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You are on page 1of 45

Contents

Contents

1. Introduction...2

A. Slab structure..3

B. Electromagnetic waves5

C. Classification of modes..6

2. Maxwells Equations7

A. Introducing Maxwells equations.7

B. Initial Conditions.8

C. Solution to Maxwells equations..8

TEM Modes.12

TE Modes.12

TM Modes...16

A. The Poynting vector..23

B. Dispersions.23

Chromatic dispersion23

Modal Dispersion24

C. Wave velocities.26

Phase velocity...26

Group velocity..26

D. Losses...27

Bending losses..27

Radiation losses27

4. References..28

1

Introduction

1. Introduction

Dielectric slab waveguides are the simplest optical waveguiding structures.

Because of their simple geometry, guided and radiation modes can be

described by simple mathematical expressions.

The study of slab waveguides allows us to understand the guiding properties

of more complicated dielectric waveguides.

Slab waveguides are not only used for modeling more general types of

waveguides, but also used for guidance in integrated optical circuits.

Here, we are only concerned about the planner (Rectangular) slab

waveguides, thats we can work only in Cartesian coordinates (x, y and z).

Introduction

We have two cases for the planner waveguide. A symmetric case where

, and an asymmetric case where n2n3. Here, also, we will consider

the symmetric case (

).

The core region is called the Film deposited on a layer called substrate and

covered with another layer called Superstrate. If the two surrounding layers

are identical, then both of them are called the Cladding.

it is well known that waveguiding (ex. Optical Fibers) is based on the

phenomena of Total Internal Reflection(T.I.R), that is when a ray of light is

incident from a medium of higher refractive index into another medium of

lower refractive index with an angle of incidence ( ) greater than the critical

angle ( c ) , then the ray is totally reflected.

1) Single-Mode,

2) Multi-mode waveguides.

3

Introduction

frequencies), such that a single-mode waveguide allows only one ray of light

to propagate through it, while a multi-mode waveguide allows more (but finite

number of) rays of lights to propagate within it.

multi-mode the rays of light are reflected from the surface at different angles,

so different modes (rays) will arrive at the receiver at different times, which

is more difficult to handle. While in single-mode waveguide it doesn't happen

as it is only one ray (mode) called Fundamental Mode.

We will concentrate here in finding the modal solution of multimode

waveguide, which is to find the number of allowed modes to propagate within

the waveguide and their field distribution inside the guide.

Introduction

They are transverse waves in space that has two components: Electric and

Magnetic components, such that each component is perpendicular to each

other and both of them are perpendicular to the direction of propagation of

the wave. Each of the two components are time varying (ie change with time).

Introduction

The propagation of electromagnetic waves in guides may be classified into

three classes:

the magnetic field lines are normal to the axis of propagation (K) i.e. no

existence of

or

components (

).

2. TE mode (Transvers Electric): in which only the electric field lines are

normal to the axis of propagation (K) i.e. no existence of

(

component

).

are normal to the axis of propagation (K) i.e. no existence of

component (

).

dielectric slab optical waveguide, and the field distribution of each on inside

the wave guide.

Maxwell's Equations

2. Maxwell's Equations

2.1 Introducing Maxwells equations

The propagation of electromagnetic waves is governed by Maxwell's

equations.

(2.1)

(2.2)

(2.3)

Where :

(2.4)

different modes inside the wave guide.

Maxwell's Equations

First we will put initial conditions for the case of rectangular dielectric slab

waveguide which are:

1. There is no current flow as it is a dielectric material (J=0).

2. There is no charge density for the same reason (=0).

Second we will substitute with the following:

1.

2.

3.

