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Disaster Management (HUL2101)


Study Report
On
ELECTRIC

VEHICLE

DESIGN

AND

ITS

INITIATIVE TAKEN IN INDIA


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CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME


CASE STUDIES

1.Abstract:An electric vehicle (EV), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one
or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle
may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle
sources, or may be self-contained with
a battery or generator to convert fuel
to electricity. EVs include road and
rail vehicles, surface and underwater
vessels, electric

aircraft and electric

spacecraft. Electric vehicles have been


identified as being a key technology in reducing future emissions and energy
consumption in the mobility sector. The focus of this article is to review and
assess the energy efficiency and the environmental impact of battery electric
cars (BEV), which is the only technical alternative on the market available
today to vehicles with internal combustion engine (ICEV). Electricity onboard
a car can be provided either by a battery or a fuel cell (FCV). The technical
structure of BEV is described, clarifying that it is relatively simple compared
to ICEV. Following that, ICEV can be e-converted by experienced personnel.
Such an e-conversion project generated reality-close data reported here. The
growing environmental consciousness and seeing the adverse effects of
climate change, the governments in India are supporting initiatives for

development of eco-friendly mobility solutions including electric vehicles. To


offset the disadvantages of electric vehicles regarding range, weight and
charging time, efforts have to be made to orient the use of electric vehicles to
niche situations and niche markets where these limitations can be leveraged by
design. Confined spaces like airports, industrial campuses, gated communities
lend themselves easily to vehicle electrification.

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME


CASE STUDIES

2.PROBLEM STATEMENT
In electric cars a battery powers the
electric motor and the voltage then
turns the transmission to turn the
wheels.The

benefit

to

the

environment is that electric cars


produce no harmful emissions; the
benefit to the customer is a saving on fuel. Yes, you will have to recharge the
battery pack using electricity and critics have argued that the electricity must
come from somewhere and if it is from a coal-burning power plant, the electric
vehicle is still part of a pollution cycle. But to the consumers already
burdened pockets, electricity is far cheaper than fossil fuel.
Electric cars offer a further financial benefit in that they are cheaper to tax and
cheaper to insure with some companies, such as Budget Direct.
Electric cars have gained a bit of a bad reputation for being limited to city use
due to the majority being produced in compact sizes and having limited range
on a battery charge but these issues are being addressed with each wave of

electric vehicles released into the market and now family sized vehicles that
can travel between 50 and 80 miles depending on the model on one charge.
As a strategy to make the electrical vehicles acceptable and usable, efforts can
be made to design and orient the use of specialized electric vehicles to niche
situations and markets, where these vehicles can have an edge over petrol
driven conventional vehicles. This needs to be understood well. If the
limitations of the electric driven vehicles is leveraged by design, special
vehicles for special applications / special situations can become viable and
common-place, thereby relieving the pressure on oil, environment (pollution),
health & carbon footprint.

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME


CASE STUDIES

3.HISTORY
Electric motive power started in 1827, when Slovak-Hungarian priest nyos
Jedlik built the first crude but viable electric motor, provided with stator, rotor
and commutator, and the year after he used it to power a tiny car. The first
known

electric

car

was

built

in

1837

by

chemist Robert

Davidson of Aberdeen. It was powered by galvanic cells (batteries). Davidson


later built a larger locomotive named Galvani, exhibited at the Royal Scottish
Society of Arts Exhibition in 1841. A few years later, in 1835, professor
Sibrandus Stratingh of University of Groningen, the Netherlands, built a
small scale electric car and a Robert Anderson of Scotland is reported to have
made a crude electric carriage sometime between the years of 1832 and 1839.
Around the same period, early experimental electrical cars were moving on
rails, too. American blacksmith and inventor Thomas Davenport built a toy
electric locomotive, powered by a primitive electric motor, in 1835.

