Bernoulli

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Bernoulli

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equation in uid dynamics. For Bernoullis theorem in

probability, see law of large numbers. For an unrelated

topic in ordinary dierential equations, see Bernoulli differential equation.

In uid dynamics, Bernoullis principle states that an

simultaneous decrease in (the sum of) its static pressure,

potential energy and internal energy. If the uid is owing out of a reservoir, the sum of all forms of energy is the

same on all streamlines because in a reservoir the energy

per unit volume (the sum of pressure and gravitational

potential g h) is the same everywhere.[4]

Bernoullis principle can also be derived directly from

Newtons 2nd law. If a small volume of uid is owing

horizontally from a region of high pressure to a region of

low pressure, then there is more pressure behind than in

front. This gives a net force on the volume, accelerating

it along the streamline.[5][6][7]

Fluid particles are subject only to pressure and their own

weight. If a uid is owing horizontally and along a section of a streamline, where the speed increases it can only

be because the uid on that section has moved from a region of higher pressure to a region of lower pressure; and

if its speed decreases, it can only be because it has moved

from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure. Consequently, within a uid owing horizontally,

the highest speed occurs where the pressure is lowest, and

the lowest speed occurs where the pressure is highest.[8]

at the expense of the uid pressure, as shown by the dierence in

height of the two columns of water.

1 Incompressible ow equation

In most ows of liquids, and of gases at low Mach number, the density of a uid parcel can be considered to

be constant, regardless of pressure variations in the ow.

Therefore, the uid can be considered to be incompressible and these ows are called incompressible ows.

Bernoulli performed his experiments on liquids, so his

Bernoullis principle can be applied to various types of equation in its original form is valid only for incompressuid ow, resulting in various forms of Bernoullis equa- ible ow. A common form of Bernoullis equation, valid

tion; there are dierent forms of Bernoullis equation for at any arbitrary point along a streamline, is:

dierent types of ow. The simple form of Bernoullis

equation is valid for incompressible ows (e.g. most

liquid ows and gases moving at low Mach number).

More advanced forms may be applied to compressible

ows at higher Mach numbers (see the derivations of the where:

Bernoulli equation).

v is the uid ow speed at a point on a streamBernoullis principle can be derived from the principle of

line,

conservation of energy. This states that, in a steady ow,

g is the acceleration due to gravity,

the sum of all forms of energy in a uid along a streamline

is the same at all points on that streamline. This rez is the elevation of the point above a referquires that the sum of kinetic energy, potential energy

ence plane, with the positive z-direction pointand internal energy remains constant.[2] Thus an increase

ing upward so in the direction opposite to the

in the speed of the uid implying an increase in both

gravitational acceleration,

increase in the speed of a uid occurs simultaneously

with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the uid's

potential energy.[1][2] The principle is named after Daniel

Bernoulli who published it in his book Hydrodynamica in

1738.[3]

p is the pressure at the chosen point, and

pressure is zero, and at even higher speeds the pressure is

is the density of the uid at all points in the

negative. Most often, gases and liquids are not capable

uid.

of negative absolute pressure, or even zero pressure, so

clearly Bernoullis equation ceases to be valid before zero

The constant on the right-hand side of the equation depressure is reached. In liquids when the pressure bepends only on the streamline chosen, whereas v , z and

comes too low cavitation occurs. The above equations

p depend on the particular point on that streamline.

use a linear relationship between ow speed squared and

The following assumptions must be met for this Bernoulli pressure. At higher ow speeds in gases, or for sound

equation to apply:[9]

waves in liquid, the changes in mass density become signicant so that the assumption of constant density is in the ow must be steady, i.e. the uid velocity at a valid.

point cannot change with time,

the ow must be incompressible even though pres- 1.1 Simplied form

sure varies, the density must remain constant along

a streamline;

In many applications of Bernoullis equation, the change

in the g z term along the streamline is so small compared

friction by viscous forces has to be negligible.

with the other terms that it can be ignored. For example,

in the case of aircraft in ight, the change in height z along

For conservative force elds (not limited to the gravita- a streamline is so small the g z term can be omitted. This

tional eld), Bernoullis equation can be generalized as:[9] allows the above equation to be presented in the following

simplied form:

v2

p

+ + = constant

2

p + q = p0

where p0 is called 'total pressure', and q is 'dynamic

the streamline. E.g. for the Earths gravity = gz.

