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CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
Rationale
The issue of language is always contested at local, national and
international level as it is closely associated with identity, politics and
development. Education is one of the major domains where language issues
emerge creating debates which sometimes are difficult to settle down. Even if they
are addressed at the policy level it may not guarantee quality education in practice.
As envisioned by the Education for All (EFA) programme and the Millennium
Development Goal (MDG), countries around the world, especially the developing
ones like Philippines, are provided with both financial and technical assistance
from international development agencies. The countries have also attempted
various policy changes to ensure access, equity quality and relevance of primary
education. One of the policy level innovations we can see is the introduction of
learners mother tongues in schools both as a subject and the medium of
instruction. Various studies (e.g. Benson, 2002; Dutcher, 2003) have identified that
childrens overall educational attainment can be enhanced if they are taught in their
mother tongue in early grades. In contrary to this, teaching in a dominant language,
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which is different from childrens mother tongue, in early grades invites serious
challenges in education e.g. high drop-out rates, low educational attainment and
lack of classroom interaction (UNESCO, 2003). Due to these problems, as reported
by Dutcher (2004), a large number of indigenous children, who come from
different linguistic groups, are still out of school, and even if they have joined the
school they are marred with the low performance on the ground of their low
competence in dominant language (s) which is used as the medium of instruction in
schools.
The language-in-education policy is more complex in a multilingual country
like Nepal than in a country having only a few languages. The debate of the
selection of the medium of instruction in school is the most dominant issue in
language planning and policy. There are mainly two conflicting views in this
regard. By supporting the importance of a dominant (e.g. Filipino in the
Philippines) and global languages like English (in wider socio-economic contexts),
a majority of people argue that children should be taught in national and
international languages. On the other hand, there is another view that argues for the
use of childrens mother as the medium of instruction in schools to help children
develop cognitively and linguistically. Educationists and scholars (e.g. Benson,
2002; Skutnabb-Kangas, 2010). who are in favor of the later claim that learning
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through mother tongue fosters childrens overall educational achievement. This


debate indicates that there is need of an appropriate approach in language-ineducation planning which ensures the use of both mother tongues and dominant
languages in schools. To this end, there is a growing trend of countries adopting the
Mother-Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) with aims to address
linguistic diversity, ensure linguistic rights of children enshrined in various
international declarations and national constitutions, promote access and equity in
basic education, and enhance quality of education.
The language used for teaching dramatically affects childrens ability to
learn. This is because children know thousands of oral vocabulary words and have
considerable phonemic awareness in their mother tongueeven before they start
school. If schooling takes place in a language they do not know, however, they are
unable to use this knowledge and build upon it. Moreover, trying to teach children
in a language they cannot understand makes teaching much more difficult, since
time must be spent on teaching the language and vocabulary first. In one study,
analysis of data from 22 developing countries and 160 language groups revealed
that children who had access to instruction in their mother tongue were
significantly more likely to be enrolled and attending school. Conversely, lack of
education in a childs first language was a significant reason for children dropping
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out (Smits et al., 2008). As a result, many students repeat grades or drop out of
school, while those who stay in school lack basic literacy skills and therefore do
not master further content knowledge.
Learning in a first language, or familiar language, is essential for the initial
teaching of reading (Dutcher and Tucker, 1997, p. 36). Yet, an estimated 221
million school-age children speak languages not used as the primary medium of
instruction in the formal school system (Walter, cited in Dutcher, 2004), creating
significant obstacles for teaching and learning.
Therefore, it is not a coincidence that the worlds most linguistically diverse
societies account for a significant proportion of out of school children: 54 million
of the worlds out of school children live in countries designated as highly
linguistically fractionalized. This represents 58% of primary-aged children
(Alesina 2003, Lewis and Lockheed 2006, UNESCO 2008). In sum, these
countries represent 72% of the worlds out-of-school children, an indicating a clear
link exists between lack of education in familiar languages and lack of access to
education. Gettingand keepingthese out-of-school children into the classroom
depends in large part on the language of instruction in the classroom. Teaching
children in a language they do not understand significantly impedes their ability to

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access a quality education, especially when coupled with other problems including
poverty and poor teaching and learning conditions.
One of the changes in Basic Education Curriculum brought about by the
new

K-12 program

is the

introduction of MTB-MLE specifically in

Kindergarten, Grades 1, 2 and 3 to support the goal of Every Child- A- Reader


and A Writer by Grade 1. The preponderance of local and international research
consistent with the Basic Education Reform Agenda (BESRA) recommendations
affirms the benefits of MTB-MLE. Convinced of this overwhelming evidence
showing the advantage of learners who undergo learning in their first language, the
Department of Education issued DO 74 on July 14, 2009, and thus institutionalized
MTB-MLE as a fundamental educational policy and program within the DepEd
in the whole stretch of formal education including pre-school and in the
Alternative Learning System (ALS). To this end, the DepEd, along with partners
both in government and in non-government organizations, have joined together to
support DO 74 by strategically planning for the implementation of MTB-MLE
country-wide.
MTB-MLE refers to first-language-first education that is, schooling which
begins in the mother tongue and transitions to additional languages particularly
Filipino and English. It is meant to address the high functional illiteracy of
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Filipinos where language plays a significant factor. Since the childs own language
enables her/ him to express him/herself easily, then, there is no fear of making
mistakes. It encourages active participation by children in the learning process
because they understand what is being discussed and what is being asked of them.
They can immediately use their mother tongue to construct and explain their world,
articulate their thoughts and add new concepts to what they already know.
MTB-MLE is a structured program of language learning and cognitive
development providing a strong educational foundation in the first language, with
successful bridging to one or more additional languages, and enabling the use of
both/all languages for life-long learning.
The purpose of a multilingual education program is to develop appropriate
cognitive and reasoning skills enabling children to operate equally in their
community language, the national language and English. Effective multilingual
education begins in the mother tongue of the learner with transition to the second
(Filipino) and third languages (English).
Driving both preservice and inservice teacher training are sets of standards
for setting the qualifications and competencies of teachers. Within MTB-MLE
these standards should reflect the fact that teachers are prepared to successfully
educate students who speak a mother tongue different from the target language of
instruction. This requires that teachers understand and can implement strategies for
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using the mother tongue as the primary road for children to build their initial
literacy skills as well as using it to bridge to oral and written literacy in the targeted
second language. The development and implementation of effective standards for
teachers in MTB-MLE programs is an important factor in building successful
MTB-MLE programs.
With MTB-MLE comes the growing apprehension from the teachers that
teaching in a mother tongue-based program requires a vastly different set of skills,
many of which they apparently do not have at the moment. The teachers are
particularly concerned with practical issues such as producing home-grown and
contextually sensitive teaching and reading materials, and how to actually develop
greater fluency in their own languages.
According to Dr. Dennis and Susan Malone, the leading MLE consultants
from SIL International, a critical problem is that in most countries, there are too
few certified teachers from local language communities who have the level of
fluency needed to use both languages in the classroom. Without the advantage of
MTB-MLE, many of the students who do not speak the school language have done
poorly in primary school and have not been able to progress through secondary
school. The Malones claim that effective and sustainable MTB-MLE programs
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require teachers who are fluent in speaking, reading and writing both their
students mother tongue and the official school language.
With the Department of Educations nationwide implementation of its own
version of mother tongue-based education in kindergarten and first grade, teaching
education institutions have their work cut out for them in revising their curricula to
be congruent with the new education policy. Ricardo Ma. Nolasco, PhD, an
associate professor at the Department of Linguistics in UP Diliman and the MLE
adviser of the Eggie Apostol Foundation inferred that it will take more than three
years before we can produce and equip our teachers with the necessary
competencies in the required languages and in academic content and before
reforms translate into better learning outcomes and greater participation rates. A
mapping on language use not only by the learners but also by the teachers
themselves is a prerequisite that must be taken seriously by education officials as
basis for planning sustainable MTB-MLE programs.
Since MTB-MLE has as one of its main purposes to acquaint students with
the principles of reading and then to build actual reading skills, the curriculum
needs to develop materials to make this happen. The broad categories of materials
needed to implement an MTB-MLE curriculum include early literacy materials in
the mother tongue, a variety of on-grade narrative reading materials using the
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mother tongue, possibly subject-area materials in the mother tongue, materials to


