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Mechanical Engineering

Capstone Design Laboratory

mez

Mario Go

mariogomezt@outlook.com

Abstract

In this document will describe how to obtain main stresses and main directions in a point over plane to after apply

Failures Theories for both ductile and fragile materials by computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

Eigenvalues will represent main stresses and eigenvector will represent main directions.

INTRODUCTION

To start is important to consider a vanishingly small rectangular parallelepiped and then we should consider the surface

tractions on three rectangular boundary surface of the body,

this is showed in the Figure 1. The cartesian components

of the surface tractions are showed in the Figure 2, and this

components are the nine force intensities on three orthogonal

faces of the infinitesimal rectangular parallepiped.

11

21

31

12

22

32

13

23

33

and we will denoted the normal stress with , meanwhile the

the off-diagonal terms are the shear stresses.

11

21

31

12

22

32

13

23

33

Stress tensor shall be symmetric due to the shear

stresses with reversed indices with respect to each other are

Figure 1: Vanishingly small rectangular parallelepiped with equal, it means the next consideration kj = jk and this

the surface tractions on three rectangular boundary surface consideration is important to the equilibrium of the body.

of the body.

EIGENVECTOR

The eigenvector of a square matrix are the non-zero vectors that, after being multiplied by the matrix, remain proportional to the original vector.

If v is a vector that is not zero, then it is an eigenvector

of a square matrix A if Av is a scalar multiple of v.

Av = v

(1)

and the scale factor is the eigenvalue corresponding to the

eigenvector.

Eigenvectors can be found by finding non-zero solutions

an infinitesimal rectangular parallelepiped with faces parallel

of the eigenvalue equation, that becomes a system of linear

to the coordinate planes of x1 , x2 , x3 .

equations with know coefficients, then is necessary know the

exact value of an eigenvalue.

The nine quantities are stresses and now we can represent

All the eigenvectors of a matrix are perpendicular, they

the stresses as an array as is shown.

are orthogonal.

1

Mechanical Engineering

Capstone Design Laboratory

to that is necessary to denote a new parameter, this is the

eigenspace (E ), this one is for a . So now we have the next

equation,

E=3

2

= Span 1

1

E

form one eigenspace too, but the eigenvector when

=3

Elambda = N (In A)

(2)

= 3 is perpendicular to the eigenspace when = 3.

The null space of this matrix is an actual numerical repEIGENVALUE

resentation of (A In ), but also the null space of the matrix

above is the set of all of the vectors that satisfy this matrix

For each eigenvector, the corresponding eigenvalue is the

or all of the eigenvectors that correspond to the respective

factor by which the eigenvector changes when multiplied by

eigenvalue.

the matrix.

The null space of a matrix is equal to the null space of the

Eigenvalue for matrices 2x2

reduced row echelon form of a matrix

We should considered always subtract from the diagonal

Eigenvector for matrices 3x3

of A,

We are going to consider the next matrix,

The eigenvalues of a matrix A can be determined by finding the roots of the characteristic polynomial.

1 2

2

2 1

A= 2

2

1

2

Ax = x

(3)

For this matrix the eigenvalues are, = 3, = 3 and

= 3, then we shall consider the next theorem,

The eigenvectors corresponding to one and the same

eigenvalue of A, together with 0, form a vector space, called if and only if A I is singular,

the eigenspace of A corresponding to that

So, for the matrix above, we have two eigenspaces.

det(A I) = 0

(4)

Eigenspace for = 3

Notice that det(A I) = 0 involves only , not x.

1

2

1

2

v1

E=3 = v2 = a 1 + b 0 a, b R

v3

0

1

1

2

1

2

eigenvector x.

Eigenvalue for matrices 3x3

E=3 = Span 1 0

0

1

Eigenspace for = 3

is an eigenvalue of A

Av = v

0 = In v Av 0 = (In A)v

(In A)v = 0

det(In A)v = 0

E=3

v1

2

= v2 = t 1

v3

1

References

https://www.khanacademy.org/math/linear-algebra/alternate_bases/eigen_everything/v/

linear-algebra-finding-eigenvectors-and-eigenspaces-example

http://nir-quimiometria.blogspot.kr/2011/06/eigenvectors-y-eigenvalues.html

http://math.mit.edu/gs/linearalgebra/ila0601.pdf

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