Index

Accounting, relationship of, to value analysis, 224-228 Adhesives, 187 Advanced techniques, 299-312 Aesthetic value [see Function( s ), aesthetic] Aesthetic values higher, costs lower, 2, 229 After-the-fact value appraisal, 276 All cost is for function, 2 5 3 0 Alternatives: a t lower cost, 111-113 selection of, 60, 30.5312 Aluminum, 189 relative cost of, 203 Analysis step, job plan, 55 Appearance design, relation of, to value analysis, 229 Application to various business activities, 278-282 Art, 267 Assembly: centering support and pin, 163-167 motor plate pointer, 113

Assembly ( Cont. ) : of parts, buy, spend my money this way?, 158-159 Assigned problem solutions, 337 Assignments, problems for, 330-336 Attitude, cooperative, qualifications for, 269 Available functional products: not used for various reasons, 130-132 utilize vendors, 130-141 Avoid generalities, 88-92

Ballplayer, 207 Basic step (see Steps, basic) Before or after the fact?, 231 Begg, George, 313 Behavior, sacrificial, 207 Beliefs: management, supporting competitive value decisions, 222 of managers: control decisions, 221-223 "good performance must have, good costs automatic?," 221

Best source of information, use only, 99101 Blacksmith, specialty tools of, 147, 162 Blast, 103, 107, 108, 110 create, refine, techniques of, 102-1 13 example of, 106, 108 Blocked, mentally, by good work of past, 213 Bolts : example of, 105 heavy trunion, example of, spend my money this way?, 156 J: discussion of, between managers, 218 specialty process, example of, 147 Book, this, how to use, xvii Boss pressure, motivates managers, 284 Brackets : sized, later bent, 238 using vendors' specialty process, 150 Brain, better use of, 1 Brass and bronze rod and sheet, relative cost of, 201 Brass and bronze wire, relative cost of, 202 Breathing, getting good value like?, 253 Bryan, G. L., 308 Business: how correctly is value analysis organized for?, 288 how effectively is value analysis operating?, 289 how well is the organization suited to?, 288 loss of, through partial overheads, 341350 the motivation, 283 Businesses, organization for: large, 257 small, 256 smallest, 255 Buy or make (see Make-or-buy decisions) Bytheway, Charles W., 299 Calf, Path of, xviii Car starting, complete plan and action essential for, 52 Carpenter, specialty tools of, 147 Case studies: can we scrap the scrap?, 235 concrete for $50,00&what is the function?, 26

Case studies ( Cont. ) : conduct electric current in steel?, 6 contacts that were lost, 239 control, temperature-sensitive, 151 controller, the electric, 111 creative step reduces cost 80%, 57 crystal or window glass?, 92 danger of embarrassment is more forceful than restored market volume, 219 dealing with time and value, 12 develop specific information, 91 did the vendor contribute?, 237 do it like an Indian, 122 evaluate a single function, 32 evaluate three functions, 33 evaluating function in analysis step, 56 FAST diagram used, parts reduced from nineteen to four, 304-308 fear of embarrassment is more forceful in decision making than ending company loss, 219 fear of embarrassment is more forceful in decision making than a profit on the iob., 220 , increased dollar yield per man-hour of cost-reduction work, 232 interacting functions, 36 is the value $60 per thousand, or is it $1 per thousand? 126 it won't work, 119 it's patented, 241 job plan used on electrical contact, 59-62 lower costs may mean doing it the right way, 248 management problem, buy or build factorv.. 72 . mounting holes for perforated sheet steel, 148 only one supplier, 101 pivot -in, 63-66 . problem setting, 48 published data used to evaluate function, 38 red pointer and red ink, 2 specialty product simplified it, 132 springs, the three, 142 timer, the, 180 Underwriters' won't allow it, 120