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME


CASE STUDIES

in 1840 for the use of rails as conductors of electric current, and similar
American patents were issued to Lilley and Colten in 1847. Between 1832 and
1839 (the exact year is uncertain), Robert Anderson of Scotland invented the
first crude electric carriage, powered by non-rechargeable primary cells.
Electric Vehicle were among the earliest automobiles, and before the
preeminence of light, powerful internal combustion engines, electric
automobiles held many vehicle land speed and distance records in the early
1900s. They were produced by Baker Electric, Columbia Electric, Detroit
Electric, and others, and at one point in history out-sold gasoline-powered
vehicles. In fact, in 1900, 28 percent of the cars on the road in the USA were
electric.
EVs were so popular that even President Woodrow Wilson and his secret
service agents toured Washington DC in their Milburn Electrics, which
covered 6070 miles per charge. A number of developments contributed to
decline of electric cars.
Reason which let shifting from electric cars to Gasoline cars:1. Improved road infrastructure required a greater range than that offered
by electric cars The discovery of large reserves of petroleum in Texas,
Oklahoma, and California led to the wide availability of affordable
gasoline, making gas-powered cars cheaper to operate.

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME


CASE STUDIES

2. over long distances. Also gasoline-powered cars became ever easier to


operate thanks to the invention of the electric starter by Charles
Kettering in 1912, which eliminated the need of a hand crank for
starting a gasoline Engine, and the noise emitted by ICE cars became
more bearable thanks to the use of the muffler, which Hiram Percy
Maxim had invented in 1897. As roads were improved outside urban
areas electric vehicle range could not compete with the ICE. Finally, the
initiation of mass production of gasoline-powered vehicles by Henry
Ford in 1913 reduced significantly the cost of gasoline cars as compared
to electric cars.
3. Rechargeable batteries that provided a viable means for storing
electricity on board a vehicle did not come into being until 1859, with
the invention of the leadacid battery by French physicist Gaston
Plant. Camille Alphonse Faure.

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME


CASE STUDIES

4.Findings
4.1POLICY
With the growing environmental consciousness and seeing the adverse effects
of climate change, the Government of India and the governments of various
Indian states are supporting many initiatives for the development of
ecofriendly technologies, which can reduce the carbon footprint.
India.

Regulation has become one of the prime factors driving this change.

Energy audits have been made mandatory in large consumer units from March
2007. An energy-labeling programme for appliances was launched in 2006 and
comparative star-based labeling has also been introduced. Recent signing of
the agreement in Copenhagen on Climate Change, India is committed to
pursue this policy aggressively. Programme of Urban Renewal of the
Government of India insists on energy efficiency, and incentives in the form of
cheaper loans are offered to urban transport authorities. The National Solar
Mission would promote the use of solar energy for power generation and other
applications. Even Indian industry has taken up these issues seriously. Energy
efficiency has become the top most agenda for Indian companies as well. Big
automobile companies are developing electric vehicle technologies and/ or
buying smaller electric vehicle companies to prepare for the future. One good
example is that Mahindra & Mahindra recently bought Reva Electric car
company from Bangalore.

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME


CASE STUDIES

The Challenge- Although first electricity driven car was driven


in 1880s, it lost the race to gasoline-powered vehicles due to
the deficiencies of range, weight and time of charging. Despite
having made great strides in technology in more than hundred
years, the electric vehicle suffers from same problems even
now. What is however encouraging is that serious thought is
being given to add value and make these vehicles viable
somehow and somewhere. The rising cost of crude oil is
helping this movement. Advantage of this movement is that it
is throwing challenges to various technology disciplines, and
the persons working in these areas are doing their best to find
solutions and attracting research investment. With these
inputs, it is bound to yield positive results in due course.

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME CASE


STUDIES

4.2 CASE STUDY 1


One case study was developed through a project for the design of electric aircraft
tow tractor. An aircraft tow tractor tows the aircraft from runways to the tarmac or
apron, and back. Presently it is highly fuel guzzling and polluting vehicle, as it has
to have weight (added through ballast) for traction to tow the heavy aircraft.
Making it electric, can offer many fold advantages, which will be elucidated in the
case study presentation. The disadvantage of an electric vehicle is that it is heavy,
which is a positive aspect for an aircraft tow tractor. Cheaper, heavier and
dependable lead acid batteries can be used as their high weight can create an
advantage. The airport is a confined space; hence the range of the vehicle need not
be large. Intermittent usage (as it is not used all the time) of such vehicle can allow
it to move to the charging stations more often to get charged. The structure of this
vehicle need not be efficient and expensive (as in monocoque vehicles), but
inefficient, heavy, rugged and less expensive. What we see here is that all the
inherent disadvantages of an electric vehicle could be converted into advantage in
this situation. Similar advantage can be created in varying degrees in industrial
campuses, gated communities, small urban clusters and similarly identified
situations, with vehicles for different usage and where short range is good enough.

