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A Project Report on

Submitted by:
UMANGA AMATYA
Class VII

Under the Guidance of:


(Mr. Manoj B. Jagdle)
PGT (Biology)
Department of Science
Moscow, Russia

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that UMANGA AMATYA of Class VII has prepared the report on
the Project entitled Common Human Diseases. The report is found worthy of
acceptance as project report for the subject Science of Class VII. He has prepared
the report under my guidance.

(Mr. Manoj B. Jagdle)


PGT (Biology)
Department of Science
Moscow, Russia

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express a deep sense of thanks and gratitude to my project


guide Mr. Manoj B. Jagdle Sir for guiding me through this project. He always
evinced keen interest in my work. His support, advice, guidance and motivation
have been responsible for the successful completion of this project.
I would like to thank my parents for endless support. I also thank my classmates
for their help.
Last but not the least; I would like to thank all those who had helped me towards
the completion of this project.

UMANGA AMATYA
GRADE VII

Contents

1) Introduction
2) Data Collection
3) Discussion
Communicable diseases

Flu
Hepatitis
HIV/AIDS
Malaria
Tuberculosis
Non-Communicable diseases

Ischemic Heart Diseases


Diabetes
Allergy
Asthma

4) Summary
5) References

INTRODUCTION
A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function,
that affects part or all of an organism or simply a disease is defined as illness that
affects a person that prevents the body or mind from working properly.
Disease is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms, and it is a
response to environmental factors (for example, malnutrition, industrial hazards,
climate), to specific infective agents (worms, bacteria, or viruses, to inherent
defects of the organism (genetic anomalies), or to combinations of these factors:
sickness, illness- called also morbus.
Usually disease is classified into two groups:
1) Communicable diseases
2) Non-Communicable diseases
The diseases caused by infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, protozoans are
grouped into communicable diseases. While, diseases related to genetic disorder,
autoimmunity, lack of nutrition (deficiency diseases), professional and climatic
hazardous factors, physiological disorders are categorized into Non-Communicable
diseases.
Communicable diseases can transfer from one person to another through the air,
water, contaminated food, contact or carrier (mosquito). Example- Diarrhea,
Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Chicken Pox, HIV, Malaria, Ebola, Hepatitis, etc. NonCommunicable diseases cannot be transferred from one person to another. Example
-Ischemic Heart Diseases, Stroke, Goiter, Anemia, Downs Syndrome, Lung cancer,
etc.
In the world, the most common diseases are usually infectious (communicable)
diseases. The leading communicable disease are Flu, Hepatitis, HIV/AIDS,
Cholera, Malaria, Dengue, Measles, Pneumonia, Typhoid, Tuberculosis and so on.
The common non-communicable diseases are Ischemic Heart Diseases, Stroke,
Diabetes, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Allergy, Hypertension, Asthma, Breast
Cancer, Anemia and so on.

Data collection

Statistics of Common Non-Communicable Diseases

Statistics of total number of deaths due to different non-communicable diseases

Discussion

FluInfluenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an


influenza virus.Symptoms can be mild to severe.The most common symptoms
include: a high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing,
and feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the
virus and most last less than a week.
HepatitisHepatitis A: Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver disease caused by the hepatitis
A virus. Spread primarily by the fecal-oral route or by ingestion of contaminated
water or food, the number of annual infections worldwide is estimated at 1.4
million. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, jaundice, and dark urine. Although those
exposed usually develop lifelong immunity, the best protection against Hepatitis A
is vaccination.
Hepatitis B: Approximately 2 billion people are infected with the hepatitis B virus
(HBV), making it the most common infectious disease in the world today. Over
350 million of those infected never rid themselves of the infection. Hepatitis is an
inflammation of the liver that causes symptoms such as jaundice, extreme fatigue,
nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain; hepatitis B is the most serious form of the
disease. Chronic infections can cause cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer in later
years.
Hepatitis C: Hepatitis C is a less common, and less severe, form of hepatitis. An
estimated 180 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV);
34 million more are infected every year. The majority of HCV cases are
asymptomatic, even in people who develop chronic infection.

HIV/AIDSHIV is a virus that gradually attacks the immune system, which is our bodys
natural defence against illness. If a person becomes infected with HIV, they will
find it harder to fight off infections and diseases. The virus destroys a type of white
blood cell called a T-helper cell and makes copies of itself inside them.
AIDS is a syndrome caused by the HIV virus.It is when a persons immune system
is too weak to fight off many infections, and develops when the HIV infection is
very advanced. This is the last stage of HIV infection where the body can no longer
defend itself and may develop various diseases, infections and if left untreated,
death.