Index
Case studies ( Cont. ) : unmeaningful costs can bankrupt the business, 98-99 value analysis applied to hospital services and expenses, 78-81 value analysis of a community service, 84-86 value analysis techniques certainly cannot improve the value of 10,000 bolts, 20 Castings, 185, 190 Cause-and-effect relationships, obscure, allow decisions injuring value, 21 1 Champions : coaching of, concept, xvi, 1 prizefighting and golf, 2 Change, 206 abhored by environment, 214 Check, 16, follow rules?, 160 City government, value analysis program in a, 82-84 Clamp, small, example of, would 1 spend $20,000 of my money this way?, 158 Clamp bar as example of blast, create, refine, 107 Company president's quotation, 259 Comparison, evaluate functions by, 40 Competence, specialized, sources of, 184187 Components, functional, available, 134136 Confidence, how to secure, in measurements of value, 4 2 4 4 Construction industry, use of value engineering in, 313-329 architects and engineers, understanding their activities, 314 contractors, understanding their activities, 315 costs, total cost concept, 327 examples (see Examples, construction industry) function costs diagrammed, 318 functional approach, use of 316 functions, naming and evaluating, 317 items requiring search, inputs, and investigation, 326 life cycle, 321, 324 locating high yield areas, 319

355

Construction industry, use of value engineering ( Cont. ) : obstacles, overcoming, 324 owners, understanding status of, 315 unfunctioning costs, why so much?, 314 value engineering: definition of, 313 effective, where must be done, 326 how to use, 316 when in life cycle, 321-324 waste, ending paperwork, 324 Consultation: manufacturing, 280 purchasing, 281 sales, 278 Contacts, lost, 239 Control, temperature-sensitive, 151 Cooperative attitude, qualifications, 269 Copper, relative cost of, 202 Copper conducting bus, lower costs brought embarrassment, 220 Cost: added by decisions based on: normal practice, 210 policy, 209 similar actions, 209 sound general criteria, 208 traditional criteria, 208 added by engineering accumulated misconceptions, 234 added by engineering knowledge limitations, 234 added by "feelings," 212 added by obscure cause-and-effect relationships, 21 1 added by a system that does not secure information, 210 all is for function, 2 5 3 0 decision, 98, 341-350 of function, variation with concepts, materials, and product components. 183 lower, does not mean lower quality, 247 relative: of aluminum, 203 of brass and bronze rod and sheet, 201 of brass and bronze wire, 202 of copper, 202 knowledge, 197-203 of machine speeds, 198

356

Index

Cost, relative ( Cont. ) : Decision makers ( Cont. ) : of operation speeds, 199 motivated by: emphasis, 286 of stainless steel, 200 measurement of action, 286 of steel in miscellaneous forms, 200 measurement of lack of action, 286 unnecessary, 5 minimum-personal-loss environment, of sized bracket, later bent, 238 286 Cost-reduction: recognition, 286 increased effectiveness of, 230-232 understanding of failure, 286 and value analysis, 230-232 must accept personal risk, 206 versus value analysis, 231 must cause change, 206 Costs: Decision making, shades of gray in, 210 essentialness of, 20 Decision process, understanding of, qualiget all available, 93 fications for, 271 good, may mean good quality, 247 Decisions: high, result in: engineering concept, 15 always influenced, often controlled by engineering detail work, 15 feelings, 212 management organization, 14 cost added by, based on: normal pracmanufacturing concept, 15 tice, 210 manufacturing operation, 15 policy, 209 marketing concept, 14 similar actions, 209 purchasing and procurement work, sound general criteria, 208 15 traditional criteria, 208 how to get, 19-20 determining profits, not made by profitlower, may mean doing it the right measured people, 211 way, case study, 248 by management, percentage of, in make-or-buy decisions, 97, 98, 227 error, 241 make-versus-make decisions, 227 by professional people, percentage of, meaningful, essential, 93-96, 226 in error, 241 normal make-up, 93-96 unwelcome, required, 208 overhead, using partial, 97-98 Defense, adequate, at lower cost, 11 unmeaningful, obscure vital facts, 98Dell'isola, A. J., 314, 326 99 Designs, grow like Topsy, 102 Cover, dust, 113 Development planning step, job plan, 58 Covered-wagon train, 207 Development step, 166 Create, 103, 107, 109, 110, 113-116 Diagrams, FAST, 301 blast and refine, 102-113 Dials, metal, patented, 241 Difference, vast, between eueybody-doesCreativity, use of real, 113-116 Creativity step of job plan, 56 it and specialist-does-it, 255 Creep, 341-350 Directories, industrial, 136-137 Customer, pleasing the, by aesthetic func- Disciplined thinking (see Thinking, distions, 28 ciplined ) Dixon, Robert L., 341 Decision costs, 97-98 Dust cover. 113 ( See also Make-or-buy decisions ) Decision environment, 205-223 Edison, Thomas, 206 requiring vast consideration, 206 Electrical contact, job plan for, 59-62 subjective, 210-221 Electrical terminals, 174 time required to improve, 206 Effect on other work of business, 224Decision makers: 252 injured by embarrassment, 208 Effective organization for value work, injury is real, 207 253-266

