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PIPING PULSATION ANALYSIS

of
a

ARIEL JGE/4 COMPRESSOR


with a
WAUKESHA L5790GL ENGINE
for
PETROFAC, LLC

AG EQUIPMENT CO.
BROKEN ARROW, OK

JUNE, 2001
ECSI JOB #201-1050

PIPING PULSATION ANALYSIS

of
a

ARIEL JGE/4 COMPRESSOR


with a
WAUKESHA L5790GL ENGINE
PETROFAC, LLC

SUBMITTED TO:
AG EQUIPMENT
BROKEN ARROW, OK

JUNE, 2001

ENGINEERING AND CONSULTING SERVICES, INC.


BROKEN ARROW, OK
ECSI JOB #201-1050

July 10, 2001

INTRODUCTION
Engineering and Consulting Services, Inc. recently performed an acoustical analysis on
an Ariel JGE/4 compressor, driven by a Waukesha L5790GL engine. This unit was packaged by
AG Equipment Company, Broken Arrow, OK for Petrofac, LLC, Tyler, TX.
Included in this acoustic analysis were on-skid suction, interstage, and discharge piping
with scrubbers, intercooler and aftercooler. General arrangement piping plans and elevations,
scrubber, bottle and cooler details, as well as compressor information including performance
analyses were provided by AG Equipment Company. AG predetermined the pulsation bottle and
scrubber sizes; these were not modified unless it was determined to be critical to the analysis.
API 618, Section 3.9 -Reciprocating Compressor Code was utilized for acceptance
criteria. Design approach 2 was considered for all systems.
ANALYSIS
The computer program, Gas Compressor Pulsation Analysis , used in this study
utilizes classical fluid theory and considers both steady and dynamic (acoustic) flow in the
pulsation analysis calculations. The computer program utilizes digital analysis techniques to
simulate the acoustic response of the piping system to cylinder harmonic excitation.
Cylinders were modeled by considering bore, stroke, rod diameter, clearance, suction and
discharge temperatures and pressures, and gas compressibility. The compressor model included
speed, connecting rod length and crank phase angles.
Two performance analyses were provided for review. This compressor utilizes a side
stream between the 1st and 2nd stages to provide the majority of the gas for the 2nd stage
compression. Steady state performance was calculated using 1,200 rpm.
Gas composition was used to determine fluid mixture physical properties such as density,
sonic velocity, viscosity, specific heat ratios and compressibility.
Simulation of the piping system included pipe diameters, length, flow rate and pressure
drop. Influence of pressure drop on acoustic attenuation with changes in sonic velocity due to
steady flow velocity was also included in this study.

Bottles and scrubbers were included in the model. Physical dimensions were obtained
from the provided drawings and details.
Suction and discharge pressures were held to 170 PSIG and 1,285 PSIG for this analysis.
Flow rates used for these models were 3.91 & 4.01 MMSCF/D through the 1st stage and 13.14 &
10.44 MMSCF/D for the 2nd stage operation.
A sketch is attached with node numbers identified for reference to the acoustic response
spectrums. The spectral response plots of pulsation pressure versus frequency at critical points
within each piping system are included.

Recommendations

RECOMMENDATIONS
Inlet Piping System
Suction Bottle V-2604 (V-2) overall dimensions remain as proposed. Extend inlet to bottle
center. Reduce portion in bottle to 3 S XS. Refer to sketch PD-01 for details.
Interstage Piping System
Discharge Bottle V-2605, V-3, overall dimensions remain as proposed. Extend outlet to bottle
center. Reduce portion in bottle to 2 S XS. Refer to sketch PD-02.
Change suction bottle V-2606A, V-5, to a 3-chamber design. Overall dimensions should be 14
OD x 72 S-S. Refer to sketch PD-05 for details and critical dimensions.
Increase diameter of suction bottle V-2606B to 12 OD.
Install a 1.750 diameter orifice plate at the outlet of discharge bottle V-2605.
Install a 2.750 diameter orifice plate at the inlet nozzle of suction bottle V-2606A.
Install a 1.625 diameter orifice plate at the inlet nozzle of suction bottle V-2606B.
Discharge Piping System
Change discharge bottle V-2607A, V-6, to a 3-chamber design. Overall dimensions should be
14 OD x 72 S-S. Refer to sketch PD-06 for details and critical dimensions.
Increase diameter of discharge bottle V-2607B to 12 OD. Refer to sketch PD-08.
Install a 1.625 diameter orifice plate at the outlet flange of bottle V-2607A.
Install a 1.125 diameter orifice plate at the outlet flange of discharge bottle V-2607B.

