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A COMPARITIVE STUDY ON PRINT MEDIA AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA

CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Binky Srivastava(2015), in his study focuses on readers' interest and approach


towards digital and conventional newspapers. The objectives of the research are to identify
the basic reasons for reading the news, to analyse the possible impact of the reasons identified
on the decision to read online or conventional newspapers, and finally, to study the possible
relation between both types of news media. Design/methodology/approach the research study
began by way of an exploratory investigation. Initially it defines and brings together a focus
group with the aim of the researchers familiarizing themselves more deeply with the subject
of analysis and making an approach to the attitudes and behaviour of newspaper readers.
Further a series of in-depth interviews with a sample of both digital and traditional
newspapers readers was then held. Findings the result analysis validates the existence of
significant positive relationship between motivation related to the look for latest news and
digital news readership. Motivational factors related to reading as entertainment or daily
routine clearly shows a significant negative influence on the choice of digital medium for
newspaper reading. Research limitations/implications the limitation of the study is that
certain variables defining readers' motivation factors to approach digital news may have been
unconsidered. Hence future research may be done considering new exploratory factors in the
model to describe reading patterns. The primary significant implication is that digital
newspaper should be taken up to analyze various strength of internet and explore the
opportunities for development of new market segment. Originality/value This is the study
that analyses reader behaviour on the part of the electronic readership. Therefore, it provides
a significant contribution in that it identifies various readers' behaviour patterns for digital
newspapers and study reader goals from a global perspective.

DeWaal(2005), is of the opinion that Printed newspapers are known to widen the
range of public topics, events and issues their audience is aware of. There are reasons to
assume that their Online counterparts help increase their audience's perceived agenda to a
lesser extent. The way print newspapers are structured and used is supposed to lure readers
into reading stories they may not have been interested in beforehand. Online papers support
more activity and control by their Users; becoming aware of a narrower range of topics
according to one's individual interests is more plausible. A representative survey of almost
1000 respondents shows it is more complicated than that. Both channels in fact contribute to
widening the audience agenda. But whereas online newspapers show this effect only in the
highest educated group of society, print newspapers are able to expand the horizon of those
whose range of interests is at most average.

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A COMPARITIVE STUDY ON PRINT MEDIA AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA

Richard C Mitchell(1997),says that Its been over 20 years since Xerox coined the
phrase "the paperless office." This was the prevailing conventional wisdom when mainframes
arrived, and again with the advent of personal computer, the office-wide network, the laptop,
and most recently, the World-Wide Web. Each new development in computer technology
promises a new degree of storage, connectivity, or portability that seems to diminish the
dominance of the printed press, now a 400-year-old technology. But print hasn't vanished,
and is not likely to do so for the foreseeable future. Because the printed word is, for many
purposes, a better technology. This would be true even without the first-mover advantage to
print. Many of the original 16th-century Gutenberg bibles are still around and readily
readable-provided you can read Latin-yet it is not easy to find a way to read the documents
on an 8-year-old floppy disk. Moreover the useful lives of current electronic data storage
methods are measured in years, not centuries. The bottom line is that print, for all its recent
challenges, remains for many applications simply a superior technology.

Howard Penn(2000) ,in his article reports on the combination of traditional print
newsletter and the online publication. Changes in the old print publication require much
revision. It was a breakthrough, that electronic people can access the Web site for the current
changes. The essential and distinctive appearance of publication is to give the customers what
they prefer. Some prefer the web version while others are still happy on the familiarity of the
traditional paper newsletter. But there was a feedback that an intangible value had been lost
without the print newsletter. According to Elizabeth Bun that having both variations is having
the best of the worlds.

Liu(2006), opines that the arrival and proliferation of electronic resources and digital
libraries have a number of significant impacts on the use of print resources and traditional
libraries. This study explores the extent to which graduate students in a metropolitan
university setting use print and electronic resources. Reading preferences and use of print and
electronic resources vary among different disciplines. Graduate students seem to expect a
hybrid of print and electronic resources. They desire to meet their information needs through
a mix of print and online resources, even though reasons for supplementing another type of
resource differ. Circumstances that affect the selection of use between digital libraries and
traditional libraries are also discussed in his research.

Chrzastowski(2003), Says that a "new model" academic chemistry library is proposed


at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) in which primary access to
journals is electronic, replacing traditional print access, binding, and shelving. Print journals
will continue to be purchased and archived unbound in a remote storage facility following
unbound display and access for twelve months. The new model, initially proposed by
administrative chemistry faculty, was assessed in a feasibility study which looked at the
stability, quantity, and quality of electronic journals; it also included a survey of chemistry
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A COMPARITIVE STUDY ON PRINT MEDIA AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA

faculty, a review of internal management data, and an analysis of use of chemistry journals,
both print and electronic. The feasibility study found support for the model in every area, but
with a few caution flags and speed bumps predicted along the way.