Index Embarrassment: cause of, 215, 217 caused by: past knowledge, 220 previous actions, 219 comfortable to avoid, 215 decision makers injured by, 208 fear of: controls decisions, 218-221 more forceful than ending company loss, 219 more forceful than restored market volume, 219 how to avoid, 215 injures decision makers, 208 from manager, minimizing, 218 Emphasis : by management, results determined by, 240 motivates: decision makers, 286 value technique users, 285 Engineering: integration, 279 performance by measurement, value by judgement factor, 233 relationship of, to value analysis, 232236 value appraisal, 279 value consultation, 279 training, 279 work content applied to, 279 Engineering decisions, costs added by: accumulated misconceptions, 234 limited knowledge, 234 Environment: abhors change, 214 action, low fear of embarrassment, 217 compared to valve system, 214 decision (see Decision environment ) hazardous to new, 213 may be unsafe mentally for the "new," 213 minimum-personal-loss as motivation: of decision makers, 286 of managers, 284 subjective, but objective decisions required, 210-221 Essential qualifications and training of value analysts and engineers, 267273 Evaluation, of ideas, 309-312 matrix, 310

357

Evaluation, of ideas ( Cont. ) : quantitative, by function rating grid, 309 Everyone's business does not get competitive value, 254 Examples : adjustment screw, searching for specialized product, 138, 139 asbestos paper, 117 blast, create, refine, 106, 108, 109 bracket using vendors' specialty processes, 150 bulkhead-penetration project, 115 buy parts, or assembly?, spend my money this way?, 158 clamp: bar as example of blast, create, refine, 107 would I spend $20,000 of my money this way?, 158 construction industry: aircraft parking apron, 321 buried conductors, 318 changes, typical, 328 conduit, changed, 319 door canopies, 316 ending nonproduction service costs, 324 foundation plan, 321 parking payment, 316 pier deck, 321 summary sheet, typical, 329 walk-through tunnel, 316 costs exist but are not provided, 96 customer wants use and aesthetic functions, 46 decision costs, out-of-pocket costs in make-or-buy decisions, 97-98 ending roadblocks, 117-1 18 gyros, 125 hand wheel, 156 handle for machine tool adjustments, 145 heat-transfer enclosure, 124 heavy trunion bolts, spend my money thk way?, 156 hub-and-shaft assembly, spend m!/ money this way?, 157 inapplicable standard materials, do not use, 153 inapplicable standard products, do not use, 154

Examples ( Cont. ) : J bolts, specialty processes for, 147 job plan progression, 170 of knowing function value, as guide to effort, 41 labor and material costs only, are provided, 96 the linkage, 124 machined parts, spend my money this way?, 159 Navy bulkhead penetration, 115 no costs, 96 paperwork, 324 pole piece tolerances, 127-129 pulley, use of basic steps, steps of job plan, and acceIerators, 171 radar spot locator, 109 research, growth, and maturity of product, 8 spacer hub, specialized products, 139 squirted-in self-vulcanizing rubber-like gaskets, 115 stainless-steel nipple, 118 standardize the packing?, avoid overstandardizing, 155 stud, spacer, 172 system procedure, 163-167 temperature control, 16 thin nut, specialized product, 140 tube support gasket, vendors' specialty process, 150 undercut screw, vendors' specialty process, 149 use of for pulley, basic steps, steps of job plan, and results accelerators,

