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● HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● NEWS & EVENTS ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT Estimation
● HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● NEWS & EVENTS ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT Estimation
● HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● NEWS & EVENTS ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT Estimation
● HOME PAGE
● ABOUT ARC
● NEWS & EVENTS
● RESEARCH
● CONTACT
Estimation
❍ VEHSim - Internet-
Distributed
❍ Terrain
❍ Tire Energy
Efficiency
Estimation
❍ Electro-Thermal
❍ Terrain Models
Implications on
Reliability
❍ Analysis of TC SOFC
Engines
● Human Centered Modeling &
Simulation
● High Performance Structures

Dynamics and Control of Vehicles

The goal of this Thrust Area is the development of fundamental control and design tools to enhance the safety and

performance of ground vehicles through modeling and computer simulation. This focus is partitioned into 1)

modeling tool development for efficient, accurate robust control and design and 2) control system design. The Characterization

techniques are applied to vehicle handling, steering, ride mobility, inter- or shared operability, remote piloting,

vehicle safety, power management control of hybrid systems including fuel cells.

Mass & CG Height The motivation for the first focus area, modeling tool development, is that the modeling and simulation process

remains a greatly under-utilized tool for vehicle system design and control. This is because models are time

consuming to develop, expensive to parameterize (statistically or otherwise), time consuming to solve (especially in

optimal design scenarios), often difficult to integrate with models developed by others, difficult to quantify their Battery Dynamics

accuracy and range of validity, and finally difficult to properly document. The motivation for the second focus area,

control system design, is the development of performance enhancing and safety enhancing systems with innovative

control algorithms. These can only be developed if the models are first available (first focus area) and if suitable

control synthesis techniques are developed. Hence, our goal is to create control system algorithms that can be

efficiently and effective used by vehicles designers for improving vehicle performance.

Thrust Area Leader : Prof. Jeffrey L. Stein, stein@umich.edu

TARDEC Leader :Dr. Paramsothy "Jay" Jayakumar, paramsothy.jayakumar@us.army.mil

Optimal Sensor Package Selection for Off-Road Vehicle Mass Estimation

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VEHSim: An Integrated Vehicle, Engine, and Human Driver Simulation Platform

- Extension to Internet-Distributed HIL Simulation

Stochastic Approach to Terrain Characterization

Energy Efficiency Study of Tires in Off-Road Conditions

Estimation Techniques for Mass and CG Height of Military Vehicles

Measuring, Modeling and Controlling Electro-Thermal Battery Dynamics

 

Implication of Terrain Topology Models on Ground Vehicle Reliability

Analysis and Hardware Simulation of Turbocharged SOFC Engines

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● HOME PAGE   ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT   ❍ Vehicle

 

 

Vehicle Mass

 

Estimation

 

Optimal Sensor Package Selection for Off-Road Vehicle Mass Estimation

 

VEHSim - Internet-

Distributed

Principal

Jeffrey L. Stein, University of Michigan, stein@umich.edu

 

Investigators:

Hosam K. Fathy, University of Michigan, hfathy@umich.edu

 

Terrain

 

Quad Members

 

Characterization

Faculty:

Jeffrey L. Stein, Hosam K. Fathy, University of Michigan

Tire Energy

Efficiency

Student:

Benjamin L. Pence, University of Michigan

 

Government:

David Gunter, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC

 

Mass & CG Height

 

Industry:

Gary Witus, Turing Associates, Inc.

 

Estimation

 

Electro-Thermal This project is motivated by the critical need for protecting

Battery Dynamics soldierslives from accidents such as rollovers. Active and

significantly lessen the likelihood of such life-threatening

accidents, but they must be correctly calibrated. Such

systems can also improve drivetrain control and handling

accidents, but they must be correctly calibrated. Such systems can also improve drivetrain control and handling
 

semi-active vehicle safety systems have been shown to

Terrain Models

Implications on

Reliability

 
 

Analysis of TC SOFC

 
 

by scheduling gear shifts and fuel injection, and controlling braking actuation.

