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# Stuff I Need to Know for Econ 15A

These questions represent everything you need to know for the upcoming exam (only as far
as we have covered in lecture, of course). Items that are bulleted or prefaced with ** are
important and useful, but they will not appear on any exams; only the numbered items will be
relevant to the exam.
Finalizing the NeedToKnows for an Exam. Several days before each test, the
NeedToKnows for that exam will be explicitly demarcated (usually with a boldface
Start of the Need to knows for exam XXX and End of the Need to Knows for
exam XXX). If you dont see such explicit demarcation, the relevant questions
represent good things to study, and most of them will appear on the finalized list, but
you should be aware that the official list is subject to change.

Table 2

## Outcomes in the sample space

s1
s2
s3
s4
s5
s6
s7
Pr
.2
.3
.1
.05
.05
.1
.2
1. A = {s1, s2}, B = {s2, s3, s4}, C = {s3, s4, s6}, D = {s2, s7,s6}, E = {s1, s7}
2. Using Table 2, show your work as you determine whether A and D are independent.
3. Using Table 2, show your work as you determine whether A and F are independent.
4. What is the general formula for the conditional probability of event A occurring, given
that event B occurs?
5. Give the definition of statistical independence of two events.
6. If Pr[A] = .5, and Pr[B] = .2, and A and B are independent, then what is Pr[A and B]?
7. If Pr[A] = .5, and Pr[B] = .2, and A and B are independent, then what is Pr[A | B]?
8. If Pr[A] = .5, and Pr[B] = .2, and A and B are independent, then what is Pr[B | A]?
9. If Pr[A] = .5, and Pr[B] = .2, and A and B are mutually exclusive, then what is Pr[B | A]?

## 10. Give the definition of statistical independence of two random variables.

11. ** Give the definition of statistical independence of n random variables.

12. Prove that if both A and B have non-zero probabilities, and if A is statistically
independent of B, then B is statistically independent of A.
13. What does i.i.d. stand for?
14. What is a random sample, as defined in the slides?

A natural gas pipeline runs across a faultline somewhere in the desert. Near the faultline, the
manufacturers installed several identical leak detectors to detect if a rupture in the pipe occurs.
Each detector also operates independently from the others. Moreover, each detector has a 20%
chance of a false alarm i.e., indicating a leak when there is none present. If there are 3 such
detectors, and they all indicate a leak, what is the probability that all of them are producing false
alarms (which would mean there is no leak present)?
If each detector has a 40% chance of a false alarm, what is the minimum number of detectors
that would need to be installed so that if they all go off, the probability that they are all producing
false alarms is less than .01? Less than .001?
If there are 5 such detectors, and the probability that they all deliver a false alarm is .001, then
what is the probability that any one of them produces a false alarm?

15. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary
outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A) < Pr(A|
B).
16. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary
outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A) = Pr(A|
B).
17. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary
outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A) > Pr(A|
B).
18. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary
outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A|B) <
Pr(B|A).
19. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary
outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A|B) =
Pr(B|A).
20. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary
outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A|B) >
Pr(B|A).
21. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary
outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(B) < Pr(A|
B).

22. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary
outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(B) = Pr(A|
B).
23. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary
outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(B) > Pr(A|
B).
24. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary
outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A&B) <
Pr(A|B).
25. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary
outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A&B) =
Pr(A|B). In this special case, what must Pr(B) be?
26. Explain why it is impossible to construct an example where Pr(A&B) > Pr(A|B).
27. Draw a table that defines a single sample space and assigns probabilities to each
elementary outcome, and define events A, B, and C. Do the calculations to show that (i)
Pr(A) > Pr(A|B), (ii) Pr(A) > Pr(A|C), and (iii) Pr(A) < Pr(A|B and C).
28. Give a real life example involving events A, B, and C, where (i) Pr(A) > Pr(A|B), (ii)
Pr(A) > Pr(A|C), and (iii) Pr(A) < Pr(A|B and C).
29. Give a real life example involving events A, B, and C, where (i) Pr(A) < Pr(A|B), (ii)
Pr(A) < Pr(A|C), and (iii) Pr(A) > Pr(A|B and C).
30. For the next series of questions, assume that the sample space contains 50 elementary
events {e1,, e50}, and that each of them are equiprobable: Pr(ei) = .02. Also assume that
H = {e1, e2, e3, e4, e5, e6, e7}. Define an event E, and calculate the relevant probabilities
that show that:
31. Pr(H) > Pr(H | E).
32. Pr(H) = Pr(H | E).
33. Pr(H) < Pr(H | E).
34. Pr(E) > Pr(H | E).
35. Pr(E) = Pr(H | E).
36. Pr(E) < Pr(H | E).
37. Pr(E | H) > Pr(H | E).
38. Pr(E | H) = Pr(H | E).
39. Pr(E | H) < Pr(H | E).
40. Give a formula for Bayes' theorem (either form that we've seen will do).
41. Prove that Pr(A | B) = Pr(A)Pr(B | A)/Pr(B).
42. For any events A and B with nonzero probabilities, Pr(A | B) Pr(A & B); explain.
43. At the UCI SportBall center concession stand, 70% of the visitors buy drinks, and 50% of
the visitors buy popcorn. Of those who buy drinks, 60% also buy popcorn. What is the
probability that a visitor to the stand will buy both?
44. At the UCI SportBall center concession stand, 70% of the visitors buy drinks, and 50% of
the visitors buy popcorn. Of those who buy drinks, 60% also buy popcorn. Of those who
buy popcorn, what is the probability that they will buy drinks?

45. At the UCI SportBall center concession stand, 70% of the visitors buy drinks, and 50% of
the visitors buy popcorn. Of those who buy drinks, 60% also buy popcorn. What is the
probability that someone will buy popcorn but not also buy drinks?
46. You are worried about your chances of getting a job once you have graduated from UCI
with a BA. A friend who knows some statistics, tries to reassure you by pointing out that
only 1.7% of young adults both have BAs and are unemployed. Probabilistically
speaking, should this information by itself comfort you? Why or why not? If not, explain
what additional information would.
47. You are worried about your chances of getting a job once you have graduated from UCI.
A friend who knows some statistics, warns you that if you randomly select an
unemployed young adult, there is almost a 20% chance that she has a BA.
Probabilistically speaking, should this information by itself alarm you? Why or why not?
If not, explain what additional information would.
48. There is a disease that afflicts 35% of the population. There is a test for this disease such
that (i) if you have the disease, the test is 85% likely to be positive, and (ii) if you do not
have the disease, it is 79% likely to be negative. You have just tested positive for the
disease. Use Bayes' Theorem to calculate the probability that you have the disease. In
these circumstances, what is the probability that you do not have the disease?
49. There is a disease that afflicts 35% of the population. There is a test for this disease such
that (i) if you have the disease, the test is 85% likely to be positive, and (ii) if you do not
have the disease, it is 79% likely to be negative. You have just tested negative for the
disease. Use Bayes' Theorem to calculate the probability that you nontheless have the
disease. In these circumstances, what is the probability that you do not have the disease?
50. A detailed analysis of your credit-worthiness shows that there is a 30% chance of
company A approving your credit-card application, and a 20% chance of company B
approving it, and a 5% chance that both companies will approve it. Are these two
companies operating independently of one another? Explain.
51. A detailed analysis of your credit-worthiness shows that there is a 30% chance of
company A approving your credit-card application, and a 20% chance of company B
approving it, and a 5% chance that both companies will approve it. What are the chances
that at least one of these companies will approve your application? Explain.
52. Assuming you are flipping a completely fair coin (50% chance of coming up heads, 50%
chance of coming up tails, all flips independent), which is more likely: (i) the sequence of
6 outcomes HTHHTT, or (ii) the sequence of 6 outcomes HHHHHH? Show your work.
53. Assuming you are flipping a completely fair coin (50% chance of coming up heads, 50%
chance of coming up tails, all flips independent), which is more likely: (i) the sequence of
6 outcomes HTHHTT, or (ii) the sequence of 5 outcomes HHHHH? Show your work.
54. The local casino promises to triple your winnings if you win on both of two independent
roulette-type games in a single play on each. After some observation, you observe that the
chances of winning on a single play the first game is 5%, and the chances of winning on a
single play of the second is 7%. However, you observe that the chances of winning on
both in a single play of each is about 1 in a thousand. Should you suspect foul play on the
casino's part, or are they being honest, or are they somehow themselves getting ripped
off? Explain.
55. Suppose Pr(X|Y) = .72, Pr(Y|X) = .81, Pr(Y|not X) = .12. Find Pr(X).

