also

always

indicates

that

the clauses

sharing

simultaneous:

wasala albila: d 'ams almutrib


ka:
'ri:
ta: ni: almaShu: r
t sti:
al
'91ana 'isla: mahu
allaDi:
'ism yusif
wa'ixta: r linafsihi
'isla: m 1)

fin

Translation
The well known British
pop star
into
Cat Stephens who had converted
Islam and had chosen for himself
the
name of Yusif Islam arrived
here yesterday.
The underlined

relative

indicated

but the situations

the matrix

(the

simultaneous

conversion

the

above shares

clause

(RT) established

by the clauses

of Cat Stephens

Into

are not

Islam

precedes

arrival).

This

type

of temporal

dependency

if

the clauses

borders

the clause
even if

they

(1) See text


(2) See text

(23)
(24)

can also

in question

independent

are syntactically

134 -

moreover

work beyond

have the same tense

as in this

jiya
tuSa: rik 9iddat ja: m19a: t xili:
fi:
mu'tammar raf9
wa9arabiyya
'inta: Jiyyat
al'insa:
n almari:
tunazzimuhu Ja: m19at
allaDi:
al'iskandariyya.
wa yuggad bima9had
addira: sa: t al9ulya:
walbiHu: T fi:
'a: b
ila:
tis9a
al fatra min sitta
(agstus)
(2)
almugbil

appendix
appendix

(C)
(A)

In

example:

his

96

Translation
A number of Arab Gulf Universities
(take part)
(1) will
take part in the
the productivity
conference
on increasing
of the Egyptian worker which
(is organized)
(2) will
be organized
by
the Alexandra University.
The conference
(is held) (3) will
be held in the Institute
for Higher Studies and Research during
the period 6-9, August next.

In the

above examples,

equals

the

for

last

(ET) of the clause

the same reasons

however,

the

share

the

mentioned

clause
before)

while

in the

is syntactically

independent

mainly

because they

have the same tense

related.

135 -

last

clauses

one though

from the rest.

latter

contextually

two do not

the other

These three

earlier.

(RT) established

(RT) (which

establishes

This

form and they

Let us have another

xila: l alliga:

example:

d al9ila:
'isti9ra:
qa: t almutatawira
wasubul t9zi: ziha: bayna
al qutrayn aSSaqi: qi: n. (4)

translations
(2) and (3) Literal
(1),
(4) see text (17) appendix (A)

is

are all

'istagbala
adduktu: r sa9du: n Hama: di:
9uju: majlis
qiyadat
al Tawra wa ra'i: s
alwatani:., rams assayyid
almailis
fa: liH alkibriyati:
assafi: r al 'urduni:
bibagda: d wa Dalika bimuna: sabat
fi:
'intiha:
maha: m 9amalihi
al91ra: q

wa jara:

the

97

Translation.
The Revolutionary
Command Council
(RCC) member and the Speaker of the
National
Assemby Dr. S'adoun
Hamadi received
the
yesterday
Jordanian
Ambassador to Baghdad
Mr. Falih al Kibriyati
on the
occasion of the end of his
assignment to-Iraq.
During the meeting the good bilateral
relations
and the means to strengthen
them were reviewed.

The first

clause in the above example establishes

the second one,

while

')

(During

independent.
both

(ii)

It

in the
That

is

establish

has a dependant

first

though

clause

have the same tense

time

a precise
adverbial

however,

Both clauses

because they

they

and
(xila:

share

the

are syntactically

are contextually

related

and

form.

Orientation

is

assumed also

that

when two or more clauses

related

and both establish

as the

point

orientation

136 -

see

text

different

(25)

(RT)s,

for the other,

tense forms as in this

have different

(1)

own, cannot

the meeting).

(RT) established

they

it

(RT) because

unambiguous
alliqa:

on its

a past (RT)

are syntactically

one (RT) functions

or others,

if

the clauses

example:

ba9da gadin aTTula: Ta' yaxtatimu


liyya: t
ma9ra4u alfanna: na: t altaSki:
9ardahu biwa: Sintin
al9a: sima wa 11aDi:
bada'a yawm aTTa: liT wa 191Sri: n min
sibtambar
wa 11aDi: 'iftataHahu
a: Hib
assumu: almalaki:
al 'ami: r bandr bin
sulta: n bin 9abdul 9azi: z safi: r almamlaka
lada: alwila: ya: t almuttaHida.
(1)

appendix

(C)

98

Translation
The exhibition
of the plastic
women
artists
which was opened on the twentythird
of September by the Saudi Ambassador to the (USA)
H. R. H. Prince Bandr Bin Sultan Bin Abdul Aziz
will
conclude in Washington the day after
tomorrow.
In one interpretation
(RT).

The matrix

clause

establishes

oriented

of the above example


establishes
a past

to the one with


is

September

before

a non-past

(RT).

establish

the embedded

the past

with

(RT),

tomorrow

clauses

(RT) while

The clause

the non-past

the day after

both

(RT) is

i. e. the 23rd of
in the text

NOT before

Speech Time.

Not only

can this

syntactically
can also

type

related
account

for

of temporal
clauses

clauses

with
with

dependency
different

account
tense

the same tense

forms,

(1)

See text

(26)

'ufrija
ya9qu. -b
attaHri:
'uxtutifa
di
a ma:
alyarmu:

appendix

'ams 9an assayyid tal9at


al'ami: n al9a: m lijabhat
niyya allaDi
r alfilisti:
yawma aTTula: Ta: '
fi:
muxayam
min manzilih
k al qari: b min dimaSq. (1)

(C)

but

it

form as in this

example:

137 -

for

an

99
Translation
Mr. Tal'at
Yaqub the Secretary
General of the Palestinian
Liberation
Front who was kidnapped near his
home in the Yarmouk Camp near
Damascus last Tuesday was released
yesterday.
In the

the matrix

above example,

the same tense

form.

Each clause
functions

(RT) of the matrix

took

NOT before

i. e. the

type

for

the

of the Palestinian

yesterday

In the

text

Speech Time.

(sharing),

matrix

(which

clause

(last

can be accounted

also

dependency
both

clauses

is yesterday)
helps

Tuesday)

i. e.

the arrest

we assume here that


borders

this
if

which

on the

following

Wednesday.

Following

involved

as in these

was published

report

first
in the

in the embedded

occurred

(orientation)

principle

the clauses

related

and contextually

to the

of

on the

in the text.

beyond the clause borders.

can-operate

adverbial

type of temporal dependency like

What is more, this

type

(ET) of the situation

the

specify

(RT),

"yesterday"

Tuesday before

the time

first

(RT) established

the past

share
while

by the

for

According

earlier.

mentioned

measured from the shared

the clause

point

have

(RT) and the

a past

arrest

on the Tuesday before

place

The above example


temporal

establishes

as an orientation

(RT) of the embedded clause,


official

and the embedded clauses

Smith initially
can be applied

have the same tense

underlined

on Monday about

the previous

a visit

clauses
which

across
form

of a news
will

start

100
138 -

ya9gid
al ra'i:
s Husni:
muba: rak
ra'i:
s wuzara: '
wara: ji: f ga: ndi:
l
jalsatay
muba: HaTa: t xila:
alhind
tabda'u
allati:
aihindi:
ziya: rat addayf
ba9da gadin

wa ya9gid ra: Ji: f mu: 'tamaran


alga: hira
gabla muga: daratihi
alxami: s. (1)

saHafiyyan
zuhra

Translation
(1)

(2)
(3)

The first

two clauses

form.

same tense

existence
form

The vague

above.
to that

"the

Smith

also

(B) is embedded under


oriented

to the

(18)

3 above,

will

latter

appendix

in the

afternoon)
is

however,

of their

with

to

2 but not oriented

form

(A),

but can be simultaneous

(B)

In the above example


following

on the Thursday

assume that

we initially
another

place

tense

changed c. f

explicitly

1983: 64).

take

in clause

example:

See text

(RT) of clause

of analogy

principle

tomorrow"

(RT)

and because of the sameness of the

conference"

press

day after

Following

adverbial

are assumed to be the same unless

Brown and Yules


"Rajiv's

of clause

and have the

a vague

own establishes

2 because of the mere fact

in the same text

(things

dependant

(on Thursday

time

In the

(RT) established

the non-past

are syntactically

3 on its

Clause
flexible

because of the

oriented

above share

because they

embedded clause

example

Hosni Mubarak and the Indian


President
hold
Mr. Rajiv Ghandi will
Prime Minister
two rounds of talks during the visit
of the
Indian guest/which
after
will
start
tomorrow.
hold a press conference
Rajiv will
before his departure
on Thursday
afternoon.

(ST).

when a clause
the

former

with

with

need not

form
be

(ST) as in this

101
139 -

Dakarat saHHi: fat al'ittiHa:


d
fi:
adadiha: a$a: dir 'ams anna
assayid ya: sir 9arafa: t ra'i: s
Diyya limuna; 7amat
allajna
attanfi:
attaHri:
r alfilisti:
niyyayu9a:
ni:
ba9di
min 'a: la: m Saddi: da natijat
1 'iltiha:
ba: t. (1)
Translation
Abu Dhabi:
The Daily
published
Mr. Yassir
Executive
suffering

There are however,


with

form

(the Union
Al Ittihad
here yesterday
said that
Arafat
the head of the
Committee of the PLO is
from severe inflamation.

in Arabic

cases

(B) is NOT simultaneous

(RT) of the clause

140 -

with

form

where instead
with

(A) as in

(ST) but

the

(RT) of the clause

is oriented

to the

(140)

[alra'i:
ni:
s al'alba:
wa'ittahamaha:
alra: H1 Tan-warxuja yatahim
annaha: tuHawil
adduwal algarbiyya]
fi:
S'u: nihi alda: xiliyya.
altadaxula

(2)

Translation
He (the late Enver Hoxh of Albania)
accused them (the Western Countries)
to
(3) were trying
that they (try)
internal
in his country's
interfere
affairs.

In the above example the (RT) of the embedded clause with form (B) is
NOT simultaneous
matrix

which

with

has form

(ST) but with the past (RT) established

in the

(A).

(1)
(2)

(A)
(27) appendix
See text
is taken
from an essay written
This example
p. 3
the alSarq
al'awsat
of 14/4/85.

(3)

Literally

by Mustapha

Amin

in

102
Now one may wonder whether
can account

clearly

simply that

it

Introduced

for

to devise

the

between both
This

a test.

introduction

the

clause
(140)

with

form

repeated

types

above
is

Our reply

cases.

some modifications

test

of cases mentioned

which we will

are

we decided
is

the clause with form (B).

the clause

form

with

is oriented

(RT) of the clause

the

above,

(ka: na) test

the

call

of (ka: na) into

(ka: na) into

of

change in meaning,

dependency

is what I am going to do next.

based on the introduction

If

two aforementioned

can account for both cases if

and that

To distinguish

of temporal

our principles

(A) and is NOT simultaneous

(B) causes no

to that

of the

(ST) as in example

with

here as (141)

annaha: (ka: nat) (1)


wa 'itahamha:
fi:
St': nihi adda: xi: liyya
tuHa: wilu attadaxul

141 -

Translation
He accused
to interfere
In the

above example

meaning.

(ka: na)

is accepted

The (RT) of the embedded clause

NOT simultaneous
reference

them that they (were) trying


in his country's
internal

with

of form

(ST) but

(ka: na) is not accepted,

is

not oriented

in

example

(1) No change in

is simultaneous

form

(B) therefore

with

the past

Is
time

(A).

If

(139)

it

is no change in

and there
with

affairs

td that

then the (RT) of the clause with form (B)

of form

repeated

meaning

here

(A).
as

(142)

It

is simultaneous

with

(ST) as

103
142 -

'abu zabi:
(wa: m): - Dakarat saHHi: fat
d fi:
9adadiha:
al'ittiHa:
ajsa: dir 'ams
'inna assayid ya: sir 9arafa: t ra'i: s allaina
Di: yya limunazzamat
attanfi:
attaHri:
r
listi:
alfi:
niyya (ka: na) yu9a: ni: min
'a: la: min Saddi: da.
Translation
Abdu

Dhabi

(WAM)

here yesterday
The Daily Alltihad
published
that Mr. Yassir Arafat
the Head of the
reported
Exec ive Committee of the (PLO)
suffering$
_(was)
from severe inflamation.
The ka: na test
(B)'s

which

above moreover

are syntactically

can also

be applied

independent

to clauses

from clauses

with

with
form

(A)'s.

