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You are on page 1of 15

FLUENT

Introduces the EDEM-CFD Coupling Module for FLUENT, how it works, and some of

the modules features

Revision 2.1/1

EDEM-CFD Coupling Module for FLUENT

Overview

EDEM

DEM software used for integrating particle, fluid, and machine

dynamics

FLUENT

Configurable single-phase and multi-phase algorithms

Provides a framework for coupled software development

EDEM couples to Fluent with Eulerian or Lagrangian coupling

EDEM replaces approximation of solid phase in Fluent with explicit

calculation of particle dynamic

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DEM timestep(s)

started at end of fluid

simulation timestep

Calls EDEM

Fluid iterated to

convergence

particles are introduced into

fluid through a series of

momentum sinks

calculated using data

extracted from fluid mesh

cells

Particle positions

input into Fluent

Scheme Panel

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Coupling Methodologies

EDEMs Lagrangian method similar to Fluents DPM

(Discrete Phase Model)

Only momentum is exchanged between the two

phases

Lagrangian coupling method best used when the

solid fraction is low (less than 10%)

Lagrangian coupling faster to calculate relative to

Eulerian coupling

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Eulerian coupling method better than Lagrangian for

flows with a higher solid fraction

Energy not transferred during calculation of the coupling;

only mass and momentum need to be conserved

EDEM prevents particles from moving during the fluid

phase and removes all other phasic interaction

Particle forces and positions updated in DEM phase

Momentum Exchange

Momentum is exchanged between solid and fluid phases

for both Eulerian and Lagrangian coupling methods:

several iterations.

EDEM particle positions are updated due to contact forces,

gravity and additional forces applied by the fluid

to each of the mesh cells to represent the effect of energy

transfer from the DEM particles

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Particle volume fraction transfered to Fluent for Eulerian

coupling only

Ideally EDEM particles are smaller than Fluent mesh cells

A single particle in EDEM can be made from multiple

spheres. The volume of a multi-sphere particle is passed

to Fluent (the drag model assumes a particle is spherical)

Relaxation Factors

Momentum transfer and volume fraction transfer can be

under-relaxed to provide greater stability on the CFD side:

Pnew = xPcalculated + (1 x)Pold

Where P is the momentum, x is the relaxation factor

phase simulations) to 1.0 (fast flowing dilute simulations)

10

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Sample Points

transfer volume fraction to mesh cells up

to 2x smaller than the particles

Increasing the sample points increases

the accuracy and stability of Eulerian

simulations

A sample point of 1 is enough where

particles are more than 60% smaller than

the mesh cells

contain particle volume

DEM =

SV

i =1

particle

N sampleV fluidcell

11

Timesteps

CFD typically uses a timestep of orders of 10 100

greater than DEM

Performing a single CFD timestep for every DEM timestep

is inefficient, so a ratio is chosen:

Must be small enough to assume the fluid flow pattern doesnt change

significantly during the DEM iteration

Each particle should be in a fluent mesh cell for a minimum of three

iterations

Ratio must be such that the CFD can successfully iterate to convergence

on return from the DEM

Smallest possible edem:fluent timestep ratio is 1:1

EDEM time data stored in each Fluent case file

12

Page 7 of 15

Drag Models

13

Drag Models

The EDEM-CFD Coupling Module for FLUENT has several

drag model options:

Freestream Drag Model free stream drag model

modified to calculate forces on particles

Ergun and Wen & Yu modified freestream drag

Di Felice adds porosity correction term

User-Defined write and use your own plug-in drag

models

14

Page 8 of 15

Drag Calculation

Bounding sphere used to calculate the drag force for non-spherical particles

Limited particle size since fluid data is taken from the mesh cell containing

the center of the particle

The drag coefficient, CD, is dependent on the Reynolds number, Re:

Re =

vl

Where is the fluid density, is the viscosity, l is the diameter of the particles bounding sphere,

and v is the relative velocity between the fluid and the particle

FB = Vg

15

Freestream Drag Model

Free steam drag for a sphere is calculated from:

F = 0.5CD Av |v |

Where A is the projected area of the sphere

According to the work of Twente:

F=

V v

1 e

Where V is the volume of the sphere, e is the voidage of the Fluent cell, and:

16

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Di Felice Drag Model

Adds porosity correction term to the freestream drag model to take into

account the effects on drag of neighboring particles. Calculated from:

17

Other Models

18

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Lift Models

The EDEM-CFD Coupling Module for FLUENT has several

lift model options:

Saffman Lift lift due to velocity gradient in fluid flow

Magnus Lift lift due to particle rotation

Fluid-induced Torque handles particle rotation due to

fluid shear

19

The EDEM-CFD Coupling Module for FLUENT includes

both convective and radiative heat transfer models as

optional licensable features:

Convective Heat Transfer

Ranz & Marshall suitable for a particle Reynolds

number of up to 200

Gunn more suitable for granular flows

Li & Mason set the exponential constant to fine-tune

your model

Radiative Heat Transfer

Set the surface emissivity of particles

20

Page 11 of 15

User-Defined Functions

EDEM

UDF

FLUENT

Export the meshed geometry from Fluent case files directly into

EDEM

Periodically update volume fraction and particle drag forces

Calculate simulation time and end time for EDEM

Call EDEM to update particle positions and forces

Transfer momentum source terms to Fluent

Transfer mass source terms to Fluent (for Eulerian coupling)

21

Examples

22

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Examples

Fluidized bed

Sedimentation

Entrainment

23

Examples

Aerating Chemical Slurry

Pneumatic

Conveying

24

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Examples - Combustion

Particles input at the top of the model at a set mass

flow rate

Fluid velocity high enough to mix the particles and

prevent them from leaving the base of the domain

Objectives: Find fluid flow velocity where particles fall

into the gas inlet

Gas inlet

Gas inlet

V=50 m/s

V=60 m/s

25

Modeling transportation of strings of flexible bonded

particles using a fluid drag model

Used to investigate required particle bond strengths

and fluid flow rates

Result: Improved flow efficiency

26

Page 14 of 15

Summary

In-built or user-defined drag models

In-built lift and heat transfer models

Eulerian stabilized for particles up to twice grid cell size

Automated link between EDEM and FLUENT

Automatic model set-up

Time-step matching

Joint post-processing using EnSight

Pause-and-continue

27

Page 15 of 15

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