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You are on page 1of 30

These questions represent everything you need to know for the upcoming exam (only as far

as we have covered in lecture, of course). Items that are bulleted or prefaced with ** are

important and useful, but they will not appear on any exams; only the numbered items will be

relevant to the exam.

Finalizing the NeedToKnows for an Exam. Several days before each test, the

NeedToKnows for that exam will be explicitly demarcated (usually with a boldface

Start of the Need to knows for exam XXX and End of the Need to Knows for

exam XXX). If you dont see such explicit demarcation, the relevant questions

represent good things to study, and most of them will appear on the finalized list, but

you should be aware that the official list is subject to change.

Table 2

s1

s2

s3

s4

s5

s6

s7

Pr

.2

.3

.1

.05

.05

.1

.2

1. A = {s1, s2}, B = {s2, s3, s4}, C = {s3, s4, s6}, D = {s2, s7,s6}, E = {s1, s7}

2. Using Table 2, show your work as you determine whether A and D are independent.

3. Using Table 2, show your work as you determine whether A and F are independent.

4. What is the general formula for the conditional probability of event A occurring, given

that event B occurs?

5. Give the definition of statistical independence of two events.

6. If Pr[A] = .5, and Pr[B] = .2, and A and B are independent, then what is Pr[A and B]?

7. If Pr[A] = .5, and Pr[B] = .2, and A and B are independent, then what is Pr[A | B]?

8. If Pr[A] = .5, and Pr[B] = .2, and A and B are independent, then what is Pr[B | A]?

9. If Pr[A] = .5, and Pr[B] = .2, and A and B are mutually exclusive, then what is Pr[B | A]?

11. ** Give the definition of statistical independence of n random variables.

12. Prove that if both A and B have non-zero probabilities, and if A is statistically

independent of B, then B is statistically independent of A.

13. What does i.i.d. stand for?

14. What is a random sample, as defined in the slides?

A natural gas pipeline runs across a faultline somewhere in the desert. Near the faultline, the

manufacturers installed several identical leak detectors to detect if a rupture in the pipe occurs.

Each detector also operates independently from the others. Moreover, each detector has a 20%

chance of a false alarm i.e., indicating a leak when there is none present. If there are 3 such

detectors, and they all indicate a leak, what is the probability that all of them are producing false

alarms (which would mean there is no leak present)?

If each detector has a 40% chance of a false alarm, what is the minimum number of detectors

that would need to be installed so that if they all go off, the probability that they are all producing

false alarms is less than .01? Less than .001?

If there are 5 such detectors, and the probability that they all deliver a false alarm is .001, then

what is the probability that any one of them produces a false alarm?

15. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary

outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A) < Pr(A|

B).

16. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary

outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A) = Pr(A|

B).

17. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary

outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A) > Pr(A|

B).

18. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary

outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A|B) <

Pr(B|A).

19. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary

outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A|B) =

Pr(B|A).

20. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary

outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A|B) >

Pr(B|A).

21. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary

outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(B) < Pr(A|

B).

22. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary

outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(B) = Pr(A|

B).

23. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary

outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(B) > Pr(A|

B).

24. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary

outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A&B) <

Pr(A|B).

25. Draw a table that defines a sample space and assigns probabilities to each elementary

outcome, and define two events A and B. Do the calculations to show that Pr(A&B) =

Pr(A|B). In this special case, what must Pr(B) be?

26. Explain why it is impossible to construct an example where Pr(A&B) > Pr(A|B).

27. Draw a table that defines a single sample space and assigns probabilities to each

elementary outcome, and define events A, B, and C. Do the calculations to show that (i)

Pr(A) > Pr(A|B), (ii) Pr(A) > Pr(A|C), and (iii) Pr(A) < Pr(A|B and C).

28. Give a real life example involving events A, B, and C, where (i) Pr(A) > Pr(A|B), (ii)

Pr(A) > Pr(A|C), and (iii) Pr(A) < Pr(A|B and C).

29. Give a real life example involving events A, B, and C, where (i) Pr(A) < Pr(A|B), (ii)

Pr(A) < Pr(A|C), and (iii) Pr(A) > Pr(A|B and C).

30. For the next series of questions, assume that the sample space contains 50 elementary

events {e1,, e50}, and that each of them are equiprobable: Pr(ei) = .02. Also assume that

H = {e1, e2, e3, e4, e5, e6, e7}. Define an event E, and calculate the relevant probabilities

that show that:

31. Pr(H) > Pr(H | E).

32. Pr(H) = Pr(H | E).

33. Pr(H) < Pr(H | E).

34. Pr(E) > Pr(H | E).

35. Pr(E) = Pr(H | E).

36. Pr(E) < Pr(H | E).

37. Pr(E | H) > Pr(H | E).

38. Pr(E | H) = Pr(H | E).

39. Pr(E | H) < Pr(H | E).

40. Give a formula for Bayes' theorem (either form that we've seen will do).

41. Prove that Pr(A | B) = Pr(A)Pr(B | A)/Pr(B).

42. For any events A and B with nonzero probabilities, Pr(A | B) Pr(A & B); explain.

43. At the UCI SportBall center concession stand, 70% of the visitors buy drinks, and 50% of

the visitors buy popcorn. Of those who buy drinks, 60% also buy popcorn. What is the

probability that a visitor to the stand will buy both?

44. At the UCI SportBall center concession stand, 70% of the visitors buy drinks, and 50% of

the visitors buy popcorn. Of those who buy drinks, 60% also buy popcorn. Of those who

buy popcorn, what is the probability that they will buy drinks?

45. At the UCI SportBall center concession stand, 70% of the visitors buy drinks, and 50% of

the visitors buy popcorn. Of those who buy drinks, 60% also buy popcorn. What is the

probability that someone will buy popcorn but not also buy drinks?

46. You are worried about your chances of getting a job once you have graduated from UCI

with a BA. A friend who knows some statistics, tries to reassure you by pointing out that

only 1.7% of young adults both have BAs and are unemployed. Probabilistically

speaking, should this information by itself comfort you? Why or why not? If not, explain

what additional information would.

47. You are worried about your chances of getting a job once you have graduated from UCI.

A friend who knows some statistics, warns you that if you randomly select an

unemployed young adult, there is almost a 20% chance that she has a BA.

Probabilistically speaking, should this information by itself alarm you? Why or why not?

If not, explain what additional information would.

48. There is a disease that afflicts 35% of the population. There is a test for this disease such

that (i) if you have the disease, the test is 85% likely to be positive, and (ii) if you do not

have the disease, it is 79% likely to be negative. You have just tested positive for the

disease. Use Bayes' Theorem to calculate the probability that you have the disease. In

these circumstances, what is the probability that you do not have the disease?

49. There is a disease that afflicts 35% of the population. There is a test for this disease such

that (i) if you have the disease, the test is 85% likely to be positive, and (ii) if you do not

have the disease, it is 79% likely to be negative. You have just tested negative for the

disease. Use Bayes' Theorem to calculate the probability that you nontheless have the

disease. In these circumstances, what is the probability that you do not have the disease?

50. A detailed analysis of your credit-worthiness shows that there is a 30% chance of

company A approving your credit-card application, and a 20% chance of company B

approving it, and a 5% chance that both companies will approve it. Are these two

companies operating independently of one another? Explain.

51. A detailed analysis of your credit-worthiness shows that there is a 30% chance of

company A approving your credit-card application, and a 20% chance of company B

approving it, and a 5% chance that both companies will approve it. What are the chances

that at least one of these companies will approve your application? Explain.

52. Assuming you are flipping a completely fair coin (50% chance of coming up heads, 50%

chance of coming up tails, all flips independent), which is more likely: (i) the sequence of

6 outcomes HTHHTT, or (ii) the sequence of 6 outcomes HHHHHH? Show your work.

53. Assuming you are flipping a completely fair coin (50% chance of coming up heads, 50%

chance of coming up tails, all flips independent), which is more likely: (i) the sequence of

6 outcomes HTHHTT, or (ii) the sequence of 5 outcomes HHHHH? Show your work.