transition from the mother tongue into the second language, and then, of course,
materials as appropriate for the educational system in the second language. In most
cases, appropriate mother tongue materials will be lacking and will need to be
prepared. Other educational materials in the mother tongue will likewise have to be
constructed by those proficient in writing the language and with appropriate
educational backgrounds or experience in constructing learning materials. Likely
the most technically demanding skills will be needed to structure the primary
literacy materials, since effective materials will require knowledge of how to
present the symbol-to-sound rules and the sound-to-meaning conventions for
writing the language in a way that aligns with the students' capabilities. In view of
these observations and data pertinent to the implementation of MTB-MLE and
consequently the teachers and administrators knowledge, needs, preparedness and
attitude towards it that this present study is created. It looks into how a separate
Mother Tongue subject beyond Grade 3 will be advantageous in allowing the
continuing transfer of linguistic and cognitive skills across languages.
Undeniably, any educational reform in its early stage of implementation is
without its teething problems so to speak. Studies have been made on the status of
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the implementation of MTB-MLE and each study brings to the fore the pressing
concerns teachers have pertinent to it. Findings of the said studies point to areas
where teachers are in need of further assistance such as trainings, strategies typical
of MTB-MLE, proficiency in the mother tongue as well as learning resources. Of
the areas mentioned, teachers handling Grade I in District III of Lingayen, Division
of Pangasinan I point to learning resources as a main concern. The dearth of
instructional materials keep them from fully optimizing the utilization of mother
tongue as a learning subject. It is for this reason that instructional materials or
learning resources are hereby proposed to aid the teachers in Lingayen III in
Division of Pangasinan I in the teaching of mother tongue (Pangasinan).

Conceptual /Theoretical Framework


Educational theories linked to the mother tongue-based multilingual
education suggest that children learn best from a familiar starting point. Learning
should begin with what a child knows and understands. Thus, children learn best
when using a language they speak and understand well. Mother tongue-based MLE
programmes enable learners to begin their education in the language they know
best. As they use their own language for learning, they are introduced to the new
(official) language and begin learning to communicate in that language. At the
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same time, teachers help the learners develop their academic vocabulary in the new
language so they can understand and talk about more abstract concepts. In the best
programmes, learners continue to develop their ability to communicate and to learn
in both languages throughout primary school.
Considerable evidence exists that teaching children to read in their first
language helps them to learn to read a second language, because language skills
that are developed in a first language are transferrable to a second language
(UNESCO, 2008; Bialystock, 2006; Geva 2006). Moreover, mastering of the first
language promotes cognitive development needed to more easily learn a second
language. When children do not learn to read in the early grades, they fall further
and further behind their peers who can read, and they continue to fall behind in
other academic subjects as well. This phenomenon, known as the Matthew
Effect, is based on research showing that pupils scoring below a certain reading
level by the end of grade 1 stay behind throughout their academic career, and the
gap widens as they grow older (Stanovich, K.E., 1986). As a result, many students
who do not first learn to read in a language they know never master a second
language, and they are more likely to repeat grades or drop out of school. And
those students who manage to stay in school frequently lack basic literacy skills
and face significant challenges to mastering curriculum content. Although a
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commonly heard argument is that children learn language easily and quickly,
children need to be taught a language before they are expected learn via that
language. To do this, they need to be gradually transitioned into a new language, a
process that takes years if done well. When curriculum content is presented in an
unfamiliar language, an enormous amount of time must be spent first helping
children to understand this language, something that is extremely difficult and
wastes valuable years in the early grades when children could be learning in their
first language. Research since the 1960s has shown that it takes children until
about age 12 to full learn their mother tongue. Once they have learned this first
language, learning a second language becomes easier to learn. This is because
children have the foundation of knowledge and reading skills to help them learn a
new language (McLaughlin, 1992).
Republic Act No. 10533 known as the Enhanced Basic Education
Act of 2013. declared the policy of the State that every graduate of basic
education shall be an empowered individual who has learned, through a program
that is rooted on sound educational principles and geared towards excellence, the
foundations for learning throughout life, the competence to engage in work and be
productive, the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with local and global
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communities, the capability to engage in autonomous, creative, and critical


thinking, and the capacity and willingness to transform others and ones self.
It is for the above reasons that our government has created a functional basic
education system that will develop productive and responsible citizens equipped
with the essential competencies, skills and values for both life-long learning and
employment. In order to achieve this. DepEd has made education learner-oriented
and responsive to the needs, cognitive and cultural capacity, the circumstances and
diversity of learners, schools and communities through the appropriate languages
of teaching and learning, including mother tongue as a learning resource. Basic
education is delivered in languages understood by the learners as the language
plays a strategic role in shaping the formative years of learners.
With the implementation of MTB-MLE, instruction, teaching materials and
assessment shall be in the regional or native language of the learners, for
kindergarten and the first three (3) years of elementary education, The Department
of Education (DepED) formulated a mother language transition program from
Grade 4 to Grade 6 so that Filipino and English shall be gradually introduced as
languages of instruction until such time when these two (2) languages can become
the primary languages of instruction at the secondary level.

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The multilingual provisions in RA 10533, also known as the K-12 law, are
incontrovertible evidence that our country has shifted from a one nation, one
language mindset to one that recognizes our linguistic and cultural pluralism. the
implementation of DepEd Order No. 60, s. 2008 and DepEd Order No. 74, s. 2009
caused a significant change in the current educational landscape. The former
recognizes that the mother tongue, when used as the language of instruction (LOI),
is the most effective way to improve student learning. Correspondingly, the latter
mandate aptly institutionalized Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education
(MTBMLE) as a fundamental educational policy program, founded on the basic
premise of starting "where the learners are, and from what they already know"
(Nolasco, 2009: 2). MTB-MLE advances education beginning with the child's first
language (L1) and the subsequent gradual introduction of other languages along
with the buildup of the child's L1 skills. Almost two years after the Department of
Education, through Order No. 74 s. 2009, pushed for the use of the first language
in basic education, efforts at implementing MTB-MLE (mother tongue based
multilingual education) are now gaining significant ground.
Many Filipino children begin their education in a language they do
not speak or understand as well as their first language. In this setting, only the
learners' first language can provide the kind of bridge to a personal identity that
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incorporates both an ethnic and a national dimension. MTB-MLE forwards an


alternative, ideological model of literacy which develops the critical thinking skills
of the students, builds cognitive and affective domains. and values their local
language experience and culture Thus, by 'first establishing the empowering role of
language in the social system of the students' community, groundwork is laid for
the expansion of the students' identity to include their role in the larger national
and international contexts.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL IN MOTHER TONGUE


(PANGASINAN) FOR GRADE I PUPILS
INPUT
1. Profile of Grade I Pupils
in terms of the following:
a. Age
b. Sex
c. First Language spoken at
home (L1)
2. Level of Performance
3. Mastered and Not
Mastered Skills

PROCESS
1. Preparation,
Validation and
Administration of the
First Quarter
Examination
2. Analysis and
Interpretation of
a. Profile

OUPUT

Instructional Material
in Mother Tongue
(Pangasinan) for
Grade I Pupils

b. Level of
Performance
c. Figure
Mastered
I and Not
Mastered Skills

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3. Development of
Instructional Material

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Paradigm of the Study

Statement of the Problem


This study sought to develop instructional material in Mother Tongue
(Pangasinan) for Grade I pupils at Lingayen III District, Division of Pangasinan I,
School Year 2014-2015.
1. What is the profile of the Grade I pupils in terms of :
a. Age
b. Sex
c. Language spoken at home (L1/First Language)
2. What is the level of performance of the Grade I Pupils in Lingayen III District,
Division of Pangasinan I in the First Quarter Examination in Mother Tongue
(Pangasinan)?
2.W hat are the mastered skills and not mastered skills of the Grade I pupils based
from the First Quarter Examination in Mother Tongue (Pangasinan) ?
4. What instructional material may be proposed to improve the performance of the
Grade I pupils in Mother Tongue (Pangasinan)?

