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# PHYSICS 72.

## 1 REVIEW FOR PRACTICAL EXAM

2ND SEMESTER, A.Y. 2015-2016
R. AGUILAR, N. CABELLO, D. LUMANTAS
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY 1101

## ELECTRIC FIELD & EQUIPOTENTIAL LINES

Illustration of the difference between electric field vectors and electric field lines.
Reference: Physics 72.1 Electric Field & Equipotential Lines Lab Manual 2015

## ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE

: potential difference
: work done on a positive test charge qo as it moves from A to B

## ELECTRIC FIELD & EQUIPOTENTIAL LINES

Equipotential Lines (green)

## electric potential with respect to

the same reference point

## Electric Field Lines (red)

Always perpendicular to an

## Electric field points towards

decreasing potential

[1] http://www.alpcentauri.info/equipotential_lines.html

Equipotential and electric field lines of 2 equal but oppositely charged particles [1]

## 1) WHICH POINT HAS THE LARGEST MAGNITUDE OF ELETRIC FIELD?

2) WHAT IS THE DIRECTION OF ELECTRIC FIELD AT THAT POINT?

1) A. Equipotential lines are closest at
that point.
2) (to the right). Since electric field
lines are always perpendicular to
equipotential lines and they point
towards decreasing potential.

OHMS LAW

OHMS LAW
V:Voltage (V)
R: Resistance ()
I: Current (A)
: resistivity (m)

OHMS LAW
PLOTS (y vs. x)
1) Voltage vs. Current
Slope = R

Slope = V

Slope = I

Slope = /A

## OHMS LAW (LINEAR REGRESSION)

Current (A) Voltage (V)

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.7

1.8

0.3

1.09

1.6

0.4

1.4

0.5

1.82

Voltage (V)

1.4
y = 3.9x - 0.084
R = 0.9994

1.2
1

## 3) USING THE GIVEN VALUES AND THE

PLOT, WHAT IS THE VALUE OF
RESISTANCE OF THE MATERIAL?

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3
Current (A)

0.4

0.5

0.6

graph, = . .

## OHMS LAW (LINEAR REGRESSION)

Length (cm)
Example 2 (Resistance vs. Length of Wire)

100
120
140
160
180
200

3.5

Resistance ()

3
2.5
2

1
0.5
0
0

50

100
150
Length (cm)

200

2.1
2.3
2.48
2.65
2.83
3.07

## 4) USING THE GIVEN VALUES AND THE PLOT,

IF THE CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA IS 2 cm2,
WHAT IS THE RESISTIVITY OF THE MATERIAL?

y = 0.0094x + 1.1552
R = 0.9973

1.5

Resistance ()

250

= = 0.0094 * 2
= .

CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Circuit conducting path where current can flow and the components that make up

this path.
Steady current only possible for closed loops or complete circuits with at least one source of

## electromotive force (emf) that supplies electrical energy to the circuit.

For circuits composed of resistors connected in both series and/or parallel, Ohms law applies:

=
where Reff is the effective resistance of the circuit

In Series:

= 1 + 2 + 3 + +

In Parallel:

1
1
1
1
=
+
+
++
1 2 3

## R2 and R3 are in parallel (R2||R3)

R1 is in series with R2||R3

1
1
= 1 + 2 ||3 = 1 +
+
2 3

2 3
= 1 +
2 +3

KIRCHOFFS RULES
Loop Rule

Junction Rule

= 0

## Current in = current out

1 1 2 2 3 = 0

1 = 2 + 3 + 4

http://www.wikipremed.com/01physicscards.php?card=708

## 5) SET-UP JUNCTION RULE AT PT. P AND LOOP RULE FOR A AND B.

I1

P
I3

I2 B

Loop A:
1 1 1 2 2 = 0
Loop B:
2 2 2 = 0
Junction P:
1 + 3 = 2 :
Outer Loop (redundant with Loops A and B):
1 1 1 2 = 0