56. The glossy brochure for the Honor's program at UC Torrance brags that the proportion of
Honors students at UCT who get straight As is .68. Across all of UCT, the proportion of
students who get straight As is .35. Moreover, the Honors program is popular with
students who get straight As: 80% of them belong to it. What proportion of UCT students
are in the Honors program?
57. The glossy brochure for the Honor's program at UC Diamond Bar brags that the
proportion of Honors students at UCDB who get straight As is .71. Moreover, it later
notes that 80% of the straight A students are part of the honor's program, and that only
11% of students who don't get straight As are part of the Honor's program. What is the
proportion of UCDB students who get straight As?
58. Your friend tells you that her school, UC Costa Mesa is great, because 60% of the
students get straight As, and UCCM has an Honors program restricted to just .08 of the
students. Moreover, she claims that 80% of the straight-A students are in the honors
program. Your friend is not telling the truth. Prove it.
59. [Other variations.]
60. You tell your friend that you have a 40% chance of getting your first-choice summer
internship, and a 50% chance of getting your second-choice internship (the two internship
offers are with different companies, and so are decided independently). What are your
chances of getting at least one of these internships?
61. Suppose events A, B, C, and D are i.i.d., with a shared probability of .1. In a given trial,
what is the probability that at least one of these events will occur? [Hint: Use the rules of
probability, and consider the event: not A & not B & not C & not D; if this event does not
occur, what must be the case?]
62. You've applied for 12 summer internships, and you guess that you have a 10% chance of
getting any one of them (where each of your applications will be judged independently of
the others. What are your chances of being offered at least one internship? [Hint: Use the
rules of probability, and consider the probability that you won't be offered any internships
at all.]
63. You live in a house where there are 6 of you total. You are all taking the same megaMOOC course that has 14 discussion sections, and students are assigned randomly to
them. What is the probability that at least two of you in your house will be assigned to the
same discussion section? [Hint: Use the rules of probability, and consider the probability
that none of you are assigned to the same discussion section.]

Eviews Questions
64. What would you write the white syntax bar if you wanted to restrict your sample to those
observations for which the variable (series) x was greater than or equal to 6 but less than
12?
65. Describe how you would use Eviews to construct a histogram for the series x.
66. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to create a new variable y
such that: y = 200 .1x (where x is another (series) variable)?
67. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to display the mean of x?

68. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to display the standard
deviation of x?
69. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to display the standardized
skew of x?
70. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to display the standardized
kurtosis of x?
71. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to restrict your sample to
those observations such that series y was at least 6 and at most 9, and series z was equal
to 7?
72. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to create a new series z that
gave the standardized values (z-scores) of the series x?

73. Write a sentence or two describing what Simpsons paradox is (do not just give an
example).
74. Give a numerical example of Simpsons paradox, and calculate the relevant values to
show that it is an example.
75. Explain the conditions that make Simpsons paradox occur.
76. Explain why Simpsons Paradoxes sometimes occur in Economics.
77. Give a real life example of where in Economics a Simpsons paradox might occur, and
explain why it might.
Discrete Probability Distributions

X=1
X=0

Y=1
a
c
g (=a+c)

Y=0
b
e (=a+b)
d
f (=c+d)
h (=b+d)

78. Using the above table, let a = .3, b = .4, c = .1, d = .2. Are X and Y independent? Are they
identically distributed? Are they iid?
79. Using the above table, let a = .3, b = .4, c = .1, d = .2.What is Pr[X=1 | Y = 0]? What is
Pr[Y = 0 | X = 1]?
80. Using the above table, let a = .3, b = .4, c = .1, d = .2. Are X and Y independent? Are they
identically distributed? Are they iid?
81. Using the above table, assume that X and Y are iid, and that c = .15. What are a, b, and d?
82. Using the above table, assume that X and Y are iid, and that c = .15. What is Pr[Y=1]?

83. Suppose X1 and X2 are Bernoulli trials. You learn that Pr[X1 = 1] = .6, Pr[X2 = 0] = .4,
and Pr[X1 = X2 = 1] = .3. Are X1 and X2 independent? (If you do not have enough
information to determine this, indicate why.)
84. Suppose X1 and X2 are Bernoulli trials. You learn that Pr[X1 = 1] = .6, Pr[X2 = 0] = .4,
and Pr[X1 = X2 = 1] = .3. Are X1 and X2 identically distributed? (If you do not have
enough information to determine this, indicate why.)
85. Suppose X1 and X2 are Bernoulli trials. You learn that Pr[X1 = 1] = .6, Pr[X2 = 0] = .4,
and Pr[X1 = X2 = 1] = .3. Are X1 and X2 i.i.d.? (If you do not have enough information to
determine this, indicate why.)
86. What is the symbol for the mean of a probability distribution?
87. What is the symbol for the variance of a probability distribution?
88. What is the symbol for the standard deviation of a probability distribution?
89. What is the mathematical formula (in sigma notation) for the mean of a discrete
probability distribution?
90. What is the mathematical formula (in sigma notation) for the variance of a discrete
probability distribution?
91. What is the formula (in expectation notation) for the mean of a discrete probability
distribution?
92. What is the formula (in expectation notation) for the variance of a discrete probability
distribution?
93. Suppose Pr(X = 1) = p, and Pr(X = 0) = (1 p). Calculate the mean of X. (Be sure to
94. Suppose Pr(X = 1) = p, and Pr(X = 0) = (1 p). Calculate the variance of X. (Be sure to
95. Suppose Pr(X = 1) = .3, and Pr(X = 0) = .7. Calculate the mean of X. (Be sure to show
96. Suppose Pr(X = 1) = .3, and Pr(X = 0) = .7 Calculate the variance of X. (Be sure to show
97. If you have a 25% chance of winning \$10, a 35% chance of winning \$40, and otherwise
you will lose \$55, what is for this gamble?
98. If you have a 25% chance of winning \$10, a 35% chance of winning \$40, and otherwise
you will lose \$55, what is for this gamble?
99. If you have a 25% chance of winning \$10, a 35% chance of winning \$40, and otherwise
you will lose \$55, what is for this gamble?
100.
Suppose you are risk-averse, and would be very upset at losing money. If gambles
X and Y have the same mean, but X has a larger variance than Y, which gamble would
you probably prefer? Explain.
101.
Suppose you are risk-averse, and would be very upset at losing money. If gambles
X and Y have the same mean, but X has a smaller standard deviation than Y, which
gamble would you probably prefer? Explain.
102.
Suppose you are risk-tolerant, and are willing to take a chance at winning 'big
money'. If gambles X and Y have the same mean, but X has a smaller variance than Y,
which gamble would you probably prefer? Explain.

103.
Suppose you are risk-tolerant, and are willing to take a chance at winning 'big
money'. If gambles X and Y have the same mean, but X has a larger standard deviation
than Y, which gamble would you probably prefer? Explain.
X=
probability
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.

1
3
.3
.4
Calculate the mean of X.
Calculate the variance of X.
Calculate the standard deviation of X
Calculate Pr(X 4).
Calculate Pr(3 X 4).