Assumption
Instructional material improves the performance of the Grade I pupils in
Mother Tongue.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study


This study is delimited to the analysis of the profile of the Grade I pupils at
Lingayen, Division of Pangasinan in terms of age, profile and language spoken at
home (first language) as well as their level of performance in the First Quarter
Examination in Mother Tongue (Pangasinan) for the school year 2014-2015. It,
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then, zeroed in on the mastered and not mastered skills of the Grade I pupils based
on the First Quarter Examination in Mother Tongue (Pangasinan). The study is
delimited to the Grade I pupils at District of Lingayen, Division of Pangasinan I in
the mother tongue (Pangasinan).

Importance of the Study


Language is one of the most important variables affecting education. Indeed,
we will not achieve Education for All unless we provide children with the
opportunity to learn in their mother tongue and provide them with adequate
instructional materials, too. The MTB-MLE path to school success is based on
providing children with an equitable opportunity to access learning. With the scope
covered by this study pertinent to MTB-MLE, this is considered beneficial to the
following:
To the school administrators, the results of this study will serve as an eyeopener for them in the light of the concerns the teachers have with regards to the
implementation of MTB-MLE and address them. It is with hope that the results of
this study will compel school administrators to complement teacher trainings with
MTB-MLE techniques and instructional materials.
To the teachers, the data in this study will give them a better perspective of
what MTB-MLE is and the gains that we stand to obtain from its implementation.

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The results of this study will better equip them in carrying out instruction using the
mother tongue and complement it with corresponding instructional materials.
To the students, this study will provide them an environment in which they
learn best as the language used to teach them is also the one they speak in their
home.
To the parents, the results of this study will better involve them in their
childrens education, since they are less likely to be intimidated by the unfamiliar
school environment when their language is the medium of instruction.

Definition of Terms Used


The following terms in this study are defined operationally to give the reader
a clearer and better understanding on how these terms are used.
Age. It refers to the age bracket used representative of the school age of the
Grade I respondents.
First Quarter Examination. It refers to the first conducted periodic
assessment of the pupil-respondents mastery of the lessons as well as of the
expected competencies or skills.
L1. It refers to the first language of the pupil-respondents which is
Pangasinan. It refers to their mother tongue.
Language Spoken at home. It refers to the medium or dialect
predominantly used by the pupil-respondents for communication in their respective
homes.
Mastered Skills. It refers to the abilities or competencies that the pupilrespondents are able to carry out with pre-determined results within a given
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grading period. The skills are said to be mastered by the Grade I pupils if 75% of
them answered the test item correctly.
Mother Tongue. It refers to the first language or native of the pupilrespondents which they have either learned from birth or within the critical period
of language acquisition. It refers to Pangasinan, the mother tongue of the Grade I
respondents in this study.
Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTBM-MLE). It refers
to the first-language-first education that is, schooling which begins in the mother
tongue in the primary grades and transitions to additional languages particularly
Filipino and English. It refers to the learning subject made compulsory in Grades IIII as part of the requirements of the implementation of the K to 12 program
Not Mastered Skills. It refers to the tasks or competencies that the pupilrespondents failed to learn or accomplish within the time frame or grading period.
The skills are said to be not mastered if 75% of the Grade I respondents failed to
answer the test item/s correctly.

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
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This chapter presents a review of literature and studies that have a bearing
on this study.

Related Literature
For several decades, education and language policies in the Philippines have
been a popular subject of debate especially among policy makers and school
administrators. The 1974 Bilingual EducationPolicy (BEP) and the 1987
constitutional mandate on the status of Filipino, in particular, were significant
issues contributing to the course of the Philippine education system (Rubrico,
1998;Acua & Miranda, 1994).More recently, the implementation of DepEd Order
No. 60, s. 2008 and DepEd Order No. 74, s.2009 caused a significant change in the
current educational landscape. The former recognizes that the mother tongue, when
used as the language of instruction (LOI), is the most effective way to improve
student learning. Correspondingly, the latter mandate aptly institutionalized Mother
Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) as a fundamental educational
policy program, founded on the basic premise of starting where the learners are,
and from what they already know(Nolasco, 2009). MTB-MLE advances
education beginning with the childs first language (L1) and the subsequent gradual
introduction of other languages along with the buildup of the childs L1skills
Language is not everything in education, but without language, everything is
nothing in education (Wolf, 2006). In our constitution, education policies and laws
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are favorable toward using children's home language as a medium of instruction in


basic education. Multilingual Education typically refers to "first-language-first" in
education, that is, a childs schooling begins in his or her mother tongue and later
transitions to additional languages. Typically MTB-MLE programs are conducted
in developing countries where speakers of minority languages tend to be
disadvantaged

in

mainstream

education.

"Multilingual

education

helps

linguistically marginalized communities bridge to the broader society, allowing


them to acquire the national language without losing their own identity." (Kosonen,
2009)
People learn best when they learn in a language they understand well.
Multilingual education (MLE) makes quality education possible by adapting
conventional instructional methods and materials to fit a local culture. It creates a
bridge over the cultural and linguistic barriers that block minority language
speakers from learning and living within the wider language and culture.
MTB education is instruction in a childs first language (L1), usually with a
planned gradual transition to a second language (L2) or foreign language at a
specified time in primary school. MTB instruction usually takes place exclusively
in the language most familiar to children. In some cases, it may be provided as part
of a bilingual or multilingual education program. In MTB programs, students have
the opportunity to learn core concepts primarily in a familiar language, and, later,
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they learn the labels or vocabulary for those concepts in a new language. MTB
education is especially beneficial in early childhood programs, preschool, and the
early grades (up to grade 6), when children are learning to read and gaining new
concepts.
The curriculum associated with a MTB-MLE program determines the scope
and sequencing of learning objectives. The goal of the curriculum is to build for
teachers a comprehensive framework in which any particular learning objective is
understood in terms of its necessary precursors. Particularly in early years, the
curriculum has to align itself with the still developing cognitive capabilities of
students, their still limited experience, and with their interests. So the precursor for
any learning unit acts as a necessary bridge to successful learning of the unit. The
fundamental tenet of the MTB-MLE curriculum is that the early learning of the
child, most importantly the learning of the principles of literacy and the child's first
exposure to reading, must be done in the child's mother tongue (Walter, S. and
Dekker, D. 2011). From there the curriculum related to language will consider to
what extent the child will continue to learn in the mother tongue and to learn
language arts in the mother tongue and the pace at which he or she will transition
to another language of instruction. If an educational system requires the use of a
second language, the curriculum should also incorporate an instructional strategy
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for bridging from the mother tongue into that language. Typically, this will be done
through an explicit subject area called, for example, English (or French, Spanish,
Hindi, Arabic, etc.) as a Second Language. In this case, the curriculum should
follow established principles of second language acquisition. Instructional
approaches and strategies are typically spelled out in the curriculum. A finely
detailed curriculum might even provide lesson plans or suggestions for lesson
plans to guide teachers.
Mother tongue-based MLE programmes enable learners to begin their
education in the language they know best. As they use their own language for
learning, they are introduced to the new (official) language and begin learning to
communicate in that language. At the same time, teachers help the learners develop
their academic vocabulary in the new language so they can understand and talk
about more abstract concepts.6 In the best programmes, learners continue to
develop their ability to communicate and to learn in both languages throughout
primary school (Shaeffer, S. 2003). The steps below help to illustrate the
progression of language learning in strong MLE programmes:

Continue building oral and written competence in


both languages
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Use L2 with L1 for teaching and learning
Introduce reading and writing in L2
Continue building oral and written L1 and oral L2
Introduce official language (L2) orally7
Continue building oral and written L1

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Introduce reading and writing in L1

Booklet for Policy


Makers
Continue building oral L1
Use L1 for teaching and learning
Build competence and confidence in home language (L1) orally
(for children who are just beginning school)
Use home language (L1) for teaching and learning