## MEASURING PARAMETERS USING MULTIMETER

Measuring voltage
across resistor
Measuring current
through circuit

Measuring resistance
of resistor

## CAPACITORS AND RC CIRCUITS

CAPACITOR
Device that stores electrical energy

Capacitance:

## Charge stored in the capacitor

Potential difference between the
capacitor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor

RC CIRCUIT
Discharging:

Charging:

Time constant:
=

## 6) WHAT IS THE TIME CONSTANT OF THE RC CIRCUIT BELOW?

7) WHAT IS ITS VOLTAGE AT t = 4RC?
CHARGING

100

5.5V

1000

Time constant
= 100106 1000109 F
=
Voltage at t=4RC
= 1 /
= (5.5 ) 1 4/
= 5.5 1 1
= 0.63 5.5
= . = .

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

MAGNETIC FLUX
Magnetic flux changes by
changing:
the magnitude of the

magnetic field
changing the surface area
changing the relative

B B A
http://ibphysicsstuff.wikidot.com/electromagnetic-induction

## orientation of the field and

the surface normal
Change in flux

Induced emf

The induced emf in a closed loop equals the negative of the

Lenzs Law:

d B

dt

## An induced current will be in such a direction as to produce

a magnetic field that will oppose the motion of the magnetic
field that is producing it.

INDUCTION EXPERIMENT 1
Magnet

Iinduced

Binduced

cw

right

ccw

left

ccw

left

cw

right

## North pole moves away from solenoid

South pole moves away from solenoid
* as viewed from left to right

Actual Direction

INDUCTION EXPERIMENT II
Magnetic Field of a solenoid

=
Magnetic permeability of air and aluminum: almost equal to 0
Magnetic permeability of iron > 0
Magnetic
permeability

Magnetic
Field

## Greater deflection upon

turning on and off

overlap

## Increasing deflection upon

turning on and turning off

## 8) WHAT IS THE MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY FOR N = 50 TURNS OF A

1.0-METER SOLENOID WITH THE FOLLOWING PLOT OF B VS. I?
Current (A)

0.1

0.3

1.8

0.2

0.7

1.6

0.3

1.09

0.4

1.4

0.5

1.82

1.4
y = 3.9x - 0.084
R = 0.9994

1.2
1
0.8

0.6

50
= =

1.0

0.4
0.2
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3
Current (A)

0.4

0.5

0.6

= / = . /.

## SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD

A wire carrying current produces a magnetic field (direction determined by right-hand rule)
When the wire is looped, the field near the center becomes perpendicular to the direction of the loop
Multiple loops increase the field strength solenoid

0
=
2

Wire is
looped

Multiple
loops

0 = 4 107 /
Magnetic permeability of vacuum

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/solenoid.html#c1

= 0

## SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD

Addition of material inside solenoid modifies magnetic permeability (0 becomes

=k0)

## Increase in magnetic permeability results to increase in B strength

http://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/90609/1-tesla-electromagnet

## MAGNETIC FIELD LINES FROM DIFFERENT

CONFIGURATIONS
Single bar magnet

## Two bar magnets

unlike poles facing each other

Solenoid

## Two bar magnets

like poles facing each other

## INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION

SUPERPOSITION OF WAVES
Consider two waves travelling through the same medium at the same time.

## The net displacement of the

medium at any point in space
or time, is simply the sum of
the
individual
wave
displacements
Interference: combination of
two or more waves to form a
composite wave

INTERFERENCE
Constructive and Destructive Interference

DIFFRACTION
Bending of waves as they pass by some objects or through an aperture

## SINGLE SLIT EXPERIMENT

sin =
sin =

,
a
=

slit width
, mth intensity minimum
slit to screen distance
wavelength of the light source

(1)
(2)
(3)

## Condition for maximum:

, =

Diffraction
envelope

slit separation
, mth intensity peak from the center
slit to screen distance
wavelength of the light source

## 9) GIVEN THE FOLLOWING FIGURE, WHAT IS THE WAVELENGTH OF

THE LIGHT SOURCE?
Better to use single-slit diffraction
equation since the given is at the dark
fringes (corresponding to = 2) of the
diffraction pattern. Thus,
,

a
LIGHT SOURCE

y = 4 mm

0.04

4
( 2 )
2 1.0

= 40

L = 1.0 m

a = 0.04 mm
d = 0.25 mm

## Note: This wavelength is not within the visible

range of light (just placed random values).