54. The local casino promises to triple your winnings if you win on both of two independent

roulette-type games in a single play on each. After some observation, you observe that the

chances of winning on a single play the first game is 5%, and the chances of winning on a

single play of the second is 7%. However, you observe that the chances of winning on

both in a single play of each is about 1 in a thousand. Should you suspect foul play on the

casino's part, or are they being honest, or are they somehow themselves getting ripped

off? Explain.

55. Suppose Pr(X|Y) = .72, Pr(Y|X) = .81, Pr(Y|not X) = .12. Find Pr(X).

56. The glossy brochure for the Honor's program at UC Torrance brags that the proportion of

Honors students at UCT who get straight As is .68. Across all of UCT, the proportion of

students who get straight As is .35. Moreover, the Honors program is popular with

students who get straight As: 80% of them belong to it. What proportion of UCT students

are in the Honors program?

57. The glossy brochure for the Honor's program at UC Diamond Bar brags that the

proportion of Honors students at UCDB who get straight As is .71. Moreover, it later

notes that 80% of the straight A students are part of the honor's program, and that only

11% of students who don't get straight As are part of the Honor's program. What is the

proportion of UCDB students who get straight As?

58. Your friend tells you that her school, UC Costa Mesa is great, because 60% of the

students get straight As, and UCCM has an Honors program restricted to just .08 of the

students. Moreover, she claims that 80% of the straight-A students are in the honors

program. Your friend is not telling the truth. Prove it.

59. [Other variations.]

60. You tell your friend that you have a 40% chance of getting your first-choice summer

internship, and a 50% chance of getting your second-choice internship (the two internship

offers are with different companies, and so are decided independently). What are your

chances of getting at least one of these internships?

61. Suppose events A, B, C, and D are i.i.d., with a shared probability of .1. In a given trial,

what is the probability that at least one of these events will occur? [Hint: Use the rules of

probability, and consider the event: not A & not B & not C & not D; if this event does not

occur, what must be the case?]

62. You've applied for 12 summer internships, and you guess that you have a 10% chance of

getting any one of them (where each of your applications will be judged independently of

the others. What are your chances of being offered at least one internship? [Hint: Use the

rules of probability, and consider the probability that you won't be offered any internships

at all.]

63. You live in a house where there are 6 of you total. You are all taking the same megaMOOC course that has 14 discussion sections, and students are assigned randomly to

them. What is the probability that at least two of you in your house will be assigned to the

same discussion section? [Hint: Use the rules of probability, and consider the probability

that none of you are assigned to the same discussion section.]

Eviews Questions

64. What would you write the white syntax bar if you wanted to restrict your sample to those

observations for which the variable (series) x was greater than or equal to 6 but less than

12?

65. Describe how you would use Eviews to construct a histogram for the series x.

66. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to create a new variable y

such that: y = 200 .1x (where x is another (series) variable)?

67. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to display the mean of x?

68. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to display the standard

deviation of x?

69. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to display the standardized

skew of x?

70. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to display the standardized

kurtosis of x?

71. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to restrict your sample to

those observations such that series y was at least 6 and at most 9, and series z was equal

to 7?

72. What would you write in the white syntax bar if you wanted to create a new series z that

gave the standardized values (z-scores) of the series x?

Simpsons Paradox

73. Write a sentence or two describing what Simpsons paradox is (do not just give an

example).

74. Give a numerical example of Simpsons paradox, and calculate the relevant values to

show that it is an example.

75. Explain the conditions that make Simpsons paradox occur.

76. Explain why Simpsons Paradoxes sometimes occur in Economics.

77. Give a real life example of where in Economics a Simpsons paradox might occur, and

explain why it might.

Discrete Probability Distributions

X=1

X=0

Y=1

a

c

g (=a+c)

Y=0

b

e (=a+b)

d

f (=c+d)

h (=b+d)

78. Using the above table, let a = .3, b = .4, c = .1, d = .2. Are X and Y independent? Are they

identically distributed? Are they iid?

79. Using the above table, let a = .3, b = .4, c = .1, d = .2.What is Pr[X=1 | Y = 0]? What is

Pr[Y = 0 | X = 1]?

80. Using the above table, let a = .3, b = .4, c = .1, d = .2. Are X and Y independent? Are they

identically distributed? Are they iid?

81. Using the above table, assume that X and Y are iid, and that c = .15. What are a, b, and d?

82. Using the above table, assume that X and Y are iid, and that c = .15. What is Pr[Y=1]?

83. Suppose X1 and X2 are Bernoulli trials. You learn that Pr[X1 = 1] = .6, Pr[X2 = 0] = .4,

and Pr[X1 = X2 = 1] = .3. Are X1 and X2 independent? (If you do not have enough

information to determine this, indicate why.)

84. Suppose X1 and X2 are Bernoulli trials. You learn that Pr[X1 = 1] = .6, Pr[X2 = 0] = .4,

and Pr[X1 = X2 = 1] = .3. Are X1 and X2 identically distributed? (If you do not have

enough information to determine this, indicate why.)

85. Suppose X1 and X2 are Bernoulli trials. You learn that Pr[X1 = 1] = .6, Pr[X2 = 0] = .4,

and Pr[X1 = X2 = 1] = .3. Are X1 and X2 i.i.d.? (If you do not have enough information to

determine this, indicate why.)

86. What is the symbol for the mean of a probability distribution?

87. What is the symbol for the variance of a probability distribution?

88. What is the symbol for the standard deviation of a probability distribution?

89. What is the mathematical formula (in sigma notation) for the mean of a discrete

probability distribution?

90. What is the mathematical formula (in sigma notation) for the variance of a discrete

probability distribution?

91. What is the formula (in expectation notation) for the mean of a discrete probability

distribution?

92. What is the formula (in expectation notation) for the variance of a discrete probability

distribution?

93. Suppose Pr(X = 1) = p, and Pr(X = 0) = (1 p). Calculate the mean of X. (Be sure to

show your work.)

94. Suppose Pr(X = 1) = p, and Pr(X = 0) = (1 p). Calculate the variance of X. (Be sure to

show your work.)

95. Suppose Pr(X = 1) = .3, and Pr(X = 0) = .7. Calculate the mean of X. (Be sure to show

your work.)

96. Suppose Pr(X = 1) = .3, and Pr(X = 0) = .7 Calculate the variance of X. (Be sure to show

your work.)

97. If you have a 25% chance of winning $10, a 35% chance of winning $40, and otherwise

you will lose $55, what is for this gamble?

98. If you have a 25% chance of winning $10, a 35% chance of winning $40, and otherwise

you will lose $55, what is for this gamble?

99. If you have a 25% chance of winning $10, a 35% chance of winning $40, and otherwise

you will lose $55, what is for this gamble?

100.

Suppose you are risk-averse, and would be very upset at losing money. If gambles

X and Y have the same mean, but X has a larger variance than Y, which gamble would

you probably prefer? Explain.

101.

Suppose you are risk-averse, and would be very upset at losing money. If gambles

X and Y have the same mean, but X has a smaller standard deviation than Y, which

gamble would you probably prefer? Explain.

102.

Suppose you are risk-tolerant, and are willing to take a chance at winning 'big

money'. If gambles X and Y have the same mean, but X has a smaller variance than Y,

which gamble would you probably prefer? Explain.

103.

Suppose you are risk-tolerant, and are willing to take a chance at winning 'big

money'. If gambles X and Y have the same mean, but X has a larger standard deviation

than Y, which gamble would you probably prefer? Explain.

X=

probability

104.

105.

106.

107.

108.

1

3

.3

.4

Calculate the mean of X.

Calculate the variance of X.

Calculate the standard deviation of X

Calculate Pr(X 4).

Calculate Pr(3 X 4).

4

.2

5

.1

109.

If X, Y, and Z are statistically independent, and E[X] = 5, E[Y] = 7 and E[Z] = 2,

then if W = 4 + 2X +3Y +Z, then what is for W?

110.

