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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY-Most of us consider child labor exploitative and therefore,

socially unacceptable. The study of child labor is, however, important not only for
social reasons but also for economic ones. The impact of child labor on the economy
works through its debilitating effect on education which is important component of
human capital. The participation of children in work in home and outside is often
considered to be one of the important reasons for low school enrolment in
Bangladesh. An important effect of child labor is on demographic development in a
country. It is generally found that poor countries with high rates of population
growth have higher incidence of child work. In this study, the actual child laborers in
Bangladesh are 3.2 million (ILO, report/ BBS, 2006) which age is 5-17years. About
421000 are domestic workers. The children are bound to do hazardous toils because
of poverty. More than 1.3 million children work in hazardous situation. The
Bangladeshi children deprived every winding of social and international aspects
such as in trafficking, industrial works, household labors, early marriage, biri
factory, forcedly prostitution, begging, less wages, helping in the vehicle etc. though
the government of Bangladesh has taken many initiatives to prevent child labor and
violation of child rights. But the achievement is not satisfactory, in this connection
much phenomena are concerned; poverty is one of them. So, government, NGOs
and public should take proper step to impoverish the vulnerable people, awareness
buildings, enforcement of laws. The number of child laborers and victims of various
disparities is quite alarming for our future generation.
1.1. Background of the study
Bangladesh is overpopulated country. Most of the people are poor. Many people
migrating to cities in search of jobs. They live extreme poverty and the positions of
their children are even worse. Specially, a large number of children is working and
staying on the street. In Bangladesh, whose age is less than 18 year is consider as a
child. If the actual age is seem to be up to 14 years. Child labor is work that
exceeds a minimum number of hours, depending on the age of a child and on the
type of work. Such work is considered harmful to the child and should therefore be
eliminated. Social norms and economic realities mean that child labor is widely
accepted and very common in Bangladesh. Many families rely on the income
generated by their children for survival, so child labor is often highly valued.
Additionally, employers often prefer to employ children because they are cheaper
and considered to be more compliant and obedient than adults. When children are
forced to work, they are often denied their rights to education, leisure and play.
Millions of children are reported not to attend school, however estimates vary.
Among children aged 5-14, about five million, are economically active. Child labor
is a narrower concept than working children. According to the International Labor
Organization definition (right,2003), there are about 3.2 million child laborers in
Bangladesh. Certain groups of children are more likely to work than others, for
instance boys comprise about three-quarters of all working children. In slums almost
one in five children aged 5-14 are child laborers, and of these, only 25 per cent

attend school. Child employment rates increase with age, but even about two per
cent of five-year-olds and three per cent of six-year-olds work. Of the estimated 16
million children in Bangladesh aged 10 to 14, over 6.8 million are working children.
Forty-one percent of this group is girls. Children are engaged in over 300 different
types of work activities of which 49 are considered harmful to their physical and/or
mental well being. Intolerable forms of child labor, as categorized by the
International Labor Organization (ILO, 2006), are domestic service, slavery or near
slavery, hazardous occupations, and sexual exploitation. All of these forms are
practiced in Bangladesh.
In practice, child labor laws in Bangladesh do not protect working children.
Employers prefer children as they are cheap, productive and obedient. Children
working in the industrial sector have no contract of employment and so find it
difficult to stand up for themselves and fight for their rights. The demand by
factories for child laborers is increasing all the time. The govt. formulates many acts
and laws against violation of childrens right. All these laws prohibit the
employment of children below 14 years of age. In spite of these laws, children can
be found working in garment factories, hotels, brick making, biri factories,
mechanical workshops, match factories, agricultural work, domestic work, and as
garbage collectors and touts on buses and tempos. Child labor is a visible part of
everyday life in Bangladesh: young children serve at roadside tea stalls, and weave
between cars selling goods to motorists. Other children work in jobs that are hidden
from view, such as domestic work, which makes monitoring and regulation difficult.
On average, children work 28 hours a week and earn 222 taka (3.3 USD) a week.
Many of the jobs that children in Bangladesh perform are considered hazardous,
and put their physical and mental development at risk. In 2002/03, the Bangladesh
Bureau of Statistics (BBS) conducted the second National Child Labor Survey
(NCLS).1 this survey has been designed and conducted in the context of the
commitments made by the Government of Bangladesh, following the ratification of
the International Labor Organization (ILO) Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention
(No. 182) 1999. According to the survey, there are 4.9 million working children 14.2
per cent of the total 35.06 million children in the age group of 5-14 years. The total
working child population between 5 and 17 years old is estimated at 7.9 million.
Sometimes it makes a worse situation and much painful situation.
1.2. Objectives of the study
To evaluate the poor people and their hazard situation
To impact of the child on the economy and actual situation of Bangladesh.
To know the child right and motivate for changing peoples attitudes.
To make an idea that which is the most reasonable causes of child labor and how to
reduces from Bangladesh.