Let us consider
143 -

the following

example:

Si: frna: dzah yaltaqi:


yat
wazi: r xa: riii:
al maksi: k
mu: sku: 'idward
'ijtama9a
alsayyid
Si: frna: dzah wazi: r alxa: riji:
yya
huna 'ams ma9a
assu: fyati:
al maksi: ki:
wazi: r alxa: rijiyya
barna: rdu: si: bu: lfi: da:
walmaksi: ki:
wayabHaT alwazi: ra: n alsu: fyati:
fi:
kil
wa
miyya
al'igli:
almaSa:
muxtalaf
ka
'amari:
fi:
alwusta:
alwa09
mugaddimatiha:
'ida: fatan 'ila:
adduwaliyya
almasa: 'il
Da: t al 'ihtima: mi lmuStarak
kama yabHaTa: n Ha: lat al91la: ga: t
fi:
tatwi: riha:
aTTuna: 'iya wa 'imka: niyata
almaja: la: t kaffa.
waka: n si: bu: lfi: da: gad wasala 'ila:
'awwal ziyara
huna 'ams al 'awwal fi:
d assyfati:
rasmiyya lil'ittiHa:
munDu
tawali: h mansib wazi: r alxa: riji:
yya
fi:
almaksi: k fi:
niha: yat 9a: m

'alf

wa tis9miya

* denotes a change in the meaning


(1) See text (28) appendix (A)

wa 'iTnayn wa Tama:ni: n

(1)

form

104
Translation
Shevardnadze

Meets The Mexican

Foreign

Minister

Moscow: - Mr. Eduard Shevardnadze the Soviet


Foreign Minister
opened (literally
met) meetings
here yesterday
with his Mexican counterpart
Mr. Bernardo Sepulvedo.
The two officials
are discussing
various
the situation
regional
problems including
in Central
international
America,
issues of
mutual concern and means of developing
the bilateral
levels.
relations
at different
Mr. Sepulvedo started
the day before yesterday
his state visit
to the
wh
was the first
Soviet Union since he took over in the end
of 1982.
If

we introduced

(ka: na) to clause

be a change in the meaning.


ministers'
Mexican

is

Minister

hold

with

just

a day before

his

In texts

Soviet

like

simultaneous

with

assume shares

continues

(RT) of the-clause

the beginning
to

include

a linguistic

unit

This

representing

situation

sub-situations

is

held here that

form

with
with

form

state

visit

a situation
fact

represented

(A),

the former,

we

(RT)

Our above

of clauses
which

(B) is NOT

The former

and go beyond (ST).

in actual

To summarize our two principles

his

to

are syntactically

latter.

of the

is based on the mere existence

assumption

parallel

only

because the

of the meetings.

(RT) of the clause

the

the

true,

he started

Moreover

would

has some meetings

in Moscow and naturally

counterpart.

the

there

is not

which

the above where the clauses


though

end.

and finished

the opening

independent,

moreover

still

(143),

The example would mean that

started

meetings

2 in example

like

the above in

has a beginning

composed of related

and an

and/or

by the clauses.

of temporal dependency, it

two or more syntactically

is the view

dependent or independent

105
clauses

one (RT) when they

share

are contextually

when form

simultaneous

when-the

above is

also

3.4.4

Rules

After

having

governing

the verb

form.

form

when two or more


tense

However,

accepts

(ka: na).

clause

with'form

It

is

is

(B)"rejects

to clauses

applicable

which

(ka: na).
are

related.

Interpretation

components

of our model,

the determination

forms.

(RT) of the former

the Temporal

three

form and when they

(A) the

but contextually

of Determining

shown the

holds

have different

(A) when it

independent

syntactically

for

of form

with-(ST)

The (ka: na) test

principles

clauses

(B) is embedded under


to that

oriented

Orientation

related.
dependant

syntactically

have the same tense

of the Verb Form

I will

of the temporal

state

the

interpretation

These are:

{i)

by another also with form


when a clause with form (A) is followed
(A), the form in each indicates
with beginning
a situation
and
(Beg) and (En).
ending, henceforth

(ii)

by another with form


when a clause with form (A) is followed
(B), form (A) indicates
a situation
with (+Beg -En) while form
(B) shares the beginning
of the first
situation.

(iii)

by another with form


when a clause with form (B) Is followed
(B) or with form (A) and there is a present or past time
both forms indicate
with (+Beg -En).
a situation
adverbial

(iv)

when a clause with


form (B) and there
indicate
a situation

by another
form (B) is followed
both
is a future
time adverbial
with (-Beg -En).

also with
forms

106
diagrams

The following

illustrate
Diagram

what we have said:


(2)

Morphosyntactic

Interclausal
Interpretatic

Diagram

Morphosyntactic

clausal/
interclaupal

p. wt

(3)

Lture
me
lverbial

'tire
ad -,-0 rb

Interpretation

+ Beg - End

- Beg - End

107
Diagrams

(2)

and (3)

The symbols

used are

illustrate

key defines

this

with

the symbols

a-a

points.

of Stratificational

model of grammar is

The

assumed.

used:

the
either
b or the
c

can yield
interpretation
interpretation

(i)

these

clarify

based on the conventions

Grammar but no familiarity


following

hopefully,

and.

c,

ab
(ii)

the combination
of a and b in
sequence ab yields
an
interpretation
c

ab
the combination
of a and b
in any sequence yields
an
interpretation
c

The diagrams

show how the possible


level

morphosyntactic
is noteworthy
verb)
and is

that

are disambiguated

nothing

contributes
therefore

level

the semantic

interclausal

on the

(i. e. the semantic

to the disambiguation

or clauses.
interpreted
be interpreted

it

is

class

It

of the
stage

from the diagrams.

omitted

depending
If

level.

at this

required

Diagram (2) shows how form (A) has two possible


interpretations

on the

meaning yielded

on the form used in the

followed

(+ Beg + End).

sets of

If

as (+ Beg - End).

by another
it

form

is

followed

It

should

following

(A),

by form
be noted

then

main clause
it

must be

(B) then
that

it

must

we are still

108
left

only

given

with

sets

of the disambiguation

of the

forms

concerned

is only

carried

out

by reference

and it

available

temporal

precision

the discourse

(3)

Diagram

upon the

is
is

relative

a very

shows how form


depending

presence

as (+ Beg - End).

future

then

time

the degree

of relevance.

the verb

will

of temporal

present

one

because

by the purpose

of such precision.

time

or past

interpreted

if

to an adverbial

governed

(B) has two possible


this

is

but the final

one is not

matter

If

time,
there

adverb.

If

then

the verb

is

an adverbial

be interpreted
precision

sets

of

not upon the following

of a disambiguating

to the present

referring

the case that

often

and the relevance

interpretations

again

Part

by the semantics

disambiguation
is

times.

of possible

there
will

form but
is

an adverb
be

referring

as (- Beg - End).

is governed

by the principle

to
Once

of

109

3.5

THE DATA

To give
first

will

a full

account

factors

the

governing

be followed

together

in particular.

these

types

which

our data

After

doing

all

selected

for

chapter

finally,

has been decided

to specify

of our data.

That

the types of data which can satisfy

with our reasons for


Then we will

the selection

name the sources

of

from

is extracted.

a detailed

that

description

the materials
In this

of the corpus

a classification

of our model will

of

be given.

here will

the analysis

of the

part
in

selected

be described.

THE AUTHENTICITY OF THE DATA

3.5.1

To give
This

it

the selection

by specifying

the above factors

terms

of our data,

test,

the model a realistic

means that

the data

must satisfy

the data
the

must be authentic.

following

two sets

of

conditions.

The first

set of conditions

deals with what the data must NOT be


.

These are: items

the

(ii)

they

must not

be products

of non-native

(iii)

they

must not

be isolated

syntactic

unreal

must not

situations

objective,

be translated

Items

(i)

from another
speakers

constructions

made up by the researcher

language,

of Arabic,
about

to serve

his/her

110
(iv)

they

be responses

must not

asked to carefully
syntactic
(v)

they

of Arabic
teaching

about

as is

the case with

(i)

for

non-native

speakers

designed

publications

for

Arabic.

Now we move on to the other


the data

situations,

unreal

designed

be products

who are
isolated

produce

and unambiguously

constructions

must not

by informants

given

MUST be.

set

of conditions

is

which

about

what

These are: -

they

must be produced

real

situations

by native

written

of Arabic

speakers

about

according

to Arabic

thought

products

of native

speakers,

patterns,
(ii)

they

(iii)

the

(iv)

they

must be spontaneous
intended

must be native

audience

must be comprehensible

speakers

of Arabic.

to native

and acceptable

speakers,
(v)

It

they

is

that

noticeable

to the
clauses
is often

constructed
done in this

objective
this

or picked
and other

the reasons

in the view of this


in linguistics

behind

study,

area which

from other
fields
this

the unit

or other

of the research

linguistic

for

texts

complete

this

linguistics.

or

of analysis

for

is that

any research,

is determined

Unlike

other

to what

One may

Our
reply
-

choice

I am aware of,

according

in
contrast
-

texts
of

work,

not sentences

disciplines,

concerned.

1980's.

the

we aim at selecting

above considerations,

wonder about

whether

during

must have been written

research

the objective

by the
in

of this

111
work is
the

"translational"

linguistic

which

is

it

is

believed

or the

interpretation

interpretation

It

we should

conduct

the

delimits

analysis,

aims at

as our unit

through

improving

the cotext

However,

in

context

of

or the

one interpretation.

only

by the

types

which

Text

text.

or

This

therefore,

the

specify

or the clause.

We have therefore

as we aim at

of analysis

sentence

improving

the

texts.

the quality

the standards
contrasting

interpretations.

specifiable

of various

of translated

a decontextualized

permits

of the sentence

texts

improving

of

text,

clause

is only

must have qualities

(1)

therefore,

objective

here that

an authentic

the sentence

quality

on which

a wide range

yields

translating

selected

This

text.

Moreover,
clause

unit

(1)

of translated

of teaching

the tense

English

systems

texts

not

at

to Arab students

of both

languages.

112
3.5.2

All

THE SOURCES FROM WHICH THE DATA IS SELECTED

the

texts

under

from different
decision

in this

analysis

Arabic

to opt for

this

of data

source

Among these

a number of reasons.

A newspaper

is

(ii}

The problem

to which

this

encountered

in press

materials

Press materials

(iv)

A newspaper
speakers
materials

(vi)

these

education.

read by a large
degrees

in a newspaper

Newspaper Arabic

are published

country

concerned.

with

daily

of origin.

every

is readable

by Arabs

situations

or weekly.

by the native

Moreover

published

no difficulty,

the country

also

MSA because the

everyday

has one or more national

and read mainly

is

speakers

are

of thought

pattern

written

it

with

materials

of real

are accounts

represents

Every Arab country

wherever

number of native

people

of education.

in an Arabic

newspapers
(vii)

Moreover

of

written

by a single

prepared
of

degrees

native

the written

by a group

varied

Most items

all

but

Arabic

varied

words,

of data

various

not

of

with

and for,

are

speaker

(MSA)

was first

source

a newspaper

native

normally

(v)

In other

of Arabic.
of

itself

by,

designed

for

mediums of

work addresses

are the most accessible

The

is taken

following:

one of the most widespread

is mainly

1980's.

(newspapers)

are the

(i)

(iii)

in the

published

newspapers

taken

work are news reports

living

newspaper

speakers

Arabic

of the

newspaper,

and comprehensible,
beyond the borders

of

113
(viii)

(ix)

Selecting

data

from different
selecting

straightforward

way of

Every

from which

newspaper

established

reputation

medium, as we will

countries'
genuine

our data

and is not

see in what will

newspapers
Arabic

is taken

a newly
follow.

is a

texts.

has a well-

born, mass

114
3.5.2

THE ARABIC NEWSPAPERS FROM WHICH THE DATA IS SELECTED

I have attempted
Arab countries

to make my corpus
as possible,

I have therefore

proportions.

while

as representative
keeping

it

of as many

of manageable

the following

selected

newspapers:

(1)

al ri: ya: d

Saudi

(2)

al watan

Kuwaiti

(3)

al ra'y

Jordanian

(4)

al

'ahra: m

Egyptian

(5)

al

'ayya:

Sudanese Daily

(6)

al zaHaf al'axdr

Libyan

(7)

al qabas

Kuwaiti

(8)

al madi: na

Saudi

Daily

(9)

al nadwa

Saudi

Daily

Saudi

Daily

(10)

al

(11)

al Sarq al'awsat

jazi:

ra

(12)

'9arab

al

(13)

al Tawra

Daily
Daily
Daily
Daily

Daily
Daily

London-based

Arabic

Daily

London-based

Arabic

Daily

Iraqi

Daily

115
3.5.4

THE DATA UNDER THE ANALYSIS

In this

work news reports

selected.