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME CASE


STUDIES

4.2 Case study 2 (Mahindra REVA)


o Started as REVA Electric Car Company, a joint venture between the Maini
Group of Bangalore and AEV LLC of California, USA
o First to sell over 3500 electric cars world wide esp. in Europe o Has
accumulated data from more than 100 million KM of user experience o
Supply Chain network includes vendors, who can cater to Revas
customized small volumes
o Indian vendors have indigenously developed motors, Lead acid batteries,
spare parts & body parts
o International vendors co-operate for better design, Li-on batteries, motors o
Acquisition by Mahindra gives wider access to vendor network
o Core strength of REVA is the battery management and EV know-how o
Reva spends 7% of its turnover for R&D
Into the future
o Starting a new facility, 30,000 cars per annum would be the
capacity
o Focus on European markets
o Develop better performing EVs in various platforms.
Opportunities Mahindra Reva
o Telematics o Smart Grid & Charging
o Battery Leasing
o Public commuting solutions

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME CASE


STUDIES

5. EFFORTS DONE FOR ELECTRIC CARS

IN INDIA
5.1 EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
A new Masters and Doctoral level program was started from last year for education
and research into mobility and vehicle design issues at Industrial Design Centre,
IIT Bombay, to create a body of specialist vehicle designers, who can address the
problems of future mobility in the country, and also to develop the research culture
in this discipline. Special emphasis is given to eco-friendly vehicle development
and research. Light weighting is a very important criterion for electric vehicles, to
make them run cheaper and longer. Initiatives to develop small electric vehicles are
undertaken for situations like campuses, gated communities, industrial estates
where heavier vehicle are not necessary for transport and smaller ones are adequate
enough. Research is being conducted on light weighting of these vehicles to reduce
the power consumption further. Integrated single unit reinforced plastic bodies for
2-wheelers and 3-wheelers are built and tested to achieve this objective. By
designing single-seat mini electric scooter and similar small vehicles, examples
were created, and prototypes were developed to prove the concepts. These
concepts can be adopted and developed by research-shy companies for
manufacture and marketing.

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME CASE


STUDIES

5.2

Design Integration

Integrating computer and communication technologies with electric vehicle can


become a big driver for development. One such example can be the development
of autonomous road trains for small tourist destinations / archeological locales,
which are sensitive to pollution from high traffic during the season. Pollution free
transport seems to be an imperative need. A project is being undertaken at IIT
Bombay to develop a mobility facility at Elephanta Island, a small tourist spot near
Mumbai, for tourists who visit the ancient caves there. An autonomous mini road
train running on battery bank charged through Solar panels and following a tour
line is being contemplated. Besides being a facility for tourists, it offers an
additional means of livelihood to the local community who are dependent on
tourism. It is to be showcased as a prototype for mobility solution in small towns
particularly the tourist towns.

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME CASE


STUDIES

5.3 EFFORTS IN TERMS OF SALES AND MORE


USE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE
The Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises, in collaboration with the
Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM), has rolled out FAME India
(Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric vehicles). The move is designed to
provide impetus to the nascent hybrid and electric vehicle industry in India, and
also boost the governments 'Make in India' programme.
FAME India will push for a faster adoption and manufacturing of hybrid and
electric vehicles in the country. The scheme has been formulated as part of the
National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 (NEMMP) unveiled in 2013 by the
Union Government. This scheme will work towards achieving national fuel
security, a globally competitive EV eco-system and an affordable, environmentfriendly transportation system for the future.
Anant Geete, minister of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises, who announced
the scheme in New Delhi, said FAME India will be implemented over a six-year
period till 2020 and will sell 6-7 million hybrids and EVs annually. It will support
the EV market development and manufacturing eco-system to achieve selfsustenance at the end of this period.