pressure'.[13] Many authors refer to the pressure p as

By multiplying with the uid density , equation (A) can static pressure to distinguish it from total pressure p0 and

be rewritten as:

dynamic pressure q. In Aerodynamics, L.J. Clancy writes:

To distinguish it from the total and dynamic pressures,

the actual pressure of the uid, which is associated not

2

1

with its motion but with its state, is often referred to as

v

+

g

z

+

p

=

constant

2

the static pressure, but where the term pressure alone is

or:

used it refers to this static pressure.[14]

q + g h = p0 + g z = constant

where:

q =

The simplied form of Bernoullis equation can be summarized in the following memorable word equation:

1

2

v 2 is dynamic pressure,

p

g

h = z +

is the piezometric head or

hydraulic head (the sum of the elevation z and

the pressure head)[10][11] and

p0 = p + q is the total pressure (the sum

of the static pressure p and dynamic pressure

q).[12]

uid speed at that point, has its own unique static pressure

p and dynamic pressure q. Their sum p + q is dened to

be the total pressure p0 . The signicance of Bernoullis

principle can now be summarized as total pressure is constant along a streamline.

streamline is the same and Bernoullis principle can be

summarized as total pressure is constant everywhere in the

[15]

It is reasonable to assume that irrotational

The constant in the Bernoulli equation can be normalised. uid ow.

ow

exists

in

any

situation where a large body of uid is

A common approach is in terms of total head or energy

owing

past

a

solid

body. Examples are aircraft in ight,

head H:

and ships moving in open bodies of water. However, it

is important to remember that Bernoullis principle does

not apply in the boundary layer or in uid ow through

v2

v2

p

+

= h+

,

H = z +

long pipes.

g

2g

2g

3

If the uid ow at some point along a stream line is

brought to rest, this point is called a stagnation point, and

at this point the total pressure is equal to the stagnation

pressure.

1.2

Applicability of incompressible ow

equation to ow of gases

gases: provided that there is no transfer of kinetic or

potential energy from the gas ow to the compression

or expansion of the gas. If both the gas pressure and

volume change simultaneously, then work will be done

on or by the gas. In this case, Bernoullis equation in

its incompressible ow form cannot be assumed to be

valid. However, if the gas process is entirely isobaric,

or isochoric, then no work is done on or by the gas, (so

the simple energy balance is not upset). According to the

gas law, an isobaric or isochoric process is ordinarily the

only way to ensure constant density in a gas. Also the gas

density will be proportional to the ratio of pressure and

absolute temperature, however this ratio will vary upon

compression or expansion, no matter what non-zero quantity of heat is added or removed. The only exception is

if the net heat transfer is zero, as in a complete thermodynamic cycle, or in an individual isentropic (frictionless

adiabatic) process, and even then this reversible process

must be reversed, to restore the gas to the original pressure and specic volume, and thus density. Only then is

the original, unmodied Bernoulli equation applicable. In

this case the equation can be used if the ow speed of the

gas is suciently below the speed of sound, such that the

variation in density of the gas (due to this eect) along

each streamline can be ignored. Adiabatic ow at less

than Mach 0.3 is generally considered to be slow enough.

1.3

Unsteady potential ow

in the theory of ocean surface waves and acoustics.

irrotational ow, in which case f is a constant.[16]

Further f(t) can be made equal to zero by incorporating

it into the velocity potential using the transformation

t

1 2

= t0 f ( ) d, resulting in

+ v +

t 2

p

+ gz = 0.

is unaected by this transformation: = .

The Bernoulli equation for unsteady potential ow also

appears to play a central role in Lukes variational principle, a variational description of free-surface ows using

the Lagrangian (not to be confused with Lagrangian coordinates).

2 Compressible ow equation

Bernoulli developed his principle from his observations

on liquids, and his equation is applicable only to incompressible uids, and compressible uids up to approximately Mach number 0.3.[17] It is possible to use the fundamental principles of physics to develop similar equations applicable to compressible uids. There are numerous equations, each tailored for a particular application,

but all are analogous to Bernoullis equation and all rely on

nothing more than the fundamental principles of physics

such as Newtons laws of motion or the rst law of thermodynamics.