Fence manufacturers, what can they do?, case study, 122 Forging, lower costs brought embanassment, 219 Fowler, Theodore C., 299 Function( s ) : aesthetic, 2-3, 25-26, 28, 37, 229 analysis of, 2, 28, 37 customers' wants, 25 classifying basic or secondary, 29 evaluation of, 3 1 4 4 by comparison, 32, 40-42 using published data, 38, 184 FTouP, 47 case study, 48 how to quantify, 27 identifying, 45 interacting: case study, 36 evaluation of, 35 naming, identifying, and clarifying,

26-27
rating grid, quantitative evaluation of ideas, 309 separate, 46 sub-, 47 unifying, with its specifications, 28 use, customers' wants, 25 value of, as guide or measure, 42-44 verb-noun naming, 27 Function analysis system technique ( FAST), 299-308 case study, parts, reduced from 19 to 4,

304-308
cost allocation, 304 critical path determination, 302 how to use, 300 logic, function determination, 300 scope, determination of, 302 supporting function determination, 302 "why" and "how" logic, 301 Function-cost relationships, 182 Function-property relationships, 38 Functional components, available, 134-

171
use standards: a process detail, 153 a specialty product, 152 a standard product, 152 Experience, qualifications, 270 Fear of embarrassment: more forceful in decision making than profit, 220 more forceful than ending company loss,

136
Functional materials: available, 133-136 locating in directories, 136-137 Functional products: available, 132-136 utilization of, 130-141 classes of, 132

219
Feelings: always influence, often control decisions, 212 how to change, 213

Index
Functional products ( Cont. ) : locknut as example of, 140 not used for various reasons, 130-132 and processes, locating at professional society meetings, 137 specialized, assuring vendor success, 138 Functional supplies available, 135-136 Functional understanding in marketing concept, 14

359

Garratt, Arthur, 305 Gasket, squirted-in self-vulcanizing, vendors' specialty processes for, 150 Gear sleeve, case study, higher quality, half the cost, 248 Generalities: avoiding, 88-92 ending, 89-90 examples of, 88 "Generality" stoppers, examples of: electrical terminals, 174 spring locating parts, 175 weld supports, 176 Get a dollar sign on key tolerances, 125129 Glass, crystal or window, 92 Glass cover, "only one supplier," 101 Golfer, champion, 14 Goodwill Industries, value analysis of service of, 84-86 Government, city, how to start value analysis program for, 82 projects selected, 83 steps taken, 83 typical results, 83 Graves, Dr. Ralph, 213 Gray, shades of, in decision making, 210 Group functions, 47 Growth stage of a product, 7, 8 Guidance, utilize good, from the past, 66 Guidance by manager in the job plan, 67 Guide, function value becomes, 42

Hospital services and expenses, case study, 78-81 House, farm, periodic growth, example of, 102 "How might w e . . ," creativity, 114 Hub: spacer, specialized product, example of, 139 steel, 111 Hub-and-shaft assembly, spend my money this way?, example of, 157 Human factors, 13 Human relations, 205-223 Human toil, elimination of, 10

.

Ideas, quantitative evaluation of, 305-312 Identifying and overcoming roadblocks, 116-121 Identifying functions, 45 Imagination, qualifications, 268 Incredible reality, the, 218-221 Indoctrination of management, work content, 274 Industrial stylist, 2-3 Information, use from best source only, 99-101 Information step of job plan, 54 Initiative, high degree, qualifications, 268 Injury to decision makers is real, 207 Integration: developing understanding, in the environment, 275 engineering, 279 manufacturing, 280 measure, value work, 292 purchasing, 281 of research and developnlent with emphasis on military contracts, 261265 sales, 278 Interacting functions [see Function( s ), interacting] Interest in value essential, 270 Inventory. avoid accun~ulating,208

Hand wheel, spend my money this way?, example of, 156 Heat-transfer enclosure, example of, 124 History of a product, cycles of, 7, 8 Horse, 225

Job plan, 53-66, 167 analysis step, 55 creativity step, 56 development planning step, 58