4
.2

5
.1

109.
If X, Y, and Z are statistically independent, and E[X] = 5, E[Y] = 7 and E[Z] = 2,
then if W = 4 + 2X +3Y +Z, then what is for W?
110.
If X, Y, and Z are statistically independent, and E[(X E[X])2] = 2, E[(Y
E[Y])2] = 1 and E[(Z E[Z])2] = 5, then if W = X +Y + Z, then what is for W?
111.
If X, Y, and Z are statistically independent, and E[(X E[X])2] = 2, E[(Y
2
E[Y]) ] = 1 and E[(Z E[Z])2] = 5, then if W = X +Y + Z, then what is for W?
112.
If X1, Xn are i.i.d., and E[X1] = , then what is the mean of Y, where Y = X1 +
X2 ++Xn?
113.
If X1, Xn are i.i.d., and E[X1] = , then what is the mean of Y, where Y =
(1/n)X1 + (1/n)X2 ++(1/n)Xn?
114.
If X1, X20 are i.i.d., and E[X1] = , then what is the mean of Y, where Y = X1 +
X2 ++X20?
115.
If X1, X20 are i.i.d., and E[X1] = , then what is the mean of Y, where Y =
(1/20)X1 + (1/20)X2 ++(1/20)X20?
116.
If, for random variables X and Y, 2X = 8 and 2Y = 17, then what is 2 for Z =
X+Y?
117.
If the variances for two independent gambles are 6 and 7 respectively, then what
is the variance of your returns if you participate in both gambles?
118.
If, for independent random variables X and Y, X = 8 and Y = 17, then what is
for Z = X+Y?
119.
If the standard deviations for two independent gambles are 6 and 7 respectively,
then what is the standard deviation of your returns if you participate in both gambles?
120.
If X1, X2 and X3 are Bernoulli trials, describe the sample space of joint outcomes
of these three variables.
121.
If X1, X2 and X3 are Bernoulli trials, and Y = X1 + X2 + X3, then what is the
possible outcomes of Y?
122.
If X1,,X27 is a random sample of Bernoulli trials with parameter p = .45, and Y
= X1+X2+.+X27, then what is E[Y]?

123.
If X1,,X27 is a random sample of Bernoulli trials with parameter p = .45, and Y
= X1+X2+.+X27, then what is 2 for Y?
124.
If X1,,X27 is a random sample of Bernoulli trials with parameter p = .45, and Y
= X1+X2+.+X27, then what is for Y?
125.
If X1,,Xn is a random sample of Bernoulli trials with some parameter p, and Y is
the sum of these variables, then what is E[Y]?
126.
If X1,,Xn is a random sample of Bernoulli trials with some parameter p, and Y is
the sum of these variables, then what is 2 for Y?
127.
If X1,,Xn is a random sample of Bernoulli trials with some parameter p, and Y is
the sum of these variables, then what is for Y?
128.
As a fundraiser, UCI sells tickets for \$1 each, where one number among 113 will
be drawn at random, and those with the winning number for that draw will receive \$50.
This lottery will be played (in exactly the same format) 11 times throughout the term. You
buy one ticket for each lottery. What is your expected return (including the cost of the
tickets) from all the lotteries?
129.
As a fundraiser, UCI sells tickets for \$1 each, where one number among 113 will
be drawn at random, and those with the winning number for that draw will receive \$50.
This lottery will be played (in exactly the same format) 11 times throughout the term. You
buy one ticket for each lottery. What is the theoretical variance (2) from all the lotteries?
[Hint: You can assume that Var[a+ bX] = b2Var[X] (b>0).]
130.
As a fundraiser, UCI sells tickets for \$1 each, where one number among 113 will
be drawn at random, and those with the winning number for that draw will receive \$50.
This lottery will be played (in exactly the same format) 11 times throughout the term. You
buy one ticket for each lottery. What is theoretical standard deviation () from all the
lotteries?
131.
You are handing out flyers to the 244 UCI students entering a large lecture course.
Based on past research, you expect that there is a 30% chance that any given student will
take the flyer (and you assume that whether or not a student takes a flyer is independent
of what the other students do). About how many flyers would you expect to hand out?
132.
You are handing out flyers to the UCI students entering a large lecture course.
Based on past research, you expect that there is a 30% chance that any given student will
take the flyer (and you assume that whether or not a student takes a flyer is independent
of what the other students do). If you do this repeatedly a great many times (with all the
above features remaining the same), what will the variance of the number of flyers you
hand out each time be?
133.
You are handing out flyers to the UCI students entering a large lecture course.
Based on past research, you expect that there is a 30% chance that any given student will
take the flyer (and you assume that whether or not a student takes a flyer is independent
of what the other students do). If you do this repeatedly a great many times (with all the
above features remaining the same), what will the standard deviation of the number of
flyers you hand out each time be?
134.
You are handing out flyers to the UCI students entering a large lecture course.
Based on past research, you expect that there is a 30% chance that any given student will
take the flyer (and you assume that whether or not a student takes a flyer is independent
of what the other students do). You decide to estimate the smallest number of flyers that

you will probably hand out as 2 standard deviations below the mean. What is this lower
bound?
135.
You are handing out flyers to the UCI students entering a large lecture course.
Based on past research, you expect that there is a 30% chance that any given student will
take the flyer (and you assume that whether or not a student takes a flyer is independent
of what the other students do). You decide to estimate the largest number of flyers that
you will probably hand out as 2 standard deviations above the mean. What is this upper
bound?

136.
Calculate 12! (show your work by showing explicitly what it is you calculated).
137.
How many ways are there to order 10 of 10 objects (show your work by showing
explicitly what it is you calculated)?
138.
How many ways are there to order k of n objects (k < n) (show your work by
showing explicitly what it is you calculated)?
139.
How many ways are there to order 4 of 10 objects (show your work by showing
explicitly what it is you calculated)?
140.
How many ways are there to pick out (unordered) 6 objects from a group of 12?
141.
Consider the set of students: {Ryan, Enrique, Mallory, Muhammad, Arsen,
Kristine, Tevan, Adir, Tiffany}How many ways are there to order all these students?
142.
Consider the set of students: {Ryan, Enrique, Mallory, Muhammad, Arsen,
Kristine, Tevan, Adir, Tiffany} How many groups of 3 students are there?
143.
144.
145.

## Give the mathematical formula for .

k
9
Calculate by hand (show your work).
4
n

What does express; i.e., say in words what general information this gives
k

you (dont
just give its mathematical formula)?
146.

13
express; i.e., say in words what general information this gives
6

What does

## you (dont just give its mathematical formula)?

n

n( n 1)(n 2) (n k 1)

Is it true that
? If so, calculate a proof of this; if
k!
k

## not, give a counterexample.

148.
You are hosting a movie party, where there will be 8 persons in a room with 8
places to sit. How many different ways are there to seat the people?
149.
You are hosting a movie party, where there will be 8 persons in a room with 10
places to sit. How many different ways are there to seat the people?
147.

150.
You are hosting a movie party, where there will be 14 persons. You have 10 chairs
up front, and the remaining four people will need to sit on the couch in the back. How
many possibilities do you have for selecting 4 people to sit on the couch?
n

151.

.
In words, explain why:
k nk

152.

Calculate that:
k nk

153.
The next few questions refer to this set of (actual) students. {Arash, Omar,
Angeline, Rochelle, Joseph, Jennifer, Lindsay, Artin, Amanda, Kristina, Christopher}
154.
How many groups of 6 students are there that contain Rochelle, Artin, and
Kristina?
155.
What is the probability of randomly selecting 7 students, and getting Jennifer and
Omar in your group?
156.
Suppose you identify each student by the first letter of their first name (i.e., you
dont distinguish students whose first name starts with the same first letter). How many
ways can these students be ordered now?
157.
There is a class of 20 with 13 boys and 7 girls. How many ways are there to form
a committee of 3 boys and 3 girls?
158.
There is a class of 20 with 13 boys and 7 girls. A committee will be formed by
randomly selecting 6 persons. What is the probability that the committee will have 3 boys
and 3 girls?
159.
Give a real-life example where you would want to use the binomial coefficient
(just to find a number, not to calculate a probability).
160.
Give a real-life example where you would want to calculate a probability using
binomial coefficients (not in the context of a binomial distribution).

161.
162.
163.
164.

## In the above sample space, all cells are equiprobable

A: cells containing an a
B: cells containing a b
C: cells containing a c.