Figure 2. Steps in the Progression of Language Learning


Having established an educational foundation in their home language,
students begin learning the new language, first orally and then in written form.
They do not stop using their first language as soon as they have achieved basic
competency in the new language. Rather, they continue using both languages for
learning, at least through primary school:
When children continue to develop their abilities in two or more languages
throughout their primary school years, they gain a deeper understanding of
language and how to use it effectively. They have more practice in processing
language, especially when they develop literacy in both, and they are able to

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compare and contrast the ways in which their two languages organize reality
(Cummins, J. 200).
The most important features of this process are that:

Education begins with what the learners already know, building on the
language
and culture, knowledge and experience that they bring with them when they

start school;

Learners gradually gain confidence in using the new (official) language,


before it
becomes the only language for teaching academic subjects; and

Learners achieve grade level competence in each subject because teachers


use their home language, along with the official school language, to help
them understand the academic concepts.
When curriculum content is presented in an unfamiliar language, an

enormous amount of time must be spent first teaching children to understand,


speak, read, and write L2 or a foreign language, something that is extremely
difficult and wastes valuable years in the early grades that could be spent learning
to read and learning academic concepts in L1. Moreover, children who cannot
understand the language used in the classroom are unable to demonstrate what they
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know, ask questions, and participate. In contrast, providing children with an


opportunity to learn in a language they understandstarting on the first day of
schoolconfers significant advantages for the education system, teachers, parents,
and students.
Key benefits of MTB-MLE education include the following:
Improves access to education. Children who understand the language of
instruction are more likely to enter school at age-appropriate times and attend
school regularly; moreover, they are less likely to drop out than those who receive
instruction in a foreign language. An analysis of data from 22 developing countries
and 160 language groups revealed that children who had access to instruction in
their mother tongue were significantly more likely to be enrolled and attending
school, while a lack of education in a first language was a significant reason for
children dropping out (Smits et al., 2008). In another study in Mali, students in
classrooms that used childrens first languages as the language of instruction were
five times less likely to repeat the year and more than three times less likely to
drop out (Bender et al., 2005). The chances of keeping children in school, then, are
significantly improved if they can understand and learn productively in the
language in the classroom.
Improves reading and learning outcomes. A recent review of research
reports on language and literacy concludes that becoming literate and fluent in
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ones first language is important for overall language and cognitive development,
as well as academic achievement (Ball, 2010). Evidence from Cameroon, India,
Mali, the Philippines, South Africa, Vietnam, and elsewhere attests to the benefits
of learning in a familiar language. First, children learn to read faster if they speak
the language of instruction, because they already have a repository of vocabulary,
knowledge of the linguistic construction of the language, and the ability to
pronounce the sounds of the language. This prior knowledge facilitates learning to
read, as well as comprehending text. Being able to read and understand the
language in turn facilitates academic learning. For example, a recent evaluation of
a mother tongue education program in Cameroon reveals that children who were
taught in their mother tongue, Kom, performed significantly better125% on
averagein multiple subjects (including math and English) than a control group of
peers who attended schools where English was the medium of instruction (Chuo
and Walter, 2011). In Vietnam, 68% of grade one students in a mother tongue
program achieved the level of excellent compared to only 28% of students not
learning in their mother tongue (UNICEF, 2011). Similar results were achieved in a
program in the Philippines, where children learning in their mother tongue showed
statistically significant improvements in all subjects compared to children who
were learning only in Filipino (Walter and Dekker, 2011).
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The literature reviewed by the researcher contributed significantly to the


present study. These literatures are pertinent and related to the research work since
they all pertain to Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education and the issues or
cocnerns that arise from its implementation this school year. These literatures
provided the researcher relevant data on areas of concern pertinent to MTB-MLE.

Related Studies
Foreign
MTB-MLE will help to create positive thinking between the individual and
society. In a study on integration of local contents in school curricula, Kadel (2011)
believed that MTB-MLE at the beginning of basic education will be effective in
providing quality education in a learner-friendly environment. His study indicated
that the development of indigenous people and ethnic minorities is linked with the
students freedoms of choices and freedoms of using alternative combinations in
order to address their linguistic and cultural needs in harmony with their material
conditions and value system.
The medium of instruction for basic education should be the child's mother
tongue. This is especially true for pre-primary and primary education (Grades 1 to
5). Children have a right to basic education in their own mother tongue because of
the benefit to their cognitive development and because it helps them to develop a
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strong foundation in educational concepts. Children understand subject matter


much more easily and effectively in their mother tongue. They are able to use the
literacy skills gained in their mother tongue to learn to read and write in additional
languages. If we wish to provide quality education to our children, the mother
tongue should be used as the medium of instruction in the early grades.
Additionally, this Mother Tongue-Based
Multilingual Education (MTBME) helps to transfer historical identity,
knowledge, concepts, culture and skills to the next generation. According to Dr.
Ellen Bialystok of York University in Toronto, "There are two major reasons
people should pass their heritage language onto children. First, it connects children
to their ancestors. The second is [that] bilingualism is good for you. It makes the
brain stronger. It is brain exercise. Her research found several cognitive advantages
to bilingualism, including that bilingualism can forestall the symptoms of
Alzheimer's disease.
Wikipedia defines education as the process by which society deliberately
transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to
another." In line with these assumptions, the Ministry of Education of the
Government of Nepal has developed a school sector reform plan in which they
have decided to introduce mother tongue-based multilingual education in 7500

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Primary schools and distribute guidelines for the implementation of multilingual


education.
Kadel stressed that first requirement is to bring human resources for the
country up to international standards. For this to happen there is a