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME CASE


STUDIES

Phase I of the scheme has kicked off from April 1, 2015 and will run till end-201617 with an approved outlay of Rs 795 crore. An initial allocation of Rs 75 crore has
been sanctioned in the budget for the current fiscal 2015-16, Geete said. The four
thrust areas of the scheme are demand and supply creation, technology
development, charging infrastructure and pilot projects.
The break-up of fund allocation in 2015-16 across these segments is: Rs 70 crore
for the technology platform including testing infrastructure, Rs 155 crore for
demand incentives, Rs 10 crore for charging infrastructure, Rs 20 crore for pilot
projects and Rs 5 crore for IEC operations. In 2016-17, Rs 120 crore will be
allocated for the technology platform, Rs 340 crore for demand incentives, Rs 20
crore for charging infrastructure, Rs 50 crore for pilot projects and Rs 5 crore for
IEC operations. In all, Rs 260 crore will be spent in FY16 and Rs 535 crore in
FY17 out of the total Rs 795 crore earmarked for the scheme for a two-year
period. Due to the high level of environment pollution and fossil fuel usage in road
transport in high density urban centres, this phase of the scheme will be restricted
to cities falling under the purview of the smart cities initiative, major metro cities,
all state capitals and other urban cities with over a million-strong population as
well as the north eastern states.

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME CASE


STUDIES

Keeping in view the limited domestic reserves of conventional fuels and the rising
demand in the automobile sector, it is a dire necessity to find alternate sources of
energy for transport which are eco-friendly yet cost-effective. In the present
circumstances, FAME is a necessity. We hope that the scheme will be a success and
benefits the citizens of our country and meets the objectives which are set out in
the Mission. Today, the first national workshop organised by our ministry also saw
various stakeholders including our partners from the state governments
participating with full fervour. We are hopeful that as one of the important
stakeholders, we will have their active participation in the implementation of the
scheme as we go forward, said Geete.
The demand incentives that will be given to boost sales of hybrids and EVs will be
in the range of:
- Rs 1,800 to Rs 22,000 for scooters
- Rs 3,500 to Rs 29,000 for motorcycles
- Rs 3,300 to Rs 54,000 for CNG/diesel three-wheeler variants
- Rs 3,300 to Rs 61,000 for petrol-engined three-wheelers
- Rs 13,000 to Rs 124,000 for sub-4-metre four-wheelers

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME CASE


STUDIES

- Rs 11,000 to Rs 138,000 for four-wheelers above 4 metres long


- Rs 17,000 to Rs 187,000 for LCVs (CNG / diesel variants)
- Rs 34 lakh to Rs 66 lakh for buses (CNG variants)
- Rs 30 lakh to Rs 61 lakh for diesel-engined buses
If executed as per the plan, the scheme will lead to a substantial decrease in carbon
dioxide emissions by 24 million tonnes, fuel savings of up to 9,500 million litres
valued at Rs 60,000 crore and creation of around 3,00,000 jobs by 2020. The
minister called upon both the industry and academia in the country to come
forward and develop new and advanced electric and hybrid vehicle models across
all segments matching international standards which are also cost effective. He said
that the involvement of state governments and local bodies will be crucial for the
successful rollout of pilot projects and public charging infrastructure for which the
central government would provide adequate funds in the initial years. Governments
around the world, particularly developed markets like the USA, EU, Japan and
China, are promoting alternate technology vehicles. Globally, the major focus is on
market creation through various incentives, particularly on the demand side.

CASE STUDY-ELECTRIC VEHICLE DESIGN INITIATIVES IN INDIA & SOME CASE


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6. CONCLUSION
o EVs in India is at a very nascent stage and is stated to grow in double
digits
o EVs in India is dominated by 2-wheeler segment, and the immediate
future also seems to be in this segment
o Supplies for 2-wheelers are majorly from China as SKDs, Electric
Components come from Taiwan also
o 2-wheeler industry is looking at technology for motor controllers,
battery & Charging Systems
o Only one Indian car manufacturer Mahindra Reva, it basically
describes the total Indian electric car manufacturing
o In India most of the EVs run on Lead Acid batteries, Li-on batteries
are the need of the hour to improve the EVs efficiency
o At present the components and Li-on batteries come from China,
Taiwan & Japan; Power controllers come from US
o Hybrids might enter Indian market sooner and more easily than evehicles because hybrids do not require new refueling infrastructure
o In terms of infrastructure there is lack of government support,
infrastructure and optimum business models
o Need of public private partnership in the development of EV
infrastructure