165.

Binomial Distribution

166.
Give the mathematical formula for (the pmf of) the binomial distribution; i.e., for
Pr(Y = k).
12
167.
If Y ~ B.3 , calculate Pr(Y = 4).
168.
If Y ~ B.12
3 , calculate Pr(Y 2).
12
169.
If Y ~ B.3 , calculate Pr(Y > 10).
170.
If Y ~ B.12
3 , calculate Pr(3 < Y 6).
n
171.
For the binomial distribution B p , what are the possible values for p?
n
172.
For the binomial distribution B p , what are the possible values for n?
n
173.
If Y ~ B p , what are the possible values of Y?
174.
If Y ~ B.62 , what are the possible values for Y?
n
175.
If Y ~ B p , what is the sample space for Y?
176.
If Y ~ B.62 , is the sample space for Y?
177.
The next few questions refer to the table for the cumulative distribution function
7
(cdf) for B.3 ; i.e., it gives P[Y y].
Y=
0
1
2
3
4
178.
5
179.
F(y)
=
184.
185.
186.
187.
188.
189.
190.
191.
192.
193.

.082

.329

.647

.874

.971

181.
996

182.
999

What is F(2)?
What is Pr(Y < 4)?
What is Pr(Y 4)?
What is Pr(Y = 5)?
What is pr (Y > 3)?
What is pr (Y 3)?
What is Pr(1 < Y < 4)?
What is Pr(1 Y < 4)?
What is Pr(1 < Y 4)?
What is Pr(1 Y 4)?

194.
Give two real-life examples where you would want to use the binomial
distribution to calculate a probability.
195.
The slides list five conditions that (collectively) characterize a binomial
distribution; what are they?
196.
What is the mathematical formula for the cumulative distribution function of the
binomial distribution?

6
.

180.
7
183.
1

197.
For any given person, there is a 25% chance of having a certain inherited genetic
trait. There are five unrelated persons in a room. Calculate the probability that three of
them have the trait.
198.
For any given person, there is a 25% chance of having a certain inherited genetic
trait. There are five siblings in a room. Explain why you cant use the binomial
distribution to calculate the probability that three of them have the trait.
199.
What is the mean of the binomial distribution with parameters n and p?
200.
What is the mean of the binomial distribution with parameters 4 and .8?
201.
What is the variance of the binomial distribution with parameters n and p?
202.
What is the variance of the binomial distribution with parameters 4 and .8?
n
203.
Give the specific mathematical formula for the expectation of Y, where Y ~ B p .
Be specific: include the limits on the sigma, and be exact enough so that your definition
applies only when Y has the distribution it does (i.e., dont just use things like Pr(Y = k)).
n
204.
Give the specific mathematical formula for the mean of Y, where Y ~ B p . Be
specific: include the limits on the sigma, and be exact enough so that your definition
applies only when Y has the distribution it does (i.e., dont just use things like Pr(Y = k)).
n
205.
Give the specific mathematical formula for the variance of Y, where Y ~ B p . Be
specific: include the limits on the sigma, and be exact enough so that your definition
applies only when Y has the distribution it does (i.e., dont just use things such as Pr(Y =
k)).
206.
Give the specific mathematical formula for the standard deviation of Y, where
n
Y ~ B p . Be specific: include the limits on the sigma, and be exact enough so that your
definition applies only when Y has the distribution it does (i.e., dont just use things like
Pr(Y = k)).
207.
Give the general formula that expresses the linearity of expectations.
n
208.
Use the linearity of expectations to calculate the mean of B p (i.e., solve for the
expression of the mean given in class).
209.
Use the linearity of expectations to calculate the mean of B.47 .
n
210.
Use the linearity of expectations to calculate
the variance of B p (i.e., solve for
the expression of the variance given in class and on the slides).
7
211.
Use the linearity of expectations to calculate the variance of B.4
.

3
212.
Calculate the mean of B p directly (do not use
the linearity of expectations; solve
for the expression of the mean given in class and on the slides).
213.
Calculate the mean of B.33 directly (do not use the linearity of expectations).

3
214.
Calculate the variance of B p directly (do not use the linearity of expectations;
solve for the expression of the variance given in class and on the slides).
215.
Calculate the variance of B.33 directly (do not use the linearity of expectations).

3
216.
Calculate the standard deviation of B p directly (do not use the linearity of
expectations; solve for the expression of the variance given in class).
217.
Calculate the standard deviation of B.33 directly (do not use the linearity of

expectations).

218.
Use F, the cumulative probability distribution for a binomial distribution, to
express the probability of getting c or fewer successes.
219.
Use F, the cumulative probability distribution for a binomial distribution, to
express the probability of getting c or more successes.
220.

k

## (unordered) from a set of n objects.

221.
** What question does (the mass function of the) binomial distribution address?

222.
What is the relationship between a Bernoulli process (i.e. a collection of i.i.d.
Bernoulli trials) and the associated binomially distributed random variable?
8
223.
Suppose X ~ B p , and Pr(X = 8) = .007. What is the value of p (as always, show
n
224.
Suppose X ~ B p , and you calculated the probabilities of all the outcomes of X,
but then you forgot the value of p. How could you use (one or more of) these
probabilities and the value of n to find p?
225.
At your job, each day 15% of the employees are randomly selected for a
screening procedure designed to check for blind, unthinking allegiance to corporate
values. In the last 5 days, you have been selected 3 times, and you are beginning to
suspect that you are being singled out for special attention. If there really is only a 15%
chance of your being selected, then what is the probability of your being selected 3 or
more times in the last 5 days? [Comment: This is the underlying logic of statistical
testing, to be covered in 15B.]
226.
On incoming international flights, the TSA now randomly inspects 22% of all
checked bags. Youve heard rumors of laxity at LAX. As a business traveler who
frequently travels to Dubai, you have made 13 round trips there since this policy was
implemented (always flying back into LAX). However, your bags have been opened for
inspection only 2 times. If the TSA really is inspecting 22% of the bags, what is the
probability that yours would have only been inspected 2 or fewer times? [Comment: This
is the underlying logic of statistical testing, to be covered in 15B.]
227.
An elevator in SSPA breaks down once in every 5000 operations. If you use this
elevator twice a day for 4 days a week, for 30 weeks a year, for 4 years, what is the
probability that you will be trapped in it twice? At least twice?

228.
What would you type into the white syntax bar on Eviews if you wanted to
display the probability of getting 12 successes from a binomial distribution with
parameters n = 30 and p = .47?
229.
What would you type into the white syntax bar on Eviews if you wanted to
display the cumulative probability for 12 successes from a binomial distribution with
parameters n = 30 and p = .47?
230.
Explain the difference between a probability mass function and a cumulative
distribution function.

231.
What would you type into the white syntax bar of Eviews if you wanted to create
a dummy variable x that yielded the value 1 if the variable y is less than or equal to 4,
and 0 otherwise?
232.
What would you type into the white syntax bar of Eviews if you wanted to display
28
the value of Pr(X 7), where X~ B.2 ?
233.
What would you type into the white syntax bar of Eviews if you wanted to display
the value of Pr(X < 7), where X~ B.228 ?
234.
What would you type into the white syntax bar of Eviews if you wanted to display
the value of Pr(X 7), where X~ B.228 ?
235.
What would you type into the white syntax bar of Eviews if you wanted to display
where X~ B 28 ?
the value of Pr(X > 7),
.2
236.
What would you type into the white syntax bar of Eviews if you wanted to display
the value of Pr(10 <
X 17), where X~ B.228 ?