CUSTOMER JOB NO.


UNIT NO.
SYSTEM
Inlet Piping System

01113
K-2601

CONTACT: Ed Jackson
ECSI NO. 201-1018

MODIFICATIONS
Suction Bottle V-2604 (V-2) overall
dimensions remain as proposed. Extend inlet
to bottle center. Reduce portion in bottle to 3
S XS. Refer to sketch PD-01 for details.

ORIFICE
SIZE

PRESS.
PSI / %

DATE: 01/20/01

COMMENTS
API design approach 2 design limit for this
system is between 0.3% and 4.5%, depending
on pipe diameter and frequency.
The modified system should meet API
guidelines for both cases reviewed.
Bottle unbalanced shaking forces are low.
The maximum force will be 15 lbs, or less.

Interstage Piping System

API design approach 2 recommended limit for


this system is between 0.2% and 4.9%,
depending on pipe diameter and frequency.

Discharge Bottle V-2605 (V-3) overall


dimensions remain as proposed. Extend outlet
to bottle center. Reduce portion in bottle to 2
S XS. Refer to sketch PD-02.

The modified system should meet API


guidelines for the cases studied.

Change suction bottle V-2606A (V-5) to a 3chamber design. Overall dimensions should
be 14 OD x 72 S-S. Refer to sketch PD-05
for details and critical dimensions.

Bottle unbalanced shaking forces are low.


The maximum force expected will be in the
double hung suction bottle. These forces will
be 200 lbs, or less. Unbalanced forces in the
other bottles are 15 lbs, or less.

Increase diameter of suction bottle V-2606B


to 12 OD.
Install an orifice plate at the outlet of
discharge bottle V-2605.

1.750

3.94 / 0.83

Install an orifice plate at the inlet nozzle of


suction bottle V-2606A.

2.750

2.32 / 0.49

Install an orifice plate at the inlet nozzle of


suction bottle V-2606B.

1.625

3.55 / 0.75

Discharge Piping System

API recommended design limit is between


0.2% and 3.0%, depending on pipe diameter
and frequency.

Change discharge bottle V-2607A (V-6) to a


3-chamber design. Overall dimensions should
be 14 OD x 72 S-S. Refer to sketch PD-06
for details and critical dimensions.
Increase diameter of discharge bottle V-2607B
to 12 OD. Refer to sketch PD-08.

The modified system meets API criteria for


the two cases reviewed, except in the recycle /
bypass lines. These lines exceed API limits
but should not cause problems. The maximum
forces in these lines will be less than 50 lbs at
2x running speed.

Install an orifice plate at the outlet flange of


bottle V-2607A.

1.625

7.39 / 0.57

Install an orifice plate at the outlet flange of


discharge bottle V-2607B.

1.125

11.01 / 0.85 Bottle unbalanced shaking forces are low.


The maximum force should be 180 lbs, or less.

