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Notes from PPT (English Specialization Language Component)

The Audiolingual Method

Founded during World War II for military purposes in USA
Popular in the 1960s but died out in the 70s
Focus on students pronunciation, and train their ability of
listening by dialogues and drills

Listen and repeat drilling activities are the most important

classroom activities.
Mistakes are immediately corrected and correct utterances are
immediately praised.

Pedagogical grammar - grammar developed for learners of a foreign

language, draws on two separate but interrelated areas of theory:
1. Descriptive models of grammar, which can be incorporated into
pedagogical reference grammars and teaching materials and
formulated in ways which make the description accessible to the
learner, and
2. theories of second-language acquisition, which will provide the
basis for classroom methodology.
Communicative Grammar. Language is seen not only as a formal
system but primarily as the process of communicating messages in
actual contexts, grammar being a means of expressing certain types of
meanings through grammatical forms.
grammatical meaning in terms of *functions and *notions
Older schools of grammar:
PERSCRIPTIVE RULES: perscribe how people should produce
The rules in TG do not tell us how to produce language. They
tell us the ORDER in which to put words and phrases.
DESCRIPTIVE RULES: Describes how people produce language.
Phrase structure
Lexical component
Deep structure
Surface structure
Morphophonemic rules


Cognitive view of language and learning

If all language is learned by imitation and repetition, how can a

child produce a sentence that has never been said by others
Language is a rule-based system and with a knowledge of the
finite rules (language competence), infinite sentences can be

Application: Cognitive approach to grammar teaching

Grammar teaching should be planned and systematic
Necessary grammar instruction
Extensive exposure to instructed grammar points
Production activities
Group work and task performance
Postlesson activities
Structural view: Language is a linguistic system made up of
structural rules and vocabulary.
Functional view: Language is a linguistic system as well as a means
for doing things (to be used in real life).
Interactional view: Language is a communicative tool to maintain
social relations.

Structural view knowledge: vocabulary and grammar

(sentence patterns)
Functional view communicative categories, communicative
ability (to be able to communicate)
Interactional view to communicate appropriately

Piagets views and influence

Learning is a personal construction of knowledge to be learned
based on the learners previous experience.
Deweys views and influence
Learning by doing
Teaching should be built on learners experience and engage
learners in learning activities.
Teachers need to design environments and interact with learners.

Objectives of GTM
To be able to read literature written in the target language
To be able to translate from one language to another
To develop reading and writing skill

Features of GTM
Native language
Vocabulary / grammatical rules
Accuracy /translation
Language skills

Advantages of GTM
An effective way for application of grammar and sentence
Few demands on teachers
Least stressful for students
Disadvantage of GTM
Wrong idea of what language is
Less learners motivation
Create frustration for learners
Total Physical Response/TPR (James Asher , 1966)
founded by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jos
State University, California
To have basic oral expression ability through using imperative
The name is from the words suggestion and pedagogy.
Developed in the 1970s by the Bulgarian psychologist Georgi
Desuggest the psychological barriers to learn vocabulary and
Increase oral proficiency
Lower classroom anxiety
Characteristics of Suggestopedia
Present text with music
Practiced breathing

Choose target language name
Colorful posters on the wall
Liberate instead of teach

The Silent Way

The Silent Way Caleb Gattegno
To consider the language teaching and learning from
the perspectives of the learners
Learning is a process which we initiate by ourselves
by mobilizing our inner resources (e.g., our
perception, awareness, cognition, imagination,
intuition, and creativity) to meet the challenge
Language learners are intelligent and bring with them the
experience of already learning a language
Learning involves transforming what one knows to new
Language is not learnt by repeating after a model
Students need to develop their own inner criteria for
correctness to trust and to be responsible for their
own production in the target language
Language Components & Skills


Study and use of individual sound units in a language and the
rules by which they are combined and recombined to create
larger language units.
Phonemes are the unit of sound such as /s/ or /b/ , they do not
convey meaning.
Phonemes alter meaning of words when combined (e.g., sat to

Frequently appear as articulation disorders.