For a compressible uid, with a barotropic equation of

state, and under the action of conservative forces,

p p

+ p1 (dp)

+ = constant

along a streamline)

v2

2

[18]

(constant

as the gradient of a velocity potential . In that case, where:

and for a constant density , the momentum equations of

the Euler equations can be integrated to:[16]

p is the pressure

is the density

1 2 p

+ 2 v + + gz = f (t),

t

time dependentows. Here /t denotes the partial

derivative of the velocity potential with respect to time

t, and v = || is the ow speed. The function f(t) depends

only on time and not on position in the uid. As a result,

the Bernoulli equation at some moment t does not only

apply along a certain streamline, but in the whole uid

v is the ow speed

is the potential associated with the conservative force eld, often the gravitational potential

In engineering situations, elevations are generally small

compared to the size of the Earth, and the time scales of

uid ow are small enough to consider the equation of

state as adiabatic. In this case, the above equation becomes

4 APPLICATIONS

(

)

p

[19]

+ gz + 1

(constant

= constant

along a streamline)

v2

2

is the ratio of the specic heats of the uid

g is the acceleration due to gravity

z is the elevation of the point above a reference

plane

In many applications of compressible ow, changes in elevation are negligible compared to the other terms, so the

term gz can be omitted. A very useful form of the equation is then:

v2

+

2

p

=

p0

0

which the shock is stationary and the ow is steady, many

of the parameters in the Bernoulli equation suer abrupt

changes in passing through the shock. The Bernoulli parameter itself, however, remains unaected. An exception to this rule is radiative shocks, which violate the assumptions leading to the Bernoulli equation, namely the

lack of additional sinks or sources of energy.

4 Applications

where:

p0 is the total pressure

0 is the total density

2.2

Compressible ow in thermodynamics

thermodynamics in case of (quasi) steady ow, is:[2][20]

v2

2

+ + w = constant. [21]

written as h (not to be confused with head or height). Condensation visible over the upper surface of an Airbus A340

Note that w = + p where is the thermodynamic energy pressure, both due to acceleration of the air.

per unit mass, also known as the specic internal energy.

So, for constant internal energy the equation reduces to In modern everyday life there are many observations

that can be successfully explained by application of

the incompressible-ow form.

Bernoullis principle, even though no real uid is entirely

The constant on the right hand side is often called the

inviscid[25] and a small viscosity often has a large eect

Bernoulli constant and denoted b. For steady inviscid

on the ow.

adiabatic ow with no additional sources or sinks of energy, b is constant along any given streamline. More gen Bernoullis principle can be used to calculate the lift

erally, when b may vary along streamlines, it still proves

force on an airfoil, if the behaviour of the uid ow

a useful parameter, related to the head of the uid (see

in the vicinity of the foil is known. For example,

below).

if the air owing past the top surface of an aircraft

When the change in can be ignored, a very useful form

wing is moving faster than the air owing past the

of this equation is:

bottom surface, then Bernoullis principle implies

that the pressure on the surfaces of the wing will be

lower above than below. This pressure dierence

v2

results in an upwards lifting force.[26][27] Whenever

+ w = w0

2

the distribution of speed past the top and bottom surwhere w0 is total enthalpy. For a calorically perfect gas

faces of a wing is known, the lift forces can be calsuch as an ideal gas, the enthalpy is directly proportional

culated (to a good approximation) using Bernoullis

to the temperature, and this leads to the concept of the

equations[28] established by Bernoulli over a century before the rst man-made wings were used for

total (or stagnation) temperature.

5

the purpose of ight. Bernoullis principle does not

explain why the air ows faster past the top of the

wing and slower past the underside. See the article

on aerodynamic lift for more info.

The carburetor used in many reciprocating engines

contains a venturi to create a region of low pressure to draw fuel into the carburetor and mix it

thoroughly with the incoming air. The low pressure in the throat of a venturi can be explained by

Bernoullis principle; in the narrow throat, the air is

moving at its fastest speed and therefore it is at its

lowest pressure.

propeller blades, etc.) can be found; some of these explanations can be misleading, and some are false.[31] This

has been a source of heated discussion over the years.