If X, Y, and Z are statistically independent, and E[(X E[X])2] = 2, E[(Y

E[Y])2] = 1 and E[(Z E[Z])2] = 5, then if W = X +Y + Z, then what is for W?

111.

If X, Y, and Z are statistically independent, and E[(X E[X])2] = 2, E[(Y

2

E[Y]) ] = 1 and E[(Z E[Z])2] = 5, then if W = X +Y + Z, then what is for W?

112.

If X1, Xn are i.i.d., and E[X1] = , then what is the mean of Y, where Y = X1 +

X2 ++Xn?

113.

If X1, Xn are i.i.d., and E[X1] = , then what is the mean of Y, where Y =

(1/n)X1 + (1/n)X2 ++(1/n)Xn?

114.

If X1, X20 are i.i.d., and E[X1] = , then what is the mean of Y, where Y = X1 +

X2 ++X20?

115.

If X1, X20 are i.i.d., and E[X1] = , then what is the mean of Y, where Y =

(1/20)X1 + (1/20)X2 ++(1/20)X20?

116.

If, for random variables X and Y, 2X = 8 and 2Y = 17, then what is 2 for Z =

X+Y?

117.

If the variances for two independent gambles are 6 and 7 respectively, then what

is the variance of your returns if you participate in both gambles?

118.

If, for independent random variables X and Y, X = 8 and Y = 17, then what is

for Z = X+Y?

119.

If the standard deviations for two independent gambles are 6 and 7 respectively,

then what is the standard deviation of your returns if you participate in both gambles?

120.

If X1, X2 and X3 are Bernoulli trials, describe the sample space of joint outcomes

of these three variables.

121.

If X1, X2 and X3 are Bernoulli trials, and Y = X1 + X2 + X3, then what is the

possible outcomes of Y?

122.

If X1,,X27 is a random sample of Bernoulli trials with parameter p = .45, and Y

= X1+X2+.+X27, then what is E[Y]?

123.

If X1,,X27 is a random sample of Bernoulli trials with parameter p = .45, and Y

= X1+X2+.+X27, then what is 2 for Y?

124.

If X1,,X27 is a random sample of Bernoulli trials with parameter p = .45, and Y

= X1+X2+.+X27, then what is for Y?

125.

If X1,,Xn is a random sample of Bernoulli trials with some parameter p, and Y is

the sum of these variables, then what is E[Y]?

126.

If X1,,Xn is a random sample of Bernoulli trials with some parameter p, and Y is

the sum of these variables, then what is 2 for Y?

127.

If X1,,Xn is a random sample of Bernoulli trials with some parameter p, and Y is

the sum of these variables, then what is for Y?

128.

As a fundraiser, UCI sells tickets for $1 each, where one number among 113 will

be drawn at random, and those with the winning number for that draw will receive $50.

This lottery will be played (in exactly the same format) 11 times throughout the term. You

buy one ticket for each lottery. What is your expected return (including the cost of the

tickets) from all the lotteries?

129.

As a fundraiser, UCI sells tickets for $1 each, where one number among 113 will

be drawn at random, and those with the winning number for that draw will receive $50.

This lottery will be played (in exactly the same format) 11 times throughout the term. You

buy one ticket for each lottery. What is the theoretical variance (2) from all the lotteries?

[Hint: You can assume that Var[a+ bX] = b2Var[X] (b>0).]

130.

As a fundraiser, UCI sells tickets for $1 each, where one number among 113 will

be drawn at random, and those with the winning number for that draw will receive $50.

This lottery will be played (in exactly the same format) 11 times throughout the term. You

buy one ticket for each lottery. What is theoretical standard deviation () from all the

lotteries?

131.

You are handing out flyers to the 244 UCI students entering a large lecture course.

Based on past research, you expect that there is a 30% chance that any given student will

take the flyer (and you assume that whether or not a student takes a flyer is independent

of what the other students do). About how many flyers would you expect to hand out?

132.

You are handing out flyers to the UCI students entering a large lecture course.

Based on past research, you expect that there is a 30% chance that any given student will

take the flyer (and you assume that whether or not a student takes a flyer is independent

of what the other students do). If you do this repeatedly a great many times (with all the

above features remaining the same), what will the variance of the number of flyers you

hand out each time be?

133.

You are handing out flyers to the UCI students entering a large lecture course.

Based on past research, you expect that there is a 30% chance that any given student will

take the flyer (and you assume that whether or not a student takes a flyer is independent

of what the other students do). If you do this repeatedly a great many times (with all the

above features remaining the same), what will the standard deviation of the number of

flyers you hand out each time be?

134.

You are handing out flyers to the UCI students entering a large lecture course.

Based on past research, you expect that there is a 30% chance that any given student will

take the flyer (and you assume that whether or not a student takes a flyer is independent

of what the other students do). You decide to estimate the smallest number of flyers that

you will probably hand out as 2 standard deviations below the mean. What is this lower

bound?

135.

You are handing out flyers to the UCI students entering a large lecture course.

Based on past research, you expect that there is a 30% chance that any given student will

take the flyer (and you assume that whether or not a student takes a flyer is independent

of what the other students do). You decide to estimate the largest number of flyers that

you will probably hand out as 2 standard deviations above the mean. What is this upper

bound?

136.

Calculate 12! (show your work by showing explicitly what it is you calculated).

137.

How many ways are there to order 10 of 10 objects (show your work by showing

explicitly what it is you calculated)?

138.

How many ways are there to order k of n objects (k < n) (show your work by

showing explicitly what it is you calculated)?

139.

How many ways are there to order 4 of 10 objects (show your work by showing

explicitly what it is you calculated)?

140.

How many ways are there to pick out (unordered) 6 objects from a group of 12?

141.

Consider the set of students: {Ryan, Enrique, Mallory, Muhammad, Arsen,

Kristine, Tevan, Adir, Tiffany}How many ways are there to order all these students?

142.

Consider the set of students: {Ryan, Enrique, Mallory, Muhammad, Arsen,

Kristine, Tevan, Adir, Tiffany} How many groups of 3 students are there?

143.

144.

145.

k

9

Calculate by hand (show your work).

4

n

What does express; i.e., say in words what general information this gives

k

you (dont

just give its mathematical formula)?

146.

13

express; i.e., say in words what general information this gives

6

What does

n

n( n 1)(n 2) (n k 1)

Is it true that

? If so, calculate a proof of this; if

k!

k

148.

You are hosting a movie party, where there will be 8 persons in a room with 8

places to sit. How many different ways are there to seat the people?

149.

You are hosting a movie party, where there will be 8 persons in a room with 10

places to sit. How many different ways are there to seat the people?

147.

150.

You are hosting a movie party, where there will be 14 persons. You have 10 chairs

up front, and the remaining four people will need to sit on the couch in the back. How

many possibilities do you have for selecting 4 people to sit on the couch?

n

151.

.

In words, explain why:

k nk

152.

Calculate that:

k nk

153.

The next few questions refer to this set of (actual) students. {Arash, Omar,

Angeline, Rochelle, Joseph, Jennifer, Lindsay, Artin, Amanda, Kristina, Christopher}

154.

How many groups of 6 students are there that contain Rochelle, Artin, and

Kristina?

155.

What is the probability of randomly selecting 7 students, and getting Jennifer and

Omar in your group?

156.

Suppose you identify each student by the first letter of their first name (i.e., you

dont distinguish students whose first name starts with the same first letter). How many

ways can these students be ordered now?

157.

There is a class of 20 with 13 boys and 7 girls. How many ways are there to form

a committee of 3 boys and 3 girls?

158.

There is a class of 20 with 13 boys and 7 girls. A committee will be formed by

randomly selecting 6 persons. What is the probability that the committee will have 3 boys

and 3 girls?

159.

Give a real-life example where you would want to use the binomial coefficient

(just to find a number, not to calculate a probability).

160.

Give a real-life example where you would want to calculate a probability using

binomial coefficients (not in the context of a binomial distribution).

161.

162.

163.

164.

A: cells containing an a

B: cells containing a b

C: cells containing a c.

165.