## Continuous Probability Distributions

237.
Explain the difference between a probability density function and a cumulative
distribution function.
238.
What conditions must a function f meet in order to be a pdf?
239.
Suppose X has a continuous distribution. What is Pr(X = 0)? Explain/prove your
240.
If X is a continuous probability distribution, why doesnt it matter whether you
determine Pr(X < 5.1) or Pr(X 5.1)?
241.
Explain the difference between a cdf (F) and a probability function (pr).
242.
Explain the difference between a pdf (f) and a probability function (pr).
243.
Give an example of a function f, and show both that it is a pdf, and that for some
value x, f(x) > 1.
244.
f(7) = 3, so I know that f is not a pdf. Evaluate this claim.
245.
f(7) = -.2, so I know that f is not a pdf. Evaluate this claim.
246.
F(7) = 3, so I know that F is not a cdf. Evaluate this claim.
247.
F(7) = -.2, so I know that F is not a cdf. Evaluate this claim.
248.
Express the pdf f(b) in terms of the cdf F(x).
249.
Express the pdf f(b) in terms of Pr(X x).
250.
Express the pdf f(b) in terms of Pr( X > x).
251.
Express the pdf f(b) in terms of Pr(y < X x).
252.
Express the cdf F(b) in terms of the pdf f(x).
253.
Express the cdf F(b) in terms of Pr(X x).
254.
Express the cdf F(b) in terms of Pr(X > x).
255.
Express the cdf F(b) in terms of Pr(y < X x).
256.
Express Pr(X b) in terms of the pdf f(x).
257.
Express Pr(X b) in terms of the cdf F(x).
258.
Express Pr(X b) in terms of Pr(X > x).
259.
Express Pr(X b) in terms of Pr(y < X x).
260.
Express Pr(X > a) in terms of the pdf f(x).

261.
Express Pr(X > a) in terms of the cdf F(x).
262.
Express Pr(X > a) in terms of Pr(X x).
263.
Express Pr(X > a) in terms of Pr(y < X x).
264.
Express Pr(a < X b) in terms of the pdf f(x).
265.
Express Pr(a < X b) in terms of the cdf F(x).
266.
Express Pr(a < X b) in terms of Pr(X x).
267.
Express Pr(a < X b) in terms of Pr(X > x).
268.
Suppose f and g are pdfs, and that 0 < p < 1. Show that h is a pdf, where h(x) =
pf(x) + (1-p)g(x).
X
269.
Suppose Z is the standardization of X (Z =
), where and are the mean

## and standard deviation of X). Calculate the mean of Z.

X
270.
Suppose Z is the standardization of X (Z =
), where and are the mean

## and standard deviation of X). Calculate the standard deviation of Z.

271.
Suppose W = X/ (where is the standard deviation of X). Calculate the standard
deviation of W.
272.
Suppose W = (X ) (where is the mean of X). Calculate E[W].
273.
Suppose that Y = a + bX (b > 0). Calculate to show that the standardization of Y is
the standardization of X.
274.
Suppose that Y = 4 + 2X, where the mean of X is 8 and the standard deviation of
X is 3. Calculate the standardizations of X and Y separately.
275.

Uniform Distribution

276.
Draw the and label (both axes of) the graphs of the pdf (together, on one set of
axes) of U(0,1) and U(-1, 2).
277.
Draw and label (both axes of) the graphs of the cdf (together, on one set of axes)
of U(0,1) and U(-1, 2).
278.
What is the pdf for the Uniform distribution on (a, b)?
279.
What is the cdf for the Uniform distribution on (a, b) (do not express this using
integrals)?
280.
If X ~ U(2, 7), calculate f(4).
281.
If X ~ U(2, 7), calculate F(4).
282.
If X ~ U(2, 7), calculate Pr(X 4) using only the definitions of U(2, 7) and Pr(X
4).
283.
If X ~ U(2, 7), calculate Pr(4 < X) using only the definitions of U(2, 7) and Pr(4 <
X).
284.
If X ~ U(2, 7), calculate Pr(3 < X 4) using only the definitions of U(2, 7) and
Pr(3 < X 4).
285.
Starting from the definitions of a uniform distribution and expectation, calculate
E[X], where X ~ U(2, 7).
286.
Starting from the definition of E[X] and the pdf of a uniform distribution,
calculate that E[X] =

ab
, where X ~ U(a, b).
2

287.

Starting from the definition of 2 and the pdf of a uniform distribution, calculate

## that the variance of X is

(b a ) 2
, if X ~ U(a, b).
12

288.
Starting from the definition of 2 and the pdf of a uniform distribution, calculate
the variance of X, where X ~ U(0, 1).
289.
Starting from the definition of 2 and the pdf of a uniform distribution, calculate
the variance of X, where X ~ U(3, 6).
290.
Suppose X ~ U(0, 1). Which, if either, is more likely: .3 X .4, or .7 X .8?
291.
Suppose X ~ U(0, 1). Which, if either, is more likely: .3 < X < .4, or .7 X .8?
292.
Suppose X ~ U(0, 1). Which, if either, is more likely: .3 X .41, or .7 X .8?
293.
What is the total area under the curve of the pdf of U(2, 4)?
294.
What is the total area under the curve from 1 to 3 of the pdf of U(0, 4)?
295.
What is the total area under the curve from 4 to 5 of the pdf of U(2, 4)?
296.
** What is E[X] if X ~ U(a, b) (just state the relevant formula)?
297.
**What is E[(X E[X])2] if X ~ U(a, b) (just state the relevant formula)?
298.
** What is E[(X E[X])2] if X ~ U(2, 7) (you can use any formula we have used
in class to calculate this)?
299.
If X~U(2, 7), what is the mean of X?
300.
If X~U(2, 7), what is the variance of X?
301.
If X ~U(2, 7), what is the standard deviation of X?
302.
What command would you give if you wanted Eviews to display the probability
that X < .2, if X ~ U(0, 1)?
303.
A piece of string of length 3 is cut completely at random, into a first piece and a
second piece. What is the probability that the first piece will have length at least 2?
304.
A piece of string of length 3 is cut completely at random, into a first piece and a
second piece. What is the probability that the first piece will be at least twice as long as
the second piece?
305.
A piece of string of length 3 is cut completely at random, into a first piece and a
second piece. What is the probability that one of the pieces will be at least twice as long
as the other piece?

z = -3.0 -2.8 -2.6 -2.4 -2.2 -2.0 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2
(z) =

0.0

.001 .003 .005 .008 .014 .023 .036 .055 .081 .115 .159 .212 .274 .345 .421 .500

z = 0.2
(z)=

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2 1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

3.0

.579 .655 .726 .788 .841 .885 .919 .945 .964 .977 .986 .992 .995 .997 .999

## he Normal (aka Gaussian) distribution

306.
For Z~N(0,1), use the table above to estimate P[Z 1.8]
307.
For Z~N(0,1), use the table above to estimate P[Z > 2.2]
308.
For Z~N(0,1), use the table above to estimate P[-.2 < Z < .8]
309.
For X ~ N(25, 18), use the table above to estimate P[X 31]
310.
For X ~ N(25, 18), use the table above to estimate P[X > 22]
311.
For X ~ N(25, 18), use the table above to estimate P[20 < X 30]]
312.
Many test scores are (approximately) normally distributed. Your professor reports
that the midterm average was a 78, and that the standard deviation was 8. You got an 88
on the midterm. Approximately what percentile does that put you in? (I.e., what
percentage of the students did you score higher than?)
313.
Many test scores are (approximately) normally distributed. Your professor reports
that the midterm average was a 78, and that the standard deviation was 8. What is the
approximate range of scores for the middle 50% of the scores?
314.
Many test scores are (approximately) normally distributed. Your professor reports
that the midterm average was a 78, and that the standard deviation was 8. What is the
approximate range of scores for the top 10% of the scores?
315.
Many test scores are (approximately) normally distributed. Your professor reports
that the midterm average was a 78, and that the standard deviation was 8. What is the
approximate range of scores for the bottom 10% of the scores?
316.
There are two commonly used names for N(, 2). What are they?
317.
Write out the mathematical formula for the pdf for N(, 2).
318.
Write out the mathematical formula for the pdf of N(0, 1).
319.
Write out the mathematical formula for (x).
320.
What is the value of (0)?
321.
What is the value of (0)?
322.
is the pdf for N(0, 1); calculate the value of (1.5).
323.
f is the pdf for N(3, 16); calculate the value of f(5).
324.
f is the pdf for N(3, 16); calculate the(two) values x for which we have f(x) = .01.
325.
** f is the pdf for N(3, 2) and f(5) = .01; calculate the value of 2.
326.
f is the pdf for N(, 16) and f(5) = .01; calculate the two possible values of .
327.
Suppose X ~ N(0, 1). Which, if either, is more likely: .3 X .4, or .7 X .8?
Explain your answer (you do not need to calculate these values).
328.
Suppose X ~ N(0, 1). Which, if either, is more likely: .3 < X < .4, or .7 X .8?
Explain your answer (you do not need to calculate these values).
329.
Suppose X ~ N(0, 1). Which, if either, is more likely: 1 X 1, or 5 X 10?
Explain your answer (you do not need to calculate these values).
330.
Draw and label the graphs of the pdf (together, on one set of axes) of N(0,1) and
N(-1, 2). Your graphs should display how the different parameters of the two distributions
affect the pdfs.