need to

standardize the public school education system. The current curricula used in the
private schools are geared towards meeting western requirements alone. Therefore,
they have to recognize the need and importance of public schools in their nations
development. To meet the requirement to bring human resources for the country up
to high standards, basic education should start in the child's mother tongue and
gradually introduce instruction in the medium of other languages through the
literacy skills that have been obtained in the mother tongue. This will help the
children to become good learners throughout their whole lives.
Kadels study and the present study are related in terms of the subject which
both covers MTB-MLE. Both studies underscored the benefits we stand to gain
from the incorporation of MTB-MLE in the curriculum. Both studies still differ
though in terms of the advantages of MTB-MLE. Whereas Kadel highlighted
MTB-MLEs significance to preservation of culture and transfer of historical
identity, the present study zeroes in on the concerns and needs of the teachers with
regards to the implementation of MTB-MLE, or specifically the mother tongue as
a learning subject.
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Local
Studies indicate that MTB-MLE contributes to student success. In the
Lubuagan community, researchers found that children in a mother tongue
education program out-performed students in Filipino and English medium schools
by a difference of 40 percentage points.
Walter, Dekker, and Duguiang undertook the Lubuagan MLE Project in
2007-2008 wherein three experimental class schools implementing the Mother
Tongue based MLE approach are compared with three control class schools
implementing the traditional method of immersion in two new languages. Schools
are of the same SES (Social Economic Status). One school has two sections where
students are randomly placed in experimental or control classes.
Lubuagan students are monolingual at the time they begin their education.
Philippine Policy has it that English and Filipino are the medium of instruction
allowing the L1 to be used as an auxiliary language. This creates comprehension
difficulties resulting in low achievement. Walter et al in their study forwarded the
use of mother tongue to teach curriculum content and to teach English and Filipino
as second and third languages.
The study showed empirical evidence which supports the value of Mother
Tongue education. Using the Mother Tongue will not hinder the learning of second
and third languages. The research study showed that the use of the mother tongue
strengthens the acquisition of second and third languages. When children learn in
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their mother tongue their cognitive skills continue to build, enabling greater ability
to handle cognitively demanding study and strengthening learning of other
languages.
The study made by Walter, Dekker and Duguiang and the present study are
related in as far as the subject is concerned, MTB-MLE. Both still differ though in
terms of scope or area of concern. While their study focused on the higher
achievement scores with the use of MTB, the present study looks into the needs
arising from the use of the Mother Tongue as a learning subject.
Ilao, Santos and Guevara (2011) made an objective analysis of the levels of
agreement, in terms of grammar and orthographic rules, between reference books
and actual usage as evidenced from web-mined text corpora for three major
Philippine languages, namely Filipino, Cebuano-Visayan and Ilokano.. Their
findings concurred that the implementation of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual
Education (MTBMLE) will require definitive rules for orthography and grammar.
While there are such rules for some Philippine languages, there is a need to
determine the agreement and points of departure between the rules and the usage to
avoid confusion. A list of language rules on grammar and orthography were
selected from standard reference books for each of the aforementioned languages.
Alternative forms of usage for each selected language rule were identified, and
frequency counts were made, to be used as bases for a comparative analysis
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between the rules prescribed by standard reference books and actual language
usage. The techniques used in this study are important in language education,
serving to identify areas of Variation in language use in aspects of grammar and
orthography. Looking at the 2009 DepEd circular, and considering the papers that
show successful MTB-MLE practice, it is evident that an important prerequisite to
this program is a working orthography that is widely acceptable to the learning
community, and which is compatible to that languages intellectualization. The
linguistic diversity of the Philippines, with 171 living languages and around 500
dialects, is a big challenge to such an initiative, where the requisite maturity of
orthographic systems of each candidate language of instruction cannot be
guaranteed. Moreover, as the MTB-MLE program matures, there comes a need to
refine the grammatical and orthographic rules of the language being used for
instruction, as it is increasingly being used in the academic setting. These scenarios
argue for the need of a system that can periodically monitor the state of a
languages development, by observing how it is being used by a population of
users.
The study made by Ilao, Santos and Guevarra are both pertinent to MTBMLE. This is where their similarities lie. However, on the whole, both studies
differ. They differ on focus and concentration of study. The former focused on the
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need for definitive rules in orthography and grammar vis--vis the implementation
of MTB-MLE while the present study deals primarily on the teachers concerns
and perceived needs towards the use of the mother tongue as a learning subject.
Using descriptive method of research, Corpuz (2012) looked into the status
of the implementation of MTB-MLE in Malsiqui District II. It zeroed in on the
teachers proficiency in the language, adequacy of instructional materials as well as
the teachers preparedness for the said curricular reform. Results of the study show
that majority of the teachers handling Grades I- III are proficient in the language
but lacked the instructional materials as well as the training that would make them
better equipped to handle the challenges or requirements there are to the use of the
mother tongue in the said grade levels.
The study conducted by Corpuz and the present study are related. They both
deal on the concerns arising from the implementation of the MTB-MLE. They
differ, though, in terms of scope. Whereas the study made by Corpuz focused on
the status of the implementation of MTB-MLE in the Division of Pangasinan I, the
present study looks into the concerns the teachers of Malasiqui District II have
from the use of the mother tongue as a learning subject.
Three years into its implementation, this educational policy or reform
pertinent still seems to be weighed down by concerns from among the primary
teachers. Blaquir (2012) determined the status of the implementation of the Mother
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Tongue as a learning subject and medium of instruction in the Division of


Pangasinan I. Utilizing a survey questionnaire, it looked into the preparedness of
the teachers vis--vis the trainings attended, proficiency in the mother tongue,
strategies used typical of MTB-MLE and the problems they encountered with the
implementation of MTB-MLE. Results show that primary teachers in the Division
of Pangasinan I have to reckon with concerns stemming from their lack of
trainings, of having to use another language as accessory to the mother tongue, and
that the strategies they employ are few and devoid of the very strategies typical of
MTB-MLE such as the Total Physical Response.
The study conducted by Blaquir on the status of the implementation of
MTB-MLE and the present study are related. They both zeroed in on the status of
the implementation of MTB-MLE. They differ; however, on the scope. Whereas
the study of Blaquir looked into the concerns of the teachers have had with regards
to its implementation, the present study looked into how the Grade I pupils are
faring in the Mother Tongue as a learning subject side by side with the skills they
ought to have mastered in the First Grading Period based on the results of the First
Quarter Examination.
Evangelista (2013) conducted a study on the implementation of the Mother
Tongue as a learning area in Malasiqui District I. It looked into how the Grade I
pupils are able to master the competencies expected of them in the said subject
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through a documentary analysis. Based on the results of a diagnostic test, the


researcher analysed the respondents scores based on the competencies under
MTB-MLE. Results of the study show that the Grade I pupils in Malasiqui District
I are not satisfactorily performing along the areas of reading comprehension and
vocabulary development. Furthermore, the study show how the minimal difference
between the languages they spoke at home, Pangasinan and Filipino. This would
account for the poor results of the diagnostic test as well as the pupils inability to
understand the Pangasinan terms, meanings of which elude them.
Evangelistas study and the present study on MTB-MLE are related. Both
studies looked into the status of the implementation of MTB-MLE. Still, the study
conducted by Evangelista is different with the present study. Though Evangelistas
study focused on the status of the implementation of MTB-MLE, it singled out the
use of the Mother Tongue as a learning subject. Moreover, it looked into the
mastery of the competencies under the Mother Tongue as a learning subject
through a documentary analysis of the results of a diagnostic test. The present
study, meanwhile, looked into the status of the mastery or non-mastery of the skills
expected of the Grade I pupils in the Mother Tongue. Furthermore, the present
study analysed the results of the First Quarter Examination in the Mother Tongue
as basis of the pupils mastery or non-mastery of the skills.
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The studies cited all contributed significantly in the conduct of the present
study. The data presented, particularly the results, aided the researcher into a
careful deliberation of the analysis needed in determining the salient factors that
will make the present study true to the data gathered. Likewise, the studies
highlighted facets of the mother tongue in need of further deliberation.

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the methodology of this study. It covers the sources of
data, instrumentation and data collection, and the tools for data gathering.

Research Design
This study utilized the descriptive-developmental method of research. It
described the profile of the Grade I pupils in terms of age, sex and language
spoken at home (first language) as well as their level of performance in mother
tongue (Pangasinan)

in the First Quarter Examination

in Mother Tongue

(Pangasinan). It also determined the mastered and not mastered skills from the
First Quarter Examination in Mother Tongue (Pangasinan).

It also utilized

developmental method as it proposed to develop instructional material to improve


the performance of the Grade I pupils in Mother Tongue (Pangasinan).

Research Subject

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The subjects of this study are the Grade I pupils in Lingayen District III, this
School Year 2014-2015. There are 141 pupils of which 52 are males and 89 are
females. The 20% of the population of each school served as the subjects of the
study.
Table 1 shows the distribution of respondents per school and enrolment.
Table 1
Distribution of Pupil Respondent
School
Aliwekwek
Aplaya
Balococ
Bantayan
Basing
Lasip
Matalava
Pangapisan
Poblacion
Rosario
Wawa

Enrolment
23
79
52
31
54
56
76
144
79
45
64

Respondents
5
16
10
6
11
11
15
29
16
9
13

Research Instrument
Part I of the questionnaire was composed of the profile of the respondents.
Part II was focused on the results of the teacher-made test in Mother Tongue
(Pangasinan) in the First Quarter Exam as the primary tool in gathering the
necessary data for the study.

Research Procedure

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Permission to conduct this study was requested by the researcher from the
Schools Division Superintendent of Pangasinan I. After permission was granted,
the researcher then, coursed through the school heads of the 11 schools under
Lingayen III District the questionnaire and explained the mechanics of the
questionnaire as well as the importance of the study.
The researcher personally coordinated with the said school heads to ensure
that data gathered from the respondents will be true to all schools in the district.

Statistical Treatment of the Data


Data gathered from the respondents were treated with appropriate statistical
measures.

1. To answer problem number 1, the profile of the respondents in terms of


age, gender, age, and first language spoken at home shall be determined through
the use of frequency counts and percentage. The formula is :
P = fx/n x l00
Where:
P = is the percentage
fx = is the percentage
n = is the number of cases
2. To answer problem number 2, the level of performance of the Grade I
Pupils in Lingayen III District in Mother Tongue (Pangasinan) in the First Quarter
Examination shall be determined by using the

Mean Percentage Score. The

formula is :
MPS = M/HPS x l00
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Where:
MPS = is the mean percentage score
M = is the mean
HPS = is the highest possible score
3. To answer problem number 3, the mastered and not mastered skills of the
Grade I pupils based on the First Quarter Examination in Mother Tongue
(Pangasinense) shall be determined by using frequencies that were converted into
percentages. In the interpretation, a skill/competence where the pupils obtain
percentages of 75 or higher indicate a mastery of the skills. In the same manner,
percentages of students who got below 75% and lower indicate a non-mastery of
the skills/competencies.