News reports

other

deal

with

they

most;

were singled

because they
are the

newspapers were

satisfied

following:

concern

which

situations

because

and concise

are short

from among

out

a number of

are the most read newspaper

News reports
they

in general

Among these

conditions.

(i)

items

newspaper

from various

Items
the

because

readers

people

are

time-conscious.
(ii)

They are spontaneous

(iii)

much preparation.

without

speakers

in
the
the
newspaper
of
pages
over

They are spread all


varying

degrees

instance,

to the paper's

and according
of the

classification

made by native

constructions

Sport

pages.
found

are usually

on the

for

news reports,

for

page allotted

sports.
(iv)

More

than

They-are

making.

A news report
writer

written

is not like

every day.

their

firstly

by the reporter

a daily

column, written'by

The news reports

newspapers

are contributed

researcher

can therefore

the phenomena he finds


style.

to

and

by the editor.

then edited

(v)

contributes

speaker

one native

contained

by a variety
focus

may be the result

in the

of writers.

on them without

one

fearing

The
that

of one idiosyncratic

116

(vi)

The linguistic

than

more explicit

is

of temporal orientation

realization
in other

genres

as this

example

shows: -

ma9rad fanni:
' alqa: dim bisa: lt ru: Sa: n
YaftataH yawm al 'arbi9a:
n
lilfan
bijadda
Sa:
la
lilfunu:
al'awwal
ru:
ma9rad
n aljami:
'ayya:
limuddat
9aSarat
di:
m
wayastamirr
assa9u:
yaftatiHuhu
alma9rad allaDi:
wayuSa: rik fi:
madi: nat jadda almuhandis sa9i: d alfa: risi:
mana: tiq
taSki: liyyn
sa9u: diyy min muxtalaf
attura:
ya9ru: du: n 80 lawHa fani: yya tumaTTil
lxatti
li:
d
da:
taqa:
t
wa
wa
wa9a:
almu9a: sir

ami: n
14 fana: inan
almamlaka
T wa lfann
al'isla:
mi: (1)

of Art

An exhibition

for the Saudi contemporary


Rushan's first
exhibition
for
Hall
Rushan
Wednesday
be
at
opened next
art will
for ten days.
The exhibition
fine arts.
continue
will
the
different
from
of
parts
14 plastic
artists
be
which will
take part in the exhibition
Kingdom will
Said
Mohammed
Jeddah,
by
Secretary
the
of
opened
depicting
the heritage,
80 paintings
Alfarisi.
Islamic
well
as
as
conventions
and
customs
art,
contemporary
in
the exhibition
be
shown
will
calligraphy
(viii)

This

linguistic

area

in Arabic

accordingly

see text

(29)

realization)
Its

I should

a pioneer

appendix

not venture

which
in this

(C)

study

of data.

selection

in such a study

knowledge,

(1)

that

(time

linguistics.

a careful

requires

items

area

is,

to the

area.

is not

an easy

therefore
I felt
to select
best

other

of my

117

Our news reports


every

day.

were selected

To be selected

from the numerous news reports

they

had to satisfy

produced

a number of conditions.

Among these are the following:

(1)

They should
beginning
Examples

deal

all

with

and an end with


like

'ibta:

the

following

1 9ibu: a nasifa

one event
stages

which

has a

in between.

are excluded:

bibayruit

aSSarqiyya

bayru: t (wa: s): - abtala alxabi: r al9askari:


allubna: ni:
fi
9a
ka:
9ibwa
al qurbi min bank
mawdu:
nat
na: sifa
maf9ula
bibayru:
l
t aSSarqi: ya.
Vara: d fi:
maHallat sin alafi:
kilu: gra: ma: t.
zi: nat al9ibu: a bi9Srat
waqudirat
jays
t
'uxra:
jihatin
tamarkazat
min
quwa:
min
bildat
9inda
Saydawi:
Sa9bi:
madxal
al
al
r
altaHri:
'amal
Harakat
tili:
lilfasl
bayn
n
min
Sa
muga:
al
magdu:
lfilisti:
fi:
kama:
tamarkazat
t
niyya.
wamunazzama:
Hilu:
9ayn
darb
a magduSa.
tari:
m
si:
al
q
muntapf
wayusi: r al
jisir
si:
siyda:
tabi: 9iyya.

cari: q
t 9ala:
al MaDku: r dawriya:
(1)
Harakat
taShad
siyr
allati:
q
ni:

jayS

An Explosive

Package Is Defused

In East Beirut

(SPA): - A Lebanese military


expert defused
Beirut
ten
nearly
weighing
package
explosive
an
yesterday
of
kilograms
and placed near Tarad Bank n Sin alfil
East Beirut.
Liberation
Army
Meanwhile some forces of the Peoples'
Magdusha
to
the
of
entrance
at
Sidon
stationed
were
of
(Amal)
the
fighting
and
of
two
the
parties
separate
half
Others
stationed
Palestinian
were
groups.
Maghdusha.
Hilwa
Sim,
Ain
Darb
and
between
al
al
way
by the above army are often seen on the road
Patrols
is
between Sidon and Siniq Bridge where the traffic
normal.
That is because this
event.

{1)

see text

(30)

appendix

news report

(B)

deals

with

more than

one

118
(ii)

They should
start

should
with

have a distinctive
with

a preview

as in this

structure.

demanding further

about the clue

more elaborations

preview,

text

or clues

Each
details
given

and end
in the

example:

al sifa: ra assu: da: niyya bitaSa: d


biDikra:
l
taHtafilu
al'istiqla:
'a qa: mat sifa: rat assu: da: n bitSa: d biltadoa:
mn
da:
diyya
assu:
qa
niyya
attaSa:
agqada:
madrast
ma9a
assu: da: nyya bitaSa: d walka: mi: ru: n
walja: liyya
la: t kabi: ra da: mt liTala:
Tt 'ayya: m
'iHtifa:
bimuna: sabat aDDikra:
aTTaTa: T: n list:
qla: la
assu: da: n
la: t wallati:
bada't
fi:
al 'iHtifa:
waStamalat
-gala:
di:
Ti:
di:
sambar almac?i
waTala:
n min
alHa:
fi:
diyya
walfaniyya
waTTaga:
yya
al
ri:
ya:
nib
aliawa:
ddaraja
HaTu taba: rat firaq
al 'u: la attaSa: diyya
fari: q 'i: jlu: n wa
ka's assu: da: n wafa: za bihi
gala:
'ugi: mat masi: ra j'iya: giyya
H yawm assu: da: n al mumaTTi1
waga: ma bi'iftita:
lilra'i:
s attaSa: di: Sa: raka fi: h kiba: r
aSSaxsi:
xita: mi al
almas'u: li: n attaSa: di: yn wa'ugi: ma fi:
Sa: i: bida: r assafa: ra Sa: raka fi:
la: t Hafil
'iHtifa:

ra'i:

s al mailis

al watani:

attaSa: di:

lm
Mimma: yuDkar 'inna 'ajhizat
al'19la:
attaSa: diyya ga: mat bibiT jami: 9 naSa: a: t yawm
fi:
'iHtifa:
la:
ha:
Sa:
taklufat
t
dan
raka
al
wa'inna
assu:
biltabru9a:
t 'a9da: ' assafa: ra wama9limiy
ma rasa
(1)
li:
'
a
ajja:
wa'a9da:
The Sudan Embassy In Chad Celebrates
Day
Sudanese National

The

The Sudan Embassy in Chad in co-operation


with the
Sudanese-Chadian School of Friendship
and the Sudanese
Community in Chad and Cameroon held 3-day big
to commemorate the 30th anniversary
of
celebrations
the Sudan independence day.
The celebrations
which started
on the 31st of last
December included sport,
art and cultural
activities.
between the Chadian first
In a competition
division
team won and later
clubs to win the Sudan cup, Ajilun
big sport gathering
was held.
(1) see text

31 appendix

(A)

119
The personal
envoy of the Chadian president
opened
Day activities
the Sudan National
which were also
In the end of
attended by senior Chadian officials.
the celebrations,
a tea party was held at the"Embassy
by the speaker of the Chadian National
premises attended
Assembly.
The Chadian mass media broadcast
the news of all
The costs for these celebrations
these activities.
by the Embassy staff,
the
mere covered by donations
.
teachers
and members of the
of the School of Friendship
community.

(iii)

different

newspapers,

They should
deal

should
deal

(v)

with

have different

topics.

with

issues

not

be translated

by non-native

instance,

and editors.

reporters

political

and written

For instance
while

others

some
should

sport.

They should
written

pages of each paper

by different

and edited

(iv)

should be taken from different

These news reports

reports

news agencies

texts

speakers

by Reuters

are excluded

and should

of Arabic.
or other

as in this

'u: zal yuwa: sil ziya: ratuhu


ba9da alhiju:
m al'armani

not

be

For

international
example:
11 tahra: n

turgu: t
'angara (Ra') 9agada ra'i: s aiwizara
atturki
fi
'ams
tahra: n ma9a ra'i:
daTa:
la
t
Jaw:
almuHa:
min
auzal
al'i: rani 'ami: r Hussain mu: sawi: fi alyawm
wizara'

s al

1i19a:
ha:
ra:
niyya
zlala:
al'i:
ratin
sima
ziya:
min
ni:
aTTa:
hiju: m liTu: a: r 'arman gala: raju: l '9ma: 1 turki:
q`atiTh
gali: l min wsu: lihi
Wa qad 'usi: ba rajul
al'9ma: l 'i: si: k yu: ndar wahuwa
fi:
birra;
'ams
fi:
tahra:
a:
s
r'sihi
mudda
n
munDu
m
mugi:
min musalaHi: n yamtatu: n daraja na: riyya wa nuqila
al'wwal
xafi
ka:
fi
Ha:
'ila:
wa
a
na yu: ndar
aI
almustaSfa
'ila:
bissayara
ma9a zawiatuhu sa9diyya
mu: tawajihan
HaTu ta9mal zawiatuhu kasikratara.
(1)
assafa: ra atturkiyya
(1)

see text

(32)

appendix

(B)

120
The English

Original

Text
Shooting

clouds

Ozal

trip

Mr. Turgut Ozal had a


Ankara: The Turkish Prime Minister,
second round of talks yesterday with his Iranian
Mr. Mir-Hossein
Mousavi during a visit
to
counterpart,
Tehran which has been overshadowed by an Armenian guerrilla
before he arrived.
attack shortly
A Turkish businessman Ishiq Yonder, a longtime resident
wounded by
of Tehran, was shot in the head and critically
he
drove
Saturday
as
with his wife to the Turkish
on
gunmen
embassy.
Anatolian
News Agency reported from
The semi-official
Tehran yesterday that Mr. Yonder was in a deep coma. His
hurt.
wife was slightly
The agency said that Mr. Ozal had discussed
the attack,
for which was claimed
by the Armenian Secret
responsibility
Army for the Liberation
of Armenia,
with Mr. Mousavi.

is to boost
The main aim of Mr. Ozals three-day
visit
$2.3 billion
trade between the two countries
which totalled
last year.
leader, Ayatolla
Khomeini, has warned against
The Iranian
foreign-backed
to attempts to
referring
plots,
specifically
Iranians.
Addressing political
leaders
divide
and religious
in Tehran the Ayatolla
in
appeared to reveal some dissension
Iran over the outcome of the first
phase of the elections
15. - Reuter.
held on April
(vi)

They must have been written

(vii)

They must be cohesive


printing

analysis,

and coherent

stage of our discussion


it

is thought

texts.

Texts with

are avoided.