Binomial Distribution

166.

Give the mathematical formula for (the pmf of) the binomial distribution; i.e., for

Pr(Y = k).

12

167.

If Y ~ B.3 , calculate Pr(Y = 4).

168.

If Y ~ B.12

3 , calculate Pr(Y 2).

12

169.

If Y ~ B.3 , calculate Pr(Y > 10).

170.

If Y ~ B.12

3 , calculate Pr(3 < Y 6).

n

171.

For the binomial distribution B p , what are the possible values for p?

n

172.

For the binomial distribution B p , what are the possible values for n?

n

173.

If Y ~ B p , what are the possible values of Y?

174.

If Y ~ B.62 , what are the possible values for Y?

n

175.

If Y ~ B p , what is the sample space for Y?

176.

If Y ~ B.62 , is the sample space for Y?

177.

The next few questions refer to the table for the cumulative distribution function

7

(cdf) for B.3 ; i.e., it gives P[Y y].

Y=

0

1

2

3

4

178.

5

179.

F(y)

=

184.

185.

186.

187.

188.

189.

190.

191.

192.

193.

.082

.329

.647

.874

.971

181.

996

182.

999

What is F(2)?

What is Pr(Y < 4)?

What is Pr(Y 4)?

What is Pr(Y = 5)?

What is pr (Y > 3)?

What is pr (Y 3)?

What is Pr(1 < Y < 4)?

What is Pr(1 Y < 4)?

What is Pr(1 < Y 4)?

What is Pr(1 Y 4)?

194.

Give two real-life examples where you would want to use the binomial

distribution to calculate a probability.

195.

The slides list five conditions that (collectively) characterize a binomial

distribution; what are they?

196.

What is the mathematical formula for the cumulative distribution function of the

binomial distribution?

6

.

180.

7

183.

1

197.

For any given person, there is a 25% chance of having a certain inherited genetic

trait. There are five unrelated persons in a room. Calculate the probability that three of

them have the trait.

198.

For any given person, there is a 25% chance of having a certain inherited genetic

trait. There are five siblings in a room. Explain why you cant use the binomial

distribution to calculate the probability that three of them have the trait.

199.

What is the mean of the binomial distribution with parameters n and p?

200.

What is the mean of the binomial distribution with parameters 4 and .8?

201.

What is the variance of the binomial distribution with parameters n and p?

202.

What is the variance of the binomial distribution with parameters 4 and .8?

n

203.

Give the specific mathematical formula for the expectation of Y, where Y ~ B p .

Be specific: include the limits on the sigma, and be exact enough so that your definition

applies only when Y has the distribution it does (i.e., dont just use things like Pr(Y = k)).

n

204.

Give the specific mathematical formula for the mean of Y, where Y ~ B p . Be

specific: include the limits on the sigma, and be exact enough so that your definition

applies only when Y has the distribution it does (i.e., dont just use things like Pr(Y = k)).

n

205.

Give the specific mathematical formula for the variance of Y, where Y ~ B p . Be

specific: include the limits on the sigma, and be exact enough so that your definition

applies only when Y has the distribution it does (i.e., dont just use things such as Pr(Y =

k)).

206.

Give the specific mathematical formula for the standard deviation of Y, where

n

Y ~ B p . Be specific: include the limits on the sigma, and be exact enough so that your

definition applies only when Y has the distribution it does (i.e., dont just use things like

Pr(Y = k)).

207.

Give the general formula that expresses the linearity of expectations.

n

208.

Use the linearity of expectations to calculate the mean of B p (i.e., solve for the

expression of the mean given in class).

209.

Use the linearity of expectations to calculate the mean of B.47 .

n

210.

Use the linearity of expectations to calculate

the variance of B p (i.e., solve for

the expression of the variance given in class and on the slides).

7

211.

Use the linearity of expectations to calculate the variance of B.4

.

3

212.

Calculate the mean of B p directly (do not use

the linearity of expectations; solve

for the expression of the mean given in class and on the slides).

213.

Calculate the mean of B.33 directly (do not use the linearity of expectations).

3

214.

Calculate the variance of B p directly (do not use the linearity of expectations;

solve for the expression of the variance given in class and on the slides).

215.

Calculate the variance of B.33 directly (do not use the linearity of expectations).

3

216.

Calculate the standard deviation of B p directly (do not use the linearity of

expectations; solve for the expression of the variance given in class).

217.

Calculate the standard deviation of B.33 directly (do not use the linearity of

expectations).

218.

Use F, the cumulative probability distribution for a binomial distribution, to

express the probability of getting c or fewer successes.

219.

Use F, the cumulative probability distribution for a binomial distribution, to

express the probability of getting c or more successes.

220.

k

221.

** What question does (the mass function of the) binomial distribution address?

222.

What is the relationship between a Bernoulli process (i.e. a collection of i.i.d.

Bernoulli trials) and the associated binomially distributed random variable?

8

223.

Suppose X ~ B p , and Pr(X = 8) = .007. What is the value of p (as always, show

your work)?

n

224.

Suppose X ~ B p , and you calculated the probabilities of all the outcomes of X,

but then you forgot the value of p. How could you use (one or more of) these

probabilities and the value of n to find p?

225.

At your job, each day 15% of the employees are randomly selected for a

screening procedure designed to check for blind, unthinking allegiance to corporate

values. In the last 5 days, you have been selected 3 times, and you are beginning to

suspect that you are being singled out for special attention. If there really is only a 15%

chance of your being selected, then what is the probability of your being selected 3 or

more times in the last 5 days? [Comment: This is the underlying logic of statistical

testing, to be covered in 15B.]

226.

On incoming international flights, the TSA now randomly inspects 22% of all

checked bags. Youve heard rumors of laxity at LAX. As a business traveler who

frequently travels to Dubai, you have made 13 round trips there since this policy was

implemented (always flying back into LAX). However, your bags have been opened for

inspection only 2 times. If the TSA really is inspecting 22% of the bags, what is the

probability that yours would have only been inspected 2 or fewer times? [Comment: This

is the underlying logic of statistical testing, to be covered in 15B.]

227.

An elevator in SSPA breaks down once in every 5000 operations. If you use this

elevator twice a day for 4 days a week, for 30 weeks a year, for 4 years, what is the

probability that you will be trapped in it twice? At least twice?

228.

What would you type into the white syntax bar on Eviews if you wanted to

display the probability of getting 12 successes from a binomial distribution with

parameters n = 30 and p = .47?

229.

What would you type into the white syntax bar on Eviews if you wanted to

display the cumulative probability for 12 successes from a binomial distribution with

parameters n = 30 and p = .47?

230.

Explain the difference between a probability mass function and a cumulative

distribution function.

231.

What would you type into the white syntax bar of Eviews if you wanted to create

a dummy variable x that yielded the value 1 if the variable y is less than or equal to 4,

and 0 otherwise?

232.

What would you type into the white syntax bar of Eviews if you wanted to display

28

the value of Pr(X 7), where X~ B.2 ?

233.

What would you type into the white syntax bar of Eviews if you wanted to display

the value of Pr(X < 7), where X~ B.228 ?

234.

What would you type into the white syntax bar of Eviews if you wanted to display

the value of Pr(X 7), where X~ B.228 ?

235.

What would you type into the white syntax bar of Eviews if you wanted to display

where X~ B 28 ?

the value of Pr(X > 7),

.2

236.

What would you type into the white syntax bar of Eviews if you wanted to display

the value of Pr(10 <

X 17), where X~ B.228 ?

237.

Explain the difference between a probability density function and a cumulative

distribution function.

238.

What conditions must a function f meet in order to be a pdf?

239.

Suppose X has a continuous distribution. What is Pr(X = 0)? Explain/prove your

answer.

240.

If X is a continuous probability distribution, why doesnt it matter whether you

determine Pr(X < 5.1) or Pr(X 5.1)?

241.

Explain the difference between a cdf (F) and a probability function (pr).

242.

Explain the difference between a pdf (f) and a probability function (pr).

243.

Give an example of a function f, and show both that it is a pdf, and that for some

value x, f(x) > 1.