 

Engines

 

Human Centered Modeling The & goal of this project is to estimate the mass of an off-road vehicle online in real time, use low cost sensors, and

 

Simulation

to quantify the confidence in the estimate. develop an accurate and fast real-time online mass estimator for off-

road vehicles. We will perform experimental validation of our method on real vehicles and extend the application to

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estimating other vehicle inertial properties.

Publications:

 

B.L. Pence, H.K. Fathy, J.L. Stein, (2009), Sprung Mass Estimation for Off-Road Vehicles via Base-

Excitation Suspension Dynamics and Recursive Least Squares, Proc. of American Control Conference, June,

2009

 

B.L. Pence, H.K. Fathy, J.L. Stein, (2009), A Base -Excitation Approach to Polynomial Chaos-Based

 

Estimation of Sprung Mass for Off-Road Vehicles, Proc. of the Dynamic Systems and Control Conference,

Oct., 2009

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● HOME PAGE   ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT   ❍ Vehicle

 

 

Vehicle Mass

 
 

VEHSim: An Integrated Vehicle, Engine, and Human Driver Simulation Platform:

 

Estimation

Extension to Internet-Distributed HIL Simulation

 

VEHSim - Internet-

 

Distributed

Principal Investigator: Hosam K. Fathy, University of Michigan, hfathy@umich.edu

Terrain

Quad Members

Characterization

 

Faculty:

 

Hosam K. Fathy, Zoran Filipi, Brent Gillespie, Jeffrey Stein,

 

Tire Energy

University of Michigan

Efficiency

Student:

Tulga Ersal, Post Doctoral Research Fellow, University of

Mass & CG Height

Michigan

Estimation

Government:

Mark Brudnak, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC

Electro-Thermal

Industry:

Marcella Haghgooie, Applied Dynamics International, Inc.

Battery Dynamics

 
 

This project is motivated by the potential of Internet-distributed

 
 

Terrain Models

 

hardware-in-the-loop simulation (ID-HIL) as a key enabler for

 

Implications on

geographically-dispersed concurrent systems engineering, as well as

pushing the limits of high-fidelity rapid prototyping and creating novel

Reliability

 

Analysis of TC SOFC subsystem evaluation/procurement tools.

  ❍ Analysis of TC SOFC subsystem evaluation/procurement tools.
 

Engines

Human Centered Modeling We & have successfully integrated the driver-in-the-loop ride motion simulator of TARDEC with the engine-in-the-loop

 

Simulation

simulator at the University of Michigan as the demonstrator for ID-HIL. This has been used to demonstrate an

 

observer-free solution that avoids the need for mathematical models of the hardware components and establish the

 

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transparency o t e nternet

str

ute

setup.

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-

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configurations and methods to improve transparency.

 
 

Publications:

 

Ersal, T., Brudnak, M., Stein, J. L., and Fathy, H. K., 2009, "Variation-Based Transparency Analysis of an

Internet-Distributed Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Platform for Vehicle Powertrain Systems", Proceedings

 

of ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Hollywood, California, October 12-14, 2009, ASME.

 

Ersal, T., Brudnak, M., Salvi, A., Stein, J. L., Filipi, Z., and Fathy, H. K., 2009, "Development of an Internet-

 

Distributed Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Platform for an Automotive Application", Proceedings of ASME

Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Hollywood, California, October 12-14, 2009, ASME.

 
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● HOME PAGE   ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT   ❍ Vehicle

 

 

Vehicle Mass

 
 

Stochastic Approach to Terrain Characterization

 

Estimation

 

Principal

VEHSim - Internet-

 

T.C.Sun, Wayne State University, tsun@math.wayne.edu

 

Investigators:

 

Distributed

 

Members

 

Terrain

 

Characterization

Faculty:

 

T.C.Sun , Milton Chaika, Kussiy Alyass, Wayne State University

 

Tire Energy Efficiency

 
 

Student:

 

Shanshan Qiu, Wayne State University

 

Mass & CG Height

 
 

Government:

David Gorsich, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC

 

Estimation

 

Industry:

 

Richard Devries, Victor Borowski, General Dynamics Land

 

Electro-Thermal

 
   

Systems

 

Battery Dynamics

 
 

Terrain Models

In the designing or testing of a vehicle or a fleet of vehicles, knowledge of the structural loads is essential to

 

Implications on

determine durability and reliability. Evaluating these loads require the input of terrain models. The Army, as well as

Reliability

industry, needs models of terrain profiles of the highest fidelity in evaluating designs and in planning tests for future

 

systems. The Army will also need the input from these simulated terrain profiles for lab testing of vehicles.