THE CLASSIFICATION

3.5.5

At this

errors

in the 1980's

that

OF THE DATA

of the data selected

we can classify

them into

for

the

121
to make the task

categories

to follow

readers

of the analysis

our thread

of argumentation

of the data.

classification

an attempt

to produce a well-organized

to the semantic

according

According
are four

it

However,
open with
decided

Still

these

According
there

aspectual

States

(ii)

Activities

(iii)

Accomplishment

(v)

Achievements

in order

three

denoting
this

is

rare

of each

in the semantic

part

for

a news report

to

We have therefore,

a state.

category

groups

These are: -

it

that

four
clause

opening

described

classes.

(i}

to exclude
remaining

to distinguish

of the

class

is noticeable

three

is

to the categories

a clause

components

our

concise work.

the data

One way of classifying

there

was made to relate

to the components of the model of the analysis

categories

text.

and enable the


In our
more easily.

easier

and classify

our data

into

the

categories.

can be more closely

categories

of the model by division

forms

in Arabic.

(i)

Form (A)

(ii)

Form (B)

to other

sub-categories.

of the morphosyntactic

to the contents

are two main verb

into

related

component

These are:

122
Every

verbal

two.

our suggested

clause

on four

possible

and the

initial

found

in written

Arabic
for

sub-categorization

one of the

forms

of the verb

combinations

has one of the above


is based
each category

following

clause

two clauses

in each text

because

interpretative

in temporal

terms

text

In a nutshell,

the semantic

class

of the clause)

morphosyntactic
category

component

represents

component

as shown in these

forms

they

are mutually

level.

of the model

the major

clause

(i. e. A, A; B, B; A, B; B, A).

We chose these

at the

of the opening

category,

(A) & (B) represents

(the
while

aspectual
the

the minor

diagrams:

Activity

(1)
(2)

(A)
(A)

(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)

(1)
(2)

(B)
(B)

Diagram

(4)

(A)
(B)

(B)
(A)

123

Accomplishment

(1)
(2)

1) (B)
2) (A)

(A)
(A)

(1)
(2)

(B)
(B)

(1)
(2)
Diagram

(A)
(B)

(5)

(1)
(2)

(B)
(A)

A/%A/

(1)
(2)

(1)
(2)

(A)
(A)

(2)

(B)
(B)
Diagram

Numbers (1)
clause

and the

(B) stand
yaf9alu).

and (2)

for

in the

following

(6)

above diagrams

one in each text.

our two main verb

(B)

forms

stand

for

the opening

The letters

in Arabic

(fa9ala

(A) and
and

124
CHAPTER FOUR
The Analysis

4.1

In the previous

be carried
data.

a model for

we suggested

in this

work and also

presented

chapter

we will

this

out

In this

chapter

apply

the analysis

a description

of our

model to the data

we have

gathered.

in this

The analysis

of the different

representative
confine

involve

will

chapter

to only

ourselves

7 news reports
This

categories.

that

decision

number has been taken

for

to
a number

of considerations:

(i)

to avoid

(ii)

to fairly
this

(iii)

repetitiveness,
divide

work,

i. e.

to avoid

of too many texts,

in order

not

to obscure

on a few select

from the different

For the purpose

of this

three

main categories

first

three

represent

analysis,
in our data

the sample texts


represent

example/counter-example
We have therefore

line

while

in our data.

our 7 examples

having

the other

to analyze

from the
The

the odd numbers)

three

has the same verb


decided

are taken

on page (121).

mentioned

the counter-examples.
pair

we

and counter-examples

examples

(those

of

by the

chapter

of argumentation

sub-categories

of the above 7 texts

even numbers)

clause.

our

the components

this

overloading

analysis

concentrate

between

our attention

(those

having

the

Each
form

in the opening

them in pairs.

to

125

As for

the seventh

own because
different

it

from that

for

specified

This

selected

Transliteration

between the different

the verb

all

in turn

levels.

(However,

the above is

just

Another

way of doing

it,

each verb

form

at the morphosyntactic,

in each text

For organizational
(i,

numerals
Arabic

ii

level.

This

In the tables
Before
explain

is

embarking

instance,

three

levels

is

to examine

at once).

be indicated

by Roman

-).

letters

suggested

for

texts

clauses

here

the first

will

symbols

stand

hand will

them on page (it).

two texts

have similar

to avoid

above,

by

will

have a

summing up the analysis

tables

tables

for.

at each

but with

repetitiveness.

a number of symbols

on the presentation

what these

for

of the

be

the

one way of presenting

will

while

will

and inter-clausal

semantic

on the other

in order

mentioned

in each text

forms

besides

The remaining

comments.

texts

forms

The verb

-)

the analysis

commentary

in these

under

be indicated

--

have the alphabetical

each text

will

--

ones (1,2,3

detailed

at all

purposes,

ii,

In presenting

for

forms

will

analysis

examined

analysis.

we think,

Of Analysis

7 texts,

these

on its

in each of the

of texts,

constellation

each text

Method Of Presentation

In analyzing

the same form

and translation

here precede

analysis

to be analyzed

interpretations

temporal

with

us to make a comparison

texts.

4.2

has been selected

has (B) forms

sample texts.
help

it

text,

analysis,

are used.
let

me

fewer

126

Meaning

Symbol

Location
notional

(0)

Situation

of the situation
time line.
either

punctual

on the

or

durative.
(ST)

Time of speaking

(ET)

Time at which

(RT)

Time through which


is related
to ST

or writing

the situation

the situation

inception
Verb indicates
ongoing situation

I. --

occurs

of an

of time

-Length

Time to come

----

Time past

Key (1)

for

symbols

used (1)

in the

(A) tables

Meaning

Symbol

(C)

Completion

or

(-C)

non-completion

Inception

(I)
(-I)
Key (2)

(1)

non-inception
for

symbols-used

in the

(B) tables

For the reader's


other copies of these
convenience
to be found in the back cover of the thesis.

keys are

f
Meaning

Symbol

Beg

Beginning

En

Ending

With or without

Homogenous
non-Homogenous

-H
1st mo

First

Last

Last

mo

Key (3)

for

moment of a state
moment of a state

the symbols

used in the

Meaning

Symbol

Sh

Sharing

Or

Orientation

Dep

Dependant

Indep

Independant

Key (4)

(C) tables

for

the symbols

syntactically

of

used in the

(D) tables

127

128

4.3

First

Pair

Text (1)
'amarika:
nadwa fl:
San alsala: m fl: aSSarq al'awsat
wa: Sintin

1.9ugidat
-

bilwila:

yat

'i: da: hu: al'amri:

kiyya

'ams nadwa lilbaHT


2. wataStarik
San assala: m fl:
aSSarq a1 'awsat.
'i: 1 wal 'urdun
fi: ha: al wila: ya: t al muttaHida wamisr wa'isra:
wamumaTTil 9an addiffa
al garbiyya.

ki:
3. wayar'as ha: Dihi nnadwa fi: li: b Habbi: b almab9u: T al'amri:
4. wayumaTTil alwila: ya: t al muttaHida fl:
annadwa ia: k ku: fi:
mudi: r
'ida: rat aSSarq al'awsat
bimajlis
al'amn al qawmi: S. wayumaTTil
6. wayumaTTil al'urdun
misr alwazi: r al mufu: d fa: ru: q muHammad9ali:
7. wayumaTTil tal
assayyid muHammadkama: l safi: ruha: fi:
wa: Sintin
'abi: b ru: ni: mi: lu: na: 'ib wazi: r alxa: rijiyya
8. wayumaTT11 addiffa
algarbiyya
assayyid Hanna sinyu: ra: ra'i: s 9. taHri: r majallat
alFajr
(1)
tusdar fi:
al9arabiyya.
aiquds billuga
allati:
Translation:
A Symposium On The Peace
In The Middle East Is Held

In America

Washington -A symposium on the search for peace in the Middle East


in the American State of Idaho.
(literally
was held) yesterday
started
Jordan and a representative
from the
The United States,
Egypt, Israel,
West Bank are taking
part.
The American Envoy to the Middle East, Mr. Philp Habib is
The United States,
Egypt, Jordan, Trael
this symposium.
chairing
by: - Jack Koffe the
represented
and the West Bank are respectively
in the American National
Head of the Middle East Office
Security
Plenipotentiary
Council,
Mr. Farouq Mohammed Ali an Egyptian
Minister,
Mr. Mohammed Kamel the Jordanian
Ambassador to Washington,
Mr. Ronnie
Deputy Minister
Milow the Israeli
and Mr. Hanna Seneoura the editorin-chief
Arabic magazine alFajr.
of the Jerusalem-based

(1)

See text

(33)

in appendix

(B)

129

of Text (i)

4.3 1

The Analysis

(1)

The Morphosyntactic

The first

striking

alternates

with

drive

(B) at the

the

see in the course

we will

look

text

This
is

text

at this

(A)

alternation

incohesive
allay

will

may

and
the

and incoherence

incohesiveness

of this

form

that

level.

this

text's

must be remembered here that

is

text

text

that

Yet a careful
about

this

about

to believe

doubts

reader's

It

form

the reader

incoherent.

thing

Analysis

analysis.

in this

we will

analysis

try

to

show:

form indicates
from (ST)

time

in relation

to and then

(i)

how the verb


independently

(ii)

by other
is affected
interpretation
how its temporal
it
is
in
the
used
which
clause
of
constituents

(iii)

interpretation
how the temporal
by those of other
determined
in this

Accordingly

interpretations

temporal
from

before

totally

situation

only

(ST).

the beginning

instance

can indicate

falls

interpreted
or a situation

in two ways.

as indicating
falling

after

(RT/ST).

occurring

(ST).

before

For instance

a situation

a situation
can indicate

it

Alternatively,
of which

Measured

terms.

Also measured from IST), each of the form (B)'s


can be interpreted

1 can have two

(A) in clause

form

in morphosyntactic

(A) above for

(ST) form

falling

text,

of the verb form is


verb forms from other clauses.

in the text
it

can be
at

(ST/RT)

(1),

as

130
In

addition

Kharma

(1983)

forms.

two
work.

to

the
give

However,

The following

linguists

above,
long

lists

of

these

are

table

is

not

like
temporal
germane

illustrative

(1972)

al-Khafaji
interpretations
to

our

purpose

of

the

above

and
for
in

these
this

interpretations.

(1)

level,
the question
At the morphosyntactic
of whether the verb
form is oriented
to (ST) or (RT) is left
unresolved
as well as
in time is to be oriented
the question
of whether the location
duratively
or punctually.

131

Form

9ugidat
was held

Interpretation

(1)

(0)

x (ST)/(RT)
L
(ST)/(RT)

(2)

wataStarik
take part

- I.

------------------(ST)/(RT)
(0)
x--------------------L
(0)

(1)

(2)

x---------------->

(ST)/(RT)
L

(ST)/(RT)
3

wayar'as

(1)

(0)

x--------------------

chair
(ST)/(RT)

(0)
(2)

--------------------L

4-8
wayumaTTil
represent

(0)
(ST)/(RT)
x----------------->
L

(1)

(9P; (RT)
(2)

9 tasdur
is published

----------------->

(0)
(ST)/(RT)
x----------------L

(1)

(0)

(2)
x

(ST)/(RT)
x----------------->
L

Table

(4A)

132
(1)
Independently

from

interpretations.

happening

Another

an initial

over

These interpretations
(1976)

et al

it

can also

think

Similarly,

refer

every

interpretations.
indicate

is that

point

can denote

it

these,

a complete

can

a length

over

or a

a situation

of time.

(1974),

in these

Comrie

terms.

or finished

or

situation,

of a situation.

text

can be given
is

instance,

for

situation.

or unfinished

are two types

it

that

to what Cantarino

(B) in this

One of

is

of possible

can represent

of a length

to an inception

form

place

the form denotation

about

a non-complete

model there

taking

are similar

to them it

According

some, one of these

a situation

of time.

point

single

To mention

to denote

contribute

(A) above can have a range

(ST) form

of situation

indicated

a number of

that

it

can

According
by form

to our

(B).