In particular, there has been debate about whether lift is

best explained by Bernoullis principle or Newtons laws

of motion. Modern writings agree that both Bernoullis

principle and Newtons laws are relevant and either can

be used to correctly describe lift.[32][33][34]

to connect the ow kinematics to the ow-induced pressures. In cases of incorrect (or partially correct) explanations relying on the Bernoulli principle, the errors generally occur in the assumptions on the ow kinematics and

An injector on a steam locomotive (or static boiler). how these are produced. It is not the Bernoulli princiis questioned because this principle is well

The pitot tube and static port on an aircraft are used ple itself that

[35][36][37][38]

established.

to determine the airspeed of the aircraft. These

two devices are connected to the airspeed indicator,

which determines the dynamic pressure of the airow past the aircraft. Dynamic pressure is the dif- 6 Misapplications of Bernoullis

ference between stagnation pressure and static presprinciple in common classroom

sure. Bernoullis principle is used to calibrate the

airspeed indicator so that it displays the indicated

demonstrations

airspeed appropriate to the dynamic pressure.[29]

The ow speed of a uid can be measured using a device such as a Venturi meter or an orice

plate, which can be placed into a pipeline to reduce

the diameter of the ow. For a horizontal device,

the continuity equation shows that for an incompressible uid, the reduction in diameter will cause

an increase in the uid ow speed. Subsequently

Bernoullis principle then shows that there must be

a decrease in the pressure in the reduced diameter

region. This phenomenon is known as the Venturi

eect.

The maximum possible drain rate for a tank with

a hole or tap at the base can be calculated directly

from Bernoullis equation, and is found to be proportional to the square root of the height of the uid in

the tank. This is Torricellis law, showing that Torricellis law is compatible with Bernoullis principle.

Viscosity lowers this drain rate. This is reected in

the discharge coecient, which is a function of the

Reynolds number and the shape of the orice.[30]

are sometimes incorrectly explained using Bernoullis

principle.[39] One involves holding a piece of paper horizontally so that it droops downward and then blowing

over the top of it. As the demonstrator blows over the paper, the paper rises. It is then asserted that this is because

faster moving air has lower pressure.[40][41][42]

One problem with this explanation can be seen by blowing along the bottom of the paper: were the deection due

simply to faster moving air one would expect the paper to

deect downward, but the paper deects upward regardless of whether the faster moving air is on the top or the

bottom.[43] Another problem is that when the air leaves

the demonstrators mouth it has the same pressure as the

surrounding air;[44] the air does not have lower pressure

just because it is moving; in the demonstration, the static

pressure of the air leaving the demonstrators mouth is

equal to the pressure of the surrounding air.[45][46] A third

problem is that it is false to make a connection between

the ow on the two sides of the paper using Bernoullis

equation since the air above and below are dierent ow

elds and Bernoullis principle only applies within a ow

eld.[47][48][49][50]

a non-contact adhesive force between a surface and

As the wording of the principle can change its implicathe gripper.

tions, stating the principle correctly is important.[51] What

Bernoullis principle actually says is that within a ow

of constant energy, when uid ows through a region

5 Misunderstandings about the of lower pressure it speeds up and vice versa.[52] Thus,

Bernoullis principle concerns itself with changes in speed

generation of lift

and changes in pressure within a ow eld. It cannot be

used to compare dierent ow elds.

Main article: Lift (force)

A correct explanation of why the paper rises would ob-

serve that the plume follows the curve of the paper and

that a curved streamline will develop a pressure gradient perpendicular to the direction of ow, with the

lower pressure on the inside of the curve.[53][54][55][56]

Bernoullis principle predicts that the decrease in pressure is associated with an increase in speed, i.e. that as

the air passes over the paper it speeds up and moves faster

than it was moving when it left the demonstrators mouth.

But this is not apparent from the demonstration.[57][58][59]

Other common classroom demonstrations, such as blowing between two suspended spheres, inating a large bag,

or suspending a ball in an airstream are sometimes explained in a similarly misleading manner by saying faster

moving air has lower pressure.[60][61][62][63][64][65][66]

See also

Terminology in uid dynamics

NavierStokes equations for the ow of a viscous

uid

Euler equations for the ow of an inviscid uid

Hydraulics applied uid mechanics for liquids

Torricellis Law - a special case of Bernoullis principle

Daniel Bernoulli

Coand eect

REFERENCES

is accelerated in direction of the velocity if the pressure

goes down. Thus the decrease of pressure is the cause of

a higher velocity. Weltner, Klaus; Ingelman-Sundberg,

Martin, Misinterpretations of Bernoullis Law, archived

from the original on April 29, 2009

[7] " The idea is that as the parcel moves along, following

a streamline, as it moves into an area of higher pressure

there will be higher pressure ahead (higher than the pressure behind) and this will exert a force on the parcel, slowing it down. Conversely if the parcel is moving into a

region of lower pressure, there will be an higher pressure behind it (higher than the pressure ahead), speeding it up. As always, any unbalanced force will cause a

change in momentum (and velocity), as required by Newtons laws of motion. See How It Flies John S. Denker

http://www.av8n.com/how/htm/airfoils.html

[8] Resnick, R. and Halliday, D. (1960), section 18-4,

Physics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[9] Batchelor, G.K. (1967), 5.1, p. 265.