(non-magnetic material)

Throughout we get,

(2.5)

(2.6)

(2.7)

(2.8)

Applying the curl operator on

While the curl is dependent on (x, y and z) only then it is not time-dependent,

therefore we may apply the curl on (H) before applying Differentiation w.r.t

(t), which is

From (2.6):

8

Maxwell's Equations

We get:

And from (2.7) we get:

(2.9)

If

So,

Let ,

which leads to :

Substitute in (2.9):

}]

}]

}]

}]

But

Maxwell's Equations

Finally:

Or

Let

So we get:

Now we have

where

),

an equivalent bulk medium, which would give identical values for the phase

velocity and propagation constant to those obtained in the guide

so:

For:

For more simplicity we may also assume that the y-dimension of the slab is

extremely greater than the x-dimension, for which we may assume that the

electric filed is uniform in the y-direction. So,

Finally we have

11

(2.10)

Maxwell's Equations

But,

Then we will have to apply equation (2.10) for each component of the electric

field.

From equation (2.5)

So,

We get:

But

Also

as the z-dependence is assumed to be

and

Therefore:

(2.11)

(2.12)

(2.13)

11

Maxwell's Equations

TM, which we will study separately:

In which

but if we applied these conditions on equations (2.11),(2.12) and (2.13) we

will get :

In which

Let's start with component

1. Core (0<x<2d)

2. Cladding (x<0 or x>2d)

Applying equation (2.10) for

for cladding region

).

However, we dont need any field to leak out into the cladding, so it is better

to be decreasing exponential into the cladding (

12

Maxwell's Equations

Let

At x=0

At x=2d

From equation (8):

}

:

At x=0:

At x=2d

13

Maxwell's Equations

This is called the Eigenvalue equation from which we can specify the values

of

Where

14

Or:

)

And:

[(

Where:

satisfy the eigenvalue equation for a given value of

those

is kept constant.

We will start with a value for

mode (single value of

) let

.

15

is:

value for

find a single

.

The following figure shows the distribution of

of

Let

we get

of

16

Increase

again to

value for

find a single

.

The following figure shows the distribution of

of

17

we get:

18

At

we get:

we get:

19

At

we get:

we get:

21

we get:

At

we get:

we get:

21

we get:

we get:

22

In which

Let's start with component

1. Core (0<x<2d)

2. Cladding (x<0 or x>2d)

Dielectric Slab Optical Waveguide

Maxwell's Equations

23

for cladding region

From equation (2.6):

||

So,

||

We get:

Also

But

as the z-dependence is assumed to be

Therefore:

(2.18)

(2.19)

(2.20)

Maxwell's Equations

24

Again, for reserving the field in the core it must be in an oscillating form

(

).

And, we dont need any field to leak out into the cladding, so it is better to be

decreasing exponential into the cladding (

Let

At x=0

(2.21)

At x=2d

(2.22)

25

Maxwell's Equations

At x=0:

(2.23)

At x=2d

(2.24)

26

Maxwell's Equations

]

[

[

]

]

This is called the Eigenvalue equation from which we can specify the values

of

Where

27

Or:

)

And:

[(

{

]

}

Where:

satisfy the eigenvalue equation for a given value of

those

is kept constant.

We will start with a value for

) let

The iteration for

is:

28

, the value is

The following figure shows the distribution of

of

Let

29

Increase

again to

value for

find a single

of , which is so close to a single mode.

31

At

we get:

we get:

31

At

we get:

we get:

32

we get:

At

we get:

33

we get:

we get:

we get:

34

35

For TE modes we may define the power carried by each mode as:

and we have:

Let's fix

and for

we get

36

For TM modes we may define the power carried by each mode as:

and we have:

Let's fix

and for

we get

37

38

3.1 The Poynting vector

The Poynting vector usually written as S is the direction in which energy

travels in an EM wave, we will not go into the vector calculus, but it is given

by taking the cross product of the vector field of E and the complex

conjugate of the vector field H.

This represents a power flow along the z axis. The average in watts per

square metre is given by:

3.2 Dispersions

3.2.1 Chromatic (Waveguide - Material) Dispersion

Chromatic dispersion results from the spectral width of the emitter. The

spectral width determines the number of different wavelengths that are

emitted from the LED or laser. The smaller the spectral width, the fewer the

number of wavelengths that are emitted. Because longer wavelengths travel

faster than shorter wavelengths (higher frequencies) these longer

39

wavelengths will arrive at the end of the waveguide ahead of the shorter

ones, spreading out the signal.

