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Algebraic Structures

Compiled from Wikipedia-EJH2013

Contents
1

Abelian group

1

1.1

Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.2

Facts

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1

1.2.1

Notation

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1

1.2.2

Multiplication table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.3

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1.4

Historical remarks

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2

1.5

Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.6

Finite abelian groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.6.1

Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1.6.2

Automorphisms

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3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

1.7.1

Torsion groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.7.2

Torsion-free and mixed groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.7.3

Invariants and classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.7.4

Additive groups of rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.8

Relation to other mathematical topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.9

A note on the typography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.10 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.11 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.12 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

Category theory

7

1.7

2

Infinite abelian groups

2.1

Basic concepts

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

2.2

Applications of Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

2.3

Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

2.3.1

Categories, objects, and morphisms

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8

2.3.2

Functors

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8

2.3.3

Natural transformations

2.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Categories, objects, and morphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

2.4.1

Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

2.4.2

Morphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

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ii

3

CONTENTS
2.5

Functors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

2.6

Natural transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

2.7

Other concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

2.7.1

Universal constructions, limits, and colimits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

2.7.2

Equivalent categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

2.7.3

Further concepts and results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

2.7.4

Higher-dimensional categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

2.8

Historical notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

2.9

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

2.10 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

2.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

2.12 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

2.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

Field

14

3.1

Definition and illustration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

3.1.1

First example: rational numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

3.1.2

Second example: a field with four elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

3.1.3

Alternative axiomatizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

Related algebraic structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

3.2.1

Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

3.3

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

3.4

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

3.4.1

Rationals and algebraic numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

3.4.2

Reals, complex numbers, and p-adic numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

3.4.3

Constructible numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

3.4.4

Finite fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

3.4.5

Archimedean fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

3.4.6

Field of functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

3.4.7

Local and global fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

3.5

Some first theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

3.6

Constructing fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

3.6.1

Closure operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

3.6.2

Subfields and field extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

3.6.3

Rings vs fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

3.6.4

Ultraproducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

3.7

Galois theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

3.8

Generalizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

3.8.1

Exponentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

3.10 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

3.11 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

3.2

3.9

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5. . .1 Uniqueness of identity element and inverses .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 References . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . .13 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 External links . . . . . . . . . . 24 5. .4 5. . . . . . . . 35 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5. . . 22 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5. . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 4 5 iii 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 See also . . .3 Cosets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lie groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Cyclic groups . . . . .4. . . . . . . . 29 Examples and applications . . . . . . . . 21 Galois group 22 4. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .3 Second example: a symmetry group . . 30 5. . . . . . . . . . 28 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Division . . . . . . . . . . .3 Properties . .4 Symmetry groups . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4. . . . . . . . . . . .2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Finite groups . . 21 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Quotient groups . . . . . . . .1. . .1 5.6 Basic concepts . . . . . . . . . . .2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4. . . . . . . . .5 General linear group and representation theory . . .3 Elementary consequences of the group axioms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 34 5. . . . . . . . . . 33 Classification of finite simple groups . . . . . . . . 33 Groups with additional structure . . . . 26 5. . 28 5. . . . . . . . . 27 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Group 24 5. . . . . . 23 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Topological groups . .4. . . .5. . . . . 22 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Definition . . 24 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5. . . . . . . . . . .7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Subgroups . . . .1 First example: the integers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Group homomorphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Generalizations . . . . 31 5. . . .6 Galois groups . . .14 External links . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .5. . . . . . . .2 Modular arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Definition and illustration . . . 20 3. . . . . . . . . . 27 5. .10 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.