 

 

A better definition of the roughness of a test track will improve and set a standard for the testing of new vehicles.

 

Engines

 

Therefore, our research seeks to produce those terrain profile models and their simulations, and with the help of the

 

Human Centered Modeling &

terrain profile models, find a better definition of the roughness of a test track.

Simulation

 
 

develop statistical methods of characterizing terrain topography, and bring modern time series methods into

 

 

the modeling of vehicle dynamics and actual road scenery, and into the lab testing of vehicles. This project will also

 

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develop

correlation and validation methods that relate the terrain topography to the damage that a vehicle incurs

 

while traveling over that terrain.

Chaika, M., Gorsich, D. and Sun, T. C., Some statistical tests in the study of terrain modeling, Int. J. Vehicle

 

Design, 36, (2004), 132-148.

Sun, T. C., Gorsich, D., Chaika, M., Alyass, K., Wei, Jinfeng and Ferris, J., Time series modeling of terrain

profiles, SAE 2005 Transactions, Journal of Commercial Vehicles}, pp.221-227.

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● HOME PAGE   ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT   ❍ Vehicle

 

 

Vehicle Mass

 
 

Energy Efficiency Study of Tires in Off-Road Conditions

 

Estimation

VEHSim - Internet-

Principal Investigator: Corina Sandu, Virginia Tech, csandu@vt.edu

 

Quad Members

 

Distributed

Faculty:

Corina Sandu, Virginia Tech

Terrain

Student:

Carmine Senatore, PhD candidate, Virginia Tech

Characterization

Tire Energy

Government:

Alexander A. Reid, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC

Efficiency

Mass & CG Height

Industry:

Timothy Rooney, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company

Estimation

 

Performance prediction for wheeled vehicles

Electro-Thermal depends on accurate estimations of the forces

Battery Dynamics developed at the tire-terrain interface. These

are responsible for the vehicle mobility,

traction and steering performance, handling

behavior, and ride quality. A strong motivation

for the vehicle mobility, traction and steering performance, handling behavior, and ride quality. A strong motivation
 

Terrain Models

Implications on

Reliability

Analysis of TC SOFC

for this study was given by the fact that a substantial loss of the power transmitted through the driveline happens

Engines

tire, as illustrated in figure.

 

Human Centered Modeling The & long term goal is to realistically and efficiently simulate the vehicle dynamics of military and commercial

 

Simulation

vehicles in off-road operating conditions, specifically to address critical issues related to energy efficiency of the tire

from the tire-operating environment interaction perspective. The study aims to simulate realistic military cycles and

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road conditions, and assess the fuel efficiency of wheeled vehicles under such conditions.

The outcomes of this research are general tools and methodologies with direct impact on the modeling of terrain

profile, soil characteristics, tire-soil interaction, off-road vehicle dynamics and mobility, and they will support the US

in evaluating the performance of its off-road vehicles from the mobility and energy efficiency point of view.

Publications:

 

Lee, R. and Sandu, C. – “Integrated Terrain Topology and Soil Properties Simulation Environment, Paper

 

no. P-16, 14 pg, Proc. of the 11th European Regional Conference of ISTVS, Oct. 5-8, 2009, Bremen,

Germany.

 

Senatore, C. and Sandu, C. – “Exit Angle Influence on Energy Efficiency of Off-Road Tires, Paper no. P-15,

 

13 pg, Proc. of the 11th European Regional Conference of ISTVS, Oct. 5-8, 2009, Bremen, Germany.

 

Lee, R. and Sandu, C. – “Terrain Profile Modeling using Stochastic Partial Differential Equations, Paper no.

 

IJVSMT-7921, Int. J. of Vehicle Systems Modeling and Testing, Special Issue on Terrain Topology:

Measurement, Analysis, and Applications, in print, Sept. 2009.