[10] Mulley, Raymond (2004). Flow of Industrial Fluids: Theory and Equations. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-2767-9.,

410 pages. See pp. 4344.

[11] Chanson, Hubert (2004). Hydraulics of Open Channel

Flow: An Introduction. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN

0-7506-5978-5., 650 pages. See p. 22.

[12] Oertel, Herbert; Prandtl, Ludwig; Bhle, M.; Mayes,

Katherine (2004). Prandtls Essentials of Fluid Mechanics. Springer. pp. 7071. ISBN 0-387-40437-6.

[13] Bernoullis Equation. NASA Glenn Research Center.

Retrieved 2009-03-04.

[14] Clancy, L.J., Aerodynamics, Section 3.5.

References

[16] Batchelor, G.K. (1967), p. 383

[2] Batchelor, G.K. (1967), Section 3.5, pp. 15664.

[3] Hydrodynamica. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-10-30.

[4] Streeter, V.L., Fluid Mechanics, Example 3.5, McGraw

Hill Inc. (1966), New York.

[5] If the particle is in a region of varying pressure (a nonvanishing pressure gradient in the x-direction) and if the

particle has a nite size l, then the front of the particle

will be seeing a dierent pressure from the rear. More

precisely, if the pressure drops in the x-direction (dp/dx

< 0) the pressure at the rear is higher than at the front

and the particle experiences a (positive) net force. According to Newtons second law, this force causes an acceleration and the particles velocity increases as it moves

along the streamline... Bernoullis equation describes this

mathematically (see the complete derivation in the appendix)."Babinsky, Holger (November 2003), How do

wings work?" (PDF), Physics Education

[17] White, Frank M. Fluid Mechanics, 6e. McGraw-Hill International Edition. p. 602.

[18] Clarke C. and Carswell B., Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

[19] Clancy, L.J., Aerodynamics, Section 3.11

[20] Landau & Lifshitz (1987, 5)

[21] Van Wylen, G.J., and Sonntag, R.E., (1965), Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, Section 5.9, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York

[22] Feynman, R.P.; Leighton, R.B.; Sands, M. (1963). The

Feynman Lectures on Physics. ISBN 0-201-02116-1., Vol.

2, 403, pp. 406 409.

[23] Tipler, Paul (1991). Physics for Scientists and Engineers:

Mechanics (3rd extended ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 087901-432-6., p. 138.

[24] Feynman, R.P.; Leighton, R.B.; Sands, M. (1963). The

Feynman Lectures on Physics. ISBN 0-201-02116-1., Vol.

1, 143, p. 144.

Gas, by John E. Thomas, p 34.

[26] Clancy, L.J., Aerodynamics, Section 5.5 (When a stream

of air ows past an airfoil, there are local changes in ow

speed round the airfoil, and consequently changes in static

pressure, in accordance with Bernoullis Theorem. The

distribution of pressure determines the lift, pitching moment and form drag of the airfoil, and the position of its

centre of pressure.)

[27] Resnick, R. and Halliday, D. (1960), Physics, Section 18

5, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York ("Streamlines are

closer together above the wing than they are below so

that Bernoullis principle predicts the observed upward dynamic lift.)

[28] Eastlake, Charles N. (March 2002). An Aerodynamicists View of Lift, Bernoulli, and Newton (PDF). The

Physics Teacher 40. The resultant force is determined by

integrating the surface-pressure distribution over the surface area of the airfoil.

[29] Clancy, L.J., Aerodynamics, Section 3.8

[30] Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual Ninth Edition

[31] Glenn Research Center (2006-03-15). Incorrect Lift

Theory. NASA. Retrieved 2010-08-12.

[32] Chanson, H. (2009). Applied Hydrodynamics: An Introduction to Ideal and Real Fluid Flows. CRC Press, Taylor

& Francis Group, Leiden, The Netherlands, 478 pages.

ISBN 978-0-415-49271-3.

[33] Newton vs Bernoulli.