1.3. Scope of the study


On the child right and violation of child right, there are many laws has made by the
legislator, but in Bangladesh, it is not effectively use, so in these case effective
applying procedure can be study in further. The violation of child right is increasing
day by day, what is the future situation, it must be known and find out it reducing
procedure may be future study.
1.4 Methodology of the study
It follows aggregation of information from different sources like publications, books,
e-books and different articles. Those are studied well and gathered knowledge. Also
vast data have collected from internet. All these data are analyzed in different way
for finding different relevant things. Then I went to the different research institution
and different places for adjusting. I also mind mapping the study then start writing
to follow the specific instruction for writing. All these data are secondary data.
1.4.

Limitation of the study

There was much opportunity to enrich the paper because the library of BPATC was
richer with various books and relevant work papers. But I could not go through
every winding of the every book and research papers. Sometimes, I have to go
through with a birds eye view to. I have to accomplish this work by doing many
tasks bi-laterally. So, I could not prepare the paper 100% earnestly as I keep in my
mind. I can add something with this paper, but I have to set aside those for want of
time. Interviewing by assessing the local peoples opinions about the issues and
how they think about cope up the different. Information about relevant things is not
more satisfactory.
When children are forced to work, they are often denied their rights to education,
leisure and play. They are also exposed to situations that make them vulnerable to
trafficking, abuse, violence and exploitation. Millions of children are reported not to
attend school, however estimates vary. Among children aged 5-14, about five
million, are economically active. Child labor is a narrower concept than working
children. According to the International Laborers Organization definition (right),
there are about 3.2 million child laborers in Bangladesh
Table1. Key Statistics of child labor
Working children, aged 5-17
Working children, aged 5-14

7.4 million
4.7 million

Child laborers (according to definition, below), aged 5-17 3.2 million


Children engaged in hazardous labor, aged 5-17
Child domestic workers1 421,000

1.3 million

Percentage of children (aged 5-14) engaged in child labor (2006) National


Tribal
12.8

19.1

Slum

17.6

Source: International Labor Organization (ILO), Baseline Survey on Child Domestic


Labor in Bangladesh, 2006, BBS/ UNICEF, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006,
October 2007 All other statistics from Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Report on
National Child Labor Survey, 2002-2003
2.1 Causes of child labor
Bangladesh is an economically poor country. Most of the people live in below
poverty line and incase of high density all kinds of basic need are not able to meet
anybody. The following reason is very much important
2.1.1. Poverty and family size
In Bangladesh the average family size is six persons. In families where children
work, the father often works as either a rickshaw puller or day laborer and the
mother as a domestic help. Poverty leads to quarrels; tension and can ultimately
result in cruel treatment of children. The mother, being over burdened with work,
can lose interest in her children and neglect them. 56% per cent of people of
Bangladesh are landless. They either work on the land of others on a contract basis,
or become floating labor moving from place to place. Without a stable income the
children become a burden to parents and must find work for their own survival.
Table 2. Economically active children by region/ former district -2003.
graph
2.1.2 Victims of migration
In general, neglected children migrate to big cities with their families or alone. Often
they must beg or drift on the streets in order to earn a living and will consider any
work that helps them survive.
2.1.3. Illiteracy & Ignorance
Many parents of working children are illiterate and unskilled with little prospect of
being able to improve their situation. There is a lack of faith in the existing
education system as it does not necessarily lead to employment. Many poor parents
feel that it is better for their children to learn by working rather than sending them
to school.
2.1.4. Child labor law and rights

In practice, child labor laws in Bangladesh do not protect working children.


Employers prefer children as they are cheap, productive and obedient. Children
working in the industrial sector have no contract of employment and so find it
difficult to stand up for themselves and fight for their rights. The demand by
factories for child laborers is increasing all the time.
2.1.5. Family breakdown
Migration of families, broken families, parental abuse and abandonment, all lead to
child labor.
2.1.6. Natural calamities
Floods, land erosion, cyclones etc., have a devastating effect on many area of
Bangladesh every year. This further increases the pressures on poor families and
leads to many new children entering the labor force.
2.1.7. Status of living place
The children with disabilities engaged and at risk to be engaged with child labor
interviewed are living in different places in different situations including on the
street. Area wise status of living places shown in the following chart:
Figure1. Comparative child labourer rural and Urban area.
graph 1
7 with families and 3 children do not have families and any shelter for stay at night.
(Source: Alam et.l, December 2009).
Table 3. Percentage as of Working Children by Major Occupations
Occupation
Urban
Rural
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
younger

