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2ND SEMESTER, A.Y. 2015-2016

R. AGUILAR, N. CABELLO, D. LUMANTAS

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS

UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY 1101

Illustration of the difference between electric field vectors and electric field lines.

Reference: Physics 72.1 Electric Field & Equipotential Lines Lab Manual 2015

: potential difference

: work done on a positive test charge qo as it moves from A to B

Equipotential Lines (green)

the same reference point

Always perpendicular to an

decreasing potential

[1] http://www.alpcentauri.info/equipotential_lines.html

Equipotential and electric field lines of 2 equal but oppositely charged particles [1]

2) WHAT IS THE DIRECTION OF ELECTRIC FIELD AT THAT POINT?

ANSWERS:

1) A. Equipotential lines are closest at

that point.

2) (to the right). Since electric field

lines are always perpendicular to

equipotential lines and they point

towards decreasing potential.

OHMS LAW

OHMS LAW

V:Voltage (V)

R: Resistance ()

I: Current (A)

: resistivity (m)

OHMS LAW

PLOTS (y vs. x)

1) Voltage vs. Current

Slope = R

Slope = V

Slope = I

Slope = /A

Current (A) Voltage (V)

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.7

1.8

0.3

1.09

1.6

0.4

1.4

0.5

1.82

Voltage (V)

1.4

y = 3.9x - 0.084

R = 0.9994

1.2

1

PLOT, WHAT IS THE VALUE OF

RESISTANCE OF THE MATERIAL?

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

Current (A)

0.4

0.5

0.6

graph, = . .

Length (cm)

Example 2 (Resistance vs. Length of Wire)

100

120

140

160

180

200

3.5

Resistance ()

3

2.5

2

1

0.5

0

0

50

100

150

Length (cm)

200

2.1

2.3

2.48

2.65

2.83

3.07

IF THE CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA IS 2 cm2,

WHAT IS THE RESISTIVITY OF THE MATERIAL?

y = 0.0094x + 1.1552

R = 0.9973

1.5

Resistance ()

250

Answer:

= = 0.0094 * 2

= .

CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Circuit conducting path where current can flow and the components that make up

this path.

Steady current only possible for closed loops or complete circuits with at least one source of

For circuits composed of resistors connected in both series and/or parallel, Ohms law applies:

=

where Reff is the effective resistance of the circuit

In Series:

= 1 + 2 + 3 + +

In Parallel:

1

1

1

1

=

+

+

++

1 2 3

R1 is in series with R2||R3

1

1

= 1 + 2 ||3 = 1 +

+

2 3

2 3

= 1 +

2 +3

KIRCHOFFS RULES

Loop Rule

Junction Rule

= 0

1 1 2 2 3 = 0

1 = 2 + 3 + 4

http://www.wikipremed.com/01physicscards.php?card=708

I1

P

I3

I2 B

Answers:

Loop A:

1 1 1 2 2 = 0

Loop B:

2 2 2 = 0

Junction P:

1 + 3 = 2 :

Outer Loop (redundant with Loops A and B):

1 1 1 2 = 0

Measuring voltage

across resistor

Measuring current

through circuit

Measuring resistance

of resistor

CAPACITOR

Device that stores electrical energy

Capacitance:

Potential difference between the

capacitor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor

RC CIRCUIT

Discharging:

Charging:

Time constant:

=

7) WHAT IS ITS VOLTAGE AT t = 4RC?

CHARGING

100

5.5V

1000

Answers:

Time constant

= 100106 1000109 F

=

Voltage at t=4RC

= 1 /

= (5.5 ) 1 4/

= 5.5 1 1

= 0.63 5.5

= . = .

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

MAGNETIC FLUX

Magnetic flux changes by

changing:

the magnitude of the

magnetic field

changing the surface area

changing the relative

B B A

http://ibphysicsstuff.wikidot.com/electromagnetic-induction

the surface normal

Change in flux

Induced emf

The induced emf in a closed loop equals the negative of the

Lenzs Law:

d B

dt

a magnetic field that will oppose the motion of the magnetic

field that is producing it.

INDUCTION EXPERIMENT 1

Magnet

Iinduced

Binduced

cw

right

ccw

left

ccw

left

cw

right

South pole moves away from solenoid

* as viewed from left to right

http://voer.edu.vn/c/faradays-law-of-induction-lenzs-law/0e60bfc6/99a3eaad

Actual Direction

INDUCTION EXPERIMENT II

Magnetic Field of a solenoid

=

Magnetic permeability of air and aluminum: almost equal to 0

Magnetic permeability of iron > 0

Magnetic

permeability

Magnetic

Field

turning on and off

overlap

turning on and turning off

1.0-METER SOLENOID WITH THE FOLLOWING PLOT OF B VS. I?