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HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ❍ Vehicle Mass Estimation
HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ❍ Vehicle Mass Estimation
HOME PAGE
ABOUT ARC
RESEARCH
CONTACT
❍ Vehicle Mass
Estimation Techniques for Mass and CG Height of Military Vehicles
Estimation
Principal Investigator: Corina Sandu, Virginia Tech, csandu@vt.edu
❍ VEHSim - Internet-
Quad Members
Distributed
Faculty:
Corina Sandu, Virginia Tech
❍ Terrain
Student:
Joseph Hays, PhD student, Virginia Tech
Characterization
Government:
David Gunter, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC
❍ Tire Energy
Industry:
Gary Witus, Founder & President, Turing Associates
Efficiency
❍ Mass & CG Height
Estimation
Parameter estimation is an important problem,
❍ Electro-Thermal
because in many instances parameters of interest
Battery Dynamics
cannot be physically measured, or they cannot be
measured with sufficient accuracy, especially in real
❍ Terrain Models
time applications. Rather, parameter values must be
Implications on
inferred from available measurements of different
Reliability
aspects of the system response. Various approaches to
❍ Analysis of TC SOFC
parameter estimations are discussed in the literature.
Engines
include energy methods, frequency domain methods, and set inversion via interval analysis (SIVIA) with
● Human Centered Modeling &
Taylor expansions. Estimating the vehicle mass and the center of gravity (CG) of the vehicle represent particular
Simulation
case studies of parameter estimation.
● High Performance Structures

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The first part of our project will consist of complimentary/supporting tasks to the efforts at University of Michigan

aiming at finalizing the mass estimation technique (development, testing, and validation). Due to its very high

relevance for assessing vehicle rollover, the second part of the project will focus on setting the foundation of the

 

study

for estimating the CG height of a military vehicle in off-road conditions. The long term goal is to estimate in

 

Vehicle System Integration, real-time the mass of the vehicle and the CG location of the vehicle.

Publications:

 

Blanchard*, E., Sandu, A., and Sandu, C. – “Polynomial Chaos-Based Parameter Estimation Methods Applied

to Vehicle System, Proc. of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) Part K: J. of Multi-body

Dynamics, Vol. 223, Paper JMBD204, DOI: 10.1243/14644193JMBD204, pp. 1-24 (24), June 24, 2009.

Blanchard*, E., Sandu, A., and Sandu, C. – “Parameter Estimation for Mechanical Systems via an Explicit

Representation of Uncertainty, Engineering Computations. Int. J. for Computer-Aided Engineering and

Software, Paper no. EC116060, Vol. 26, Issue 5, pp. 541-569, Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0264-

4401, DOI 10.1108/02644400910970185, Feb. 2009.

Blanchard*, E., Sandu, C., and Sandu, A. – “Comparison between a Polynomial-Chaos-based Bayesian

Approach and a Polynomial-Chaos-based EKF Approach for Parameter Estimation with Applications to Vehicle

Dynamics, Paper no. DETC2009-86402, 12 pg, Proc. of ASME IDETC, 11th Int. Conf. on AVTT, Aug. 30-

Sept. 2, 2009, San Diego, CA. This paper received 2009 ASME VDC AVTT Conference Best Paper Award.

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Vehicle Mass

 
 

Measuring, Modeling and Controlling Electro-Thermal Battery Dynamics

 

Estimation

Principal

VEHSim - Internet-

Anna Stefanopoulou, University of Michigan, annastef@umich.

 

Investigators:

edu

 

Distributed

 

Levi Thompson, University of Michigan, ltt@umich.edu

 

Terrain

 

Quad Members

 

Characterization

Faculty:

Anna Stefanopoulou, Levi Thompson, University of Michigan

Tire Energy

 

Government:

Sonya Zanardelli, Energy Storage Team Leader TARDEC, GVPM

 

Efficiency

 

David Gorsich,, Chief Scientist, U.S. Army TARDEC

 

Mass & CG Height

Industry:

Dyche Anderson, Ford Motor Company

Estimation

Electro-Thermal

Advances in the design and control of electrochemical energy devices depend on experimentally validated models of

Battery Dynamics

Terrain Models

the spatiotemporal behavior of these devices. Neutron radiography offers unique opportunities for measuring

Implications on

lithium (Li) concentration in Li-air battery cells. Parameterization and validation of mathematical models of Li-ion

Reliability

cells at various temperatures is necessary for accurate State of Charge Estimation, Diagnostics and Prognostics, and

 

Battery Thermal and Power Management. Addressing the durability and safety issues associated with Li-ion

 

Analysis of TC SOFC

 

batteries requires the full characterization of the temperature-dependent reactions during overcharging and over

 

Engines

 

discharging conditions and analyzing the complex spatially distributed nonlinear phenomena during the thermal

 

Human Centered Modeling instabilities & and run-aways.