old

Farmworker 0.00

younger

old

younger

3.81

0.00

38.75 55.40 6.67

0.00

old

Younger
29.63

old

Fisherman

0.00

1.90

0.00

Forest and livestock worker


Servant/maid

0.00

6.25

5.83

6.67

3.70

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

10.00 2.04

21.05 12.38 68.75 43.18 13.75 7.00

Salesman/businessman

52.63 29.53 0.00

0.00

Production worker 15.79 21.90 25.00 43.18 5.00

0.00

0.00

53.33 40.74

12.50 12.83 6.67


7.00

6.67

0.00

0.00

3.70

3.70

Transport
/communication worker
5.26

7.62

0.00

0.00

2.50

1.46

0.00

0.00

Day laborer 5.26

2.86

0.00

0.00

5.00

1.46

Other 0.01

20.00 6.25

13.64 6.25

6.98

19.99 18.53

Total 100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

These percentages are based on the number of working children who provided
information about their current occupations. Occupational titles are from the 19951996 Household Expenditure Survey
graph 2
2.2 Child works places
2.2.1. Child as Domestic Workers
Child Domestic service is a widespread practice in Bangladesh. The majority of
child domestics tend to be 12 and 1 7 years old. But children as young as 5 or 6
years old can also be found working. A survey of child domestic workers found that
38 percent were 11 to 13 years old and nearly 24 percent were 5 to 10 years old.
Child domestics works
long hours, getting up well before their employers and going to bed long after them.
On 50 percent domestic workers work 12- 14 hours a day. Irrespective of their
gender, Child domestic carry out all sorts of household work. Boys often perform
tasks like going to the grocery, cleaning the drain, talking the garbage to roadside
graph 3

graph 4

bins, washing the car and sell nuts etc. On the other hand, girls have to iron the
cloths, attend phone calls and serve the guests. The child domestic workers are
often the least paid in the society, their remuneration ranging from 80 taka to 400

taka per month. In most of the cases, they hand over all their earnings to their
parents, leaving nothing for themselves.
2.2.2 Working Hours and Earnings
Many children work long hours every day of the week. For example, some survey
results show that half of the working children are toiling for nine hours or more per
day. Sometimes, they also work in holidays, especially in the rural communities. A
large majority of youngster toil as unpaid family workers, in the rural areas where
working girls outnumber working boys. More than four in every five children work
without pay. Also, the younger working children the lower the wage payment. In
average girls are working more than boys and they get low money more than boys.
Sometimes, many children work during the evenings or night as well. Children do
not get overtime money. In one major survey, close to two-thirds of the child labor
force in the agriculture are found to be working during these periods-three quarters
of the boys and more than two-fifths of the girls. A large number of the girls working
as housemaid are often obliged to spend the night in their employers household
there by also exposing themselves to various abuses. For girls and boys the
payment for domestic help ranges from taka 200-1300 per month in dhaka area.
But in other district, they get low money from Dhaka.
2.2.3. Hazardous works
What the children considered to be hazardous varied. Some activities like wiping
floor, fetching water, hawking. For most it meant where they could hurt themselves
such as working near a fire, working with sharp objects, grating spices, breaking
bricks etc. There are also hard works like carrying weights, pulling carts and
welding. Generally children feel that, it is up to them to avoid getting hurt or
injured. The protection measures that they mentioned were mainly being more
careful and attentive, so as not get hurt.
Figure 3. Child labor of hazarder work
graph 5
Some of the children seemed to have knowledge about protective measures such as
gloves or protective goggles. Girls who are brick chipping, they feel this work is
hazardous for their health and well being. They were exposed to people on the
street and mastans. This type of girls said, they do not talk when they are working.
2.2.4.Sex worker:
Child sexual abuse
Child sexual abuse permeates all levels of Bangladeshi society. Children are at risk
of