These

are: -

(i)
(ii)

a situation
a situation
This type
therefore

The following

is
it
but
unfinished
has
still
started
which
Is
due
it
but
to
has
start.
yet
not
started
which
form
by
(B)
is
is
represented
which
of situation
in both cases.
unfinished
still

table

shows the interpretations

of forms (A) and (B)

above: -

(1)

i. e. in terms of the internal


Comrie
to
according
situation

temporal
(1976)

constituency

of the

133

Form

Interpretations

9ugidat

(C)

(I)

was held

wataStarik
take part

(-C)

(I)

(-I)

wayar'as
chair

(-C)

(I)

(-I)

wayumaTTil
represent

(-C)

(I)

(-I)

wayumaTTil

(-C)

(I)

(-I)

represent

wayumaTTil

(-C)

(I)

(-I)

(-C)

(I)

(-I)

(-C)

Cr)

(-I)

represent
a

waymaTTil
represent

1A
waymaTTil
represent

tasdur

(-C)

Table

(I)

(4B)

(-I)

134
(2)

Semantic

Looking

within

in this

text

Analysis
the

clause

between them,
ending

is

in its

can vary

to a situation

point

with

or it

between them.
For instance
progress

the

a beginning

in clause

verb

For instance,

and ending

to a beginning

with

it

can

different

of a situation

Moreover

in different

form

but whose ending

The beginning

two (1)

(B) can denote

let

is still

stages

whose

to come.

of which

are
to a

refers

homogenous stages
in their

fluctuate

a situation

(all

Each mainly

but with

us see the following

and the ending

text

ways.

and ending

these

this

verbsin

activity

a beginning

interpretations

(1)

accomplishment

interpretation.

can refer

Form B) can be construed


with

the

to come.

still

By the same token,

situation

borders,

with

a beginning

To illustrate

table:

realization.
and in

these

135

9ugidat
al'imri:

Clause

Interpretations

biwila: yat 'ida: hu:


kiyya 'ams nadwa lilbaHt

(Beg+En)(-H)

assala: m fi:

9an

aSSarq al'awsat

Translation:
A symposium on the search for peace in
in
the Middle East was held yesterday
the American State of Idaho.
2

fi: ha alwila: ya: t almuttaHida


wataStarik
'i: l wal'urdun
wamumaTTil 9an
wami,; r wa'isra:
addiffa
algarbiya

Translation:

+
(Beg
End) (H)

Jordan
Egypt, Israel,
The United States,
of the West Bank
and a representative
are takin
part in this symposium.
3

wayar'as ha: Diht annadwa fi:


ki:
almab9u: T al'amri:

li:

Translation:
The American Envoy to the Middle
this
Philip
Habbib is chairing
symposium
4

b Habbi: b

(Beg

En) (H)

East Mr.

ja: k
wayumaTTi1 alwila: ya: t almuttaHida
ku: fi:
mudi: r 'ida: rat aSSarq al'awsat
bimajlis
al'amn algawmi:

(Beg + End) (H)

Translation:
Mr. Jack Koffe the Head of the Middle East
in the American National
Security
Office
Council re resents the United States.

fa:
ru: q
r
almufwad
alwazi:
mapr
wayumaTTil

(Beg + End) (H)

muHammad9ali:

Translation:
Egypt is
potentiary

represented
Minister

by the pleniMr. Farouq Mohammed

Ali
6

assayid muHammad
wayumaTTil al'urdun
kama: l safi: ruha: fi wa: Sintin

The same as above

Translation:
by its
Jordan Is represented
Ambassador to Washington Mr. Mohammed
Kammal

contd........

136
7

'abi:
wayumaTTil tal
wazi: r alxa: rijiyya

b ru: ni:

Translation:
Israel
is represented
8

na: 'ib

milu:

by its

The same as above

deputy

wayumaTTil
acdiffa
algarbiya
Hanna sinyu: ra.
ra'i:
s taHri:

The same as above

assayid
r majallat

alfair
Translation:
The West Bank is represented
by
Mr. Hanna Sinoura the Editor-in-chief

tu c dar fi:
allati:
al9arabiya

biluga

alquds

Translation:
is
which
published
--Jerusalem in Arabic

(Beg+En)

in

(4C)

Table

(3)

The Interclausal

Viewed from

the

to

beginning

Include

text

point

according

one temporal

(A) of clause

falls

(ST).

whose ending

interpretation
to our model.

1 in this

located
before

and go beyond

of a situation

Also one temporal


this

borders,

to a situation

This

of time.

continues

form

for

It-points

our model.
length

Analysis

beyond the clause

can be specified

( H)

interpretation
text

according

at an initial

point

(ST) while

the

length

In other

words,

It

has not

can be delimited
It refers

to
of a

denotes

been reached.

for any form (B) in

to a situation

happening

137
over

a length

initial
it

of time

end point

whose beginning

to include

and continues

in other words, it

indicates

falls

a situation

and go beyond (ST).

To put

in progress whose ending

are shown in the following

to come. These interpretations

is still

the above

at or after

table: -

interpreSpecified
ation at the morpho-

Form &

At the
level

At the semantic

interclausal

(ST)
(A)

(RT)
L
I'

(Beg - En) (-H)

pening
lause

(Beg

Sh

Indep.

(Beg - En)(H)

Sh

Indep.

(Beg - En) (H)

--------

Indep.

?
(ST)

(B)

RT)

-----

- En)

(H)

L
(ST)
(B)

(RT)---->

(B)

(ST)
(RT) -------->

Sh

I Indep.

L
(B)

Same

Same

Sh

Indep.

(B)

Same

Same

Sh

Indep.

(B)

Same

Same

Sh

Indep.

(B)

Same

Same

Sh

Indep.

(B)

Same

Same

Sh

Dep.

has been shown that

one temporal

Table

To sum up,
interpretation
Information

in what has preceded,


for

each verb

form

from beyond the clause

it

(4D)

in the

text

borders.

is determined
In what follows,

by

138
another

text

in the

verb

from its

be analyzed

will
opening

counterpart

clause

and it

will

in text

receive

be shown that
an interpretation

the same
different

(i).

Text

yar'as

will

(ii)

wall: 9ahd alkuwait


'ijtima: 9 mailis alwuzara: '

alkuwait
wa: s - 1.9agada
mau is al wizura: ' al kuwaiti:
'ijtima:
birl'a:
9ahu al'isbu:
91: 'ams al'awwal
sat wall:
al9ahd
wara'i: s al mailis
alsa: lim al
sumu: alSayx sa9ad al9abdallah
saba: H 2. 'ittala9
xila: lahu 9ala: tatawura: t lHarb al91ra: giyya
al'i:
fa
'ila:
diha 9ala: almanxaga bil'ida:
ra: niyy'wa'ib9a:
9ala: assa: Ha al9arabiyya
aSSi'u: n assiyasiyya
3. kama: 'ista9rada
liddawra
alxa: misa
4. satu9gad
wa llati

9 alga: dim
mawdu: 9a: t al'ijtima:
limajlis
alja: mi9a al9arabiyya
(1)
tu: nis.

almajlis
fi:

Translation:
The Kuwait
Heir Apparent
for
the Cabinet
chairs
a meeting

Kuwait

(SPA):

Cabinet held its weekly meeting the day before


The Kuwaiti
yesterday
of the Crown Prince and the Prime
under the chairmanship
Minister,
His Highness Shaikh Sa'ad al-Abdulla
al-Salem al Subah.
During the meeting the Cabinet was briefed
on the development
War, and its repercussions
on the region
extent of the Iraq-Iran
in the Arab world.
to the political
situation
addition
The Cabinet also reviewed the topics
85th session of the Arab league council
Tunisia.

(1)

For the Arabic

text

see text

(34)

and
in

of the next meeting of the


be held in
which will

appendix

(B )

139
4.3.2

The Analysis

(1)

of Text

The Morphosyntactic

Unlike

(1).

text

Analysis

same tense

form

[form

difficulty

in temporally

does not

text

to form

clause

opening

this

(ii)

(B)

in both

clauses.

interpreting

this

(A)]

of this

followed

Examined in relation

text

from

[form
but

text

(A)]

maintains

The reader

may face

text

as we will

the same steps taken earlier

can have the same interpretations

in the

it

in the second clause,

In the analysis
here.

switch

see later.

will

be

to (ST), every form (A) in this


suggested for the same form

As for

(satu9qad)

in the

model,

it

which

falls

lying on a length or a point of time


a situation
(1)
(ST).
the interpretations
This table contains

(1)

--(sa)

no

(12J).

on page

of the

the

denotes
after

forms

that
which

final

clause

in this

text,

according

to our

above: -

is because form (B) above is


specifier
acts as a futurity

prefixed

by the particle

140

Form

Interpretations

(0)
1

9aqada

(1)

(ST)/(RT)

(ST)/(RT)
(held)

(2)

x-------

->

'itala9a

(1)

(was briefed)

.x (ST)/(RT)

(2)-

(ST)/(RT)
x--------

---L

(ST)/(RT)

(0)
3

'ista9rada

(1)

(ST)/(RT)
(2)-

(reviewed)

-----x

--------

T_

(0)
(ST)/(RT)x-

4 Satu9qad
(will

be held)

Table

Detached

-------L

from

(ST) every

form

(SA)

form

(A) as a single

can have the same interpretations

suggested

for

in this

text

also

the same form on

page (132)

The extended
situation

taking

Here both

the

come

in clause

form

according

place

initial

(4)

on an initial
and final

to our model.

hand indicates

on the other

points

point

of a length

of that

Form (B) by itself

length

of time.
are still

(without

to

the prefix

141

(sa))

can have the same interpretations

But when it

is

The following

by (Sa)

prefixed

table

contains

it

given to this

indicates

form earlier.

non-inception.

the interpretations

the forms

of all

above:

Form

Temporal

Interpretations

the internal
the

of

temporal constituency

of

situation

9agada
(held)

(C)

(I)

'itala9a
(was briefed)

(C)

(I)

'ista9raa
(reviewed)

(C)

(I)

satu9qad
(will
be held)

(-C)

(-I)

Table

(2)

in terms

(5B)

The Semantic Analysis: -

Taken within

the clause,

does not differ


The second
interpreted

in its

and the third

the accomplishment verb "9aqada" in this


interpretation
verbs

which

in the same ways as their

from its
are all
opposite

counterpart
activities

in text

can be

numbers in text

(i).

text
(I).

142
(satu9qad)
suggested
only

for

the

difference

not realized
so far

of clause

(4)

accomplishment

however,
yet.

can have the same interpretations

is

that

The following

verb

9agad of clause

here

the

table

beginning

illustrates

as those
1 above.

The

and the end are


what has been said

143

Interpretations

Clause
1 9agada majlis

alwuzara: ' al

(Beg

En) (-H)

(Beg

En) (H)

kuwaiti:
'ijtlma9ahu
91:
al'isbu:
'ams a; 'awwal birl'a:
sat wali:
al9hd
sumu: al Sayx sa9ad al9abdallah
alsa: lim alsubaH

Translation:
The Kuwaiti
Cabinet held its weekly
meeting the day before yesterday
under the chairmanship
of the Crown
Prince and the Prime Minister
His
Highness sa'ad al Abdullah
alSalim
alSabuh
2

'ittala9a
xila: lahu gala: tdtawra: t
1Harb al91ra: giyya al'ira:
niyya
gala:
wa'ab9a: diha wata'aTiraha:
fa 'ila:
al mantaga bil'da:
gala: assa: Ha
aSSu'u: n assiyysiya
al9arabiyya.

Translation:
During the meeting the Cabinet was
briefed
on the development
and
War and its
extent
of the Iraq-Iran
repercussions
on the region in addition
in the Arab
to the political
situation
World.

Kama 'ista9rada
almajlis
mawciu:9a: t
9 alqa: dim liddawra
al'ijtima:
alxamisa waTTama:ni: n limajlis
aljami9a

Allati:

the

reviewed

also

of the next meeting of the

85th session
Council

En) (H)

al9arabiyya

Translation:
The Cabinet

topics

(Beg

of the Arab League

satu9qad

fi:

(+ Beg

tu: nis

Translation:
Which will

be held

in Tunisia

Table

(5C)

En) (-H)

144
(1)
The Interclausal

(3)

Analysis

Bearing in mind the temporal


here,

if

Form (A) here refers


totally

before

before

Also by the same token,


for

every

form

above according
As for

level:

(A)

of time

whose beginning

a situation

text.

is

interpretation

This

the same as

to

it

(satu9gad),
it

will

maintain

The following

earlier.
for

interpretation

the temporal

table

each form at the

shows us the
interclausal,

Interpretation
at Semantic
level

Interpretation
at the morpholevel
syntactic

' At the
Sh/Or
Opening
Clause

interclausal
level
De Inde

(ST)
x

(Beg + En)(-H)

(ST)
,x

(Beg + En) (H)

Sh

Indep

(ST)
x

(Beg + En) (H)

Sh

Indep

Indep

(A)

(Sa + B) 4

ST
x----

(-Beg
L

Table
(1)

and

can be delimited

interpretation

one temporal

form

given

Form +
Clause

(A)

on a length

(1).

to our model.

temporal

specified

i. e.

of text

counterpart

(ST).