331.
Draw and label the graphs of the cdf (together, on one set of axes) of N(0,1) and
N(-1, 2). Your graphs should display how the different parameters of the two distributions
affect the cdfs.
332.
What is the total area under the curve of the pdf of N(0, 1)?
333.
What is E[X] if X ~ N(, 2)?
334.
What is E[X] if X ~ N(1, 3)?
335.
What is the mean of X if X ~ N(, 2)?
336.
What is the variance of X if X ~ N(, 2)?
337.
What is the standard deviation of X if X ~ N(, 2)?
338.
What is mean of X if X ~ N(1, 3)?
339.
What is variance of X if X ~ N(1, 3)?
340.
What is standard deviation of X if X ~ N(1, 3)?
341.
What is of X if X ~ N(1, 3)?
342.
What is 2 of X if X ~ N(1, 3)?
343.
What is of X if X ~ N(1, 3)?
344.
What is E[(X E[X])2] if X ~ N(, 2)?
345.
What is E[(X E[X])2] if X ~ N(, )?
346.
What is if X ~ N(, 2)?
347.
What is if X ~ N(, )?
348.
What is if X ~ N(, 2)?
349.
What is if X ~ N(, )?
350.
What is the (standardized) skew of the normal distribution?
351.
What is the (standardized) kurtosis of the normal distribution (or: if your answer
to this is 0, then what constant number is subtracted from the formula to yield 0)?
352.
What is the unstandardized skew of the normal distribution?
353.
What is the unstandardized kurtosis of the normal distribution?
354.
How much of the probability of an N(, 2) distribution is within 1.96 standard
deviations of the mean?
355.
If X ~N(, 2), what is what is the probability that X ( + 1.64)?
356.
Why does the normal distribution occur frequently in nature?
357.
Give three real life examples that are probably (nearly) normally distributed; for
each one, write a sentence or two about why they probably are normally distributed.
358.
For N(, 2), calculate the largest value of its pdf. Show also that any other value
will be less than this number.
359.
For N(, ), calculate the largest value of its pdf. Show also that any other
value will be less than this number.
360.
What command would you use if you wanted Eviews to compute the probability
that X < 2, if X~N(0, 1)?
361.
What command would you use if you wanted Eviews to compute the probability
that X > 2, if X~N(0, 1)?
362.
What command would you use if you wanted Eviews to compute the probability
that
3 < X < 2, if X~N(0, 1)?
363.
If X ~ N(0, 1), then what is the distribution of Y = a + bX (b 0)?

364.
365.
366.
367.
368.
369.

If X ~ N(, 2), how would you transform it so that it is distributed as N(0, 1)?
If X ~ N(, 2), then what is the distribution of Y = a + bX (b 0)?
If X ~ N(0, 1), then what is the distribution of Y = 2 + 3X?
If X ~ N(, ), how would you transform it so that it is distributed as N(0, 1)?
If X ~ N(, ), then what is the distribution of Y = 2 + 3X?
For what values is the pdf of N(6, 4) greater than 0?

370.
Calculate the value of E ( X ) in terms of the mean of Xi, (i.e., like we did in
class).
371.
Calculate the variance of X in terms of the variance 2 of Xi (i.e., like we did in
class).
372.
If {X1,, X37} is a random sample from N(100, 25), then what is the variance of
?
X
373.
If {X1,, X37} is a random sample from N(100, 25), then what is the standard
deviation of X ?
374.
Explain in words what the Central Limit Theorem says.
375.
What background conditions must hold in order for the Central Limit Theorem to
hold?
376.
Give the limit formula in the Central Limit Theorem as a limit formula of a sum
of standardized random variables (scaled by n-1/2). In this formula, what random variables
are being standardized?
377.
Give the limit formula in the Central Limit Theorem as a limit formula of a
standardization of a single random variable. In this formulation, what random variable is
being standardized?
378.
Show that the two forms of the Central Limit Theorem are equivalent by
1 n Xi
X

calculating that:

X
n i 1
379.
The slides list two roles the Central Limit Theorem plays in statistics; what are
they?
380.
The host probability distribution (e.g., wages of individuals) whose mean you
wish to estimate is not normally distributed, and yet your analysis of the mean of a
random sample involves the normal distribution. Explain why.
381.
If X = 10, = 4, = 2.2, and n = 11, what is the z-score?
382.
If X = 10, = 4, = 5, and n = 11, what is the z-score?
383.
If a data set {1, 2, 5, 7, 2} is a random sample from a distribution where = 4,
and = 3, what is the z-score (for X )?
384.
If a data set {1, 2, 5, 7, 2} is a random sample from a distribution where = 4,

## and = 7, what is the z-score (for X )

Bivariate data
385.
Calculate the covariance of the data set {(1, 0), (0, 1), (2, -1), (3, 1)}.
386.
Calculate the correlation of the data set {(1, 0), (3, 1), (0, -1), (1, 1)}.
387.
Standardize the data set {(1, 0), (3, 1), (0, -1), (1, 1)} and then calculate the
correlation.
388.
If the standard deviation of x and y are 4 and 7 respectively, then what is the
correlation between x and y if m11 = 12?
389.
What are the possible values of the covariance?
390.
What are the possible values of r?
391.
What does it mean if r is large and positive?
392.
What does it mean if r is nearly zero?
393.
What does it mean if r is a large negative number (i.e., not close to zero)?
394.
What is the symbol for the correlation coefficient?
395.
Express the correlation coefficient in terms of moments.
396.
What is the symbol for the covariance?
397.
Using sigma notation, give the mathematical formula for the correlation
coefficient.
398.
Using sigma notation, give the mathematical formula for the covariance.
399.
What precisely does the correlation coefficient measure?
400.
Give two examples where you would want to know the correlation between two
variables.
401.
Explain the relationship between covariance and correlation in terms of
standardized variables.
402.
Explain the relationship between covariance and correlation in terms of moments.
403.
Give an example of why correlation does not imply causation.
404.
Why cant you take a sample of Californians and a sample of New Yorkers, and
measure the correlation between the two groups salaries?
405.
Know how to do exercise 5.12 in the book.
406.
Know how to do exercise 5.13 in the book.
407.
Know how to do exercise 5.20 in the book.
408.
Know how to do exercise 5.22 in the book.
409.
Know how to do exercise 5.29 in the book.
410.
411.
412.
X=1
X=2
413.
414.
415.
Y=
5
2
1
416.
417.
418.
Y=
4
1
2
419.
420.
421.
Y=
1
7
3
422.
Calculate the joint probability that both X and Y are 2.
423.
Calculate the marginal probability that Y = 3.

424.

434.
435.
436.
437.
438.
439.
series.
440.
series.