Conclusions

CONCLUSIONS
Compressor packages are fabricated utilizing complicated sub assemblies such as skid,
motor/engine base, compressor base, scrubbers, pipe supports and others. Every effort should be
used to insure a rigid assembly during construction; scrubbers and pipe supports should be
welded to supporting I-beams and not just to the decking.
With the compressor, bottle, scrubber, and piping system constructed as per the above
system analysis, along with adequate piping clamps, and proper cylinder/bottle bracing and
supports, an acceptable level of vibration should be obtained.
Compressor cylinder passages and valve interactions are generally not included in the
compressor model. Reliable, and exact, information on cylinder passages and valve natural
frequencies is difficult to obtain. It is assumed that the cylinder manufacturer has designed the
passages to minimize the effects of reflected pulsation pressure waves in the valve area.
Normally, natural frequencies of the valves are substantially different than the frequency
of any reflected pulsation. However, experience has shown that in some instances, a system that
meets API design criteria may have unacceptable valve life. These systems will require further
analysis to eliminate the problem.
Engineering and Consulting Services, Inc. has used proven advanced design techniques
and utilized state-of-the-art computer simulations and computer modeling in an attempt to
accurately represent actual system response. The programs used in this study have been used
successfully for analysis, design and troubleshooting of gas piping systems in onshore and
offshore field gas compressor stations, gas processing plants, fuel gas booster stations, pipeline
transmission stations, refineries, and chemical plants. Well over a thousand studies have been
successfully performed in the last 15 years.
In general, very good comparisons of measured pulsation pressures to calculated
pressures have been obtained. If differences exist, calculated pulsation pressures are usually
found to be somewhat higher than measured pressures. However, compressor systems are
governed by complex relationships and piping interactions; and often react differently than
expected. Therefore, Engineering and Consulting Services, Inc., and its representatives, make no
claims or guarantees to the accuracy or correctness of the data presented in this report. ECSI
cannot be held responsible for results different than those predicted.
Do not hesitate to contact us if you have questions, or need additional information
concerning this study.

Tom Steeper, P.E.


Senior Mechanical Engineer

Piping Systems

Inlet Piping System


Acoustic analysis of the inlet gas system included the on-skid inlet piping, suction
scrubber V-2602 (V-1), suction bottle V-2604 (V-2), by-pass line to valves 2373, relief valve
PSV-2625 and the 1st stage cylinder. Modifications to the proposed suction bottle are necessary
to achieve adequate attenuation of the pulsation pressures.
Overall dimensions of proposed suction bottle V-2604 (V-2) should remain as proposed.
Extend the inlet nozzle in to the bottle center. Reduce the portion of inlet nozzle in bottle to 3 S
XS pipe. Extending the inlet nozzle reduced the level and frequency of the bottle unbalanced
forces. Refer to sketch PD-01 for critical dimensions and details.
API design approach 2 recommended pulsation limit for this system vary between 0.3%
and 4.5%, depending on diameter and frequency of interest. This system will meet API design
criteria with the recommended modifications. The system response should be acceptable.
Unbalanced shaking forces in the suction bottle will be low. Maximum force is expected
to be less than 15 lbs. Maximum forces in the by-pass line at valves 2373 are low as well.
Refer to the attached plots labeled 1S1.PLT for selected nodal pulsation pressure
responses on the following pages.
Recommendation: Extend the inlet nozzle in to the bottle center. Reduce the portion of inlet
nozzle in bottle to 3 S XS pipe.

INLET PIPING SYSTEM

Interstage Piping System


The acoustic analysis of this piping system consists of the 1st stage cylinder, discharge
bottle V-2605 (V-3), cooler AC-2602, scrubber V-2603 (V-4), relief valve PSV-2628, suction
bottles V-2606A (V-5) and V-2606B (V-7), 2nd stage cylinders, and related piping. This system
also includes a side-stream connection to scrubber V-2603. Modifications to the proposed
bottles and piping are necessary to achieve acceptable attenuation of the pulsation pressures.
Overall dimensions of proposed discharge bottle V-2605 should remain as proposed.
Extend the outlet nozzle in to bottle center. Reduce the portion of outlet nozzle in bottle to 2
S XS pipe. Extending the inlet nozzle reduced the level and frequency of the bottle unbalanced
forces. Refer to sketch PD-02 for critical dimensions and details.
Replace the proposed suction bottle V-2606A with a 3-chamber design. Overall
dimensions should be 14 OD x 72 S-S. Choke tube dimensions should be 2 S Std x 34
long. The inlet nozzle should be reduced to 3 S Std in the bottle. Cylinder nozzles should be
held to approximately 10 OAL (Over All Length). Refer to sketch PD-05 for critical
dimensions and details.
Increase the diameter of suction bottle V-2606B (V-7) to 12 OD. Cylinder nozzles
should be held to approximately 10 OAL.
Install a 1.750 diameter orifice plate at the outlet of discharge bottle V-2605. The
maximum pressure drop resulting from this orifice plate will be 0.83%, or 3.94 PSI.
Additionally, install a 2.750 diameter orifice plate at the inlet nozzle of suction bottle V2606A. The pressure drop associated with this orifice plate will be 0.49%, or 2.32 PSI.
Finally, install a 1.625 diameter orifice plate at the inlet nozzle of suction bottle V2606B. The maximum pressure drop resulting from this orifice plate will be 0.75%, or 3.55 PSI.
API recommended pulsation limit for this system vary between 0.2% and 4.9%,
depending on line diameter and frequency. This system should meet API design criteria with the
recommended changes. The system response should be acceptable.
Bottle unbalanced shaking forces are low. The maximum force expected will be in the
double hung suction bottle. These forces will be 200 lbs, or less. Unbalanced forces in the other
bottles are 15 lbs, or less.
Refer to the attached plots labeled 1IS15.PLT for selected nodal pulsation pressure
responses.
Recommendation: Extend outlet nozzle to bottle center on discharge bottle V-2605. Reduce
the portion of outlet nozzle in bottle to 2 S XS pipe. Replace the
proposed suction bottle V-2606A with a 3-chamber design. Choke tube
dimensions should be 2 S Std x 34 long. The inlet nozzle should be