(A) in the

the extended

interpretation

(ST),

form (A)

can be given a

happening

to a situation

falls

ending both fall

from its

interpretation

temporal

(1).

of text

seen from beyond the clause borders,

different

which

interpretation.

For similar
analysis
pairs.
similar

the reader

En)(-H)
-

Posterior
to ST

Dep

(5D)
is

referred

to appendix

(B) for

145
4.4

The Second Pair

So far

we have analyzed

(same lexeme,

To strengthen
firstly

the analysis
interpretations

level.

all

interclausal

level

to show the

Secondly

open with

form

each

we will

we will

(B).

at the
text

a single

Form (B) in that

in each of the sample

In

the different

in each pair
take

examine

the same verb.

reader

an interpretation

receive

to the same form

follow

Each opens with

to the same verb

given

interclausal

given

in what will

attempt

level

interpretation.

two pairs.

we will

with., the same verb

opening

interclausal

at the

temporal

our argument

the other

clauses

but

same tense)

a different

receives

of texts

a pair

text

will

different
texts

whose
at the

from the one


(the

first

member

of each pair).

In the presentation
each text

provide
table

with

be introduced

will

decision

of the

is

the reader

each table.

taken

following

tables

analysis,

at each level

it

of the analysis.

by the name of the analysis

to minimise

has become, at this

repetitiveness
stage,

familiar

has been decided

and it
with

level.
is

Each
The

thought

the symbols

that
in

to

146
Text
Mu: 'tamarun
fi Tu: nis

(iii)
lilru:

ma: ti: zim

tu: nis ku: na: - 1. tara'asat


wazi: rat agsaHHa al9a: mma attu: ni: siyya
'a9ma: 1
addiktu: ra su9a: d alya9qu: bi al waHSi: huna 'ams 'al'awwal
lbulda: n al matawassitiyya.
almultaga:
aTTa: 1iT lilrru:
ma: ti: zm fi:
2. wayuSa: rik fi:
ha: Da almultaqa:
'at%ibba'
'axisa:
(1)
arru: ma: ti: zm min bulda: n 9arabiyya
wa 'u: rubbiya.

'iu: n fi:

'amra: d

A Conference On
Rheumatism In
Tunisia
Tunis

(KUNA): -

The Tunisian
Minister
alWahshi opened (literally
proceedings
of the third
countries.

of Public
chaired)
gathering

Dr. Su'ad alya'qubi


Health,
the day before yesterday
the
on Rheumatism in the Mediterranean

in Rheumatism from Arab and European


Specialists
taking part in the gathering.

(1)
(2)

See text
Literally

(35)

Appendix

(A)

countries

are

147
4.4.1

The Analysis

(1)

The Morphosyntactic

- Situations

Of Text

(iii)
Analysis

In Relation

To (ST)

Interpretations

Form
(0)
tara'asat
(chaired)

(i)

x (ST)/(RT)

(ST)/(RT)
(2)

>

-------

I>
L (0)
yuSa: rik
(take part)

(1)

(ST)/(RT)

x -----(ST)/(RT)
x ------

(2)
L

Table

Situations
-

Independently

(6A)

From (ST)

Interpretations

Form

1 tara'ast
(chaired)

(C)

(-C) _ (I)

2 yuSa: rik
(take

part)

Table

(6B)

(I)

v (-I)

148
(2)

The Semantic

Analysis

Clause
1

Interpretation

aasat
wazi: rat assaHHa al9a: mma
ra
attu: ni: siya addiktu:
su9a: d
alya9qu: bi: al waHSi: huna 'ams
al'awwal'a
almultaga:
aTTal: T
lilrru:
lbulda: n
ma: ti: zm fi:
almutawassitiyya

(Beg + En) (H)

Translation:
The Tunisian
Minister
of Public
Health Dr. Su'ad alyaqubi
al Wahshi
the day
opened (literally
chaired
before yesterday
the third
gathering
on Rheumatism in the Mediterranean

countries.
2

(Beg ;

ha: Da al multaqa:
wayuSa: rik fi:
'atibba:
' 'axisa: 'i: u: n fi:

End)

(H)

'amra: d al ru: ma:ti: zm min

bulda: n 9arabiyya

Wa 'u: rubiyya

Translation:
in

Specialists

Rheumatism

from

Arab and European countries


taking
part in the gathering

are

Table
(3)

The Interclausal

Form &
Clause

(A)

Analysis:

Interpretation
at the morpholevel
syntactic

(1)i

(RT)
L

(6C)

At the
semantic
level

(ST)
--

-----x

-)

(Beg-En)(H)

->

(Beg-En)

At the interclausal
Sh/Or
Dep/
indep
Opening
Clause

Indep

(B)

(2;

(RT)

(ST)
X-L

Table

(6D)

(H)

Sh

Indep

level

149

Text
'jtima:
litatwi:
alqurayat-maktab

aljazi:

(iv)

9 allaina
r qura:

ra/sali:

al9a: mq
alqurayat

m alHari:

s: -

1. tara'asa
wa' ami: r mantaqat
ma9a: li:
mufattiS
al Hudu: d algarbiyya
9
alquraya: t sulta: n alsidari:
zuhra assabt al ma: i: 'ijtima:
allajna
r watnmiyat qura mantagat alquraya: t
al9a: ma litatwi:
baladiyat
allajna
wa Dalika bimagarri
al quraya: t - HayTu 2. ittala9at
9ala: altaqa: ri: r alwa: rida min alwiza: ra: t bixusu: s nat aj
t assa: biqa 3. kama tamma biHT 9adad min
t fi:
altusiya:
aljalsa:
al'umu: r 9ala: sa91: d 'a9ma: 1 allajna.
daktu: r 9a: rif
9 mudi: r ta9li: m aliawf
4. wa Hadara al'ijtima:
wa mudi: r
alquraya: t muHammadal9atyan
almis9ar
s baladlyyat
wa'ra'i:
ta9li: m albana: t fi:
wa mudi: r al
aSSima: l sa: liH al qubaysi:
1
blSima:
'ittisa:
la: t fi:
Snayf
atturuq
wa
r
mudi:
al sara: ri:
aljawf
Hafiz
9a11:
Hu:
t
taxti:
b
HaSa:
S
sayn
al
rat
za:
wamandu:
wa
yu: sif al
liyya
d
f
9abdul
9azi:
s9u:
al
ma:
r
wa
mudi:
z
assyaH
wa mudi: r al'awqa:
9azi: z assardi.
wa mudi: r al
alwarda wa mudi: r al kahraba: '-9abdul
faysal
d
mustafa:
9a
9ali:
almalik
r
mustaSfa:
wa
mudi:
zira:
maHmmu:
(1)
maHru: s.
Committee
The Public
Ourait
Development-Of
Meets.

Ourait

- al Jazira

Bureau/Salim

For The
Villages

alHris

His Highness the Inspector


of the Western borders and the Prince
last
Council
Municipal
the
Sedairi
Qurait
Sultan
chaired
at
al
of
the meeting of the public
committee for the
Saturday afternoon
The
Qurait.
the
development
the
of
villages
of
and
promotion
from the Ministries
on the
Committee was briefed
on the reports
Also
a
the
meetings.
the
previous
of
recommendations
results
of
were
the committee's
activities
number of issues concerning
discussed.
Director
of
The meeting was attended by Dr. Arif
al Mis'ar,
the
Head
the
Atain,
of
Muhammed
in
Juf
Education
the
al
region,
Womens'
Head
the
of
Qubaisi,
Saleh
Council,
Qurait Municipal
al
the Communication
in the North, Shaneef al Sharari,
Education
.
of the Road
Yusif al Hashash, Director
in the Juf region,
Director
in the North, Hussein All al Hafez, Representative
Administration
Director
Sayah,
of
Aziz
Abdul
al
Planning,
Ministry
the
of
of
Director
Endowments, Sud alwarda,
of Finance, Abdul Aziz alsardi,
Director
Mahmoud,
Board,
All
of
Electricity
the
Director
of
King
Faisal
Hospital.
Head
Mahrous,
Mustafa
of
Agriculture,
and
(1)

For the Arabic

text

See the Arabic

text

(36)

appendix

(A)

150
4.4.2

The Analysis

(1)

Of Text

The Morphosyntactic
In
relation
-

(iv)

Analysis
(ST)

to

Form

Interpretations

(0)
1

tara'sa
(chaired)

x (ST)/(RT)

(1)

(ST)/(RT)
x -----

(2)
L

I.

(1)

(ST)/(RT)
x

(2)

(ST)/(RT)
x -----

(0)
2

'ilala9at
was briefed)

L
I.

(0)
3

x (ST)/(RT)

tamma biHT
were discussed)

(0)
4

Hadara
(attended)

x (ST)/(RT)

(1)
L

(ST)/(RT)
x -----

(2)
L
I.

Table

(7A)

151

Independently
-

Form

from

(ST)

Interpretations

1 tara'asa
(chaired)

(C)

(I)

2 'ittala9a
(briefed)

(C)

(I)

3 tamma biHT
(discussed)

(C)

(I)

4 Hadara
(attended)

(C)

(I)

Table

(7B)

152
(2) The Semantic

Analysis

Clause
tara_
ma9a: li mufatiS al
Hudu: d algarbiyya
wa'ami: r mantgat
alquraya: t sulta: n alsidari:
zuhra
'ijtima9
assabt alma: di:
allajna
al9a: ma litatwi:
r
watinmiyat/
qura maniagat
alquraya: t waDalik bimaqarri
baladiyat
alquraya: t

Interpretations
(Beg+En)(H)

Translation:
His Highness the Inspector
of the
Western borders and the prince of
Qurait
Sultan al Sedairi
chaired
last
Council
at the Municipal
Saturday afternoon
the meeting of
the public
committee for the
promotion
and development of the
villages
of the Qurait.

9ala:
HayTu "ittala9at
allajna
altaqa: ri: r a wa: rida min
alwiza: ra: t bixusu: s nata'ij
fi:
t
attusiyat
aljalsa:
assa: biga.

(Beg+En)(H)

Translation:
The committee was briefed
on the
from the Ministries
on
reports
the results
of the
recommendations
of the previous
meetings.

kama tamma biHTu 9adad min


al'umu: r 9ala: sa91: d 'a9ma: 1
allajna

(Beg+En)(H)

Translation:
Also a number of issues
the committee's
concerning
were discussed.
activities
contd....

153
4

Wa Ha ara al'ijtima:
g mudi: r
ta9li: m i: aljawf
diktu: r 9a: rif
al mis9ar wara'i: s baladiyyat
alqurayat
muHammadal9atyan
wamudi: r ta9li: m al ban: t fi:
aSSima: l sa: 1iH al qubaysi:
la: t fi:
wamudi: r al ittisa:
Snayf alsra: ri:
aljawf
biSSima: 1
wamudi: r altturuq
yu: sif al HaSa: S wamandu: b
waza: rat al taxti: t Hu: sayn
9a1i: Hafiz wamudi: r al'uqa: f
9abdul9azi: z alsyaH wamudi: r al
ma: liyya
s9u: d al warda wamudi: r
9azi: z
al kahraba: ' 9abdil
alsardi:
wamudi: r al zira: 9a
9ali:
maHmmu:d wamudi: r
faysal
mustaSfa:
almalik
mustafa:
maHru: s

Translation:
by Dr.
The meeting was attended
-Director
Arifalmisar
te
of
in the Juf region.
Education
Muhammed al Atain,
the Head of
Council,
the Ourait Municipal
Saleh al Qubaisi,
the Head of
in the North,
Womens' Education
Shaneef al Sharari,
the
in the
Communication director
Juf region,
Yusif al Hashash,
Director
of the Road
in the North,
Administration
Hussein All al Hafez,
Representative
of the Ministry
Abdul Azziz al
of Planning,
Sayah, Director
of Endowments,
Director
Sud alwarda,
of
Finance,
Abdul Azziz alsardi,
Board
Director
of Electricity
All Mahmoud, Director
of
Agriculture
and Mustafa Mahrous
Head of King Faisal Hospital.