## Calculate the probability that Y = 1 given that X = 2.

425.
426.
427.
X=1
X=2
428.
429.
430.
Y=1
5
2
431.
432.
433.
Y=2
5
8
or
3
Calculate the correlation between X and Y.
Give the mathematical formula for .
Describe how you would use Eviews to construct a box-and-whiskers plot.
Describe how you would use Eviews to construct a cumulative distribution plot.
Describe how you would use Eviews to construct a scatterplot.
Describe how you would use Eviews to construct a correlation matrix between 3
Describe how you would use Eviews to construct a covariance matrix between 3

==========================================================
START OF NEED TO KNOWS FOR TEST A1
Measurement Scales
441.
What is distinctive about an absolute scale (i.e. what kind of information does it
preserve, or what kinds of transformations yield another absolute scale)?
442.
What is distinctive about a ratio scale (i.e. what kind of information does it
preserve, or what kinds of transformations yield another ratio scale)?
443.
What is distinctive about an interval scale (i.e. what kind of information does it
preserve, or what kinds of transformations yield another interval scale)?
444.
What is distinctive about an ordinal scale (i.e. what kind of information does it
preserve, or what kinds of transformations yield another ordinal scale)?
445.
What is distinctive about a categorical scale (i.e. what kind of information does it
preserve, or what kinds of transformations yield another categorical scale)?
446.
How are the above five scales of measurement related to one another (i.e., is one
sort of scale always an instance of another sort of scale)?

447.
Give two examples of something that would be measured on an absolute scale,
and write a sentence or two about why these are good examples of this particular scale.
448.
Give two examples of something that would be measured on a ratio scale, and
write a sentence or two about why these are good examples of this particular scale.
449.
Give two examples of something that would be measured on an interval scale, and
write a sentence or two about why these are good examples of this particular scale.
450.
Give two examples of something that would be measured on an ordinal scale, and
write a sentence or two about why these are good examples of this particular scale.
451.
Give two examples of something that would be measured on a categorical scale,
and write a sentence or two about why these are good examples of this particular scale.
452.
Give two examples of something that would be measured with an index, and write
a sentence or two about why these are good examples.
453.
Give two examples of something that would be measured with a time series, and
write a sentence or two about why these are good examples.
454.
Suppose I have a data set {x1,xn}, and that I would retain all the information
about what I am studying even if I recoded all the data as {y1,yn}, provided only that if
xi xj, then yi yj. What kind of measurement scale does my data reflect?
455.
Suppose I have a data set {x1,xn}, and that I would retain all the information
about what I am studying even if I recoded all the data as {y1,yn}, provided only that if
xi > xj, then yi > yj. What kind of measurement scale does my data reflect?
456.
Suppose I have a data set {x1,xn}, and that I would retain all the information
about what I am studying even if I recoded all the data as {y1,yn}, provided only that yi
= a + bxi (b > 0). What kind of measurement scale does my data reflect?
457.
Suppose I have a data set {x1,xn}, and that I would retain all the information
about what I am studying even if I recoded all the data as {y1,yn}, provided only that yi
= bxi (b > 0). What kind of measurement scale does my data reflect?
458.
Suppose I have a data set {x1,xn}, and that in order to retain all the information
about what I am studying, I cannot change any values of the data. What kind of
measurement scale does my data reflect?

Graphs
What is the median for {x1,xn} if n = 10?
What is the median for {x1,xn} if n = 11?
When is the median an element of a data set? When is it not?
Describe how the box of a box-and-whisker plot is constructed.
What are the outliers (if any) in a box-and-whisker plot?
If the three quartile points are 7, 9, and 11, respectively, which if any of these data points
are outliers -3, 2, 7, 12, 14.1, 15? Explain why
Describe how to determine the three quartile points and the four quartiles of a box-andwhisker plot.
Construct a box-and-whiskers plot (by hand) for the data set {-3, 4, 3, 2, 1, -8, 4, 3, 2, 0}.
What kind of information does a box-and-whisker plot visually display?

Give an example of when and how you might use a box-and-whisker plot.

How are absolute frequency plots different from relative frequency plots?
Sketch an absolute frequency plot (by hand) for a data set where 5 students are under 18,
10 are 18, 22 are 19, 27 are 20, 15 are 21, 9 are 22, and 4 are over 22.
What kind of information does an absolute frequency plot visually display?
Give an example of when and how you might use an absolute frequency plot.

How are relative frequency plots different from cumulative frequency plots?
Sketch a relative frequency plot (by hand) for the following data set {32, 16, 21, 22, 21,
19, 24, 26, 31, 27}. Use the categories [ 20], [21 23], [24 27], [28 30], [ 31]. Be
sure to label both axes.
What kind of information does a relative frequency plot visually display?
Give an example of when and how you might use a relative frequency plot.
How are histograms constructed?
What is the total area of a histogram?
Sketch a histogram (by hand) for the data set: {1, 1, 3, 2, 5, 5, 9, 2, 4, 2} Using the
categories [1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6], [7, 8], [9, 10]. Be sure to supply numeric labels on the
axes.
What kind of information does a histogram visually display?
Give an example of when you might use a histogram.
How do histograms and relative frequency plots differ?
Under what conditions are a histogram and a relative frequency plot identical? Explain
Sketch a cumulative distribution plot (by hand) for the following data set {32, 16, 21, 22,
21, 19, 24, 26, 31, 27}. Use the categories [ 20], [21 23], [24 27], [28 30], [ 31].
Be sure to label both axes.
What kind of information does a cumulative distribution plot visually display?
Give an example of when you might use a cumulative distribution plot.
What are the two extreme points on the y axis of a cumulative distribution plot?

## Moments of a data set

459.
For x , give: Its name.
460.
What is the symbol for the mean of a sample?
461.
For x , give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation).
462.
For x , give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it
measures. (Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)
463.
For x , give: A brief description of how you could make it larger by altering the
data set.
464.
For x , give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller by altering the
data set.

465.
For x , calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work at
each step), for the data set {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.
466.
For x , give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment
would provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your
examples are good ones.)
467.
For s2, give: Its name
468.
For the variance, give: Its symbol or symbols, if there is more than one
469.
For s2, give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation)
470.
For s2, give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it
measures. (Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)
471.
For s2, give: A brief description of how you could make it larger by altering the
data set.
472.
For s2, give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller by altering the
data set.
473.
What does a large value of m2 indicate about a data set?
474.
What does a small value of m2 indicate about a data set?
475.
For s2, calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work at
each step), for a small data set {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.
476.
For s2, give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment would
provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your examples
are good ones.)
477.
For s, give: Its name
478.
For the standard deviation, give: Its symbol or symbols, if there is more than one
479.
For s, give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation)
480.
For s, give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it
measures. (Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)
481.
For s, give: A brief description of how you could make it larger by altering the
data set.
482.
For s, give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller by altering the
data set.
483.
For s, calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work at
each step), for a small data set {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.
484.
For s, give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment would
provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your examples
are good ones.)
485.
Much software calculates the standard deviation like we have been doing, except
that where we divide by n, the software divides by n1. How would you transform such a
calculation to get the correct value for s2?
486.
You have a data set with 17 observations. Your software calculated the standard
deviation as 8. However, your software calculates the standard deviation like we have
been doing, except that where we divide by n, the software divides by n1. Calculate the
correct value for s2.
487.
You have a data set with 17 observations. Your software calculated the standard
deviation as 8. However, your software calculates the standard deviation like we have

been doing, except that where we divide by n, the software divides by n1. Calculate the
correct value for s.
488.
For m3, give: Its name
489.
For the unstandardized skew, give: Its symbol or symbols, if there is more than
one
490.
For m3, give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation)
491.
For m3, give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it
measures. (Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)
492.
For m3, give: A brief description of how you could make it larger (and positive) by
altering the data set.
493.
For m3, give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller (and negative)
by altering the data set.
494.
What does a large positive value of m3 indicate about a data set?
495.
Can m3 ever be negative? If so, what does a large negative value of m3 indicate
about a data set?
496.
What does a small absolute value of m3 indicate about a data set?
497.
For m3, calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work at
each step), for a small data set, {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.
498.
For m3, give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment would
provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your examples
are good ones.)
499.
Why do we often standardize m3?
500.
For m4, give: Its name
501.
For the unstandardized kurtosis, give: Its symbol or symbols, if there is more than
one
502.
For m4, give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation)
503.
For m4, give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it
measures. (Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)
504.
For m4, give: A brief description of how you could make it larger by altering the
data set.
505.
For m4, give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller by altering the
data set.
506.
Describe what a large positive value of m4 indicates about a data set.
507.
Can m4 ever be negative? Why or why not?
508.
Describe what a small value of m4 indicates about a data set.
509.
For m4, calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work at
each step), for a small data set {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.
510.
For m4, give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment would
provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your examples
are good ones.)
511.
Why do we often standardize m4?