[34] Ison, David. Bernoulli Or Newton: Whos Right About

Lift? Retrieved on 2009-11-26

[35] Phillips, O.M. (1977). The dynamics of the upper ocean

(2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52129801-6. Section 2.4.

[36] Batchelor, G.K. (1967). Sections 3.5 and 5.1

[37] Lamb, H. (1994) 1729

[38] Weltner, Klaus; Ingelman-Sundberg, Martin. Physics

of Flight reviewed. The conventional explanation of

aerodynamical lift based on Bernoullis law and velocity

dierences mixes up cause and eect. The faster ow at

the upper side of the wing is the consequence of low pressure and not its cause.

[39] Bernoullis law and experiments attributed to it are

fascinating. Unfortunately some of these experiments

are explained erroneously... Weltner, Klaus; IngelmanSundberg, Martin. Misinterpretations of Bernoullis

Law. Department of Physics, University Frankfurt.

Archived from the original on June 21, 2012. Retrieved

June 25, 2012.

[40] This occurs because of Bernoullis principle fastmoving air has lower pressure than non-moving air.

http://makeprojects.com/Project/

Make

Magazine

Origami-Flying-Disk/327/1

demonstrator holds the paper in front of his mouth and

blows across the top, he is creating an area of fastermoving air. University of Minnesota School of Physics

and Astronomy http://www.physics.umn.edu/outreach/

pforce/circus/Bernoulli.html

[42] Bernoullis Principle states that faster moving air has

lower pressure... You can demonstrate Bernoullis Principle by blowing over a piece of paper held horizontally

across your lips. Educational Packet (PDF). Tall Ships

Festival Channel Islands Harbor. Archived from the

original (PDF) on December 3, 2013. Retrieved June 25,

2012.

[43] If the lift in gure A were caused by Bernoulli principle, then the paper in gure B should droop further when

air is blown beneath it. However, as shown, it raises when

the upward pressure gradient in downward-curving ow

adds to atmospheric pressure at the paper lower surface.

Craig, Gale M. Physical Principles of Winged Flight.

Retrieved March 31, 2016.

[44] In fact, the pressure in the air blown out of the lungs

is equal to that of the surrounding air... Babinsky

http://iopscience.iop.org/0031-9120/38/6/001/pdf/pe3_

6_001.pdf

[45] "...air does not have a reduced lateral pressure (or static

pressure...) simply because it is caused to move, the static

pressure of free air does not decrease as the speed of

the air increases, it misunderstanding Bernoullis principle to suggest that this is what it tells us, and the behavior of the curved paper is explained by other reasoning

than Bernoullis principle. Peter Eastwell Bernoulli? Perhaps, but What About Viscosity? The Science Education

Review, 6(1) 2007 http://www.scienceeducationreview.

com/open_access/eastwell-bernoulli.pdf

[46] Make a strip of writing paper about 5 cm X 25 cm.

Hold it in front of your lips so that it hangs out and

down making a convex upward surface. When you blow

across the top of the paper, it rises. Many books attribute this to the lowering of the air pressure on top solely

to the Bernoulli eect. Now use your ngers to form

the paper into a curve that it is slightly concave upward

along its whole length and again blow along the top of

this strip. The paper now bends downward...an oftencited experiment, which is usually taken as demonstrating the common explanation of lift, does not do so... Jef

Raskin Coanda Eect: Understanding Why Wings Work

http://karmak.org/archive/2003/02/coanda_effect.html

[47] Blowing over a piece of paper does not demonstrate

Bernoullis equation. While it is true that a curved paper lifts when ow is applied on one side, this is not

because air is moving at dierent speeds on the two

sides... It is false to make a connection between the ow

on the two sides of the paper using Bernoullis equation."

Holger Babinsky How Do Wings Work Physics Education 38(6) http://iopscience.iop.org/0031-9120/38/6/001/

pdf/pe3_6_001.pdf

[48] An explanation based on Bernoullis principle is not

applicable to this situation, because this principle has

nothing to say about the interaction of air masses having dierent speeds... Also, while Bernoullis principle allows us to compare uid speeds and pressures

along a single streamline and... along two dierent

streamlines that originate under identical uid conditions, using Bernoullis principle to compare the air

above and below the curved paper in Figure 1 is nonsensical; in this case, there arent any streamlines at all

below the paper!" Peter Eastwell Bernoulli? Perhaps,

but What About Viscosity? The Science Education Review 6(1) 2007 http://www.scienceeducationreview.com/

open_access/eastwell-bernoulli.pdf

[49] The well-known demonstration of the phenomenon of lift

by means of lifting a page cantilevered in ones hand by

blowing horizontally along it is probably more a demonstration of the forces inherent in the Coanda eect than a

demonstration of Bernoullis law; for, here, an air jet issues from the mouth and attaches to a curved (and, in this

case pliable) surface. The upper edge is a complicated

vortex-laden mixing layer and the distant ow is quiescent, so that Bernoullis law is hardly applicable. David