244.

f(7) = 3, so I know that f is not a pdf. Evaluate this claim.

245.

f(7) = -.2, so I know that f is not a pdf. Evaluate this claim.

246.

F(7) = 3, so I know that F is not a cdf. Evaluate this claim.

247.

F(7) = -.2, so I know that F is not a cdf. Evaluate this claim.

248.

Express the pdf f(b) in terms of the cdf F(x).

249.

Express the pdf f(b) in terms of Pr(X x).

250.

Express the pdf f(b) in terms of Pr( X > x).

251.

Express the pdf f(b) in terms of Pr(y < X x).

252.

Express the cdf F(b) in terms of the pdf f(x).

253.

Express the cdf F(b) in terms of Pr(X x).

254.

Express the cdf F(b) in terms of Pr(X > x).

255.

Express the cdf F(b) in terms of Pr(y < X x).

256.

Express Pr(X b) in terms of the pdf f(x).

257.

Express Pr(X b) in terms of the cdf F(x).

258.

Express Pr(X b) in terms of Pr(X > x).

259.

Express Pr(X b) in terms of Pr(y < X x).

260.

Express Pr(X > a) in terms of the pdf f(x).

261.

Express Pr(X > a) in terms of the cdf F(x).

262.

Express Pr(X > a) in terms of Pr(X x).

263.

Express Pr(X > a) in terms of Pr(y < X x).

264.

Express Pr(a < X b) in terms of the pdf f(x).

265.

Express Pr(a < X b) in terms of the cdf F(x).

266.

Express Pr(a < X b) in terms of Pr(X x).

267.

Express Pr(a < X b) in terms of Pr(X > x).

268.

Suppose f and g are pdfs, and that 0 < p < 1. Show that h is a pdf, where h(x) =

pf(x) + (1-p)g(x).

X

269.

Suppose Z is the standardization of X (Z =

), where and are the mean

X

270.

Suppose Z is the standardization of X (Z =

), where and are the mean

271.

Suppose W = X/ (where is the standard deviation of X). Calculate the standard

deviation of W.

272.

Suppose W = (X ) (where is the mean of X). Calculate E[W].

273.

Suppose that Y = a + bX (b > 0). Calculate to show that the standardization of Y is

the standardization of X.

274.

Suppose that Y = 4 + 2X, where the mean of X is 8 and the standard deviation of

X is 3. Calculate the standardizations of X and Y separately.

275.

Uniform Distribution

276.

Draw the and label (both axes of) the graphs of the pdf (together, on one set of

axes) of U(0,1) and U(-1, 2).

277.

Draw and label (both axes of) the graphs of the cdf (together, on one set of axes)

of U(0,1) and U(-1, 2).

278.

What is the pdf for the Uniform distribution on (a, b)?

279.

What is the cdf for the Uniform distribution on (a, b) (do not express this using

integrals)?

280.

If X ~ U(2, 7), calculate f(4).

281.

If X ~ U(2, 7), calculate F(4).

282.

If X ~ U(2, 7), calculate Pr(X 4) using only the definitions of U(2, 7) and Pr(X

4).

283.

If X ~ U(2, 7), calculate Pr(4 < X) using only the definitions of U(2, 7) and Pr(4 <

X).

284.

If X ~ U(2, 7), calculate Pr(3 < X 4) using only the definitions of U(2, 7) and

Pr(3 < X 4).

285.

Starting from the definitions of a uniform distribution and expectation, calculate

E[X], where X ~ U(2, 7).

286.

Starting from the definition of E[X] and the pdf of a uniform distribution,

calculate that E[X] =

ab

, where X ~ U(a, b).

2

287.

Starting from the definition of 2 and the pdf of a uniform distribution, calculate

(b a ) 2

, if X ~ U(a, b).

12

288.

Starting from the definition of 2 and the pdf of a uniform distribution, calculate

the variance of X, where X ~ U(0, 1).

289.

Starting from the definition of 2 and the pdf of a uniform distribution, calculate

the variance of X, where X ~ U(3, 6).

290.

Suppose X ~ U(0, 1). Which, if either, is more likely: .3 X .4, or .7 X .8?

Explain your answer.

291.

Suppose X ~ U(0, 1). Which, if either, is more likely: .3 < X < .4, or .7 X .8?

Explain your answer.

292.

Suppose X ~ U(0, 1). Which, if either, is more likely: .3 X .41, or .7 X .8?

Explain your answer.

293.

What is the total area under the curve of the pdf of U(2, 4)?

294.

What is the total area under the curve from 1 to 3 of the pdf of U(0, 4)?

295.

What is the total area under the curve from 4 to 5 of the pdf of U(2, 4)?

296.

** What is E[X] if X ~ U(a, b) (just state the relevant formula)?

297.

**What is E[(X E[X])2] if X ~ U(a, b) (just state the relevant formula)?

298.

** What is E[(X E[X])2] if X ~ U(2, 7) (you can use any formula we have used

in class to calculate this)?

299.

If X~U(2, 7), what is the mean of X?

300.

If X~U(2, 7), what is the variance of X?

301.

If X ~U(2, 7), what is the standard deviation of X?

302.

What command would you give if you wanted Eviews to display the probability

that X < .2, if X ~ U(0, 1)?

303.

A piece of string of length 3 is cut completely at random, into a first piece and a

second piece. What is the probability that the first piece will have length at least 2?

304.

A piece of string of length 3 is cut completely at random, into a first piece and a

second piece. What is the probability that the first piece will be at least twice as long as

the second piece?

305.

A piece of string of length 3 is cut completely at random, into a first piece and a

second piece. What is the probability that one of the pieces will be at least twice as long

as the other piece?

z = -3.0 -2.8 -2.6 -2.4 -2.2 -2.0 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2

(z) =

0.0

.001 .003 .005 .008 .014 .023 .036 .055 .081 .115 .159 .212 .274 .345 .421 .500

z = 0.2

(z)=

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2 1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

3.0

.579 .655 .726 .788 .841 .885 .919 .945 .964 .977 .986 .992 .995 .997 .999

306.

For Z~N(0,1), use the table above to estimate P[Z 1.8]

307.

For Z~N(0,1), use the table above to estimate P[Z > 2.2]

308.

For Z~N(0,1), use the table above to estimate P[-.2 < Z < .8]

309.

For X ~ N(25, 18), use the table above to estimate P[X 31]

310.

For X ~ N(25, 18), use the table above to estimate P[X > 22]

311.

For X ~ N(25, 18), use the table above to estimate P[20 < X 30]]

312.

Many test scores are (approximately) normally distributed. Your professor reports

that the midterm average was a 78, and that the standard deviation was 8. You got an 88

on the midterm. Approximately what percentile does that put you in? (I.e., what

percentage of the students did you score higher than?)

313.

Many test scores are (approximately) normally distributed. Your professor reports

that the midterm average was a 78, and that the standard deviation was 8. What is the

approximate range of scores for the middle 50% of the scores?

314.

Many test scores are (approximately) normally distributed. Your professor reports

that the midterm average was a 78, and that the standard deviation was 8. What is the

approximate range of scores for the top 10% of the scores?

315.

Many test scores are (approximately) normally distributed. Your professor reports

that the midterm average was a 78, and that the standard deviation was 8. What is the

approximate range of scores for the bottom 10% of the scores?

316.

There are two commonly used names for N(, 2). What are they?

317.

Write out the mathematical formula for the pdf for N(, 2).

318.

Write out the mathematical formula for the pdf of N(0, 1).

319.

Write out the mathematical formula for (x).

320.

What is the value of (0)?

321.

What is the value of (0)?

322.

is the pdf for N(0, 1); calculate the value of (1.5).

323.

f is the pdf for N(3, 16); calculate the value of f(5).

324.

f is the pdf for N(3, 16); calculate the(two) values x for which we have f(x) = .01.

325.

** f is the pdf for N(3, 2) and f(5) = .01; calculate the value of 2.

326.

f is the pdf for N(, 16) and f(5) = .01; calculate the two possible values of .