Simulation

 

It is possible to measure in-situ spatiotemporal concentrations of Li

  It is possible to measure in-situ spatiotemporal concentrations of Li
 

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and validate control-oriented physical models for the prediction of

and validate control-oriented physical models for the prediction of

the spatiotemporal patterns and their impact on performance and

degradation. The technological breakthrough from the availability of validated models will make a substantial impact

hybrid system level sizing and power management for an ultra-light far-reaching portable power source. The

Optimization, and Robustness proposed effort fills the critical gap of experimental verification and availability of in-situ Li concentration data in the

area of Li-air batteries. Our goal is to measure, tune and validate the evolution of the spatially-resolved solid

concentration in the two electrodes of the new battery cells under various controlled temperature conditions and

charge/discharge rates using high-resolution neutron radiography. The critical values for the state of charge

estimation are associated to the lowest concentration for the ion-production electrode and the highest value for the

ion-insertion electrode. The prediction of the critical values is important to ensure safe operation and high utilization

in a portable application.

Publications:

 
 

Correlating Nitrogen Accumulation with Temporal Fuel Cell Performance,E. A. Muller, F. Kolb, L. Guzzella,

A.

G. Stefanopoulou, D, A. McKay to appear in ASME J Fuel Cell Science and Technology.

A Dynamic Semi-Analytic Channel-to-Channel Model of Two-Phase Water Distribution for Estimation and

Control of Fuel Cells,B.A. McCain, A.G. Stefanopoulou and I.V. Kolmanovsky, in IEEE Transactions Control

System Technology, vol 17, number 5, pp 1043-1055.

Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode,J. B. Siegel, D. A. McKay,

A.

G. Stefanopoulou, D. S. Hussey, and D. L. Jacobson, J. Electrochemical Society, (155)11 pp. B1168

 

(2008).

 

Carmelo Speltino, Domenico Di Domenico, Giovanni Fiengo, and Anna G. Stefanopoulou. Cell equalization in

battery stacks through state of charge estimation polling. In American Control Conference, 2010.

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● HOME PAGE   ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT   ❍ Vehicle

 

 

Vehicle Mass

 
 

Implication of Terrain Topology Models on Ground Vehicle Reliability

 

Estimation

VEHSim - Internet-

Principal Investigator: John B. Ferris, Virginia Tech, jbferris@vt.edu

 

Quad Members

 

Distributed

Faculty:

John B. Ferris, Virginia Tech

Terrain

Student:

Ma Rui, Heather Chemistruck, Sujay Kawale, Virginia Tech

Characterization

 

Government:

Alexander A. Reid, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC

 

Tire Energy

Efficiency

Industry:

Erric Tseng, Ford Motor Company

 

Mass & CG Height This project supports U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC's efforts to develop mathematical models that appropriately

 

Estimation

characterize terrain topology for different applications. These models will improve the simulation capability for

 

Electro-Thermal ground vehicle dynamics, durability, reliability and mobility assurance.

Battery Dynamics Our researchers will determine how the selection of the mathematical model of terrain, along with the

 

Terrain Models

Implications on

parameterization of these models, affects the ground vehicle responses and resulting reliability.

Reliability

 

Analysis of TC SOFC Publications:

 

Engines

 

1. Ferris, J.B., 2004, Characterizing Road Profiles as Markov Chains,IJVD, Special Edition on Road Profiles:

 

Human Centered Modeling &

 

Measurement, Analysis, and Applications, Vol. 36, No. 2/3.