Auerbach Why Aircreft Fly European Journal of Physics

Vol 21 p 295 http://iopscience.iop.org/0143-0807/21/4/

302/pdf/0143-0807_21_4_302.pdf

[50] Millions of children in science classes are being asked to

blow over curved pieces of paper and observe that the paper lifts... They are then asked to believe that Bernoullis

theorem is responsible... Unfortunately, the dynamic lift

involved...is not properly explained by Bernoullis theorem. Norman F. Smith Bernoulli and Newton in Fluid

Mechanics The Physics Teacher Nov 1972

[51] Bernoullis principle is very easy to understand provided

the principle is correctly stated. However, we must be

careful, because seemingly-small changes in the wording can lead to completely wrong conclusions. See How

It Flies John S. Denker http://www.av8n.com/how/htm/

airfoils.html#sec-bernoulli

[52] A complete statement of Bernoullis Theorem is as follows: In a ow where no energy is being added or taken

away, the sum of its various energies is a constant: consequently where the velocity increasees the pressure decreases and vice versa."" Norman F Smith Bernoulli, Newton and Dynamic Lift Part I School Science and Mathematics Vol 73 Issue 3 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/

10.1111/j.1949-8594.1973.tb08998.x/pdf

[53] "...if a streamline is curved, there must be a pressure

gradient across the streamline, with the pressure increasing in the direction away from the centre of curvature.

Babinsky http://iopscience.iop.org/0031-9120/38/6/001/

pdf/pe3_6_001.pdf

[54] The curved paper turns the stream of air downward,

and this action produces the lift reaction that lifts the paper. Norman F. Smith Bernoulli, Newton, and Dynamic

Lift Part II School Science and Mathematics vol 73 Issue 4 pg 333 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/

j.1949-8594.1973.tb09040.x/pdf

[55] The curved surface of the tongue creates unequal air

pressure and a lifting action. ... Lift is caused by air moving over a curved surface. AERONAUTICS An Educators

REFERENCES

Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education by NASA pg 26 http://www.nasa.gov/

pdf/58152main_Aeronautics.Educator.pdf

[56] Viscosity causes the breath to follow the curved surface, Newtons rst law says there a force on the air and

Newtons third law says there is an equal and opposite

force on the paper. Momentum transfer lifts the strip.

The reduction in pressure acting on the top surface of

the piece of paper causes the paper to rise. The Newtonian Description of Lift of a Wing David F. Anderson & Scott Eberhardt pg 12 http://www.integener.com/

IE110522Anderson&EberhardtPaperOnLift0902.pdf

[57] '"Demonstrations of Bernoullis principle are often given

as demonstrations of the physics of lift. They are truly

demonstrations of lift, but certainly not of Bernoullis

principle.' David F Anderson & Scott Eberhardt Understanding Flight pg 229 http://books.google.com/books?

id=52Hfn7uEGSoC&pg=PA229

[58] As an example, take the misleading experiment most

often used to demonstrate Bernoullis principle. Hold a

piece of paper so that it curves over your nger, then blow

across the top. The paper will rise. However most people

do not realize that the paper would not rise if it were at,

even though you are blowing air across the top of it at a

furious rate. Bernoullis principle does not apply directly

in this case. This is because the air on the two sides of the

paper did not start out from the same source. The air on

the bottom is ambient air from the room, but the air on the

top came from your mouth where you actually increased

its speed without decreasing its pressure by forcing it out

of your mouth. As a result the air on both sides of the

at paper actually has the same pressure, even though the

air on the top is moving faster. The reason that a curved

piece of paper does rise is that the air from your mouth

speeds up even more as it follows the curve of the paper,

which in turn lowers the pressure according to Bernoulli.