327.

Suppose X ~ N(0, 1). Which, if either, is more likely: .3 X .4, or .7 X .8?

Explain your answer (you do not need to calculate these values).

328.

Suppose X ~ N(0, 1). Which, if either, is more likely: .3 < X < .4, or .7 X .8?

Explain your answer (you do not need to calculate these values).

329.

Suppose X ~ N(0, 1). Which, if either, is more likely: 1 X 1, or 5 X 10?

Explain your answer (you do not need to calculate these values).

330.

Draw and label the graphs of the pdf (together, on one set of axes) of N(0,1) and

N(-1, 2). Your graphs should display how the different parameters of the two distributions

affect the pdfs.

331.

Draw and label the graphs of the cdf (together, on one set of axes) of N(0,1) and

N(-1, 2). Your graphs should display how the different parameters of the two distributions

affect the cdfs.

332.

What is the total area under the curve of the pdf of N(0, 1)?

333.

What is E[X] if X ~ N(, 2)?

334.

What is E[X] if X ~ N(1, 3)?

335.

What is the mean of X if X ~ N(, 2)?

336.

What is the variance of X if X ~ N(, 2)?

337.

What is the standard deviation of X if X ~ N(, 2)?

338.

What is mean of X if X ~ N(1, 3)?

339.

What is variance of X if X ~ N(1, 3)?

340.

What is standard deviation of X if X ~ N(1, 3)?

341.

What is of X if X ~ N(1, 3)?

342.

What is 2 of X if X ~ N(1, 3)?

343.

What is of X if X ~ N(1, 3)?

344.

What is E[(X E[X])2] if X ~ N(, 2)?

345.

What is E[(X E[X])2] if X ~ N(, )?

346.

What is if X ~ N(, 2)?

347.

What is if X ~ N(, )?

348.

What is if X ~ N(, 2)?

349.

What is if X ~ N(, )?

350.

What is the (standardized) skew of the normal distribution?

351.

What is the (standardized) kurtosis of the normal distribution (or: if your answer

to this is 0, then what constant number is subtracted from the formula to yield 0)?

352.

What is the unstandardized skew of the normal distribution?

353.

What is the unstandardized kurtosis of the normal distribution?

354.

How much of the probability of an N(, 2) distribution is within 1.96 standard

deviations of the mean?

355.

If X ~N(, 2), what is what is the probability that X ( + 1.64)?

356.

Why does the normal distribution occur frequently in nature?

357.

Give three real life examples that are probably (nearly) normally distributed; for

each one, write a sentence or two about why they probably are normally distributed.

358.

For N(, 2), calculate the largest value of its pdf. Show also that any other value

will be less than this number.

359.

For N(, ), calculate the largest value of its pdf. Show also that any other

value will be less than this number.

360.

What command would you use if you wanted Eviews to compute the probability

that X < 2, if X~N(0, 1)?

361.

What command would you use if you wanted Eviews to compute the probability

that X > 2, if X~N(0, 1)?

362.

What command would you use if you wanted Eviews to compute the probability

that

3 < X < 2, if X~N(0, 1)?

363.

If X ~ N(0, 1), then what is the distribution of Y = a + bX (b 0)?

364.

365.

366.

367.

368.

369.

If X ~ N(, 2), how would you transform it so that it is distributed as N(0, 1)?

If X ~ N(, 2), then what is the distribution of Y = a + bX (b 0)?

If X ~ N(0, 1), then what is the distribution of Y = 2 + 3X?

If X ~ N(, ), how would you transform it so that it is distributed as N(0, 1)?

If X ~ N(, ), then what is the distribution of Y = 2 + 3X?

For what values is the pdf of N(6, 4) greater than 0?

370.

Calculate the value of E ( X ) in terms of the mean of Xi, (i.e., like we did in

class).

371.

Calculate the variance of X in terms of the variance 2 of Xi (i.e., like we did in

class).

372.

If {X1,, X37} is a random sample from N(100, 25), then what is the variance of

?

X

373.

If {X1,, X37} is a random sample from N(100, 25), then what is the standard

deviation of X ?

374.

Explain in words what the Central Limit Theorem says.

375.

What background conditions must hold in order for the Central Limit Theorem to

hold?

376.

Give the limit formula in the Central Limit Theorem as a limit formula of a sum

of standardized random variables (scaled by n-1/2). In this formula, what random variables

are being standardized?

377.

Give the limit formula in the Central Limit Theorem as a limit formula of a

standardization of a single random variable. In this formulation, what random variable is

being standardized?

378.

Show that the two forms of the Central Limit Theorem are equivalent by

1 n Xi

X

calculating that:

X

n i 1

379.

The slides list two roles the Central Limit Theorem plays in statistics; what are

they?

380.

The host probability distribution (e.g., wages of individuals) whose mean you

wish to estimate is not normally distributed, and yet your analysis of the mean of a

random sample involves the normal distribution. Explain why.

381.

If X = 10, = 4, = 2.2, and n = 11, what is the z-score?

382.

If X = 10, = 4, = 5, and n = 11, what is the z-score?

383.

If a data set {1, 2, 5, 7, 2} is a random sample from a distribution where = 4,

and = 3, what is the z-score (for X )?

384.

If a data set {1, 2, 5, 7, 2} is a random sample from a distribution where = 4,

Bivariate data

385.

Calculate the covariance of the data set {(1, 0), (0, 1), (2, -1), (3, 1)}.

386.

Calculate the correlation of the data set {(1, 0), (3, 1), (0, -1), (1, 1)}.

387.

Standardize the data set {(1, 0), (3, 1), (0, -1), (1, 1)} and then calculate the

correlation.

388.

If the standard deviation of x and y are 4 and 7 respectively, then what is the

correlation between x and y if m11 = 12?

389.

What are the possible values of the covariance?

390.

What are the possible values of r?

391.

What does it mean if r is large and positive?

392.

What does it mean if r is nearly zero?

393.

What does it mean if r is a large negative number (i.e., not close to zero)?

394.

What is the symbol for the correlation coefficient?

395.

Express the correlation coefficient in terms of moments.

396.

What is the symbol for the covariance?

397.

Using sigma notation, give the mathematical formula for the correlation

coefficient.

398.

Using sigma notation, give the mathematical formula for the covariance.

399.

What precisely does the correlation coefficient measure?

400.

Give two examples where you would want to know the correlation between two

variables.

401.

Explain the relationship between covariance and correlation in terms of

standardized variables.

402.

Explain the relationship between covariance and correlation in terms of moments.

403.

Give an example of why correlation does not imply causation.

404.

Why cant you take a sample of Californians and a sample of New Yorkers, and

measure the correlation between the two groups salaries?

405.

Know how to do exercise 5.12 in the book.

406.

Know how to do exercise 5.13 in the book.

407.

Know how to do exercise 5.20 in the book.

408.

Know how to do exercise 5.22 in the book.

409.

Know how to do exercise 5.29 in the book.

410.

411.

412.

X=1

X=2

413.

414.

415.

Y=

5

2

1

416.

417.

418.

Y=

4

1

2

419.

420.

421.

Y=

1

7

3

422.

Calculate the joint probability that both X and Y are 2.

423.

Calculate the marginal probability that Y = 3.

424.

434.

435.

436.

437.

438.

439.

series.

440.

series.

425.

426.

427.

X=1

X=2

428.

429.

430.

Y=1

5

2

431.

432.

433.

Y=2

5

8

or

3

Calculate the correlation between X and Y.

Give the mathematical formula for .

Describe how you would use Eviews to construct a box-and-whiskers plot.

Describe how you would use Eviews to construct a cumulative distribution plot.

Describe how you would use Eviews to construct a scatterplot.

Describe how you would use Eviews to construct a correlation matrix between 3

Describe how you would use Eviews to construct a covariance matrix between 3

==========================================================

START OF NEED TO KNOWS FOR TEST A1

Measurement Scales

441.

What is distinctive about an absolute scale (i.e. what kind of information does it

preserve, or what kinds of transformations yield another absolute scale)?