Eric.C(2002), compares the responses of consumers who submitted answers to a


survey instrument focusing on Internet purchasing patterns both electronically and using
traditional paper response methods. We present the results of a controlled experiment within a
larger data collection effort. The same survey instrument was completed by 416 Internet
customers of a major office supplies company, with approximately 60% receiving the survey
in paper form and 40% receiving the electronic version. In order to evaluate the efficacy of
electronic surveys relative to traditional, printed surveys we conduct two levels of analysis.
On a macro-level, we compare the two groups for similarity in terms of fairly aggregate,
coarse data characteristics such as response rates, proportion of missing data, scale means and
inter-item reliability. On a more fine-grained, micro-level, we compare the two groups for
aspects of data integrity such as the presence of data runs and measurement errors. This
deeper, finer-grained analysis allows an examination of the potential benefits and flaws of
electronic data collection. Our findings suggest that electronic surveys are generally
comparable to print surveys in most respects, but that there are a few key advantages and
challenges that researchers should evaluate. Notably, our sample indicates that electronic
surveys have fewer missing responses and can be coded/presented in a more flexible manner
(namely, contingent coding with different respondents receiving different questions
depending on the response to earlier questions) that offers researchers new capabilities.

Sridhar(2015),opines that during the past decade, the newspaper industry experienced
significant erosion of revenues, predominantly in print advertising. The concomitant increase
in the less rewarding online advertising has been unable to make up for this loss. As a result,
for every $1 increase in online advertising between 2005 and 2011, newspapers lost $22 in
print advertising. While it is conceivable that the overall change in the advertising landscape
(such as the growth of targeted search advertising), contributed to the decline in print
advertising, it is not clear whether the growth in online newspaper advertising aggravated or
alleviated this global trend. We investigate this concern by studying how advertisers
reallocate their media budgets over time between the online and print media within a
newspaper. We perform our empirical analysis using unique panel data on account-level
advertising expenditures in a Top 50 US newspaper from 2005 through 2011. After
accounting for cross-sectional heterogeneity among advertisers and some factors that possibly
drove both print and online newspaper advertising, we find a negative relationship between
the ad spending in these two media options. Therefore, advertisers exhibit a higher propensity
to decrease print spending when they increase their online spending compared to the scenario
when online spending either remains unchanged or even decreases. Since we do not rely on
exclusion restrictions, we cannot rule out residual factors that drove both print and online
advertising and thus contaminated this relationship. However, such potentially confounding
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factors (e.g., change in total media budget) are likely to have induced a positive correlation
between print and online advertising. Therefore, the negative relationship that we recover is
suggestive of advertisers perceiving print and online newspaper advertising as substitutes.
This, in turn, implies that the growth in online newspaper advertising exacerbated the overall
decline in print advertising. Overall, we attribute 7-17 % of the decline in print newspaper
advertising revenues between 2005 and 2011 to the growth of online newspaper advertising.
We conclude that cannibalization should be a credible consideration in the marketing
decisions of the newspaper. However, since a large portion of print advertising revenue
decline also occured for advertisers who never purchased online advertising from the
newspaper, cannibalization within the newspaper is not solely responsible for the downward
trajectory of print advertising.

Wergin(2012), says that the intent of this research is to investigate the merits of online
advertising media versus traditional print newspaper advertising. As such, this research
simultaneously compares the effects of four advertising media:
(1) newspaper print display advertising,
(2) newspaper website advertising,
(3) store website advertising,
(4) store email advertising.
A four week experimental investigation was set up where store coupons were offered
via the four advertising media, including a brief survey for those customers who redeemed
the coupons. The results of the investigation support the current industry paradigm that
traditional newspaper is declining in effectiveness, yet this research suggests that newspaper
print advertising still has a place in a firm's media portfolio. The findings of this research
reveal that the lowest cost of advertising per coupon redeemed occurred with the store email
advertising and store website advertising, yet traditional newspaper print and website
advertising provided a greater reach. As a result, this paper offers four managerial
recommendations. First, newspaper print advertising continues to be effective as tool for
building brand awareness and the firm ought to continue using it as the primary component of
its media efforts. Second, with newspaper website advertising is an effective brand awareness
builder; however it was less effective as a media for delivering coupons. Third, store website
advertising is currently underutilized and deserves attention for future expansion and longterm benefit. Finally, the firm should continue the development of the client database to be
used in focused email advertising efforts. The authors wish to thank Erin Alberts for her help
in working with Freed's Fine Furnishing and helping the collection of data, and Michelle
O'Malley for providing insightful comments to the manuscript.

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Fernando(2010), focuses on the growing sales of electronic-books, Kindle and Nook,


reported by the Association of American Publishers in the U.S. It mentions the new digital
channels that would bring tough learning experience about how to engage readers in both
analog and digital realms. It illustrates the trend of print media which turns digital access
points to stay more relevant to readers who are more likely to instruct between the printed
page and digital co.

Bischoff(2013),in his article reports on the publication's transition from print to digital
format. It notes the impact of technology in changing the way people listen to music and
accessing reading content through compact discs (CD), websites, smart phones, and tablet
computers. The author advises readers that the publication will cease its print circulation and
be offered to readers through its website and electronic newsletters.

New media age(2007), claims that ABC announces that the readership figures of
national newspaper web sites will be made available on a pre-announced date each month for
the first time, as claimed by ABC Electronic (ABCE). ABCE has released its first National
Newspaper Group Product Report, which presents audited data for both print from ABC and
online data from ABCE. Richard Foan, managing director of ABCE, said he hoped the report
would offer greater transparency of numerical information from web sites, to allow for more
effective advertising buying. Zach Leonard, digital media publisher for "Times Online," said
the report was a positive step as it is critical for digital media owners to roll up their numbers
in a meaningful way each month.

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