360

Index
Machining costs, relative, 198 Make-or-buy decisions, 72, 97-98, 209210,227, 341-350 case study, 237 costs of, 227 parts or assembly?, 158 Make-versus-make decisions, costs for, 227 Management: indoctrination of, work content, 274 relationship of value analysis to, 239 Management beliefs, competitive value decisions supported by, 222 Management-decision-type problems, setting and solving, 70 Management decisions, percentage of, in error, 241 Management problems: solving, precise setting for, 71 types of, 70, 74 Management process, understanding, qualifications for, 271 Managers: accountable for earnings, structure under, 259 beliefs of, are the "master key," 221223 conversation may limit profit, 214 criticism by, may keep high costs, 217 guides for, 222 n~otivationof, 284 by boss pressure, 284 by minimum-personal-loss environment, 284 by necessity, 284 by recognition, 285 Manufacturing: how value analysis helps, 237 integration, 280 relationship of, to value analysis, 236237 value appraisal, 280 value consultation, 280 value training, 281 work content applied to, 280 Marketing: assisted by value analysis, 250 relationship of, to value analysis, 249 Material-cost relationships, 38 Materials: functional, available, 133-136

Job plan (Cont.) : information step, 54 interrelation of steps, 167 judgement step, 58 manager guidance points, 67 progression, 170 suggestion sheet, 62 in use, 165-167 value analysis, 53 Johnson, Warren A., 84 Joy-stick control mounting, 109 Judgement step of, job plan, 58

Kirksite, roadblock ending, 119 Knowledge: associated with costs, 181-184, 197204 benefits of, to research, sooner, 261 diverse, required, 179 finding the required, 179 fund, form and constitution, 182-184 nature of, 179 only 25% of available, used on a task, 122 qualifications, 268 reach of, 179 relative cost, 197-203 and skill of vendors: embarrassment limits use of, 143 how suppliers organized, 143-145 how to search for, 144-146 how to use, 141-146 reasons for not being used, 141-142 utilize and pay for, 141-146 special, 178-204 specialists, two years ahead, 122 specialized, use of industry specialists to extend, 121-125 specific product and process, 187-197 type of, required, 179

Lawyers, 178 Learning, tests of, 294 Linkage, example of, 124 Locknut, high-temperature, specialized product, example of search, 140 Loss, personal: minimizing risk of, 215-218 suffered by good men, 217

Index
Materials ( Cont. ) : new, impact of, 13 specialty, 196 Maturity stage of a product, 7, 8 Measurement(s ), 287-294 of action, managers motivated by, 286 fair, value analysis technique users motivated bv., 285 , of job plan by manager, 67 lack of, in value work, 11 of lack of action, decision makers motivated by, 286 of value analysis organization, 287-292 how correctly set up, 288 how effectively operating, 289 how well suited, 288 how well understood, 287 miscellaneous factors, 291 of value work, 292-294 integration, 292 value appraisal, 292 value consultation, 293 value training, 294 (See also Measures) Measures : function values as, 42 how to make, 4 2 4 4 Men, tests of, 295 Miles, Robert, xv Miller, G. A., 308 "Mind-setting," xviii, 72-73 "Mind tuning," essential preliminary step in, 53, 72-73 Minimizing risk of personal loss, 215-218 Money, what determines how to spend?, 156 would I spend mine this way?, 155161 Motivation, 283-287 business, 283 of decision makers, 286 four categories of, 283 measurement, tests for, 283-298 of value analysis technique users, 285

361

Nipple, stainless steel, example of, 118 Now, why better solutions to value (cost) problems?, 7 Nut: double, example of, 107 thin, specialized product, example of, 140 Operation speeds, relative-cost data, table, 199 Orders, writing separate, 208 Organization for value work: with four or more consultants, 257 one-man setup, 256 for smallest and smaller businesses, 255 structuring, 258 three-man setup, 257 two-man setup, 256 from viewpoint of: the interrelations of value analysis men, 253-258 overall business, 253-255 the relationship of value engineering men and management, 253-260 Overheads, partial, use of, 97-98, 341350 Overlap, problem-setting and problemsolving, 50 Parts, machined: follow rules or buy for half, example of, 159 spend my money this way?, 159 Past, utilize good guidance from, 66 Past good work as cause of mental block, 213 Patented product: case study, 241 as roadblock, example of, 118 People, optimum number of: for analysis step, 55 for creative step, 57 for development planning step, 58 for information step, 54 for judgement step, 58 Performance capability of product, 6 Performance-capability already in-house, now value-capability also required, 253 Performance-oriented work, 9, 10, 253 Personality, qualifications, 269