442.

What is distinctive about a ratio scale (i.e. what kind of information does it

preserve, or what kinds of transformations yield another ratio scale)?

443.

What is distinctive about an interval scale (i.e. what kind of information does it

preserve, or what kinds of transformations yield another interval scale)?

444.

What is distinctive about an ordinal scale (i.e. what kind of information does it

preserve, or what kinds of transformations yield another ordinal scale)?

445.

What is distinctive about a categorical scale (i.e. what kind of information does it

preserve, or what kinds of transformations yield another categorical scale)?

446.

How are the above five scales of measurement related to one another (i.e., is one

sort of scale always an instance of another sort of scale)?

447.

Give two examples of something that would be measured on an absolute scale,

and write a sentence or two about why these are good examples of this particular scale.

448.

Give two examples of something that would be measured on a ratio scale, and

write a sentence or two about why these are good examples of this particular scale.

449.

Give two examples of something that would be measured on an interval scale, and

write a sentence or two about why these are good examples of this particular scale.

450.

Give two examples of something that would be measured on an ordinal scale, and

write a sentence or two about why these are good examples of this particular scale.

451.

Give two examples of something that would be measured on a categorical scale,

and write a sentence or two about why these are good examples of this particular scale.

452.

Give two examples of something that would be measured with an index, and write

a sentence or two about why these are good examples.

453.

Give two examples of something that would be measured with a time series, and

write a sentence or two about why these are good examples.

454.

Suppose I have a data set {x1,xn}, and that I would retain all the information

about what I am studying even if I recoded all the data as {y1,yn}, provided only that if

xi xj, then yi yj. What kind of measurement scale does my data reflect?

455.

Suppose I have a data set {x1,xn}, and that I would retain all the information

about what I am studying even if I recoded all the data as {y1,yn}, provided only that if

xi > xj, then yi > yj. What kind of measurement scale does my data reflect?

456.

Suppose I have a data set {x1,xn}, and that I would retain all the information

about what I am studying even if I recoded all the data as {y1,yn}, provided only that yi

= a + bxi (b > 0). What kind of measurement scale does my data reflect?

457.

Suppose I have a data set {x1,xn}, and that I would retain all the information

about what I am studying even if I recoded all the data as {y1,yn}, provided only that yi

= bxi (b > 0). What kind of measurement scale does my data reflect?

458.

Suppose I have a data set {x1,xn}, and that in order to retain all the information

about what I am studying, I cannot change any values of the data. What kind of

measurement scale does my data reflect?

Graphs

What is the median for {x1,xn} if n = 10?

What is the median for {x1,xn} if n = 11?

When is the median an element of a data set? When is it not?

Describe how the box of a box-and-whisker plot is constructed.

What are the outliers (if any) in a box-and-whisker plot?

If the three quartile points are 7, 9, and 11, respectively, which if any of these data points

are outliers -3, 2, 7, 12, 14.1, 15? Explain why

Describe how to determine the three quartile points and the four quartiles of a box-andwhisker plot.

Construct a box-and-whiskers plot (by hand) for the data set {-3, 4, 3, 2, 1, -8, 4, 3, 2, 0}.

What kind of information does a box-and-whisker plot visually display?

Give an example of when and how you might use a box-and-whisker plot.

How are absolute frequency plots different from relative frequency plots?

Sketch an absolute frequency plot (by hand) for a data set where 5 students are under 18,

10 are 18, 22 are 19, 27 are 20, 15 are 21, 9 are 22, and 4 are over 22.

What kind of information does an absolute frequency plot visually display?

Give an example of when and how you might use an absolute frequency plot.

How are relative frequency plots different from cumulative frequency plots?

Sketch a relative frequency plot (by hand) for the following data set {32, 16, 21, 22, 21,

19, 24, 26, 31, 27}. Use the categories [ 20], [21 23], [24 27], [28 30], [ 31]. Be

sure to label both axes.

What kind of information does a relative frequency plot visually display?

Give an example of when and how you might use a relative frequency plot.

How are histograms constructed?

What is the total area of a histogram?

Sketch a histogram (by hand) for the data set: {1, 1, 3, 2, 5, 5, 9, 2, 4, 2} Using the

categories [1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6], [7, 8], [9, 10]. Be sure to supply numeric labels on the

axes.

What kind of information does a histogram visually display?

Give an example of when you might use a histogram.

How do histograms and relative frequency plots differ?

Under what conditions are a histogram and a relative frequency plot identical? Explain

your answer.

Sketch a cumulative distribution plot (by hand) for the following data set {32, 16, 21, 22,

21, 19, 24, 26, 31, 27}. Use the categories [ 20], [21 23], [24 27], [28 30], [ 31].

Be sure to label both axes.

What kind of information does a cumulative distribution plot visually display?

Give an example of when you might use a cumulative distribution plot.

What are the two extreme points on the y axis of a cumulative distribution plot?

459.

For x , give: Its name.

460.

What is the symbol for the mean of a sample?

461.

For x , give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation).

462.

For x , give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it

measures. (Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)

463.

For x , give: A brief description of how you could make it larger by altering the

data set.

464.

For x , give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller by altering the

data set.

465.

For x , calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work at

each step), for the data set {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.

466.

For x , give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment

would provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your

examples are good ones.)

467.

For s2, give: Its name

468.

For the variance, give: Its symbol or symbols, if there is more than one

469.

For s2, give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation)

470.

For s2, give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it

measures. (Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)

471.

For s2, give: A brief description of how you could make it larger by altering the

data set.

472.

For s2, give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller by altering the

data set.

473.

What does a large value of m2 indicate about a data set?

474.

What does a small value of m2 indicate about a data set?

475.

For s2, calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work at

each step), for a small data set {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.

476.

For s2, give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment would

provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your examples

are good ones.)

477.

For s, give: Its name

478.

For the standard deviation, give: Its symbol or symbols, if there is more than one

479.

For s, give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation)

480.

For s, give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it

measures. (Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)

481.

For s, give: A brief description of how you could make it larger by altering the

data set.

482.

For s, give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller by altering the

data set.

483.

For s, calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work at

each step), for a small data set {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.

484.

For s, give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment would

provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your examples

are good ones.)

485.

Much software calculates the standard deviation like we have been doing, except

that where we divide by n, the software divides by n1. How would you transform such a

calculation to get the correct value for s2?

486.

You have a data set with 17 observations. Your software calculated the standard

deviation as 8. However, your software calculates the standard deviation like we have

been doing, except that where we divide by n, the software divides by n1. Calculate the

correct value for s2.

487.

You have a data set with 17 observations. Your software calculated the standard

deviation as 8. However, your software calculates the standard deviation like we have

been doing, except that where we divide by n, the software divides by n1. Calculate the

correct value for s.

488.

For m3, give: Its name

489.

For the unstandardized skew, give: Its symbol or symbols, if there is more than

one

490.

For m3, give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation)

491.

For m3, give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it

measures. (Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)

492.

For m3, give: A brief description of how you could make it larger (and positive) by

altering the data set.

493.

For m3, give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller (and negative)

by altering the data set.

494.

What does a large positive value of m3 indicate about a data set?

495.

Can m3 ever be negative? If so, what does a large negative value of m3 indicate

about a data set?

496.

What does a small absolute value of m3 indicate about a data set?

497.

For m3, calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work at

each step), for a small data set, {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.

498.

For m3, give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment would

provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your examples

are good ones.)

499.

Why do we often standardize m3?

500.

For m4, give: Its name

501.

For the unstandardized kurtosis, give: Its symbol or symbols, if there is more than

one

502.

For m4, give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation)

503.

For m4, give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it

measures. (Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)

504.

For m4, give: A brief description of how you could make it larger by altering the

data set.

505.

For m4, give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller by altering the

data set.

506.

Describe what a large positive value of m4 indicates about a data set.

507.

Can m4 ever be negative? Why or why not?

508.

Describe what a small value of m4 indicates about a data set.

509.

For m4, calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work at

each step), for a small data set {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.