CHAPTER 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter deals with the presentation, table reading, analysis,
interpretation of the data on the profile of the Grade I pupils in Lingayen III district
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as well as their level of performance and mastered and not mastered skills in
Mother Tongue (Pangasinan) in the First Quarter Examination. The data are
presented in the order of the statement of the problem.
Profile of the Grade 1 pupils in Lingayen III District
In terms of Age
Table 2
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Pupils
in Terms of their Age
(N=141 )
Age
5
6
7
8
9
Total

Frequency
33
104
2
1
1
141

Percent
23.40%
73.76%
1.42%
0.71%
0.71%
100%

Table 2 presents the pupils age in Lingayen III District. Ranging from 5
years of age to 9 years of age, the data reveal that of the 141pupils, 73.76% or 104
are aged 6, 23.40% or 33 are aged 5,

and 1.42% or 1 are aged 8 and 9,

respectively. It can be gleaned from the data that majority of the pupils in Lingayen
III District are aged 6.
Profile of the Grade 1 pupils in Lingayen III District
In Terms of their Sex
Table 3
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Pupils
in Terms of their Sex
(N=141 )
Sex
Male

Frequency
52

Percent
37%

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Female
Total

89
141

63%
100%

Of the 141 Grade I pupils in Lingayen III District, it is noteworthy that 63%
or 89 are females while 37% or 52 of them are males. It would seem that
elementary schools in Lingayen III District have more female pupils than male
pupils.
Profile of the Grade 1 pupils in Lingayen III District
In Terms of the First Language Spoken at Home
Table 4
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Pupils
in Terms of the First Language Spoken at Home
(N=141 )
Age
Pangasinan
Tagalog
English
Total

Frequency
116
25
0
141

Percent
82%
18%
0%
100%

Language spoken at home refers to the pupils L1 (first language) or the


language they are proficient at. Of the three languages, Pangasinanense, Filipino
and English respectively, it is apparent that the Grade I pupils in Lingayen III
District are proficient in Pangasinense as evidenced by the higher percentage for
the said language, 82 or 116 of the total 141. It is interesting to note that while 18%
or 25 of the pupils claim to have Filipino as the language spoken at home, none of
the respondents referred to English as the language spoken at home. The results
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can be taken in two ways, positively and negatively. The result is an affirmation of
how the Pangasinan language is still the first language of the pupils, and in the
process, an advantage with it being a learning subject and a medium of instruction
in the primary grades. On the other hand, the results also imply that none of the
pupils parents train their children to speak English which can be attributed to the
pupils deficiency in the said language.
Performance in Mother Tongue based on the
First Quarter Examination
Table 5
Level of Performance in Mother Tongue
in the First Oral Examination

Advanced
Proficient
Approaching Proficiency
Developing
Beginning
Total

Frequency
(F)
0
5
2
3
1
11

Percentage
(%)
0
45.45
18.18
27.27
9.1
100

How did the Grade I pupils in the Lingayen III District fare in the First
Quarter Examination in the Mother Tongue (Pangasinense)? The data in the table
reveal the level of performance of the said pupils in the district in terms of their
level of proficiency.
Of the 11 schools under the Lingayen III District, it can be noted that none
reached the advanced level while five (5) schools level of performance proved to
be proficient (45.45%). It is discouraging to note that six (6) of the schools fared
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poorly with two (2) schools approaching proficiency(18.18%), three (3) schools
(27.27%) level of performance were found to be developing and one (1) (9.1)
was found to be still at the level of beginning.
Ideally, the level of performance of the Grade I pupils in Mother Tongue in
the First Oral Examination should either be proficient or approaching proficiency
considering that these pupils have already finished kindergarten and were taught no
longer new to the instruction in the mother tongue. Though the overall
performance of the schools under the Lingayen III District is generally good, it
stills calls for a vigilant monitoring of the delivery of instruction. Likewise, it also
calls for

a review of the strategies employed by the teachers to ensure that

optimum participation of the pupils is met. The result also draws particular
attention to the need of beefing up of instructional materials so as to generally
improve, too, their level of performance which will consequently influence their
proficiency level in the quarterly examinations. This is particularly true to the
schools whose level of performance is still either at the beginning or developing.
Specifically, close monitoring should be done to the lone school with a level of
performance under beginning. This implies a comparison and observation of
instruction as well as data of Basing Elementary School to those of the five (5)
schools in the said district and see how this can be addressed or resolved. The six
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(6) schools lagging behind in terms of their level of performance in Mother Tongue
need to be more vigorous in their approaches to instruction and evaluation. What
the schools under Lingayen III District can do, particularly those lagging behind, is
to benchmark with those schools that are doing well. Moreover, peer coaching and
mentoring activities will also do well in addressing the concerns raised. Through
these activities, continuing professional development among teachers is best
fostered. Teachers who have been in the profession for a good number of years
could be at the helm of these professional activities. Likewise, the master teachers
in the district could come up with innovations and share their best practices to the
teachers, particularly to those who are newly hired or new in the system.
Table 6
Skills Mastered and Not Mastered by the Grade I Pupils
Based on the First Quarter Examination
Objectives

No. of
Items

75% of
Items

No. of
Pupils who
Scored
75%

Percentage
of Pupils
who
Scored
75%

Remarks/
Description

5
1

39
42

27.65
29.78

Not Mastered
Not Mastered

11

120

Listening
1. Recall the important details
in listening to a story
2. Identify rhyming words

Speaking
1. Give the letter that begins
the name of a given object
/picture

85.10

Mastered

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2. Give the sounds of letters


in the alphabet

117

82.97

Mastered

115

81.56

Mastered

119

84.39

Mastered

109

77.30

Mastered

Reading
1. Identify the sounds of
animals, transportation and
objects
2. Answer literal level
questions about repository
text read

Writing
1. Observe mechanics when
copying or writing sentence,
capitalization, space between
words , correct punctuation

A thorough study of the pupils score in the test vis--vis the instructional
objectives in the pupils mother tongue as a subject show how the pupils have
mastered 5 of the indicated 7 skills or objectives. The data show how the Grade I
pupils in Lingayen III District have mastered and/or are strong in areas pertinent
to a) recognizing/giving the letter that begins the name of a given object/picture
(85.10%); b) giving the sounds of letters in the alphabet (82.97); c) identifying
sounds of animals, transportation and objects (81.56%); d) answering literal level
given questions about repository text read (84.39%), and e) observing mechanics
when copying or writing sentence such as rules with regard to observance of
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capitalization, punctuation and spacing between words (77.30%). The data affirm
how the Grade I pupils were off to a good start in as far as the competencies or
skills they have mastered in speaking, reading and writing in the First Quarter are
concerned. They, however, need to be exposed and guided more in the skills or
objectives they failed to master: a) recalling the important details in listening to a
story where only 27..65 % or 39 out of the 141 pupils scored 75% , and b)
identifying rhyming words with just 29.78 % or 42 pupils who scored 75%. The
results call for a thorough exposure and practice on the said areas so the pupils
would possess the ability needed to master the skill required of such tasks.
From the four basic communication skills of listening, speaking, reading,
and writing, the data reveal that the Grade I pupils of Lingayen III District are
strong or doing well along speaking and reading. It is apparent that they are faring
poorly in writing and particularly in listening. This implies that activities,
instruction and evaluation should target noting details in a story as well as the
observance of mechanics in copying or writing a sentence.
The quarterly examination sums up and gauges how well the pupils have
mastered the skills and attained the objectives vis--vis the instruction they are
exposed to in their classes. More than just knowing a thing or two about the lesson,
it becomes imperative that the pupils become adept or able at the skills required of
them with or in each lesson. Thus, to prepare the Grade I pupils in Lingayen III
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District to meet the gradation and complexity of skills and competencies of the
coming quarter, they should have mastered all the skills or met the objectives in the
first quarter. Teachers, then, are tasked to ensure the mastery of all skills and the
attainment of lesson objectives by all pupils in every quarter. Ideally, all the
competencies should have been mastered by the Grade I pupils. On the other hand,
it can be acknowledged that with the pupils learning at their own pace, want the
teachers in the district can best do is to gauge how their pupils learn best.

CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY, CONLCUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents a review of the entire study with emphasis on the
significant findings, conclusions derived from the findings and recommendations
of the researcher.

Summary
Many Filipino children begin their education in a language they do not speak
or understand as well as their first language. In this setting, only the learners' first
language can provide the kind of bridge to a personal identity that incorporates
both an ethnic and a national dimension. To this end, the Department of Education
issued DO 74 on July 14, 2009, and thus institutionalized MTB MLE as a
fundamental educational policy and program to address linguistic diversity,
ensure linguistic rights of children enshrined in various international declarations
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and national constitutions, promote access and equity in basic education, and
enhance quality of education
This study sought to develop instructional materials in Mother Tongue
(Pangasinan) for Grade I pupils at Lingayen III , Division of Pangasinan I, School
Year 2014-2015 to improve their level of performance and mastery of skills in
Mother Tongue.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the Grade I pupils in terms of :
a. Age
b. Sex
c. First Language spoken at home
2. What is the level of performance of the Grade I Pupils in Lingayen, Division of
Pangasinan I in the First Quarter Examination in mother tongue (Pangasinan)?
3.W hat are the mastered skills and not mastered skills of the Grade I pupils based
from the First Quarter Examination in Mother Tongue (Pangasinan) ?
4. What instructional material may be proposed to improve the performance of the
Grade I pupils in mother tongue (Pangasinan)?

Findings
1. Majority of the Grade I pupils in Lingayen III District are aged 6 (73.76%) and
are females (63%). The language they spoke at home is Pangasinan (82%) which
consequently make Pangasinan their first language or mother tongue.
2. Of the 11 schools under the Lingayen III District, none reached the advanced
level while five (5) schools level of performance proved to be proficient (45.45%);
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six (6) of the schools fared poorly with two (2) schools approaching proficiency
(18.18%), three (3) schools (27.27%) level of performance were found to be
developing and one (1) (9.1) was found to be still at the level of beginning.
3. Of the 7 objectives and competencies the Grade I pupils were expected to master
and attain , the pupils had mastered 5 and 2 were not mastered. They failed to
master the competencies in listening with just 27.65% scoring 75% in recalling the
important details in listening to a story and only 29. 78% scoring 75% in
identifying rhyming words.
Conclusions:
1. The Grade I pupils in Lingayen III District adhere to what the Department of
Education required of school age for Grade I as majority of them are aged 6.
Pangasinan remains to be the first language of the pupils as it is still the language
spoken at their homes.
2. None of the 11 schools under the Lingayen III District has reached advanced
level of performance in Mother Tongue in the First Quarter Examination. While
majority of the schools were found to be proficient, one school was still in the
beginning level or stage.
3. Majority of the instructional objectives and skills/competencies in the mother
tongue as a subject were met by the Grade I pupils as indicated by the 5 areas
where they have mastered the skills.
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4. The developed supplementary instructional material can address the teachers


problems in as far as the content, suitability and coverage of the MTBMLE
instructional materials are concerned.
Recommendations
Based on the findings of this study and the conclusions drawn from
such findings, the following recommendations are hereby offered:
1. The developed supplementary instructional material in MTBMLE shall be
subjected to pilot testing before its utilization in all Grade I public elementary
classes in Lingayen III District.
2. The effectiveness of the developed supplementary instructional material in
MTBMLE can be determined by undertaking an experimental study.
3. Effective and continuous monitoring and evaluation shall be done to determine
the impact of the utilization of the developed supplementary instructional material.
4. Educational authorities shall undertake series of trainings for teachers in
Lingayen III District in other learning areas that focus on the development of
supplementary instructional material/s.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
A. BOOKS
Baker, C. (2001) Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (3rd edn.)
Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2006). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language 3rd
Edition. Singapore: Heinle&Heinle A Division of Cengage Learning
Chou, D & Walter, S. (2011). Vanishing voices: the extinction of the worlds
languages. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World,
Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International.
Hobsbawm, E. (1990) Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth
and Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Malicsi, J. (2005). The ELP Written Communication Strategies 3rd Ed. The
Classic Foundation for English Linguistics Projects. Quezon City, Philippines.
Nettle, D. & Romaine, S. (2000) Vanishing Voices: The Extinction of the Worlds
Languages. London, UK; Oxford University Press
Nolasco, R. (2009). 21 Reasons why Filipino children learn better while using
their Mother Tongue: A primer on Mother Tongue-based Multilingual Education
(MLE) and other issues on language and learning in the Philippines.
GuroFormation Forum.
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Walter, S. and Dekker, D. (2011) Mother tongue instruction in Lubuagan. In


publication. Malone, S. E. (2009). Planning mother tongue-based education
programs in minority language communities.SIL International.

B. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS
Blaquir, L. (2012) The Implementation of the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual
Education in Public Elementary Schools in Pangasinan I. Lyceum Northwestern
University,Dagupan,Pangasinan.
Carolyn J. Benson (2002) Real and Potential Benefits of Bilingual Programmes
in Developing Countries International Journal of Bilingual Education and
Bilingualism, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp.303-317.
Corpuz, M. (2012). Status and Prospects of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual
Education in Malasiqui II District. Pangasinan State University, Urdaneta.
Evangelista, L. (2013) The Mother Tongue as a Learning Subject in Malasiqui
II District. Pangasinan State University, Urdaneta, Pangasinan.
Ilao, E., Santos, R. & Guevara, M. (2011). Analysis of the Levels between
Reference books and Actual Usage in the Mother Tongue. West Visayas State
University.
Wolf, S. (2006). The Kom experimental mother tongue education project report for
2010. Unpublished research report.

C. JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS


Bender, P., N. Dutcher, et al. (2005). In Their Own LanguageEducation for
All. Education Notes, World Bank. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/
EDUCATION/Resources/EducationNotes/EdNotes_Lang_of_Instruct.pdf.

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Benson, C. (2010). The primary bilingual education experiment in Mozambique,


1993 to 1997. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 3(3),
149-166.
Bialyster, E. (2006). Learning through a familiar language versus learning through
a foreign language. International Journal of Educational Development, 27, 487498.
Cummins, J. (2004). The Astounding Effectiveness of Dual Language Education
for All. NABE Journal of Research and Practice, 2(1) , 1-20.
Dutcher, N., & Tucker, G.R. (1996) The Use of First and Second Languages in
Education. Pacific Islands Discussion Paper, 1, East Asia and Pacific Region.
Washington DC: The World Bank.
Kosonen, K. 2005. Education in local languages: Policy and practice in South East
Asia. In UNESCO, First Language First: Community-based Literacy Programmes
for Minority Language Contexts in Asia, pp. 96-134. Unesco Asia and Pacific
Regional Bureau for Education, Bangkok, Thailand.
Malone, D. (2003). Developing curriculum for endangered language education:
Lessons from the field. International Journal of Bilingual Education and
Bilingualism 6(5), 332-348, Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Pinnock, H. (2009). Steps towards learning: A guide to overcoming language
barriers in childrens education. London: Save the Children UK.
http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/54_7939.htm.
Rassool, N. (2000) .Contested and Contesting Identities: Conceptualising
Linguistic Minority Rights within the Global Cultural Economy. Journal of
Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 2000 - channelviewpublications.net
Pp-388
Shaeffer, S. (2005), Language Development and Language Revitalization: An
Educational Imperative in Asia UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for
Education, Bangkok, Thailand.
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Smits, J., J. Huisman, et al. (2008). Home language and education in the
developing world, UNESCO.
http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0017/001787/178702e.pdf.
UNESCO (2007). Advocacy Kit for Promoting Multilingual Education: Including
the Excluded,http://www2.unescobkk.org/elib/publications/110/Booklet%201%20%20Overview.pdf.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1990) Language, Literacy and Minorities. A Minority
Rights Group Report. London: Minority Rights Group.