abuse or harassment in their own homes, from relatives and family friends. It is
found in schools, communities and the workplace. While disadvantaged and
disabled children are more vulnerable to abuse, it is not limited to them. Most
children know their abuser, who is usually someone close to them.
Commercial child sexual exploitation
Child sexual exploitation can start when children are as young as 10 in Bangladeshs
Registered brothels, its hotels and its parks, streets and stations. Children of women
who work in a brothel often end up working there too. In brothels, many children
have to work as bonded sex workers. They must pay all their earnings to the
brothels madam for their first few years in return for food, clothes and essentials.
Child victims of commercial sexual exploitation can also end up in brothels or on the
streets through trafficking, family break-downs or poverty. On the streets, many
children are beaten and robbed. Many boys are drawn into crime through their
pimps. Men having sex with men (MSM) is a growing and hidden issue but often not
acknowledged due to the stigma or shame attached to it
graph 6
2.2.5. Industrial works
Many children work in industry that is most risky but they are bound to do that.
Such as Jainal works in silver cooking pot factory. He is 11 years old. He has been
working in this factory for three years. His work starts at 9 a.m. and ends at 6 p.m.
For his work he gets 700 taka (10 USD) for a month. His parents are so poor that
they can not afford to send him to school. According to the factory owner, the
parents do not care for their children; they send their kids to work for money and
allegedly dont feel sorry for these small kids. Dhaka 2008
A young laborer making metal components at a factory. Dhaka. Bangladesh
13-year-old Liyakot Ali works in a silver cooking pot factory in Old Dhaka. The
children work 10 hour days in hazardous conditions, for a weekly wage of 200 taka
(3 USD). Dhaka. Bangladesh . June 2008
Figure 5. Industrial work of child labor.
graph 7
7-year-old Jasmine collects rubbish from a steaming rubbish heap on a cold winter
morning. She earns money to support her family by scavenging for items on the
Kajla rubbish dump. It is one of three landfill sites in a city of 12 million people.
Around 5,000 tons of garbage are dumped here each day and more than 1,000
people work among the rubbish, sorting through the waste and collecting items to
sell to retailers for recycling.

Hands of 8-year-old Munna while working in a rickshaw parts making factory. He


works 10 hours a day and gets 8 USD for a month. Dhaka 2007.
Ten-year-old Shaifur working in a door lock factory in Old Dhaka. Unlike his
colleague, Shaifur works without a mask.
Eight-year-old Munna works in a rickshaw factory. He earns about 500 taka (7 USD)
a month, working 10 hours a day.. When the production often stops due to lack of
electricity, he has time to play. Dhaka 2007
Children are compelled to work for long working hours with inadequate or no rest
period. Moreover, they are paid with minimum wages and enjoy no job security.
Many people prefer to employ young boys to maximize services for those minimum
wages. Dhaka 2006. 17.5 percent of children in the aged 5 are engaged in economic
activities. Many of these children are engaged in various hazardous occupations in
manufacturing factories. Dhaka, 2006.
2.2.6. Garments sector Tailoring
Child work is a crime. But for poverty and different reasons, children are working in
garments. They are not allowed to working in garments. But some of few garments
owner give those works to do, because they are hard worker. Many workers are
woman. When foreign buyers enter the factory, many small ages child are scared
and hidden under the table, been locked up in the toilet for few hours. Also, in
garments sector they have physical, social, job safety, not clear in self identity, not
access information, life option and planning. They are hopeless. I talked one of
children workers. She said, she works for her family. They are so poor. She stay with
her aunts house. She earns money 2500 taka in a month. After taking her salary, at
first she give some money to the aunty for the house rent and fooding cost. Then,
she saved few for her and sends very few money to her family. Then she said, its
not sufficient money for her living. But she works for her living. In garments sector
minimum wages is fixed around 950 taka. Sometimes, many garments owner give
not their salary on time. For this reasons they faces money problem. In garments,
many people of ages and uneducated people works.They uses many bad languages.
After hearing this, many children learned and sometimes they do crime. Also, in
garments sector many girls are not comfort for their work. Because many bad
people tease them.
Figure 6. Tailors and Garments workers of child labor, violation of child right
2.2.7. Earlier marriage
The earlier marriage is well known to everyone. The most victim of earlier marriage
are female. The below chart express this situation, here the percentage of girls
marriage is 51 and that why many victim belongs to girl.
2.2.8. Invisible Yet Everywhere