Table

(7C)

(Beg+En)(H)

154
(3)

The Interclausal

Analysis

(1)

Form +

Interpretation

Interpretation

Clause

at the morpholevel
syntatic

at the Semantic
level

(A)

x ST

At the

interclausal

level
Sh/Or
Dep
Inde

(Beg

+ En)

(H)

Opening
,

Indep

clause

(A)

x ST

(Beg + En) (H)

Sh

Indep

(A)

x ST

(Beg + En) (H)

Sh

Indep

(A)

x ST

(Beg + En) (H)

Sh

Indep

similar

pairs

Table

(1)

For similar
analysis
(A)
appendix

the

(7D)

reader

is

referred

to

in

155
4.5

Third

Pair

Text

(v)

ra's aixayma: - 1. nazzamat mantaqat ra's alxayma attagli:


miyya yawm
dawra tadri: biyya limu9a lima: t
aTTa: min 9aSar min nu: fmb al j: ri:
l al tarbawy.
l aljudud
riyad al'atfa:
min xarri: ja: t alta'hi:
2. wa tastagrig
addawra 'usbu: 9an 3. wa tatadamman tadri:
l liraf91
nazariyya
wa9amaliyya Hawla mana: hij riyad al'affa:
(1)
ha: Da almaia: l.
t al9a: mila: t fi:
almudarrisa:

ba: t
kafa: 'at

Translation:
Ra's al
(2) opened
teachers
of
Educational

in Ra's alKhaima
Khaima: - The Educational
Authorities
(literally
course for the women
a training
organized)
They are all graduates
the new kindergartens.
of the
Institute.
Training

The week long course includes


theoretical
and practical
for kindergartens
and is designed
on designing
syllabuses
in this respect.
the training
of these teachers

(1)

See text

(37)

Appendix

(B)

training
to improve

156
4.5.1

The Analysis

(1)

The morphosyntactic

- Situations

of Text

(v)
Analysis

To (ST)

In Relation

Interpretation

Forms

(0)
nazamat

(ST)/(RT)
"x

(1)

(organized)

(ST)/(RT)
(2)
L

I.

>
(ST)/(RT)

2 tastagriq
(lasts)

x --------

(0)

(1)

(ST)/(RT)
x -------

(2)

>

L
(ST)/(RT)

3 tatadamman
(includes)

(1)

(0)

x-------->

(ST)/(RT)
'-------

(2)

Table

(BA)

"

157
Situations
-

Independently

From (ST)

Form

Interpretations
(C)

nazzamat

(organized)
tastagriq
(lasts)

(-C)

tatalamman
(includes)

= (I)

v (-I)

(-C) = (I)

v (-I)

Table
(2)

The Semantic

(I)

(8B)

Analysis

The Clause

Interpretations

nazzamat mantaqat ra's

(Beg 7 En) (-H)

alxayma

atta9 i: miya yawm aTTa: min 9aSar min


nu: fambar ajja: ri dawra tadri: biyya
limu9a lima: t riya: d al'itfa:
l
l
aljudud
min xrri: ja: t alt'hi:
altarbawy
Translation:
The Educational
in
Authorities
Ra's al Khaima opened (literally
organized)
a training
course for
the new kindergarten
women teachers
who are graduates
of the Educational
Training
Institute.

watastagriq

addawra

'usbu: 9an

(1st mo + last

mo) (H)

+ last
mo

mo) (H)

Translation:

The course lasts


3

for one week

tadri: ba: t nazariyya


watatalammin
wa9amaliyya Hawla mana: hij rlya: d
kafa: 'at
al; atfa: i liraf9
ha: Da
t al9a: mila: t fi:
almudarrisa:
almaja: 1

(ist

contd....

158
Translation:
The course includes
theoretical
training
and practical
on
designing
for
syllabuses
kindergartens
in order to improve
in
the training
of these teachers
this respect.

Table

The Interclausal

(3)
Form +
Clause

(A)

(1)

(ST)
x---

L
I

(B) (2)

(B)

(3)

Analysis

The Interpretation
at the Morpholevel
syntactic
(RT)

(RT)

(RT)

(ST)
x--(ST)
x---

(SC)

At the
semantic
level

(Beg-En)(-H)

->

->

->

Table

(ist

mo-last

At the
clausal
Sh/Or

interlevel
Dep/
Indep

Opening
Clause

Indep

Sh

IndepI

mo) (H)

(1st mo-Last
mo) (H)

(8D)

Sh

Indep

159
Text
al
fi:

(vi)

fikr
al'axdr
'alma: niya

1. nazzamat lajnat nusrat Sa9ab al jama: hi: riyya al9uzma: bimadi: nat
bu: jim alma:
aI
niyya algrbiya allayla qabla alma: diya ndwa

f1kriya
Hawla al nazriya
al9a: lamiyya aTTa: IlTa wassulta
'rdi
al9udzma.
almutabbaqa gala:
ajjama: hi: riyya

aSSa9biyya

2. wa Hadara annadwa' a9a: ' allaina


wa9adad min attalaba
al'alma:
al9arabiya
wa jam9un gafi: r
wa 11i: biy: yi: n wa'abna: ' al ja: liyya

min al muwa:tiniyyi:

3. watamma 9ard Sari: t mar'i: San assulta aSSa9biya wal muktasaba: t


4. Haggagaha aSSa9b al9arabi:
wa 1'inja: za: t al'Hada: riyya allati:
Tawrat alfa: tiH al9azi: ma 9ala: al'as91da ka: fa. (1)
alli: bi: bifi9l
The Green Thought

in Germany

The Committee for the support of the people of the great


in the West German city
Jammahiriya organized
of Bochum, the night
before last,
seminar on the "World Third
an ideological
Theory" and "People Power" in the great Jamahiyria.
The Seminar was attended by the committee's
members, West
in
West
Arab
the
community
German and Libyan students,
of
members
Germany and alarge
number of citizens.
In the seminar,
a film was shown about People Power and the
by
Libyan
the
Arab
achieved
and
accomplishments
cultural
gains
ist
the
Revolution
Great
of September.
of
the
People by virtue
of

For

the

Arabic

text

( see38)

appendix

(B)

160
Of Text

(vi)

4.5.2

The Analysis

(1)

The morphosyntactic
analysis
in relation
to ST
Situations

Interpretations

Form

(0)
1 nazzamat
(rganized)

(1)

-x

(ST)/(RT)

(2)

x -----(ST)/(RT)

>

I.
(0)
2 Hadara
(attended)

(ST)/(RT)
x

(1)
L
(2)

x -----(ST)/(RT)

(ST)/(RT)
x

(0)
3 tamma 9ar
(was shown)

>

(1)
L

(ST)/(RT)
(2)
L
I.

4 Haqaqataha

---x

------

(0)

(ST)/(RT)

(1)

-x

(was achieved)
(2)
L

,-----

I.
Table

(9A)

x------>
(ST)/(RT)

>

161

Interpretations

Form
1

na; zamat

(C)

(I)

Hadara
(attended)

(C)

(I)

tamma 9ard

(C)

(I)

(organized)

(was shown)
4

(C)

Haqaqatah
(were a child)

Table

(2)

The Semantic

(I)

(9B)

Analysis

Interpretations

Clause
Sa9ab al
nazzamat lajnat
nqrat
jama: hi: rya al9uzma bimadi: nat
bu: jim al'alma: niya algarbiya
al
layla qabla alma: diya nadwa
fikriya
Hawla alnnazariya
al9a: lamiya aTTa: liTa wassulta
aSSa9biya almutabaga 9ala:
'ardi
al jama: hi: riya

(Beg + En) (-H)

Translation:
The Committee for the support of
the people of the Great
in the
Jamahiiriya_organized
West German city of (Bochum), the
night before last an
ideological
seminar on the World
Third Theory and People
Power in the Great Jamahiriya.

Wa Hacar annadwa 'a9da: ' allijna


al 'alma: n
wa9adad min attalaba

byi:
walli:
al9arabiyya
almwatini:

n wa 'abna:
wajam9un
n.

'ajja:

gafi:

(Beg + En) (H)

liyya
r min

contd....

162

Translation:
The seminar was attended by the
committee members, West German
and Libyan students,
members of
the Arab community in West
Germany and a large number of
citizens.
3

9an
watamma 9ar Sari: t mar'i:
assulta
aSSa9biya
walmuktasabat
wa l'inja:
za: t al
Hada: riyya
allati:

(Beg + En) (-H)

Translation:
In the seminar, a film was shown
about the people power and the
gains and accomplishments
4

Haqaqaha: aSSa9b
allati
bi: bifi9l
al9arabi::
all
alfa: tiH al9azi: ma gala:
'as9ida ka: fa

(Beg + En) (-H)


Tawrat
al

Translation:
achieved by the Libyan Arab
People by the virtue
of the
Great Revolution
of the 1st of
September on all levels

Table

(9C)

163

Form &

Clause

The interpretations at the


morphosyntactic
level

At the interclausal
Sh/Or
Dep/
Indep

At the
Semantic
Level

L
(A) 1

(ST)

(+Beg+En)

(-H)

Opening
clause

Indep

L
(A) 2

x (ST)

(Beg+En)

(H)

Sh

Indep

x (ST)

(Beg+En)

(-H)

Sh

Indep

x (ST)

(Beg+En)

(-H)

Or

dep

L
(A) 3

----

(A) 4
L

Table

(9D)

level

164
Text (vii)
ma9rad taSki:
9an 'abha:

li:

1. yuftataH
gada: n aTTula: Ta: ' bisa: lt ru: Sa: n lilfunu:
n biiadda
li:
alma9rad attaSki:
n alsa9u: di: 9abdallah
alxa: mis lilfanna:
aSSatli:
mawdu: 9uhu madinat 'abha:
2. wayaStamil alma9rad allaDi:
3. yaftatiHuhu
mudl: r aljam91yya
fa walfunu: n bijaddah
al9arabiya
assa9u: diyya lilTaqa:
addaktu: r
9abdul Hali: m alradawi:
gala: sitti:
n lawHa 4. tamaTTil almana:; ir
ba9dan min suwar al Haya: t
'abha: S. wata9kis
atabi9i:
yya limadinat
diya fi: ha:
(1)
9iyya wai'igtisa:
al'ijtima:
Translation:
A Plastic
On Abha
The exhibition
of plastic
and whose themeAon Abha will
in Jeddah.
i$

Art

Exhibition

Abdullah
art by the Saudi artist
be opened tomorrow in Rushan Hall

alShatli
of Arts

be opened by the head of Saudi Arabia


The exhibition
which will
Include
Society for Culture
and Arts Dr. Abdul Halim Radawy (will)
depict(ing)
the landscape of Abha and show(ing)
sixty
paintings
aspects of Abha's social
and economic life.

(1)

see text

(39)

appendix

(C)

165
The Analysis

(1)

The morphosyntactic
Analysis
In Relation
to (ST)
Situation

Of Text

(vii)

4.6

Interpretations

Form
1 yuftataH

will

(ST)/(RT)

(1)

be opened

(0)

x ----------

--L
(ST)/(RT)

(2)

xx

2 yaStamil

will

(0)

(ST)/(RT)

(1)

include

>

---

---

x ----------

--L
(ST)/(RT)

(2)
xx

3 yaftatihu
be opened
will

x ------------

(ST)/(RT)

xx---

(1)

--

>

--

L
(ST)/(RT)

(2)

Xx

-----

---

L
5 ta9kis
showing

(1)

(ST)/(RT)
xL

(0)

(ST)/(RT)

(2)
xx---

Table

->

(0)

(ST(/(RT)
x -----------

representing

->

(2)

4 tumaTTil

>

---

(0)

(ST)/(RT)

(1)

---

(10A)

---

>

166
-

Independently

From (ST)

Interpretations

Form

yuftataH
be opened
will

(-C)

= (I)

v (-I)

yaStamil

(-C)

= (I)

v (-I)

(-C) = (I)

v (-I)

will
3

include

yaftatiH
will

be opened

tumaTTil
depicting

(-C)

ta9kis
showing

(-C)

Table

(10B)

=. (I)

_ (I)

v (-I)

v (-I)

167
(2)

The Semantic

Analysis

Clause
i

Interpretation

gaden aTTula: Ta: ' bisa: lt

yuftataH

ru: Sa: n lilfinnu:


li:

attaSki:

assa9u: di:

n bijadda

alma9rad

xa: mis liffana:

al

9abdallah

wa muwd9u: hu madinat

(Beg = En)

aSSatli:
'abha:

Translation:

The exhibition

by the. Saudi

art

Abdullah

artist

whose Lcw. c

al Shatli
c1l

of plastic

is "P tt, c.