Malaria
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease that affects more than 500 million people
annually, causing between 1 and 3 million deaths. It is most common in tropical
and subtropical climates and is found in 90 countriesbut 90% of all cases are
found in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most of its victims are children. The first stage
consists of shaking and chills, the next stage involves high fever and severe
headache, and in the final stage the infected person's temperature drops and he or
she sweats profusely. Infected people also often suffer from anemia, weakness, and
a swelling of the spleen. Malaria was almost eradicated 30 years ago; now it is on
the rise again.

Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis causes nearly 2 million deaths every year, and WHO estimates that
nearly 1 billion people will be infected between 2000 and 2020 if more effective
preventive procedures are not adopted. The TB bacteria are most often found in the
lungs, where they can cause chest pain and a bad cough that brings up bloody
phlegm. Other symptoms include fatigue, weight loss, appetite loss, chills, fever,
and night sweats.

Ischemic Heart Diseases


The deadliest disease in the world is coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD, also
called ischemic heart disease, occurs when the blood vessels that supply blood to
the heart become narrowed. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that
about 7.4 million people died of ischemic heart disease in 2012. That was about
13.2 percent of all deaths.
Among the risk factors are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking.
Regular exercise, good nutrition, and weight control can help lower your risk of
developing CAD.

DiabetesDiabetes is a group of diseases that affect insulin production and use. In type 1
diabetes, the pancreas can no longer produce insulin. The cause is not known. In
type 2 diabetes, the pancreas doesnt produce enough insulin, or it cant be used
effectively. Type 2 diabetes can be caused by a number of factors, including poor
diet, lack of exercise, and carrying too much weight.
In 2012, about 1.5 million people died from diabetes-related causes, according to
WHO. People in low to middle income countries are more likely to die from
complications of diabetes.

Allergy
An allergy is a reaction by your immune system to something that does not bother
most other people. People who have allergies often are sensitive to more than one
thing. Substances that often cause reactions are Pollen, Dust mites, Food,
Medicines, etc.
Allergies can cause a variety of symptoms such as a runny nose, sneezing, itching,
rashes, swelling, or asthma. Allergies can range from minor to severe. Anaphylaxis
is a severe reaction that can be life-threatening. Doctors use skin and blood tests to
diagnose allergies. Treatments include medicines, allergy shots, and avoiding the
substances that cause the reactions.

Asthma
Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by
variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction and
bronchospasm. Common symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness,
and shortness of breath. Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of
genetic and environmental factors.

Summary
Diseases are a danger to everyone. Some have been controlled with vaccinations and modern
technology, while others are emerging or resistant to drug treatments. We should follow
different preventive measures to protect us from diseases. Communicable diseases can be
easily prevented by following healthy habits.
Healthy Habits
#1 Handle & Prepare Food Safely
Food can carry germs. Wash hands, utensils, and surfaces often when preparing any food,
especially raw meat. Always wash fruits and vegetables. Cook and keep foods at proper
temperatures. Don't leave food out - refrigerate promptly.
#2 Wash Hands Often
Learn how, when, and why to wash your hands.
#3 Clean & Disinfect Commonly Used Surfaces
Germs can live on surfaces. Cleaning with soap and water is usually enough. However, you
should disinfect your bathroom and kitchen regularly. Disinfect other areas if someone in the
house is ill. You can use an EPA certified disinfectant (look for the EPA registration number on
the label), bleach solution, or rubbing alcohol.
#4 Cough & Sneeze Into Your Sleeve
Learn how and when to cover your cough and sneeze.
#5 Don't Share Personal Items
Avoid sharing personal items that can't be disinfected, like toothbrushes and razors, or sharing
towels between washes. Needles should never be shared, should only be used once, and then
thrown away properly.
#6 Get Vaccinated
Vaccines can prevent many infectious diseases. You should get some vaccinations in childhood,
some as an adult, and some for special situations like pregnancy and travel. Make sure you and
your family are up-to-date on your vaccinations. If your regular doctor does not offer the vaccine
you need, visit the Adult Immunization and Travel Clinic.
#7 Avoid Touching Wild Animals
You and your pets should avoid touching wild animals which can carry germs that cause
infectious diseases. If you are bitten, talk to your doctor. Make sure that your pet's vaccinations
are up-to-date.
#8 Stay Home When Sick
Non communicable diseases can be prevented by:
1. Stronger anti-tobacco controls
2. Promoting healthier diets
3. Physical activity
4. Reducing harmful use of alcohol;
5. Along with improving peoples access to health care.

References
1) www.merriam-webster.com
2) www.infoplease.com
3) www.healthline.com
4) www.en.wikipedia.org
5) www.ranker.com
6) www.avert.org
7) www.medlineplus.gov
8) www.sfcdcp.org/healthyhabits.html