Nail, example of, 104 Necessity: force of, 284 managers motivated by, 284 New, environment hazardous to, 213

362

Index
Purchasing: aided by value analysis, 241, 242 buyer must be kept informed, 243 integration, 281 relationship of, to value analysis, 241247 practices pertinent to: commitments, 245 interdepartment reIations, 246 sources of supply, 245 vendor relations, 245 value analyst: cooperative ground-rules for, 244-247 work not done by, 243 value appraisal, 281 value training, 282 Qualifications : belief in importance of value, 270 cooperative attitude, 269 experience, 270 high degree of initiative, 268 imagination, 268 knowledge, 268 personality, 269 self-organization, 269 and training, 267-273 an understanding of management and decision processes, 271 for value analysts and engineers, 267 Quality, safety, features, no reduction in, 17, 247 Quality control and value analysis: joint opportunities for, 249 relationship of, 247, 249 Quality versus cost, two misconceptions of, 247 Quantitative evaluation of ideas, 305-312 Quantity-capability for weapons, 264 Questionnaire, is value analysis being used?, 296-298 Questions, the five, 18 Quotation, company president's, 259 Reality, the incredible, 218-221 Recognition as motivation: for decision makers, 286 for managers, 285 for value technique users, 285 Refine, 103,108, 109 blast, create, 102-113

Pins: pivot, case study, 63-66 spiral, tempered steel, case study, 132 Plan.. com~lete essential. 52 is Plate, back, case study, increased costreduction yield, 232 Plumber, 178, 267 Pointer, red, 2-3 Pole piece tolerance, example of, 127129 Potentiometer, 110 Problem-setting system, 45, 70-86 case study, 48 in job plan, 55 management-type, 72-73 and problem-solving overlap, 50 Problem solutions, 337-340 Problem-solving system, 2, 51-69, 77-86 and problem-setting overlap, 50 Problems : for assignment, 330-336 class-1, class-2, or class-3, 55 complex and creative, 114 management-type, 70 procedures for using, 330 Procedure, system, example of, 163-167 Procedures to locate unrecognized problems, 4 Processes : new, impact of, 13 specialty, 189-195 of vendors, how to find and use profitably, 151 specialty casting, 147 Product, cycle of the history of a: growth stage, 7 maturity stage, 7-8 research and development stage, 7 Products: functional, available, 132-136 new, impact of, 1 3 specialized, search for, examples of, 138-141 specialty, 195 of vendors, steps in locating, 141 Profit, 222 decisions determining, not made by profit-measured people, 211 limited by manager's conversation, 214 Property-material relationship, 38 Pulley, progression of steps for, 171

Index Refrigerator: case study, 48 control, case study, 49 Relations, human, 205-223 Relationship of value analysis: to all business activities, 224-252 to appearance design, 229 to cost-reduction, 230-232 to management, 239 to manufacturing, 236 to marketing, 249 to purchasing, 241-247 to quality control, 247-249 Research and development: better answers sooner, 264 decision criteria performance, time, and cost, 262-264 improved solution for, using value engineering, 263 landing craft gasoline tanks, example of, 264 more benefit from in-house knowledge, 261 organization for, 264 90% of product cost in areas of known technology, 264 understanding the problem, 262 using the problem solving system, 261 Research stage of a product, 7, 8 Responsibility to management for suitable costs, 240 Results accelerators, listing of, 87-88 Right way, doing it, high quality, low cost, 249 Risk of personal loss, minimizing, 215218 Roadblocks : causes of, 125 common, listing of, 117 identifying and overcoming, technique of, 18, 116-121, 174-176 case study, 119-120 by industry specialists, 125 Underwriters', example of, 119 Rules, follow, or buy for half, 159 Rules, follow, or write checks for l e , 160