Child omits a consonant: oo for you
Child substitutes one consonant: wabbit for rabbit
Discrimination: child hears go get the nail instead of mail


Study and use of morphemes, the smallest units of language that

have meaning.
A morpheme is a group of sounds that refers to a particular
object, idea, or action.
Roots can stand alone (e.g., car, teach, tall)
Affixes are bound such as prefixes and suffixes and when
attached to root words change the meaning of the words
(e.g., cars, teacher, tallest)

Morphological Deficits
Elementary aged: may not use appropriate inflectional endings in
their speech (e.g.,He walk or Mommy coat).
Middle school: lack irregular past tense or irregular plurals (e.g.,
drived for drove or mans for men).
Be aware of Black English: John cousin fifty cent, or She
work here.
Study of the rules by which words are organized into phrases or
sentences in a particular language.
Referred to as the grammar of the language and allows for more
complex expression of thoughts and ideas by making references
to past and future events.
Syntactic Deficits
Lack the length or syntactic complexity (e.g., Where Daddy
Problems comprehending sentences that express relationship
between direct or indirect objects.
Difficulty with wh questions.
The larger meaning component of language.
More than single words, includes complex use of vocabulary,
including structures such as word categories, word relationships,
synonyms, antonyms, figurative language, ambiguities, and

Semantic Deficits
Limited vocabulary especially in adjectives, adverbs,
prepositions, or pronouns.
Longer response time in selecting vocabulary words.
Fail to perceive subtle changes in word meaning: incomplete
understanding and misinterpretations.
Figurative language problems.
Knowledge and ability to use language functionally in social or
interactive situations.
Integrates all the other language skills, but also requires
knowledge and use of rule governing the use of language in
social context.
Pragmatic Deficits
Problems understanding indirect requests (e.g., may say yes
when asked Must you play the piano?).
May enter conversations in a socially unacceptable fashion or fail
to take turns talking.
Difficulty staying on topic.
Morpheme is a short segment of language that meets three criteria:
It is a word or part of a word that has meaning.
It cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts without
violation of its meaning or without meaningless
It recurs in different words with a relatively stable meaning.
The word unhappiness has 3 morphemes: {un-}, {happy}, {-ness}
while the word salamander is a single morpheme.
Free morphemes are those that can stand on their own as
independent words, e.g. {happy} in unhappily, {like} in dislike,
{boy} in boyhood. They can also occur in isolation; e.g. {happy},
Bound morphemes are those that cannot stand on their own as
independent words. They are always attached to a free morpheme or a
free form, e.g. {un-}, {-ly}, {dis-} {-hood}. Such morphemes are also
called affixes.
Bound morphemes are those that cannot stand alone as words; they
need to be attached to another morpheme; e.g. {con-}; {de-}, {per-}
to be attached to {-ceive} as in conceive, deceive, perceive.
Inflectional morphemes are those that never change the form class
of the words or morphemes to which they are attached. They are
always attached to complete words. They cap the word; they are a

closed-ended set of morphemes - English has only 8 inflectional

1. -s
third person sing. pres.
She stay-s at home.
2. -ed past tense
She stay-ed at home.
-ing progressive
She is stay-ing at home.
-en past participle
She has eat-en at
She wrote novel-s.
Maries car is new.
-er comparative
This road is longer than that.
-est superlative
This is the long-est road.
Derivational morphemes are those that are added to root
morphemes or stems to derive new words. They usually change the
form class of the words to which they are attached; they are openended, that is, there are potentially infinite number of them; e.g. actual
+ {-ize} actualize; help + {-ful} helpful; {un-} + lucky unlucky
morphemes: 3
free: establish bound: re-, -ed
root: establish
derivational: re- inflectional: -ed
word: complex
inflectional suffix: regular
morphemes: 1
free: spaghetti
root: spaghetti
derivational: none inflectional: none
word: simple
inflectional suffix: none
The study of the origin of the word
The word etymology itself comes from Latin but has Greek roots
(etymon original from + logia study of)
There are many ways in which a word can enter a language.
Types of Word Formation
1. Coinage
2. Borrowing
3. Compounding
4. Blending