Dielectric Slab Optical Waveguide

the transmitter. Lasers, for example, have a more narrow spectral width than

LEDs. A monochromatic laser emits only one wavelength and therefore, does

not contribute to chromatic dispersion.

Modal dispersion deals with the path (mode) of each light ray. As mentioned

above, most transmitters emit many different modes. Some of these light

rays will travel straight through the center of the waveguide (axial mode)

while others will repeatedly bounce off the cladding/core boundary to zigzag

their way along the waveguide, as illustrated below.

The modes that enter at sharp angles are called high-order modes. These

modes take much longer to travel through the waveguide than the low-order

modes and therefore contribute to modal dispersion.

One way to reduce modal dispersion is to use graded-index waveguide.

Unlike the two distinct materials in a step-index fiber, the graded-index

waveguides cladding is doped so that the refractive index gradually

decreases over many layers.

41

With a graded-index waveguide, the light follows a more curved path. The

high-order modes spend most of the time traveling in the lower-index

cladding layers near the outside of the waveguide. These lower-index core

layers allow the light to travel faster than in the higher-index center layers.

Therefore, their higher velocity compensates for the longer paths of these

high-order modes. A good waveguide design appreciably reduces modal

dispersion.

Modal dispersion can be completely eliminated by using a single-mode

waveguide. As its name implies, single mode waveguide transmits only one

mode of light so there is no spreading of the signal due to modal dispersion.

A monochromatic laser with single-mode waveguide completely eliminates

dispersion in an optical waveguide but is usually used in very long distance

applications because of its complexity and expense.

41

3.3.1 Phase Velocity

It is defined as the velocity for each mode (ray) of the EM wave, i.e. each

mode of propagation has its unique phase velocity.

Where

modes we have

phase-velocities.

Combining more than one mode to propagate into the wave guide results in a

group wave of an amplitude and frequency different from each of the

contributing mode, the velocity at which the group wave travels is called the

group velocity.

Changes in mode.

Changes in light frequency/wavelength

42

3.5 Losses

We have two basic kinds of losses:

A form of increased attenuation caused by allowing high order modes to

radiate from the walls of a waveguide. There are two common types of bend

losses. The first type results when the waveguide is curved through a

restrictive radius or curvature. The second type is generally referred to as

micro-bends. It is caused by small distortions of the waveguide imposed by

externally induced perturbations as, for example, slip shod cabling

techniques.

It may happen due to the bending as said above, or simply when the inserted

beam is not within the acceptance angle(cone) so that some modes may leak

out of the cladding surface, also impurities in the core or cladding fabrication

may cause further radiation of modes.

43

References

References

[1] Bob York, "Electromagnetic Fields and Waves".

[2] R.R.A.Syms and J.R.Cozens, "Optical Guided Waves and Devices".

[3] Peter Hertel, "Dielectric Waveguides", TEDA Applied Physics School

Nankai University, 2009.

[4] Sergey Dudorov, "Rectangular dielectric waveguide and its optimal

transition to a metal waveguide", Helsinki University of Technology Radio

Laboratory Publications, 2002.

[5] Jonathan Hu* and Curtis R. Menyuk, "Understanding leaky modes:slab

waveguide revisited", University of Maryland Baltimore County, January,

2009.

[6] Mopati E. Mosiane, "Propagation in a dielectric slab", University of Cape

Town, October 2008.

[7] Matt Hansen, "Maxwells Equations", May 20, 2004.

[8] http://www.fiberoptics4sale.com/wordpress/fiber-dispersion-and-opticaldispersion-an-overview/

[9] http://folk.ntnu.no/oivarn/hercules_ntnu/LWTcourse/partA/9energyandgrou

pvelocity/9%20ENERGY%20AND%20GROUP%20VELOCITY.htm

[10] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_velocity

44

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