reduced to 3 S Std in the bottle. Increase the diameter of suction bottle


V-2606B to 12 OD. Install a 1.750 diameter orifice plate at the
outlet of discharge bottle V-2605. Additionally, install a 2.750 diameter
orifice plate at the inlet nozzle of suction bottle V-2606A. Finally, install
a 1.625 diameter orifice plate at the inlet nozzle of suction bottle V2606B.

Interstage Piping System

Interstage Piping System


Continued

Discharge Piping System


The acoustic analysis of the discharge piping system consists of the 2nd stage cylinders,
discharge bottles V-2607A (V-6), relief valve PSV-2627, by-pass line to valves 2373, cooler
AC-2603 and related piping. Modifications to the proposed discharge bottles and piping are
necessary to achieve acceptable attenuation of the pulsation pressures.
Replace the proposed discharge bottle V-2607A with a 3-chamber design. Overall
dimensions should be 14 OD x 72 S-S. Choke tube dimensions should be 1 S 160 x 34
long. The inlet nozzle should be reduced to 2 S XS in the bottle. Cylinder nozzles should be
held to approximately 10 OAL (Over All Length). Refer to sketch PD-06 for critical
dimensions and details.
Change the overall dimensions of proposed discharge bottle V-2607B to 12 OD x 18
S-S (no change). Extend the outlet nozzle into the bottle center. Reduce the portion of outlet
nozzle in bottle to 1 S 160 pipe. Refer to sketch PD-07 for details.
Install a 1.625 diameter orifice plate at discharge bottle V-2607A outlet flange.
Pressure drop associated with this orifice plate should be a maximum of 0.57%, or 7.39 PSI.
Additionally, install a 1.125 diameter orifice plate at discharge bottle V-2607B outlet
flange. Pressure drop associated with this orifice plate will be 0.85%, or 11.01 PSI, maximum.
API recommended pulsation limit for this system vary between 0.2% and 3.0%, depending on
pipe diameter and frequency. The modified system meets API criteria for the two cases
reviewed, except in the recycle / bypass lines. These lines exceed API limits but should not
cause problems. The maximum forces in these lines will be less than 50 lbs at 2x running speed.
Unbalanced shaking forces in the discharge bottles will be low. Maximum force is
expected to be 180 lbs, or less. Maximum forces in the by-pass line at valves 2373 will be low,
as well.
Refer to the attached plots labeled 1D14.PLT for selected nodal pulsation pressure
responses.
Recommendation: Replace the proposed discharge bottle V-2607A with a 3-chamber
design. Overall dimensions should be 14 OD x 72 S-S. Choke tube
dimensions should be 1 S 160 x 34 long. The inlet nozzle should
be reduced to 2 S XS in the bottle. Cylinder nozzles should be held
to approximately 10 OAL. Change the diameter of proposed discharge
bottle V-2607B to 12 OD. Install a 1.625 diameter orifice plate at
discharge bottle V-2607A outlet flange. Additionally, install a 1.125
diameter orifice plate at discharge bottle V-2607B outlet flange.

DISCHARGE PIPING SYSTEM

DISCHARGE PIPING SYSTEM


Continued

Technical Data