 

Simulation

   

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● HOME PAGE   ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT   ❍ Vehicle

 

 

Vehicle Mass

 
 

Analysis and Hardware Simulation of Turbocharged SOFC Engines

 

Estimation

 

VEHSim - Internet-

Principal Investigator: Jing Sun, University of Michigan, jingsun@umich.edu

 

Quad Members

 

Distributed

Faculty:

Jing Sun, Soryeok Oh, University of Michigan

 

Terrain

 

Government:

Herb Dobbs (Point of Contact), Joel King, U.S. Army RDECOM-

 

Characterization

 

TARDEC

 

Tire Energy

 

Industry:

Owen Taylor, Pittsburgh Electrical Engine Inc.

 

Efficiency

 

(solid oxide fuel cell) systems operating with reformed JP-8 fuel have many advantages over conventional

 

Estimation

generation systems. Turbo-charging the SOFC engine is a natural and effective way to further enhance the

 

Electro-Thermal

efficiency of SOFC systems by harvesting the high energy content in the exhaust gas. It has been shown that

 

combining gas turbine with SOFC fuel cells can boost the over-all system efficiency for up to 10-15%, especially for Battery Dynamics

 

stationary operations. For mobile applications, however, a set of challenges exist in managing transient operations.

 

Terrain Models

 

For the combined SOFC/GT (gas turbine) system with a turbine driven compressor, the analysis has shown that

 

Implications on

 

rapid load following can lead to system shutdown due to the close coupling between the SOFC and turbine and to

 

Reliability

 

the reliance of the air delivery system on the turbine operation.

 

Analysis of TC SOFC Engines

 

Human Centered Modeling The & primary goal of this project is to develop enabling control technologies and toolsets for integrating the turbo-

Simulation

 

charged SOFC engines as APU systems into military vehicles. To complement and support the analysis activities, a

 

hardware simulation test-bed for a 5kW class combined SOFC/GT cycle system will be developed to provide a cost

 

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Development of dynamic simulation models for the turbo-charged SOFC engines with three different

 

configurations in the compressor driving mechanism: single shaft, motor driven, and twin shaft.

Identification of dynamic characteristics and operating constraints of different turbocharged SOFC engine

systems, and the evaluation of the trade-off between performance gain and system complexity.

 

Development of control strategies for power and thermal management of the turbocharged SOFC engine

 

systems.

 
 

Development of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) bench incorporating an electric furnace as the

 

SOFC emulator and real hardware for the turbine.

 
 

Publications:

 
 

So-ryeok Oh, Jing Sun, Optimization and Load-Following Characteristics of 5kW-Class Tubular Solid Oxide

 

Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems,American Control Conference, Accepted, Baltimore, 2010.

 
 

Jian Chen, Jing Sun, Modeling and Control of SOFC APU,Proceedings of the joint 47th IEEE Conference on

 

Decision and Control and 27th Chinese Control Conference, Shanghai, China, December, 2009.

 
 

Vasilis Tourapas, Jing Sun, Ann Stefanopoulou, Incremental Step Reference Governor for Load Conditioning

 

of Hybrid Fuel Cell and Gas Turbine Power Plant,IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol.

17, No. 4, pp 756-767, July, 2009.

 
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HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ● Human Centered Modeling
HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ● Human Centered Modeling
HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ● Human Centered Modeling
HOME PAGE
ABOUT ARC
RESEARCH
CONTACT
● Human Centered
Modeling & Simulation
❍ Seated In-
vehicle Reach
❍ Virtual Driver
❍ Sensory
Integration
● High Performance
Structures and Materials
● Advanced and Hybrid
Powertrains
● Vehicle System
Integration,
Optimization, and
Robustness

Human Centered Modeling and Simulation

The cost and time spent on vehicle design and engineering is highly correlated with the number of hardware

prototype evaluations and redesign cycles needed to produce a final design. Many of these prototype design

evaluations are necessary because human population attributes are not well understood or considered early in the

design process. This Thrust Area performs a variety of research and development activities necessary to predict the

responses of specified populations of people when operating and maintaining new vehicles concepts. The software

resulting from this research will interface with other ARC hardware systems simulations to enable a comprehensive

human-hardware system simulation capability.

The development of such a virtual human-vehicle simulation capability could greatly reduce the cost and time to

design new and effective vehicles for both military and commercial markets, and provides a means of

complementing the use of virtual environments to enhance human centered design capabilities.