Current (A)

0.1

0.3

1.8

0.2

0.7

1.6

0.3

1.09

0.4

1.4

0.5

1.82

1.4

y = 3.9x - 0.084

R = 0.9994

1.2

1

0.8

Answer:

0.6

50

= =

1.0

0.4

0.2

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

Current (A)

0.4

0.5

0.6

= / = . /.

A wire carrying current produces a magnetic field (direction determined by right-hand rule)

When the wire is looped, the field near the center becomes perpendicular to the direction of the loop

Multiple loops increase the field strength solenoid

0

=

2

Wire is

looped

Multiple

loops

0 = 4 107 /

Magnetic permeability of vacuum

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/solenoid.html#c1

= 0

Addition of material inside solenoid modifies magnetic permeability (0 becomes

=k0)

http://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/90609/1-tesla-electromagnet

CONFIGURATIONS

Single bar magnet

unlike poles facing each other

Solenoid

like poles facing each other

SUPERPOSITION OF WAVES

Consider two waves travelling through the same medium at the same time.

medium at any point in space

or time, is simply the sum of

the

individual

wave

displacements

Interference: combination of

two or more waves to form a

composite wave

INTERFERENCE

Constructive and Destructive Interference

DIFFRACTION

Bending of waves as they pass by some objects or through an aperture

sin =

sin =

,

a

=

slit width

, mth intensity minimum

slit to screen distance

wavelength of the light source

(1)

(2)

(3)

, =

Diffraction

envelope

slit separation

, mth intensity peak from the center

slit to screen distance

wavelength of the light source

THE LIGHT SOURCE?

Better to use single-slit diffraction

equation since the given is at the dark

fringes (corresponding to = 2) of the

diffraction pattern. Thus,

,

a

LIGHT SOURCE

y = 4 mm

0.04

4

( 2 )

2 1.0

= 40

L = 1.0 m

a = 0.04 mm

d = 0.25 mm

range of light (just placed random values).

The ratio between the speed of light in vacuum (c) and its speed in some medium (v) is given by

= ,

=3

108

Light travels faster in vacuum/air compared to other media; v is always less than c; n has value > 1

Note: Law of reflection holds for all types of mirrors,

i.e plane and spherical mirrors.

Law of reflection:

1 = 1

Law of refraction (Snells Law)

1

1

sin 1 = sin 2

1

2

1 sin 1 = 2 sin 2

Total internal reflection

sin1

2

1

light is refracted at angles greater than )

Concave

Convex

CYLINDRICAL LENS

: angle of incidence

: angle of reflection

: angle of refraction

Air

Glass

Air

Glass

Refracted ray bends away from the normal since nglass > nair

Refracted ray bends towards the normal since nair < nglass

AT THE AIR-TO-GLASS INTERFACE?

AT THE AIR-TO-GLASS INTERFACE?

Answer:

Hint: Draw a normal line at the air-to-glass

interface.

Refraction only occurs at C.

Eo: amplitude of the incident electric field

: angle between the polarization of the incident light and the transmission axis

Itrans: intensity of transmitted light

= cos()

2

=

= 2 cos 2 = cos 2

11) GIVEN THE FFG. CONFIGURATION, WHERE SHOULD A THIRD POLARIZER BE PLACED FOR

THE LIGHT SENSOR TO HAVE AN INTENSITY READING GREATER THAN 0 LUX?

12) WHAT ARE THE ALLOWED ANGLES?

C

0 lux

sensor

= 00

= 900

Answers:

B. In between the two polarizers.

Allowed angles: 00 < < 900

CONCEPTS

Plain light source not linearly polarized

Intensity of transmitted laser diode light source changes as polarizing angle is varied

Malus Law

Obeyed for both laser diode and plain light source (as seen on data for the two polarizers)

CONCEPTS

Intensity of light source does not affect Malus Law behavior.

Both laser diode and plain light source plots exhibit Malus Law as seen on

/ vs. plots

No more light is transmitted when the angle of polarization is completely

IMAGE FORMATION

Lens equation:

Linear magnification:

Parameters:

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/geoopt/lensdet.html

1

f

|M| > 1 : magnified

|M| < 1 : reduced

|M| = 1 : same height

+M : upright

-M : inverted

Positive

object distance

of the lens (incident side)

Negative

virtual object at the

back of the lens

(transmission side)

image distance

of the lens (transmission side)

of the lens (incident side)

focal length

converging/convex lens

diverging/concave lens

Effective focal length (in contact):

Concave lens (diverging): negative focal length (-f)

Convex lens (converging): positive focal length (+f)

MAGNIFICATION OF THE IMAGE?

Answer:

o = 5 cm

f = 4 cm

1 1 1

+ =

1

1

1

+ =

5 4

= 20

20

= =

5

=4

END

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