There are hundreds of millions of children and young people in the world imprisoned
not in remind home but in physical labor more permanents than steel bars and iron
locks alone could create. These are children and young people. These activities
harm their bodies, minds, spirits and above all a good and prosperous future.
Working children have become an integral part of Bangladeshi society. A child
worker considered another cheap and easily controlled worker in the labor force.
Poverty, illiteracy and Child labor go hand in hand. Child earnings have become a
necessity for those families which are struggling to make ends up. The child has no
alternative. The lack of quality education and the pitiable conditions of available
schools is no incentive for a child to quit work and join school. In addition, children
become the victims violence, exploiting and abuse they can result in physical and
physiological disabilities. Also children become a prisoner twice. The child is caught
in the conflict between right to life and the fight to earn versus the acceptable
norms of survival.
2.2.9. Ship breaking child labor
Ship breaking carries a very real risk to life. It is a dirty and dangerous occupation. It
is a very hard and difficult works for every kind of ages people. children also works
in this occupation. The children work mainly as gas cutters assistants and move
small iron pieces from one place to another. They also do the night shift. On average
they got 50-60 taka per day for their efforts. There are no educational facilities. In
20 years about 400 workers have been killed and seriously injured 6000 people
according to Bangladeshi media. On average, one workers dies in the yards a week
and everyday a worker is injured. It is a replaceable works. If anyone lost his job in
this site, six is waiting to replace him due to the lack of work. Ship breaking is in two
categories. One is intoxication by dangerous substances and accidents on the plots.
Explosions of leftover and fumes in the tanks are the prime cause of accidents of
the yards. Another accident is falling from the ship. Other accidents is crushed by
falling steel beams and plates and electric shocks. In this job workers do not get
money properly, use of child labor, less than minimum wages, lack of job security
etc.
2.2.10. Street child beggar
Child labor is a crime. But in Bangladesh, peoples are so poor. They cannot live
easily. For this reason, poor peoples children do begging on the street. These
children work on the streets every day and their number is increasing. They collect
money from the people. Also, they sell stuff like books, flowers, newspaper, water
etc. Sometimes, the adult beggar rent for begging like infant or different kind of
diseases children .Also, they searches food from door to door. They think, its better
for their to beg .Now, children beggars are found in villages, towns and cities. Some
childrens starts begging, when their member go to work outside. Street children
cannot get food properly. They earn money 50 taka in a day. Actually the little street
children struggle to live being a children.

Now a days, child baggers are doing different kind of crime. In some area street
beggars are proved cheaters. Some able bodies are found pretending lame, dump
or blind. Some, of these children do crime in a day or night. They stealing different
things or hijecking to the people. Some are addicted in drugs like heroine, ciggarte,
gaja etc. In the picture, one child is inhaling from the plastic bag. it is one kind of
drugs. They doing crime only for their poverty
2.2.11. Tokai
Figure 8. Child labor as a tokai
Bangladesh, we see different kind of boys and girls, who are collects different kinds
of garbage in their sack and they sell it vagary shop (shop that buy any kind of
waste product).They are so poor and are called Tokai. It is a one kind of child
labor. Majority of the tokais belong to the age group 7-15 years but aged tokai also
found. Basically tokais workplace is mainly public places, bus, train launch
terminals, shopping area, streets, residential areas, dustbin etc. They work daily 810 hours and also average income per day less 70 taka. They have no skills.
Sometimes, they work under a group or independently. NGOs have taken different
programmes for the welfare of the Tokai. They are hopeless. They have no identity.
Some are houseless.
2.2.12. Hotel and restaurant:
Maximum waiter of the hotel and restaurant are below 14 aged. They gave their
service with low money.
2.3. Violation of child right
In Bangladesh a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights
due to unacceptable health, nutrition and education as well as social conditions. In
addition, children are exposed to severe forms of physical and mental violence at
home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and
extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been
increasing day by day. On the whole, our children are not safe despite efforts made
by government and non-government organizations in ensuring the rights of the
children. Broadly, violence against children can be defined to include physical,
emotional or psychological violence or threat of violence against children
perpetuated by individuals, as well as by institutions or society at large. Depriving
children of basic necessities of life, health care and education, so much widespread
in a developing country like Bangladesh, are encompassed by this holistic definition.
In order to discuss the situation of children in jail in Bangladesh, it is first necessary
to understand the position of children in society and the violence many faces, both
within the home and outside. A lot of this violence and abuse ultimately causes
them to end up in prisons or correction homes. A lot of violence also occurs within
these institutions as well.