363

Sales: integration, 278 value appraisal, 278

Sales ( Cont. ) : value consultation, 278 value training, 279 work content applied to, 278 Screen, motor, case study, 36 Screws: adjusting, search for specialized product, 138-139 example of, 104 #, 8 ., with # 6 head. 120 undercut, vendors' specialty process, 149 Search for information, how to, 19 Search for specialized product, example of, 138-141 Self-organization, qualifications, 269 Seminar, an effective 40-hour, 272 Separate functions, 46 Service-type problems, typical, 77 Services : community, case study, 84 grow like Topsy, 102 hospital, 78-81 how to proceed to the finished task, 82 how to start, 82 paper work, example of, 324 problem setting, 77 problems: case study of hospital expense, 78-81 disciplined thinking for, 78 solving, 77 progression of value analysis work, 82 Setting and solving: management-decision-type problems, 70 services problems, 77 Sheet, suggestion: electrical contact, 62 for job plan, 62 Shelly, M. W., 308 Shepard, R. N., 308 Solutions, better: to assigned problems, 337-340 to value problems, 7 Spacer stud, evaluation of functions of, 33-35 Special knowledge required, 178-204 Specialists, industry, save money to use where needed, 121-125 case study, learn what they can do, 122 heat transfer, example of, 124

364

Index

Specialists, industry ( Cont. ) : linkage, example of, 124 locating, 121 not used because: "am expected to solve my own problems," 123 "may mean delay," 124 of pride of authorship, 123 of various reasons, 123-124 not used if only better costs are needed, 123 Specialized competence: listing of, 184-187 sources of, 185-187 Specialized knowledge, 178-204 using industry specialists to extend, 121-125 Specialty materials, 196 Specialty processes, 189-195 steps in utilizing, of vendors, 148-149 types of, 146 utilizing, 146-152 Specialty products, 195 Specific product and process knowledge, 187-197 "Specifics," get into, 91 Spring-locating parts, 175 Springs, case study, 142 Standards : know availability and cost, 154 utilize applicable, 152-155 Status as motivation of value analysis technique users, 285 Steel: miscellaneous forms, relative cost of, table, 200 sheet, perforated, case study, 148 silicon, scrap, case study, 235 stainless, relative cost of, table, 200 Step, development, 166 Steps: basic, interrelation of, 167 first, identify the function, 164, 168 second, evaluate the function by comparison, 164, 169 third, cause value alternatives to be developed, 165, 169 of job plan, 53-58 of system, three basic, 163 Stoppers, 116-121 unsuspected, 17

Stoppers ( Cont. ) : (See a2so "Generality" stoppers; Roadblocks ) Structuring organization, 258 Stud, spacer, 217 progression of steps, 173 Subfunctions, 47 Subjective coloring: environment prevents objective decisions, 210-221 objective situation obscured by, 210 Subjectivity of various men, 210 Suggestion sheet, 62 Suppliers, only one, 101 Support as motivation of value analysis technique users, 285 Surgeon, 178, 267 Switch blade, evaluation of function, using published data, 38 System(s), xv, xvi, 51-52, 162-177 good, containing everything the task requires, 51 for locating: and dealing with unsuspected stoppers, 17 unsuspected areas of high cost, 14 problem-setting, 45, 70-86 problem-solving, 2, 51-69, 77-86 telephone, as example of complete system, 51 using the, basic steps for, 163-174 which does not secure information, adds cost, 210 Tank, gasoline: evaluation of, 32 for landing craft, 264 Tax specialist, 254 Teaching, some not capable of, 295 Techniques: selection of, 166 some for everyone, 255 Telephone as a complete system, 51 Terminals, electrical, application of job plan, 168-170 Tests, 294-298 of men, 295 of work being done, 296-298 Thinking, disciplined, xvii, 4, 53-58 analysis, 4, 55 creative, 4, 56-58