Thrust Area Leader : Dr. Matthew Reed, mreed@umich.edu

TARDEC Thrust Area Leader : Harry Zywiol, harry.zywiol@us.army.mil

Simulating Human Reaching for Vehicle Design: A Study in Ride Motion Effects on Seated In-Vehicle Reach

Performance

Modeling the Use of In-vehicle Information and Active Warnings in Vehicle Convoys Using the Virtual Driver

Sensory Integration in Simulated and Remote Piloting of Vehicle

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Sponsored by U.S. Army TARDEC-NAC
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Automotive Research Center

HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ● Human Centered Modeling
HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ● Human Centered Modeling
HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ● Human Centered Modeling
HOME PAGE
ABOUT ARC
RESEARCH
CONTACT
● Human Centered
Modeling & Simulation
❍ Seated In-
vehicle Reach
❍ Virtual Driver
❍ Sensory
Integration
● High Performance
Structures and Materials
● Advanced and Hybrid
Powertrains
● Vehicle System
Integration,
Optimization, and
Robustness

Simulating Human Reaching for Vehicle Design: A Study in Ride Motion Effects on Seated In-Vehicle Reach Performance

Principal

Bernard J. Martin, University of Michigan, martinbj@umich.edu

Investigators:

Quad Members

Faculty:

Bernard J. Martin, University of Michigan

Heon-Jeong Kim, University of Michigan

Harry Zywiol, Victor Paul, U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC

Lenora Hardee, International Truck & Engine Corp.

R. Wade Allen, Systems Technology, Inc.

Student:

Government:

Industry:

The study is a continuation of ongoing research investigating the

is a continuation of ongoing research investigating the effects of a dynamic ride environment on the

effects of a dynamic ride environment on the performance of

seated in-vehicle reaching tasks. Occupants of off-road vehicles,

common in military applications, are regularly exposed to whole-

body vibration (WBV) that impairs their ability to quickly and

accurately perform in-vehicle tasks while the vehicle is in motion. This research will characterize and quantify the

nature of this performance degradation, while aiding the development of dynamic models as well as design

standards and strategies for reducing WBV-related errors in performance. Our research will enable these errors to

be mitigated through improved design of controls, displays, vehicle suspension, and seating systems.

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The U.S. Army is immersed in the design and evaluation of vehicle workstations and the results from this study will

provide essential information about the extent to which terrain-induced ride motion adversely affects vehicle

occupantsability to quickly and accurately complete reaching tasks. The simulation models based on this research

will enable the U.S. Army and commercial vehicle industries, to evaluate current and future vehicle designs of

controls and displays, as well as seating and suspensions systems. This knowledge will enable designers to test and

evaluate designs that mitigate effects of vibration before spending limited capital towards the completed vehicle

design.

Publications:

Heon-Jeong Kim, Bernard J Martin, "Effects of Posture and Movement on Vibration Transmissibility Affecting

Human Reach Performance under Vehicle Vibration", Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual

Meeting, 19-23 October 2009.

Heon-Jeong Kim, Bernard J Martin, "Three-Dimensional Joint Kinematics of the Upper Extremity in Reach

Movements under Whole-Body Vibration Exposure", Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual

Meeting, 22-26 September 2008.

Heon-Jeong Kim, Bernard J Martin, "Vibration Transmissibility of Multi-Body Segments in Reach Movements

under Whole-Body Vibration Exposure", North American Congress on Biomechanics, 5-9 August 2008.

Heon-Jeong Kim, Bernard J Martin, "Three-Dimensional Reach Kinematics of the Upper Extremity in a

Dynamic Vehicle Environment", Technical Paper 2008-01-1886. Digital Human Modeling for Design and

Engineering Conference, 17-19 June 2008.