D. OTHERS
Section 16 of Republic Act No. 10533, known as the Enhanced Basic Education
Act of 2013
DepEd Order no. 74, s. 2009, Institutionalizing Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual
Education
UNICEF. (2011). The use of vernacular language in education. Monograph on
Fundamental Education. Bangkok: UNICEF.
Acua, J. & B. Miranda. (1994). A closer look at the language controversy in The
Language Issue in Education. Acua, J. (Ed). Manila & Quezon City: Congress of
the Republic of the Philippines.
Ball, J. (2010). Enhancing learning of children from diverse language
backgrounds: Mother tongue-based bilingual or multilingual education in the early
years, UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/ 001869/186961e.pdf.

Rubrico, J. 1998. The metamorphosis of Filipino as national language. Retrieved


July 02, 2011 from http://www.languagelinks.org/oldsite/pdf/fil_met.pdf

APPENDIX A
Survey Questionnaire on the Validity of
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the Teacher-made Test


Directions: Please fill in the blank and/ or check the appropriate item.
Name
: ______________________________________________________________
Station
: _______________________________________________________________
Designation : _______________________________________________________________
1. How well is the test presented?
_______5 - Excellently presented
_______4 - Very well presented
_______3 - Fairly presented
_______ 2 - Simply presented
_______ 1 - Not well presented
2. How well are the items suited to the vocabulary level, ability, and behavior pattern of the
Grade I pupils?
_______5- Very highly suitable
_______4 - Highly Suitable
_______ 3 - Moderately suitable
_______ 2 - Slightly suitable
_______ 1 - Not suitable
3. How adequately are the items representative of the competencies for the First Quarter?
_______ 5- Very highly adequate
_______4 Highly adequate
_______3- Moderately adequate
_______2 Slightly adequate
_______1- Not adequate
4. Which item (s) is / are duplicated by another item?
Example: 3 & 6 means item 6 and 3 duplicate each other.

5. What is your comment on the test as a whole?


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5. What is your suggestion to improve the test?
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APPENDIX B
Permit to Conduct the Study
THE ADELPHI COLLEGE
Lingayen, Pangasinan
August 12, 2014
ALMA RUBY C. TORIO, Ed.D
Schools Division Superintendent
Pangasinan I Division
Lingayen, Pangasinan
THRU: DR. TEODORA V. NABOR, D.A.
Assistant Schools Division Superintendent
Madam:
Warm Greetings!
I am presently conducting a research study entitled PROPOSED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL IN
MOTHER TONGUE (PANGASINAN) FOR GRADE I PUPILS School Year 2014-2015 at The Adelphi
College, Lingayen, Pangasinan in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts in
Education Major in Educational Management.
In this connection, I would like to request permission from yourgood Office to gather data and administer a
teacher-made test to Grade I pupils who will serve as my respondents in Lingayen III District.
Your positive approval to the request is very much appreciated.
Thank you very much and God bless!
Very truly yours,
Nora T. Cruz, Ed.D
Researcher
Noted:
LINA C. ALCANTARA, Ed.D
Dean, Graduate Studies
Recommending Approval:

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TEODORA V.NABOR, D.A.
Assistant Schools Division Superintendent
Approved:
ALMA RUBY C. TORIO, Ed.D
Schools Division Superintendent

APPENDIX C
First Quarter Examination in
Mother Tongue

UNAAN YA EKSAMIN ED
MOTHER TONGUE
UNAAN YA BALITANG
I.

Dengelen so istorya ya basa ey maestro/maestro tan linpekan so letra ya


dugan ebat.

Si Laki Toning
Si LakiToning et sakey yadumaralos. Maawang so dalin ya tataneman day
pagey tan nambabangil ya pisi-pising.Walay kamatis, okra, kalubasa, talon tan
palya.Sosto ed danum tan abono iray tanem da. Papalinan day dikarika umpan
umbuna tan manbungay dakel. Kasabi panag-ani, maliket s iLaki Toning.Tiniklis
ya bungay pising so ni sempet tan nilako dad tindaan.
1. Antoy panaanapan nen Laki Toning?
A. Managsigay
B. dumaralos

C. karpintero

2. Anto ray itatanem nen Laki Toning?


A. pagey tan pisi-pising
B. mais tan pisi-pising
C. iray tanaman ya manrosas

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3. Akin ta mabuna-buna so tanaman nen Laki Toning?


A. Sostoydanum tan abono da iray tanem da
B. Papalinan day dikarika iray tanem da
C. Amin ya abitla
4. Antay liknaan nen Laki Toning no asabi panag-ani.
A. maermen
B. manpapasnok

C. maliket

5. Iner da ilalabo so iray bungay pising da?


A. Diad kakaabay
B. diad garita
II.

C. diad tindaan
D.
Isulat so dugan letra ta pian na kumpleto so ngaran na kadalitrato. Manpili
ya letra ed kahon.

a,

b,

e,

o,

6.

___tis

9.

___aso

7.

___tot

10.

___leng

8.

___apis

III.

Limpekan so letranaduganebat.

11.Dinanyaayep so maksil so tanol to?


A. aso

B. siwit

C. uleg

12.Dinanyaagagamil so makalnaytanol to?


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A. tambol

B. totot

C. relo

13.Dinan ya luluganan so maksil so tanol to?


A. kalesa
B. bisekleta

C. motor

14.Dinan ya salita so kaparehas na salitan kankong?


A. kurong
B. kamatis

C. katuray

15.Dinan ya letraya say tanol to buh


A. W
B. B

C. T

16.Palya, parlang, patola, onggapo ed anton letra?


A. D
B. P

C. B

17.Antoy unaan ya letra so


A.

B. B

C. M

18.Dinan so litrato so onggapo ed letran /t/?


A. tambol

B. relo

C. kampana

19.Antoy ngaran mo? Antoy ebat mo?


A. Wala ak lad unaan ya grado.
B. Anemira lay taon ko.
C. Siak si Ana S. Cruz.
20.Pigaray taon mo la? Antoy ebat mo?
A. Manayamak ed Libsong East, Lingayen, Pangasinan?
B. Anemira lay taon ko natan
C. Siak si Ben A. Sison.
21.Iner so panyaman mo?
A. Wala ak lad unaan ya grado.
B. Manaayamak ed Lingayen, Pangasinan.
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C. Anemira lay taon ko natan.


22.Dinan ya letra ya say tanol to guh?
A. J
B. G

C. Q

23.Dinan dinan yan letra so makakompleto na ngaran na litrato?


A. A

B. O

C. E

24.Antoy onggapo ed tanol to yay


A. Hm
B. Mm
25.Dinan ya litrato so ongagapo et letran /r/
A. rosas
B. baso
IV.

C. Bb
C. tasa

Isulat so ebat ed panpakabat na sarili ed ka da gulis. (5 puntos)

26.Antoy ngaran mo?


Siak si

27.Pigaray taon mo la?


lay taon ko natan.
28.Antoy gradom la?
Wala ak lad
29.Iner so panaaralan mo?
Manaaral ak ed
30.Siopay maestram?
Say maestrak si

.
.
.

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APPENDIX D
TABLE OF SPECIFICATION IN MOTHER TONGUE
FIRST PERIODIC TEST
Objectives

No. of
Items

Test
Placement

Listening
1. Recall the important details in
listening to a story
2. Identity rhyming words

1, 2, 3, 4, 5

14

Speaking
1. Give the letter that begins the
name of a given object/picture
2. Give the sounds of letters in the
alphabet

10

6, 7, 8, 9,
10, 16, 17, 18, 23,
24, 25

15, 22

11, 12, 13

29, 20, 21

26, 27, 28,


29, 30

Reading
1. Sounds of animals, transportation
and objects
2. Answer
literal
level
given
questions about repository text
read
Writing
1. Observe mechanics when copying
or writing sentence: capitalization,
space between words, correct
punctuation

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