2.3.1. Acts of Violence against Children in 2001


Children in Bangladesh are subjected to violence in the forms of sexual and physical
abuse in many aspects of their lives. In 2001, there were 7 young domestic workers
injured by their employees, 3 were raped and 4 killed. Eight year old Zahirul of
Khagrachari was beaten by his employer for eating a piece of cucumber without
permission. A fifteen year old girl accidentally let her employers child fall off her
lap. She was punished with hot oil being poured over her. Then there are types of
gross physical and sexual abuse which are reserved almost exclusively for girls.
These include physical torture, rape and dowry-related violence and sometimes
heinous attacks with acid and other corrosive substances. 14 year old Poppy in
Narshingdhi was a victim when her husband threw acid on her over dowry demands.
Not only is she scarred for life, she is a victim of child marriage, illegal in
Bangladesh.
Sexual abuse of children and adolescent girls is a growing problem, but this remains
largely hidden due to the stigma attached to the victims of such offences.
Newspaper reports of such incidents show that girl children are lured away by the
promise of chocolates, biscuits, to play games, watch television or they are
ambushed and raped while going to or coming from school or the lavatory. In 2001,
a total of 356 cases of rape were documented from the newspapers where the
victims were under 16 years of age.4 Acid attacks, in which acid is thrown at the
face or body of the victim, is a particularly devastating form of violence. The most
common circumstances of acid violence are where a girl has been harassed by a
boy with proposals of romance or marriage which she has turned down, or in
connection with demands for dowry. In the majority of cases the boy or husband
aims the acid at the girls face, seemingly by way of revenge and in order to destroy
her future marriage prospects. Acid throwing is committed both within and outside
the family. In 2001, 66 reported cases of acid-affected children were recorded from
9 daily newspapers.
The majority of the victims are girls, many below the age of 18 years, who rejected
sexual advances and marriage proposals.5 Children are victims of trafficking and
sold to brothels and to be trained as camel jockeys. On 24 May, 2001, Akhtar Mia
(4) and Sarkar (5) were rescued from Pripal village near the Bangladesh India
border. They were being trafficked by agents to be trained as camel jockeys in the
Middle East. They both hail from Mymensingh.6 The underlying causes of trafficking
in women and children, range from the expansion of global market forces and a
growing materialism perpetuated by the media, to rapid social transformation and
the erosion of social values.
Moreover, the problem of unemployment, under employment and abject poverty
has led to the increase of international trafficking and labor migration of women and
children in recent years.

They also include continuing cultural attitudes which place a low value on girls. As
they are mostly the lowest strata of the society and in their search for alternate
opportunities, they fall into more critically vulnerable situations. These factors,
together with the help of unscrupulous exploiters such as pimps, procurers, brother
owners, traffickers and agents, trap young girls into sexual exploitation. Trafficking
in children is considered an invisible problem as none of the official sources refer to
it. In most cases, known persons are the procurers. Once they gain confidence, they
can easily entice or lure young girls and children to leave home for better jobs and
marriage. Although Bangladesh has ratified the international convention prohibiting
slavery and prostitution, it has been unable to curtail exploitative practices
involving children, particularly young girls.
There is a general lack of enforcement of legislation against trafficking and
prostitution. In the absence of adequate interventions by the government, families
themselves try and trace out their children. The process of repatriation, however, is
drawn-out and often results in the child being held in safe-custody only to be
released on bail, which their families can scarcely afford.
Table 5. Acts of Violence against Children in 2001
Months
Killed Raped Victims of Acid
Trafficked

Arrested

January

18

29

10

February

36

March 13

37

10

April 16

39

May

17

34

June

22

52

13

10

20

July

32

25

14

August

17

16

14

September

11

October

14

31

November

22

27

10

December

21

21

12

Total 210

356

66

14

49

111

13

Suicide

Abducted

Source: Violence Against Children: The Scenario in Bangladesh, Odhikar, Dhaka,


undated, available at: http://www.odhikar.org/
Child Marriage
Child Marriage
Many Bangladeshi girls are married soon after puberty, partly to free their parents
from an economic burden and partly to protect the girls sexual purity. Where a girls
family is very poor or she has lost her parents, she may be married as a third or
fourth wife to a much older man, to fulfil the role of sexual and domestic
servantgraph 8
Jesmine Akter who got early marriage, when shes in class nine her father got her
marriage , she like to continue her study, but her husband did not get that because
of this things her husband cut out her right hand, this a extreme violation, only
causes of child marriage ( Daily Pothom alo Newspaper 2012,hit news)
Table 6. Married Adolescents and married age of child.
Percentage of Women Aged 25-29 Married before Age 18 Married Adolescents
:Percentage of 15-19 year-olds married
Sub-Saharan Africa boys girls
Latin America

Guatemala
Dominican Republic
Paraguay
39
38
24
Dem. Rep. of Congo
Niger
Congo
Uganda
Mali

5
4
12
11
5
74
70
56
50
50
South Central
and Southeast Asia

Bangladesh
Nepal
Pakistan
Indonesia
81
68
37
34
Asia
Afghanistan
Bangladesh
Nepal
9

5
14
54
51
42
Sub-Saharan Africa

Niger
Mali
Burkina Faso
Mozambique
Malawi
Cote dIvoire
Cameroon
Benin
77
70
62
57
55
44
43
40
Middle East
Iraq
Syria