512.
Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where the mean is 13 and the
standard deviation is 7. Two new data points, whose values are 17 and 14, are added to
this set. What is the new mean?
513.
Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where the mean is 13 and the
standard deviation is 7. Two new data points, whose values are 17 and 9, are added to this
set. What is the new standard deviation (assume the mean does not change)?
514.
Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where the mean is 13 and the
standard deviation is 7. Two new data points, whose values are 17 and 9, are added to this
set. What is the new variance (assume the mean does not change)?
515.
Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where the mean is 13 and the
variance is 7. Two new data points, whose values are 17 and 9, are added to this set. What
is the new standard deviation (assume the mean does not change)?
516.
Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where the mean is 13 and the
variance is 7. Two new data points, whose values are 17 and 9, are added to this set. What
is the new variance (assume the mean does not change)?
Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where x = 10, s = 6, and m3 = -22.
A new data point, whose value is 28, is added. What is the new m3 (assume the mean
does not change)?
Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where x = 10, s = 6, and m3 = 22. A
new data point, whose value is 28, is added. What is the new m3 (assume the mean does
not change)?
Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where x = 10, s = 6, and m4 = 22. A
new data point, whose value is 28, is added. What is the new m4 (assume the mean does
not change)?

## For 1 , give: Its name

For the standardized skew, give: Its symbol or symbols, if there is more than one
For 1 , give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation)
For 1 , give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it measures.
(Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)
For 1 , give: A brief description of how you could make it larger by altering the data set.
For 1 , give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller by altering the data
set.
517.
For 1 , calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work
at each step), for a small data set {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.
For 1 , give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment would
provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your examples
are good ones.)
518.
Describe what a large positive value of 1 indicates about a data set.
519.
Describe what a small (absolute) value of 1 indicates about a data set.

520.
Describe what a large negative value (i.e. a negative value whose absolute size is
large) of 1 indicates about a data set.
521.
m3 is 24, and s2 is 7; what is 1 ?
522.
m3 is 24, and the standard deviation is 7; what is 1 ?
1 is 2, and s2 is 7; what is m3?
523.
1 is -2, and s is 7; what is m3?
524.
1 is -2, and m3 is 17; what is s2?
525.
1 is 2, and m3 is 17; what is the standard deviation?
526.
527.
If the unstandardized skew is 30, and the variance is 17, what is the
standardized skew?
For 2 , give: Its name
For the standardized kurtosis, give: Its symbol or symbols, if there is more than one
For 2 , give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation)
For 2 , give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it measures.
(Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)
For 2 , give: A brief description of how you could make it larger by altering the data set.
For 2 , give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller by altering the data
set.
528.
For 2 , calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work
at each step), for a small data set {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.
For 2 , give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment would
provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your examples
are good ones.)
529.
Describe what a large value of 2 indicates about a data set.
530.
Describe what a small value of 2 indicates about a data set.
531.
m4 is 24, and s2 is 7; what is 2 ?
532.
m4 is 24, and the standard deviation is 7; what is 2 ?
2 is 2, and s2 is 7; what is m4?
533.
2 is 2, and s is 7; what is m4?
534.
2 is 2, and m4 is 17; what is s2?
535.
2 is 2, and m4 is 17; what is the standard deviation?
536.
537.
If the(unstandardized) kurtosis is 40, and the standard deviation is 3, what is the
standardized kurtosis?
If a data set is platykurtotic, what do we know about it?
If a data set is leptokurtotic, what do we know about it?
Which is more likely to contain outliers: a platykurtotic or leptokurtotic data set? Explain

538.
539.
540.
541.
542.
543.
544.
of y?
545.

## For y = a + bx, show that y a bx .

For y = a + bx, (b > 0) show that sy = bsx.
If y = 10 + 5x, and the mean of x is 25, what is the mean of y?
If y = 10 + 5x, and the variance of x is 11, what is the variance of y?
If y = 10 + 5x, and the variance of x is 11, what is the standard deviation of y?
If y = 10 + 5x, and the standard deviation of x is 11, what is the variance of y?
If y = 10 + 5x, and the standard deviation of x is 11, what is the standard deviation

For a data set x, give the formula for the z-score of xi.
x x
546.
Suppose z i i
. Express z in terms of the other quantities.
s
x x
547.
Suppose z i i
. Express s in terms of the other quantities.
s
What is the relation between 1 and m3?
What is the relation between 2 and m4?
548.
What is the primary purpose of standardizing scores?
549.
Why is the standardization of scores often used in the social sciences?
550.
If we make the transformation yi a bxi , calculate the z-score of yi in terms of
xi, x , and sx, to show that it is simply the standardization of xi. You do not need to
calculate values of y or sy. You can simply insert these values (expressed in terms of the
corresponding x-values.
551.
If you standardize a data set, what is its new mean?
552.
If you standardize a data set, what is its new standard deviation?
553.
If you standardize a data set, what is its new m3?
554.
Calculate the z-scores of {1, 2, -4, 3}.
555.
Calculate the standardization of the value 3 as it occurs in the data set {1, 2, -4,
3}, and again as it occurs in the data set {3, 5, 8, 7, 2}
556.
If the standardized value of x is -1.4 from a data set whose mean is 7 and sd is 4,
what is the original (unstandardized) value of x?
557.
Suppose x1 = 3, in a data set with 12 observations, where the mean is 6 and the
standard deviation is 2. A new data point x13 = 9 is added and now the mean is 6.5 and the
standard deviation is 3. What is the new z-score for x1?

Probability Theory
558.
What is a sample space (you can give a definition, or just say what it is)?
559.
For a given sample space S, what is an event (you can give a definition, or just
say what it is)?
560.
In a given trial or experiment, how many of the possible outcomes in the sample
space can occur at one time? How many must occur at one time?
561.
What are the three axioms of probability?

562.
What is the general formula for the probability of event A or B occurring,
where A and B might be any events whatsoever?
563.
What is the formula for expressing the probability that event A does not occur in
terms of the probability that it does occur?
564.
What is the formula for expressing the probability that events A and B both occur,
in terms of the probability that one of them occurs, and the conditional probability that
the other occurs?
565.
Which, if any, of the purported assignment of probabilities to the outcomes in a
sample space are possible? Why or why not?
Table
Outcomes in the sample space
1
E
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
1
Pr1
.2
.2
.1
.05
.05
.1
.3
0
Pr2
.3
.1
.1
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
Pr3
.3
.05
.04
.05
.1
.1
.1
.1
Pr4
.2
.2
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
566.
Give the definition of an event for a given sample space {s1,,sn}.
567.
For the sample space {a, b, c}, list all the possible events.
568.
** What is the major advantage of statistical independence discussed in the
slides?
569.
Explain why Axiom 3 (of the probability axioms) has the restriction it does (you
can draw a picture as part of your explanation, if you like).
Table 2
Pr
570.

s1
.2

## Outcomes in the sample space

s2
s3
s4
s5
s6
s7
.3
.1
.05
.05
.1
.2
A = {s1, s2}, B = {s2, s3, s4}, C = {s3, s4, s6}, D = {s2, s7,s6}, E = {s1, s7}

571.
Using Table 2, show your work as you calculate Pr(A or B) and Pr(B or C).
572.
Using Table 2, show your work as you calculate Pr(A and B) and Pr(B and C).
573.
Using Table 2, show your work as you calculate Pr(A|B) and Pr(B|A).
574.
Using Table 2, show your work as you calculate Pr(not A) and Pr(not B).
575.
Using Table 2, show your work as you calculate Pr((not C) and B) and Pr(D and
(not E))
END OF NEED TO KNOWS FOR TEST A1
==========================================================