Thinking, disciplined ( C m t . ) : four separate kinds of, 4, 54-58 information, 4, 54 judgement type, 4, 58 for services problems, 78 Thoroughness required, pivot pin case study, 63-66 Time shortage, effect of, 11 Timer, case study, 180 Timing: effect of, in use of value skills, 8 research and development, 262-264 for value work, 14 Tolerances : adding cost not function, 127-129 anachronistic, various causes of, 125126 the designer "thought," 125 the draftsman "made sure," 125 key, get a dollar sign on, 125-129 pole piece example, 127-129 related to functions they provide, 126127 "standard practice," 125 Tool changes, wait twenty weeks?, 209 Tools : special, with special knowledge, 178 specialty, and processes, 147 Training: for all professional people, 277 amount of, required, 271 effective 40-hour seminar, 272 five essentials of, 271 qualifications, 267-273 some in the environment, 278 value, 277-278 Traits, characteristics, and experience needed, 268-272 Transformer, radio frequency, example of blasting, creating, and refining, 108 Tubing, copper, example of blasting, creating, and refining, 106

Underwriters' : roadblock example, 119 "won't approve it," 101 Use: the criterion would I spend my money this way?, 155-161 industry specialists to extend specialized knowledge, 121-125 information from only the best source, 99-101 real creativity, 113-116 Using the system, 162-177 to reduce construction costs, 313-329 to reduce service costs, 77-86 Utilize: applicable standards, 152-155 good guidance from the past, 66 and pay for vendor's skills and knowledge, 141-146 vendor's available functional products, 130-141

Understanding: the decision environment, 205-223 developing it in the environment, 275 of failure motivates decision makers, 286

Value: aesthetic, where of prime importance, 42 [See also Function( s ), aesthetic] belief in, importance of, qualifications, 270 better twofold task, 205 concept of, 6 considerations for improving, 11 definition of, 4-5 good, does not come naturally, 253 group, competent, time to establish, 205 importance of, 5 is relative measure, 40 maximum, 5 normal degree of, 5 obsolescence of, 13 use, of prime importance, 41 Value analysis, xvi, 2-4, 313 approach to, planned, 21-24 improves quality, 247 intensive study, 92 job plan, 53-66, 167 oversimplified, 18 questionnaire for determining if system is being used, xvi, 296-298

366

Index
Value training ( Cont. ) : manufacturing, 281 measure of, in value work, 294 purchasing, 282 sales, 279 work content, 277 Value work: effective organization of, 253-266 markets and jobs expanded by, 10 measurement of, 292-294 tcsts of work being done, 296 Valve system compared to decision environment. 214 Vendor relations, pnrchasing and valne analysis, 237, 245 Vendors: manufacturing contribution of, 237 specialized, successful work with, 138

Value analysis ( Cont. ) : relationship of (see Relationship of value analysis ) for whom?. xv Value analysis technique users, motivation of: by fair emphasis, 285 by recognition, 285 by status, 285 by support, 285 Value analyst, 267-273 as a career, 221 does not do the buyers work, 243 keeps purchasing informed, 243 point of reporting of, 258 resistance to use of, 216 ( See also Value engineer) Value appraisal: engineering, 279 by invitation, 276 manufacturing, 280 measure, value work, 292 purchasing, 281 sales, 278 work content, 275 Value consultant, 274-281 ( See also Value engineer) Value consultation, before-the-fact, 276 engineering, 279 measure, value work, 293 work content, 276 Value engineer: measurement of, 287-298 motivation of, 285 point of reporting of, 258 qualifications for, 267-273 Value engineering, xvii, 2, 313 work content, 274-282 Value-oriented resources, 6 Value-oriented work, 6, 9, 13 Value resources, use of, 9 Value specialist, 274 (See also Value cngineer) Value training: engineering, 279

"Warm-blood" area, 235 Weeks, George R., 78 Weld supports, 176 What ore we really trying to do?, 3, 53, 71 "Why" and "how" logic, 301 Why didn't yotc think of that before?, 217 "Winning" in business, importance of, 2 Withers, Sonia, 305 Wojciechowski, Francis Xavier, 300 Work content: developing and understanding, 274282 four basic tasks, 274 indoctrination of management, 274 tests of, 294 work being done, 296-298 value appraisal, 275 value consultation, 276 for value engineer, 274-282 value training, 277

Srtm Corporation, 300