510.

For m4, give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment would

provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your examples

are good ones.)

511.

Why do we often standardize m4?

512.

Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where the mean is 13 and the

standard deviation is 7. Two new data points, whose values are 17 and 14, are added to

this set. What is the new mean?

513.

Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where the mean is 13 and the

standard deviation is 7. Two new data points, whose values are 17 and 9, are added to this

set. What is the new standard deviation (assume the mean does not change)?

514.

Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where the mean is 13 and the

standard deviation is 7. Two new data points, whose values are 17 and 9, are added to this

set. What is the new variance (assume the mean does not change)?

515.

Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where the mean is 13 and the

variance is 7. Two new data points, whose values are 17 and 9, are added to this set. What

is the new standard deviation (assume the mean does not change)?

516.

Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where the mean is 13 and the

variance is 7. Two new data points, whose values are 17 and 9, are added to this set. What

is the new variance (assume the mean does not change)?

Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where x = 10, s = 6, and m3 = -22.

A new data point, whose value is 28, is added. What is the new m3 (assume the mean

does not change)?

Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where x = 10, s = 6, and m3 = 22. A

new data point, whose value is 28, is added. What is the new m3 (assume the mean does

not change)?

Suppose you have a data set x with 30 observations, where x = 10, s = 6, and m4 = 22. A

new data point, whose value is 28, is added. What is the new m4 (assume the mean does

not change)?

For the standardized skew, give: Its symbol or symbols, if there is more than one

For 1 , give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation)

For 1 , give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it measures.

(Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)

For 1 , give: A brief description of how you could make it larger by altering the data set.

For 1 , give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller by altering the data

set.

517.

For 1 , calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work

at each step), for a small data set {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.

For 1 , give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment would

provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your examples

are good ones.)

518.

Describe what a large positive value of 1 indicates about a data set.

519.

Describe what a small (absolute) value of 1 indicates about a data set.

520.

Describe what a large negative value (i.e. a negative value whose absolute size is

large) of 1 indicates about a data set.

521.

m3 is 24, and s2 is 7; what is 1 ?

522.

m3 is 24, and the standard deviation is 7; what is 1 ?

1 is 2, and s2 is 7; what is m3?

523.

1 is -2, and s is 7; what is m3?

524.

1 is -2, and m3 is 17; what is s2?

525.

1 is 2, and m3 is 17; what is the standard deviation?

526.

527.

If the unstandardized skew is 30, and the variance is 17, what is the

standardized skew?

For 2 , give: Its name

For the standardized kurtosis, give: Its symbol or symbols, if there is more than one

For 2 , give: Its mathematical formula (using sigma notation)

For 2 , give: A one sentence characterization of what feature(s) of a data set it measures.

(Dont just give the name; describe what it is designed to characterize.)

For 2 , give: A brief description of how you could make it larger by altering the data set.

For 2 , give: A brief description of how you could make it smaller by altering the data

set.

528.

For 2 , calculate its value, in the way we do it in class (i.e., showing your work

at each step), for a small data set {3, 4, -5, 8, 4}.

For 2 , give: At least two real life examples where knowing that moment would

provide you with valuable information. (Be sure to be able to explain why your examples

are good ones.)

529.

Describe what a large value of 2 indicates about a data set.

530.

Describe what a small value of 2 indicates about a data set.

531.

m4 is 24, and s2 is 7; what is 2 ?

532.

m4 is 24, and the standard deviation is 7; what is 2 ?

2 is 2, and s2 is 7; what is m4?

533.

2 is 2, and s is 7; what is m4?

534.

2 is 2, and m4 is 17; what is s2?

535.

2 is 2, and m4 is 17; what is the standard deviation?

536.

537.

If the(unstandardized) kurtosis is 40, and the standard deviation is 3, what is the

standardized kurtosis?

If a data set is platykurtotic, what do we know about it?

If a data set is leptokurtotic, what do we know about it?

Which is more likely to contain outliers: a platykurtotic or leptokurtotic data set? Explain

your answer.

538.

539.

540.

541.

542.

543.

544.

of y?

545.

For y = a + bx, (b > 0) show that sy = bsx.

If y = 10 + 5x, and the mean of x is 25, what is the mean of y?

If y = 10 + 5x, and the variance of x is 11, what is the variance of y?

If y = 10 + 5x, and the variance of x is 11, what is the standard deviation of y?

If y = 10 + 5x, and the standard deviation of x is 11, what is the variance of y?

If y = 10 + 5x, and the standard deviation of x is 11, what is the standard deviation

For a data set x, give the formula for the z-score of xi.

x x

546.

Suppose z i i

. Express z in terms of the other quantities.

s

x x

547.

Suppose z i i

. Express s in terms of the other quantities.

s

What is the relation between 1 and m3?

What is the relation between 2 and m4?

548.

What is the primary purpose of standardizing scores?

549.

Why is the standardization of scores often used in the social sciences?

550.

If we make the transformation yi a bxi , calculate the z-score of yi in terms of

xi, x , and sx, to show that it is simply the standardization of xi. You do not need to

calculate values of y or sy. You can simply insert these values (expressed in terms of the

corresponding x-values.

551.

If you standardize a data set, what is its new mean?

552.

If you standardize a data set, what is its new standard deviation?

553.

If you standardize a data set, what is its new m3?

554.

Calculate the z-scores of {1, 2, -4, 3}.

555.

Calculate the standardization of the value 3 as it occurs in the data set {1, 2, -4,

3}, and again as it occurs in the data set {3, 5, 8, 7, 2}

556.

If the standardized value of x is -1.4 from a data set whose mean is 7 and sd is 4,

what is the original (unstandardized) value of x?

557.

Suppose x1 = 3, in a data set with 12 observations, where the mean is 6 and the

standard deviation is 2. A new data point x13 = 9 is added and now the mean is 6.5 and the

standard deviation is 3. What is the new z-score for x1?

Probability Theory

558.

What is a sample space (you can give a definition, or just say what it is)?

559.

For a given sample space S, what is an event (you can give a definition, or just

say what it is)?

560.

In a given trial or experiment, how many of the possible outcomes in the sample

space can occur at one time? How many must occur at one time?

561.

What are the three axioms of probability?

562.

What is the general formula for the probability of event A or B occurring,

where A and B might be any events whatsoever?

563.

What is the formula for expressing the probability that event A does not occur in

terms of the probability that it does occur?

564.

What is the formula for expressing the probability that events A and B both occur,

in terms of the probability that one of them occurs, and the conditional probability that

the other occurs?

565.

Which, if any, of the purported assignment of probabilities to the outcomes in a

sample space are possible? Why or why not?

Table

Outcomes in the sample space

1

E

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

1

Pr1

.2

.2

.1

.05

.05

.1

.3

0

Pr2

.3

.1

.1

.2

.1

.1

.1

.1

Pr3

.3

.05

.04

.05

.1

.1

.1

.1

Pr4

.2

.2

.3

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

566.

Give the definition of an event for a given sample space {s1,,sn}.

567.

For the sample space {a, b, c}, list all the possible events.

568.

** What is the major advantage of statistical independence discussed in the

slides?

569.

Explain why Axiom 3 (of the probability axioms) has the restriction it does (you

can draw a picture as part of your explanation, if you like).

Table 2

Pr

570.

s1

.2

s2

s3

s4

s5

s6

s7

.3

.1

.05

.05

.1

.2

A = {s1, s2}, B = {s2, s3, s4}, C = {s3, s4, s6}, D = {s2, s7,s6}, E = {s1, s7}

571.

Using Table 2, show your work as you calculate Pr(A or B) and Pr(B or C).

572.

Using Table 2, show your work as you calculate Pr(A and B) and Pr(B and C).

573.

Using Table 2, show your work as you calculate Pr(A|B) and Pr(B|A).

574.

Using Table 2, show your work as you calculate Pr(not A) and Pr(not B).

575.

Using Table 2, show your work as you calculate Pr((not C) and B) and Pr(D and

(not E))

END OF NEED TO KNOWS FOR TEST A1

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