From The Aeronautics File By Max Feil http://webcache.

googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:nutfrrTXLkMJ:

www.mat.uc.pt/~{}pedro/ncientificos/artigos/

aeronauticsfile1.ps+&cd=29&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

[59] Some people blow over a sheet of paper to demonstrate

that the accelerated air over the sheet results in a lower

pressure. They are wrong with their explanation. The

sheet of paper goes up because it deects the air, by the

Coanda eect, and that deection is the cause of the force

lifting the sheet. To prove they are wrong I use the following experiment: If the sheet of paper is pre bend the

other way by rst rolling it, and if you blow over it than,

it goes down. This is because the air is deected the other

way. Airspeed is still higher above the sheet, so that is not

causing the lower pressure. Pim Geurts. sailtheory.com

http://www.sailtheory.com/experiments.html

[60] Finally, lets go back to the initial example of a ball

levitating in a jet of air. The naive explanation for the

stability of the ball in the air stream, 'because pressure

in the jet is lower than pressure in the surrounding atmosphere,' is clearly incorrect. The static pressure in

the free air jet is the same as the pressure in the surrounding atmosphere... Martin Kamela Thinking About

http://tpt.aapt.org/resource/1/phteah/v45/i6/p379_s1

[61] Aysmmetrical ow (not Bernoullis theorem) also explains lift on the ping-pong ball or beach ball that oats so

mysteriously in the tilted vacuum cleaner exhaust... Norman F. Smith, Bernoulli and Newton in Fluid Mechanics

The Physics Teacher Nov 1972 p 455

Lamb, H. (1993). Hydrodynamics (6th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-45868-9.

Originally published in 1879; the 6th extended edition appeared rst in 1932.

involving non-Bernoulli forces. For example, a ball may

be supported on an upward jet of air or water, because any

uid (the air and water) has viscosity, which retards the

slippage of one part of the uid moving past another part

of the uid. Bauman, Robert P. The Bernoulli Conundrum (PDF). Professor of Physics Emeritus, University

of Alabama at Birmingham. Archived from the original

(PDF) on February 25, 2012. Retrieved June 25, 2012.

[63] In a demonstration sometimes wrongly described as

showing lift due to pressure reduction in moving air or

pressure reduction due to ow path restriction, a ball or

balloon is suspended by a jet of air. Craig, Gale M.

Physical Principles of Winged Flight. Retrieved March

31, 2016.

[64] A second example is the connement of a ping-pong ball

in the vertical exhaust from a hair dryer. We are told that

this is a demonstration of Bernoullis principle. But, we

now know that the exhaust does not have a lower value of

ps. Again, it is momentum transfer that keeps the ball in

the airow. When the ball gets near the edge of the exhaust there is an asymmetric ow around the ball, which

pushes it away from the edge of the ow. The same is

true when one blows between two ping-pong balls hanging on strings. Anderson & Eberhardt The Newtonian

Description of Lift on a Wing http://lss.fnal.gov/archive/

2001/pub/Pub-01-036-E.pdf

[65] This demonstration is often incorrectly explained using

the Bernoulli principle. According to the INCORRECT

explanation, the air ow is faster in the region between the

sheets, thus creating a lower pressure compared with the

quiet air on the outside of the sheets. Thin Metal Sheets

Coanda Eect. University of Maryland Physics

Lecture-Demonstartion Facility. Archived from the original on June 23, 2012. Retrieved October 23, 2012.

[66] Although the Bernoulli eect is often used to explain this

demonstration, and one manufacturer sells the material for

this demonstration as Bernoulli bags, it cannot be explained by the Bernoulli eect, but rather by the process

of entrainment. Answer #256. University of Maryland

Physics Lecture-Demonstartion Facility. Archived from

the original on December 13, 2014. Retrieved December

9, 2014.

Further reading

Batchelor, G.K. (1967). An Introduction to Fluid

Dynamics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521-66396-2.

Landau, L.D.; Lifshitz, E.M. (1987). Fluid Mechanics. Course of Theoretical Physics (2nd ed.). Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-7506-2767-0.

Chanson, H. (2009). Applied Hydrodynamics: An

Introduction to Ideal and Real Fluid Flows. CRC

Press, Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 978-0-41549271-3.

10 External links

Bernoulli equation calculator

Denver University Bernoullis equation and pressure measurement

Millersville University Applications of Eulers

equation

NASA Beginners guide to aerodynamics

Misinterpretations of Bernoullis equation Weltner

and Ingelman-Sundberg

10

11

11

11.1

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11.2

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