## Light slows down when travelling in a medium other than air/vacuum

The ratio between the speed of light in vacuum (c) and its speed in some medium (v) is given by

= ,

=3

108

## n is called the index of refraction

Light travels faster in vacuum/air compared to other media; v is always less than c; n has value > 1

## LAWS OF REFLECTION AND REFRACTION

Note: Law of reflection holds for all types of mirrors,
i.e plane and spherical mirrors.

Law of reflection:

1 = 1
Law of refraction (Snells Law)

1
1
sin 1 = sin 2
1
2
1 sin 1 = 2 sin 2
Total internal reflection

sin1

2
1

## (Special case of Snells Law where 2 = 90; no

light is refracted at angles greater than )

Concave

Convex

## RAY TRACING FOR DIFFERENT REFRACTING MEDIA

CYLINDRICAL LENS
: angle of incidence
: angle of reflection
: angle of refraction

Air

Glass

Air

Glass

Refracted ray bends away from the normal since nglass > nair

Refracted ray bends towards the normal since nair < nglass

## 10) AT WHICH OF THE GIVEN SET-UPS DOES REFRACTION OCCUR

AT THE AIR-TO-GLASS INTERFACE?

## 10) AT WHICH OF THE GIVEN SET-UPS DOES REFRACTION OCCUR

AT THE AIR-TO-GLASS INTERFACE?

Hint: Draw a normal line at the air-to-glass
interface.
Refraction only occurs at C.

## POLARIZATION MALUS LAW

Eo: amplitude of the incident electric field
: angle between the polarization of the incident light and the transmission axis
Itrans: intensity of transmitted light

= cos()
2
=
= 2 cos 2 = cos 2

11) GIVEN THE FFG. CONFIGURATION, WHERE SHOULD A THIRD POLARIZER BE PLACED FOR
THE LIGHT SENSOR TO HAVE AN INTENSITY READING GREATER THAN 0 LUX?
12) WHAT ARE THE ALLOWED ANGLES?

C
0 lux

sensor

= 00

= 900

B. In between the two polarizers.
Allowed angles: 00 < < 900

CONCEPTS

## Laser diode linearly polarized light

Plain light source not linearly polarized

Intensity of transmitted laser diode light source changes as polarizing angle is varied
Malus Law
Obeyed for both laser diode and plain light source (as seen on data for the two polarizers)

CONCEPTS
Intensity of light source does not affect Malus Law behavior.
Both laser diode and plain light source plots exhibit Malus Law as seen on

/ vs. plots

## as angle of polarization changes.

No more light is transmitted when the angle of polarization is completely

IMAGE FORMATION

## THIN LENS EQUATION

Lens equation:

Linear magnification:

Parameters:

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/geoopt/lensdet.html

1
f

## Criteria for formed image:

|M| > 1 : magnified
|M| < 1 : reduced
|M| = 1 : same height
+M : upright
-M : inverted

Positive
object distance

## real object in front

of the lens (incident side)

Negative
virtual object at the
back of the lens
(transmission side)

image distance

## real image at the back

of the lens (transmission side)

## virtual image in front

of the lens (incident side)

focal length

converging/convex lens

diverging/concave lens

## COMBINATION OF TWO LENSES (IN CONTACT)

Effective focal length (in contact):
Concave lens (diverging): negative focal length (-f)
Convex lens (converging): positive focal length (+f)

## 13) GIVEN THE FOLLOWING PARAMETERS, WHAT IS THE

MAGNIFICATION OF THE IMAGE?

o = 5 cm
f = 4 cm

1 1 1
+ =

1
1
1
+ =
5 4
= 20

20
= =

5
=4

END