Yemen
15
4
5
28
25
24
Latin America and Caribbean
Honduras
Cuba
Guatemala

7
7
8

30
29
24
Middle East and North Africa

Yemen

Egypt
64
30

Source: UN Population Division, Department of Economic


and Social Affairs, World Marriage Patterns 2000

2.3.2 Education
Form the point of view of national policy, the primary strategy for reducing the
number of working children is through enforcement of the universal compulsory
education. According to that philosophy and strategy, these children should all be
in schools and not in the factories shops and other workplaces. But this cotetion
are not effortful most of the children are not get the opportunity .its always
violation in our society, just shown in the following table or graph
Figure 10. Previous education of the working children (N=1423)
graph 9
Table 7: Grade level of previous education (608 children who have not been to
school)
Grade Level No. of children
Grade I

125

20.56

Grade II

154

25.33

Grade III

103

16.94

Grade IV

85

13.98

Grade V

78

12.83

Grade VI

29

4.77

Grade VII

22

3.62

Grade VIII

0.99

Grade IX

0.99

Percent

Sourse:Daily Lives of working Children Case Studies from Bangladesh, UNICEF


Bangladesh.1997

Figure 11. Previous education of the working children (N=1423)graph 10


Figure12. Prevalence e of child labor among children 5-14 years old, 2006.
graph 11
2.3.3.Trafficking in children

Human trafficking in Bangladesh is believed to be extensive both within the country


and to India, Pakistan and the Middle East. Many girls are trafficked into sexual
exploitation or bonded servitude. Many boys have also been trafficked to the Middle
East to become camel racing jockeys. Children involved in camel racing (CICR) are
often injured in the course of their work, are vulnerable to abuse from their
employers and there are reports of employers deliberately keeping the childrens
weights low by not feeding them enough. Many children are taken with their
parents consent, having been duped by stories of well-paid jobs or marriages.
Reintegration into mainstream society is a huge issue for trafficked children,
especially for girls with the stigma and taboo associated with it. If they return with a
Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) or HIV positive, it becomes more challenging for
the family and community to accept them. For children involved in camel racing,
many can no longer remember their own language. They become strangers in their
own land.
Figure 13. International trafficking of women and children
graph 12
Figure 14. Bangladesh showing areas from usually trafficking takes place
graph 13
Garment is one of the greatest sector of Bangladesh. Its gives us huge amount of
remittance but here vast child is being serving. Most of them are female. One of the
statistics are given below:
Sex:

Male: 11,00,000 Female: 22,00,000

In textile sector total workers: approx- 0.3 million


In clothing sector total workers: approx-2.5 million
In leather sector total workers (including shoe & tannery): approx-0.5 million
No. of companies in textile & clothing (garment): about 180+4321=4501
No. of companies in leather (including small, medium & big size industries): 1750
Source: aishawelfaretrust.org/childinbangladesh.htm
They work there minimum level of cost because of poverty.
2.4. Positive impact of child labor in Bangladesh:
In broad, child labor deprives the mental growth of a child. But in our country, they
got a vital role in our economy. Poverty is the main problem in our country, so that
many children help his/ her parent for their family solvency. If they are not get labor
with his /her parent, their parent is not able to give a handful food with his mouth.

So when the child do hazardous work that is most pathetic. Many easy works done
by the child.
2.5. Government initiative to prohibit the child labor:
The govt. has taken many kinds of initiatives. The legislator passed law in our
parliament that below 18 years are consider as a child. The primary education is
completely bound to every child. In this case Govt. has given free tuition fee up to
primary level to all and up to HSC for female. Another initiative is upabitte
System.
The child labor is totally prohibited. But it is contentious. Child labor is prohibited in
Bangladesh under the Employment of Children Act, 1938; The Children (Pledging of
Labor) Act, 1933; The Factories Act, 1965; The Plantations Labor Ordinance, 1962
and The Shops and Establishment Act, 1965
Table 8. Millennium Development Goals Relevant to Children and Women
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from
hunger
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
Target 3: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will b e
able to complete a full course of primary education
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably
by 2005 and to all levels of education no later than 2015
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
Target 5: Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under -five mortality
rate
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
Target 6: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality
ratio
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
Target 7: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to
safe drinking water and basic sanitation
Target 11: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at
least 100 million slum dwellers
Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
Target 16: Develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for
youth
National Plan of Action for Children Bangladesh (DRAFT 22 June 2005)
The Employment of Children Act, 1938, prohibits children less than 12 years from
working in workshop where any of a number of listed processes is carried on.
Though not explicitly described as such, these processes are all hazardous. They
include weaving, tanning and the manufacture of bidis, soap, carpets, matches,
explosives and fireworks. However, an important exemption to this prohibition is
made in the case of family owned and family run workshops not using outside hired
labor. The Factories Act, 1965, prevents children under 18 years of age from working
on dangerous machines without proper instruction on the dangers, and necessary
precautions, in addition to training or supervision. All forms of forced labor are
prohibited under the Constitution. Unlawful compulsory labor is also an offence
under the Penal Code 1860.
Bangladesh is a signatory to the:
_ ILO Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention (No. 182);
_ ILO Forced Labor Convention (No. 29);
_ ILO Abolition of Forced Labor Convention (No. 105);
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).
Early Marriage and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
The CRC has been ratified by all countries with the exception of the United States
and
Somalia. Virtually every provision of the CRC is of some relevance to the issue of
early marriage. Among the most pertinent, however, are the following (paraphrased
for clarity in some cases):
Article 1: A child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless,
under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.
Article 2: Freedom from discrimination on any grounds, including sex, religion,
ethnic or social origin, birth or other status.