5. Clipping
6. Backformation
7. Conversion
8. Acronyms
9. Derivation
Invention of totally new words
Extension of a name of a product from a specific reference to a
more general one
e.g. Kleenex, Xerox, and Kodak
Eponyms: words based on a name of a person or a place. E.g.
Taking over of words from another language
English borrowed a lot of Latin and French words
Leak (Dutch)
Barbecue (Spanish)
Piano (Italian)
Sofa (Arabic)
Croissant (French)
Yogurt (Turkish)
Arabic also borrowed a lot of words from English, e.g. television,
radio, supermarket
Loan-translation or calque
Definition: Two or more words joined together to form a new
Home + work homework
Pick + pocket pickpocket
Note: The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the
meanings of its parts.
Coconut oil oil made from coconuts.
Olive oil
oil made from olives.
Baby oil

oil for babies

Definition: Similar to compounds, but in blending only parts of
the words are combined.

Motor + hotel Motel

Breakfast + lunch Brunch
Smoke + fog smog
Definition: Shortening a word by deleting one or more syllables
Facsimile fax
Hamburger burger
Gasoline gas
Advertisement ad
Definition: Creative reduction due to incorrect morphological
editor edit
Television televise
Note: backformation always involve reduction (changing the form of
the word)
Definition: Assigning an already existing word to a new syntactic
butter (N) V to butter the bread
permit (V) N an entry permit
empty (A) V to empty the litter-bin
must (V) N doing the homework is a must
Definition: Words derived from the initials of several words
National Aeronautics and Space Agency
Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
United Nations International Childrens Emergency Fund
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization UNESCO

1. Structural (formal) Syllabus

Content includes a collection of forms and structures.
Content Choice and Organization
(Richards & Rodgers, 2001)
linguistically focused
sequencing and gradation are determined according to difficulty of
items or their
2. Notional / Functional Syllabus
Content includes a collection of the functions performed
when language is used, or of the notions that a language is
used to express.
Functions: informing, agreeing, apologizing, requesting
Notions: age, size, color, comparison, time, and so on
Richards & Rodgers (2001)
A Notional syllabus (Wilkins, 1976)specifies the semanticgrammatical categories (e.g. frequency, motion, location) and the
categories of communicative function that learners need to express.
3. Situational Syllabus
Content includes a collection of real or imaginary situations
in which language occurs or is used.
Situations involve several participants who are engaged
in some activity in a specific meaning (e.g. seeing the
dentist, complaining to the landlord, buying a book at a
bookstore, meeting a new student, and so on).
4. Skill - based Syllabus
Content includes a collection of specific abilities that may
play a part using language.
SKILLS: things people must be able to do to be competent
in a language, relatively independently of the situation or
setting in which the language use can occur
Skill-based syllabi group linguistic competencies
(pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and discourse) together
into generalized types of behavior (e.g. listening for the main
idea, writing well-informed paragraphs, giving effective oral
presentations, etc.)
5. Task - based Syllabus
Content includes a series of complex and purposeful tasks
that the student wants or need to perform with the
language they are learning.

TASKS: activities with a purpose other than language

learning, but the performance of these tasks is intended to
develop second language ability
Examples of Tasks: applying for a job, talking with a
social worker, getting housing information over the
telephone, and so on
6. Content - based Syllabus
derived from the content area
Content and instructional sequence is chosen according to
the language goals.
Types of learning and teaching activities:
Language skills improvement
Vocabulary building
Discourse organization
Communicative interaction
Study skills
Synthesis of content materials and grammar
CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION (CBI) underscores the need to develop
higher order thinking skills which enables one to acquire academic as
well as communicative competence

Operations Handbook in English

2002 Basic Education Curriculum
Step 1 - Curriculum Planning
1. Rationale for creating or revising a curriculum
2. Theoretical underpinnings
theories of language
theories of language learning
theories of communicative competence
3. Scope and organization of learning experiences to be provided
Language macrocomponents/ macroskills
4. Expected learning outcomes/experiences for a
particular level and
for a particular grade
Step 2 - Curriculum Development
Actual writing of the curriculum based on specifications defined
in the first step
The definition/selection of learning outcomes/learning
Curriculum validation to establish suitability
Pilot testing
Judgmental review
Step 3 Curriculum Implementation

Mass use of the curriculum in the schools

Step 4 Curriculum Evaluation
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the learning experience or the
Summative evaluation