Abc%

at

wayStamil alma9rad
sitti:
n lawHa - --

(; 71st

----------

mo

last

mo)(H)

Translation
The exhibition
include
sixty
paintings
3

will

-----

(Beg = En)

allaDi:
yaftatiHhu
mudi: r
al9arabiya
alsa9u: diyya
aljam9iyya
lilTaga:
fa walfinnu: n bijadda
addaktu: r 9abdul Hali: m al radawy

Translation:
be opened by the head of
which will
for
the Saudi Arabia Society
Culture
and Arts Dr. Abdul Halim
al radawy
4

tumaTTil

al manazir

limadinat

attabi:

9i: ya

(+ Beg

En) (H)

'abha:

Translation:
----

depicting

the landscape

of Abha
5

ba9dan min suwar al Haya: t

wata9kis

'igtisa:
9iyya wal

al'ijtima:

diyya

fi: ha:

Translation:
---Abha's

and showing aspects of


life
social
aeconomic
Table

(10C)

(7 ist

+
last
mo

mo) (H)

168

(3)

The Interclausal
Form & Clause

(B)

The temporal
interpretation
at the morpholevel
syntactic
(ST)

x- -(B)

(B)

(B)

(B)

(1)

Analysis

(Beg = En)

(RT)
L

(RT)

(ST)
x ----

(RT)
x --L

(ST)
x---

(RT)
x-L

-)

interclausal
Dep/Indep

Indep

Opening

clause

->

-x --

(ST)
x- ---x--

(ST)
X--------)

At the
Semantic
level

At the
level
Sh/Or

(-lstmolast mo)(H)

Sh

Indep

(Beg = En)

Sh

Dep

Sh

Dep

Sh

Dep

>
(-Beg

-En)(H)

->
(-1st mo-las
mo)(H)

(RT)
L
Table

(1)

For similar
analysis,
appendix (C)

(10D)

the reader

is

referred

to texts

in

169
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1

General

Discussion
look

An overall

one to make two sets

(i)

these

(ii)

interpretations

about the avenues the text

In texts
text

of the verb forms in

(i),

and (v)

(iii)

to

of a length

point

falls

only

(ET) of that

(RT) and the

the

represents

the

(A) in each
on an initial

occurring

a situation

This

form

that

one can notice

indicate

of time.

to disambiguate

can offer

of the verb forms.

interpretation

can contribute

point

texts,

temporal

it

of'observations:

about the temporal

may lead

of our seven texts

the analysis

at

before

siutation

(ST) and

according

to

our model.

With regard
form

(A)

(same tense,

at a length

(B)

that

progress

which

This

of time.

in these

this

same radicals)

Also

texts.

length

with

co-occurs

opens with

the

in texts

at a length

and falling

form

(A).

that

notice

falling

to a situation

falls

before

(ST) and

the-situation.

(B) contributes

form

one can also

refers

length

whole

us move on to examine

noticed

and (vi)

(iv)

an (RT) and (ET) for

represents

Now let

(ii),

to texts

the
This

temporal
(i),

and (v)

(iii)

to point
of time.

interpretations
it

is

to a situation
The initial

(RT) established
situation

of form

in
point

by clause

moreover

of

includes

and

(ST).
beyond,
goes

Text (vii)

provides

another interpretation

for

form (B).

The form

170

here also represents

(RT) established

the

with

in clause

in form

(B).

include

and go beyond (ST).

this

the situation

Before

discussing

extralinguistic
glance

at each text,

of

related

group

of

people

and ending

(1)

tell

to

Moreover

left

1 in
the

to right

it

value

would be

of the
With a mere

between the beginning

and states

in

which

a certain

engage.

that

notice

of the occurrence
of the situation

these texts

of the ending

with

regard

differ

and

above is

What is meant by the situation


actions

of

each is about a situation

that

The stages

and an end.

and parallel

However, one can also


presentation

is specified,

by each text.

represented

are different.

a set

is normally

of the common features

one can easily

which has a beginning

(ST).

after

verb

(B) of clause

between the temporal

in which it

an account

situation

end, however,

line

the relationship

to give

convenient

another

(1)

form and the text

the verb

at a point
time

(1985).

to Comrie

1 which opens with

That is because form

time movement on the notional


according

point co-occurs

here does not move backwards

But the situation

locates

text

whose initial

a situation

in the

or both the beginning

to (ST).

by
the
the
clauses
onto
I
represented
Here
the
situations
project
(1985)
The
by
Cowrie
and
others.
line
time
envisaged
notional
line
into
the
two
divides
parts.
moment of speaking
or writing
half
the
the
while
other
past
left
The half
the
represents
on
the non-past
represents

171
To present

a situation

alternates

form

whose ending is still


(A) with form (B).
By doing

becomes a representative
before

(ST).

This

one.

Moreover

to present

occurred,

the text

form

(form

parallel

form

in

occurs

form

falling

the same

(A) becomes a

before

(A) become representatives

(ST) while

of other

the

situations

is the case in texts

This

have

and ending

(ii),

(iv)

and (vi).

To represent
unrealized,

the text

is form (B).

with

From all
structure

form

above

one.

these

observations,

imparts

forms

at

temporal
point

the

text

the
level

interpretations

can be further

(B)

I hope it

temporal

Or more precisely,

falling

situation

values

alternation
in
of

this
these

substantiated

to

after

or
category

the

of

situations

two verb
consistency

of

two verb

it

(ST) while

has become clear

these

time

(B) becomes a

form

become representatives

In

verbs
the

case the initial

of an entire

both

and end are still

the same verb form but this

maintains

In this

representative
other

whose beginning

a situation

texts
forms

by examining

of

specifies
in

parallel

that

forms

MSA.

more data

of

the previous

with

but maintains

forms

situation

falls

point

and (v).

manner the initial

the above one.

with

(ii)

does not alternate

of an entire

verbs

point

whose beginning

a situation

In this

A).

representative
other

(i),

is the case in texts

(A)

becomes a representative

and whose initial

in progress

a situation

hand,

on the other

the text
form
so the initial

whose initial

of a situation

Form (B),

future,

the

in

MSA.

these
the
This
In our

text

172
It

corpus.

be further

could

by data

validated

from beyond the bounds

of the corpus.

5.2

The Implications

A study
(1)

can have the following

such as ours

Arab reporters
this

interpretation

one of whom Is the translator.

competent
background

in both

between their

Also spontaneously,

and cultural

leave

of such texts
interpretation

Islamic

be noted here that

the

of the verb forms

culture

World,

for

it

is extensively

in MSA.

reflected

Young and inexperienced


texts,

have a good educational

languages.

working

reporters

the

be

should

knowledge of the Arab and Islamic

to the readers'
should

and should

of the temporal

specification

(3)

languages

translators

of

is not

to improve

so as to be aware of the linguistic

differences

(2)

texts.

This

In order

however.

of the translated

quality

of the temporal

form to the powers of observation

of the verb

the case in English,

often

the determination

spontaneously

the Arab readers;

in

such as the ones we encountered

of texts

work leave

Implications:

try

to determine

form in isolation
partly

due to their

partly

to impress

translators,

when translating

the temporal

interpretation

of other

employers

done at the expense of the quality


institute

involved

They do so

grammar background
about the quantity

work and the speed at which the work is done.

goal of every

of the verb

verb forms in the text.

sentence-based
their

such

This

of the work as it
in translation.

and
of the

indeed is
is the

To improve

173
the performance

of these

be drawn to points

(4)

(5)

translators

how to determine

What is more interesting.

it

that

non-Arab

during

in this

training

(6)

verb

The problem
faced.

It

do not seem to be made


interpretations

of bilingual

In many texts

lexicographers

of the semantic

multiplicity

values

of
Thus

part.

work is not infrequently

To make the job of the translator

attention

them.

on their

necessary

in this

we have discussed

I have

of Salford.

forms and the means to specify

can be encountered

examined.

in the Department

my contacts

of the temporal

area Is highly

of the
language.

the target

of Arabic

students

aware of the multiplicity


the Arabic

interpretation

into

of Modern Languages in the University


noticed

should

hand can be

on the other

the temporal

form and how to translate

verb

attention

(1) and (2).

Young and inexperienced


trained

their

young recruits

like

the ones we

easier

should

the

be drawn to the

of the verb forms in

Arabic.

(7)

Though it

is advisable

a language other
true

that

into

English

there

Arabists.
practice
work.

for

for

the translator

than his/her
are a lot
the rarity

mother tongue,

of Arab translators
of non-Arab

Those Arab translators


should

it

who translate

translators

be made aware of problems discussed

problems of translation.

into

is undeniably

who are involved

This can be done by designing

encountered

not to translate

or
in this
in this

a course on the newly

174

(8)

Translation

has become a flourishing

Departments

world.

training

courses
for

organized

(9)

Similarly,
United

States

Teachers

courses.
universities

various

these universities

Arabists

and English

to do research

should

that

speakers

of Arabic

researches

S. 3

for

should

channelled

be done by courses

are understaffed.

of Arabic

translators

should

be motivated

I do believe

of translation.
of these universities

to serve

native

to do linguistic

be encouraged
translation

studies.

Conclusion

This finally

leaves

plausibility

of our model and the analysis,

acceptability
further

in these

in the Arab World.

and polytechnics

the benefit

and the

be made aware of problems

This can best

on the problems

however.

in Britain

translation/interpretation

by the Arab Universities

organized

can be

of translation/interpretation

or polytechnics

that

or institutes.

and polytechnics

such as the one we studied.

(10) Also

of translation

these universities

started

I believe

courses.

on the problems

universities

have embarked on

of Translation

translation/interpretation

various

In the Arab

in most Arab

of Modern Languages

and Institutes

universities

business

us to draw some conclusions.

of the amount and nature

research

is done in other

and given

of our data,

genres,

Given the

venture

the

one may, until


to conclude

the

175

following:

(1)

Each of our two main verb forms often

(2)

which

each

time

explicitly

The Arabic

level.

It

or implicitly

form

distinguish

same verb

form

interpreted

All

this

two

forms

implies
in

Earlier
the

about

therefore

are

Arabic

from anyone involved

level,

the

but are
of the clause.

of

from

beyond

forms

exactly

may be

we analyzed,

and the

the

each

of

is

only
borders.

clause

aspectual

our

classes

texts.

profession

of the work he/she

He/she should

this

in turn

to observe
on lexical'or

requires
the following:
clausal

is engaged in as my first

work may show.


not rigidly

follow

the two main verb forms in Arabic


class

of

invalidated.

not depend totally

example in this

aspectual

with

of the

do
to meet the
to
be
tempted
as one may

equivalences

(ii)

clauses

ones

partially

or English

than that

interpretation

the

these

higher

than that

information

in this

He/she should

exigencies

higher

like

a reference

at the clause

and same tense)

temporal

a news report

On translating

(i)

the

that

assumptions

clauses

two similar

(same radicals

by means of

specifiable

and inception

do so at a level

at a 'level

to

does not

the perfect

the same at the clause

disambiguated

but

specified.

between completion
can only

(ST)

NOT to

(A) conventionally

For Instance,

clause.

denote

to

contributes

the situation

relates

of the clause.

earlier

assumptions

and assumptions

about

about the

t
(iii)

Besides
he/she

observing
should

types

other

of cohesion

and coherence,

to the temporal

pay attention

structure

of the

text.
(iv)

Re-reading

and its

Importance.

Though this

experience.

this

job
(v)

the text

is carried

When training
attention

is often

out under certain


people

for

this

trainees

pay attention

is of paramount

version

from my personal

may sound obvious

condition

of his/her

to make then

translated

ignored

time

profession

pressures.
one should

to the above points

to it

because the

mainly

when editing

their

draw the

in order
texts.

176

177
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