Sponsored by U.S. Army TARDEC-NAC Contact Us
Sponsored by U.S. Army TARDEC-NAC
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Automotive Research Center

HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ● Human Centered Modeling
HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ● Human Centered Modeling
HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ● Human Centered Modeling
HOME PAGE
ABOUT ARC
RESEARCH
CONTACT
● Human Centered
Modeling & Simulation
❍ Seated In-
vehicle Reach
❍ Virtual Driver
❍ Sensory
Integration
● High Performance
Structures and Materials
● Advanced and Hybrid
Powertrains
● Vehicle System
Integration,
Optimization, and
Robustness

Modeling the Use of In-vehicle Information and Active Warnings in Vehicle Convoys Using the Virtual Driver

Matthew Reed, University of Michigan, mreed@umich.edu

Principal

Investigators:

Quad Members

Faculty:

Matthew Reed, University of Michigan

Helen Fuller, University of Michigan

Harry Zywiol, U.S. RDECOM-TARDEC

John Lockett, U.S. Army Research Lab.

Lenora Hardee, International Truck & Engine Corp.

Student:

Government:

Industry:

Our objective is to apply and extend the Virtual Driver modeling approach to perform a safety analysis of cognitive

and physical aspects of driving with new technologies.

The new integrated model provides the ability to evaluate the

new integrated model provides the ability to evaluate the combined effects of cognitive and physical features

combined effects of cognitive and physical features of vehicle

interior designs on driver performance and workload. The project

will result in advancements in the driver model capabilities and the

development of stochastic assessment protocols for information

systems intended for use during convoy operations. The result can

feed into efforts to understand driver workload and make predictions about the safety of new task configurations. In

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Automotive Research Center

addition to ARC support, both the Army and industry have funded the development of the physical simulation tools

that are part of the Virtual Driver. The Army has also supported the establishment of a linkage been the Queuing

Network Model Human Processor (QN-MHP - the cognitive component of the Virtual Driver) and IMPRINT, the U.S.

Armys primary human task analysis tool. These connections and leverage will increase the availability of the

research results within the Army and industry.

Publications:

Fuller, H. J., Tsimhoni, O., & Reed, M. P. (2008). Effect of in-vehicle touch screen position on driver

performance. Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. New

York City.

Tsimhoni, O., & Reed, M. P. (2007). The Virtual Driver: Integrating Task Planning and Cognitive Simulation

with Human Movement Models. SAE Technical Paper Series No. 2007-01-1766. Warrendale, PA.

Sponsored by U.S. Army TARDEC-NAC Contact Us
Sponsored by U.S. Army TARDEC-NAC
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HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ● Human Centered Modeling
HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ● Human Centered Modeling
HOME PAGE ● ABOUT ARC ● ● RESEARCH ● CONTACT ● ● Human Centered Modeling
HOME PAGE
ABOUT ARC
RESEARCH
CONTACT
● Human Centered
Modeling & Simulation
❍ Seated In-
vehicle Reach
❍ Virtual Driver
❍ Sensory
Integration
● High Performance
Structures and Materials
● Advanced and Hybrid
Powertrains
● Vehicle System
Integration,
Optimization, and
Robustness

Sensory Integration in Simulated and Remote Piloting of Vehicle

Principal

Brent Gillespie, University of Michigan, brentg@umich.edu

Investigators:

Quad Members

Faculty:

Brent Gillespie, University of Michigan

Kevin Rider, University of Michigan

Harry Zywiol, U.S. RDECOM-TARDEC

Kaleb McDowell, U.S. Army Research Lab.

Micah Steele, John Deere Corp.

Student:

Government:

Industry:

Our objective is to determine the features in a vehicles driver interface that are most critical to the development of

overlearneddriving skill, or sensory-motor behavior that has become so automatic that secondary tasks can be

undertaken without degrading driving performance. We will determine the relative contribution of visual, haptic, and

ride-motion cues to driving skill using a dual task experimental paradigm. We will validate models of sensory

integration and open and closed-loop motor behavior operating under limited cognitive resources. Applications for

the model include remote piloting of vehicles in addition to traditional driving during conditions of supplemental

cognitive and decision-making loads.

A new driver model that incorporates sensory integration will quantify the relative value of multiple sensory

channels to driving performance under single and dual motor/cognitive task demands. This will have direct

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Automotive Research Center

application to remote piloting of unmanned vehicles using visual feedback from on-board cameras without haptic or

ride motion feedback. The impact of the missing information display channels will be assessed and sensory

substitution will be explored. The results of this work will couple with development and testing of the ARC-supported

Virtual Driver that integrates cognitive and physical modeling.

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