Article 3: In all actions concerning children the best interests of the child shall be
a
primary consideration.
Article 6: Maximum support for survival and development.
Article 12: The right to express his or her views freely in all matters affecting the
child, in accordance with age and maturity.
Article 19: The right to protection from all forms of physical or mental violence,
injury or abuse, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the
care of parents, guardian, or any other person.
Article 24: The right to health, and to access to health services; and to be protected
from harmful traditional practices.
Articles 28 and 29: The right to education on the basis of equal opportunity.
Article 34: The right to protection from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual
abuse.
Article 35: The right to protection from abduction, sale or trafficking.
Article 36: The right to protection from all forms of exploitation prejudicial to any
aspect of the childs welfare.
Source: Arends-Kuenning, Mary and Sajeda Amin: The Effects of Schooling Incentive
Programs on Household Resource Allocation in Bangladesh, Policy Research Division
Working Paper No. 133, Population Council, New York, 2000.
2.6. NGO Initiative to stop the child labor:
The plight of child workers in Bangladesh attracted the attention of quite a few
philanthropists from both home and abroad. Underprivileged childrens educational
Programs (UCEP),as a beacon hope for working children. UCEP, from a modest
beginning as a provider of general education on a limited scale in Dhaka has by
emerged as the leading national NGO promoting the cause of child workers in
Bangladesh. UCEP pursues,an integrated strategy of human resources
development, incorporating general education, followed by skill training and
employment placement services. UCEP currently operates 3 general schools,3
technical schools, para-trade training centers and has total enrollment of around
22,000.each school operates three shifts, each of two and half hours duration to
allow the working children to pursue education while working. UNICEF, BRAC,
PROSHIKA etc, NGOs work to educate the children.
3. FINDINGS

The extent of child work is being everywhere in Bangladesh.


Different dimensions of child work
Labor force participation of children.
Households using childe for Productive Work Within and Outside the Household
Participation of school-aged children in Economic Activities.
Participation of Children in the Labor Market.
Abuse of children in trafficking, industrial works, household labors, early marriage,
biri factory, forcedly prostitution, begging, less wages, helping in the vehicle etc.
Deprivation from education of child.
The govt. has taken initiatives but it is needed to increased and effective by laws
and order.
4. RECOMMENDATION
Child labor is a long-term development problem that will not be resolved with shortterm activities. A great deal of work remains to be done to respond in an effective
manner to the child labor problem and its root causes. Alleviating child labor in
Bangladesh and will continue to seek ways to do so over time.
Adopt a definition of trafficking for use in legislation.
An information collecting centre should be established.
Developed public and political awareness and commitment.
Change of attitude towards prostitutes and victims.
Social movement against trafficking in children.
Social and legal support to the victims of trafficking.
Including in the school curriculum different aspects of child rights to make the
children aware about that.
UN convention on child rights 1949 must be implemented.
More Government and NGO initiative is needed.
Inter ministerial cooperation and coordination.
Employment of family members of disabled children.
Food for Education programme initiation..

Population control to reduce poverty.


Increasing social security.
Increase rate of Disability allowance.
Reformation of law and implement strictly.
Regular monitoring of child labour and rights situation of disabled children.
Initiating food for education programme.
5. CONCLUSION
Children are probably the most neglected members of society and hardly have any
voice, even within the home. As a result, they are consistently becoming easy
victims of all sorts of violence. Though there is the Children Act 1974 purported to
dealing with juvenile justice, even that, too is inadequate. Furthermore, the legal
system, especially the criminal justice system and more specifically the law
enforcement agency are indifferent to such laws and more often than not treat
children just as they would treat adult criminals. Violence against children must stop
and the judiciary, law enforcing agents and the parents and guardians of children
themselves, must be sensitized to the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of
the Child and the laws protecting children in Bangladesh. Furthermore, children
need to be protected from vested interest groups and acts of impunity towards
children by those purporting to protect society must be dealt with seriously and in
accordance with the law.