. . . 50 . . . . . . 45 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .2 Special references . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 References . . . . . . .4 Applications of group theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 6. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .2 Matrix groups . . . . . . 43 6. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 5. . . . . .1 Galois theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 6. . . 41 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 6. . . . . . 43 6. . . .3 Types . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 6.2. . . . . .11 Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 6. 46 6. . . . . . . . .6 Combinatorics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Finite group theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 6.4 Algebraic number theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 7. 41 6. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Permutation groups . . . . . .iv 6 CONTENTS 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7 Homomorphism 48 7. .2 Basic examples . .5 History . . .4. . . . . . . . . .3 Historical references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Combinatorial and geometric group theory . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Algebraic geometry and cryptography .1 Main classes of groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Transformation groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 6. . .2 Algebraic topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 6. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .2 Informal discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lie theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Connection of groups and symmetry . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . 46 6. .10 Statistical Mechanics . . . . .1 General references . . . .4. . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Group theory 40 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Definition and illustration . . . .7 Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Representation of groups . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Abstract groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 36 5. . . . . . . 40 6. . . . . . 46 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.12. . . . . . .1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 6. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 44 6. . . .12. . . . . . . 45 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 6. 37 5. 43 6. 45 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Topological and algebraic groups . . . . . . . .12 References . . . . . .2. . . . .9 Chemistry and materials science . . . . . . . . . . 37 5. . . . . . .8 Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Harmonic analysis . . . . . . . . .4. . . . .7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Branches of group theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .6 Ideal generated by a set . . . . and irreducible elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Linear isometry . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Notes . . . . . . . .5 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 References 56 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Integral domain 52 57 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . 51 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Definitions .7 See also . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Definitions . . . . 58 9. . 54 8.6 Field of fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 7. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 7. . . . . . . . . . .2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 8. 58 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 10. . . . . . . . . . . . 53 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Types of ideals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8 9 v Category theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 8. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 References 59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 8. . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Isometry 61 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Formal definitions . . . . . . 52 8. . . . . . . 59 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 8. prime elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Ideals and congruence relations . . . 51 7. . .5 Generalizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 8. . . . . . . .3 Examples . . . 51 Ideal 52 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Characteristic and homomorphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Non-examples . . 62 . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Ideal operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 See also . . . . .6 Formal language theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 9. . . . . .3. . . . . . . .9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Kernel . . . . . .1 History . . . . 59 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Divisibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 9. 59 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 8. . 61 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 9. . .5 Relational structures .8 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Examples . .7 Algebraic geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Further properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 7. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Dedekind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Elements in a ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 11 Magma 64 11. . . . . . . . 68 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 13 Ring 69 13. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Basic concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Example: Integers modulo 4 . . . . . . . . 64 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Open questions . . . . . . . 65 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Notes on the definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Types of magmas . . . . . . . . . . 67 12. . . . . . . . . . . 65 11. . .4 Multiplicative identity: mandatory vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 12. . . . . .1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 13.8 Bibliography . . . . . 68 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 13. .3 Basic properties . 62 10. .1 Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Class equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .2 Hilbert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 64 11.1 Definition and illustration . . . . . . . .3 Morphism of magmas . . .7 References . . 71 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 12. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 References . . . . . 66 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Notation and combinatorics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 History and terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi CONTENTS 10. . .3 Counting by order of elements . . . . . . 64 11. . . 71 13. . . . . . . .3 Fraenkel and Noether . . . .10References . . . .11Further reading . 73 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 13. . . . . . . . . .2 History . . . . . . . . 66 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Classification by properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Generalizations .2 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Example: 2-by-2 matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . optional . . . 70 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .4. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Free magma . .4 In relation to homomorphisms . . . . 68 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 See also . . . . 70 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Basic examples . . . . 68 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Order and structure . . . . 70 13. . . . . . . . 66 12 Order 67 12.

79 13. . . . . . . . . . . 81 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Localization 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Generalization 13. . . . .15Citations . . . .CONTENTS vii 13. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . 84 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 13. . . .13See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 13. . . . . .3 Ideal .2 Special references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Completion . . . . . .16.6. . .9. . .16References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Semisimple rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Ring object in a category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Face ring of a simplicial complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 13. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General references . . . . . . . . . . 77 . . . . . . . . . 78 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Division ring . . . 80 13. . . . . . . .12Other ring-like objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 13. .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Limits and colimits of rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . .14Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . .2 Ring scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Rng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Polynomial ring . . . 81 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Category theoretical description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 13. . . . . .2 Nonassociative ring . . . . . . . .4. . . . .3 Matrix ring and endomorphism ring . . . . . . . . . . . 83 13. . . . 82 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Rings with extra structure . 80 13. . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Ring action: a module over a ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Constructions . . . . . . . . . 85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . 82 13. . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Special kinds of rings . . . . . . . . . . 81 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 13. . . . . 82 13. 82 13. . 84 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Central simple algebra and Brauer group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Subring . . . . . . . . . .3 Representation ring of a group ring . . . . . . .1 Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 13. . .3 Ring spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 13. . .7 Rings with generators and relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Function field of an irreducible algebraic variety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Burnside ring of a group . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 13. . . . . . . . . . . . 73 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . .1 Direct product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 . . . . . . . . . .9.4 Homomorphism . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Quotient ring . . . . 79 13. . . . . . . . . .11. . . 76 13.5 Valuation ring . . . . . . . . . . 82 13. . . . . . 81 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . 82 13. .1 Cohomology ring of a topological space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 13. . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Semiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Some examples of the ubiquity of rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 13. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 References 89 . . . . . . .7 In aesthetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 14. . . . . . . . . . . . 97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6 elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Cosets and Lagrange’s theorem . . .4 Example: Subgroups of S₄ (the symmetric group on 4 elements) . . . . . . . . .1 In geometry . . . . .5 Other examples . . . . . . . . 93 15. . . . . . . . .7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 15. . . . . . . . . 88 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 15.4. . . . . . 15 Symmetry 90 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 14. . . 88 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16. 88 14.viii CONTENTS 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In social interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 15. . 95 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 15. 93 15. . . . . . . . .8 In literature . .2. . . . . 89 14.4 In carpets and rugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 14. . . 92 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 In biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 References . . . . . . . . . 88 14. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . .4 Historical references . . . . . . . 95 15. . . 88 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Primary sources . . . . . .2 In logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 In quilts . . 91 15. 95 15. . . . . . . . . . . .2 8 elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 15. . . . 93 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 In architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . 87 14. 85 13.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . 85 14 Subgroup 87 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 In mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 88 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 External links . . . . . . .1 Basic properties of subgroups . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 15. . . . . . . . . .5 In music . . . . . . . . .4 4 elements . . . . .16. . . . . . .1 In physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 In other arts and crafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 In science and nature . 93 15.5 3 elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Example: Subgroups of Z8 . . . . . . . . . .5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .1 12 elements . . . . .2 In pottery and metal vessels . . . . . . . . 88 14. . . . . . . .3 Other areas of mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 In the arts . .4. . . . . . . 96 15. . . . .4. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .1 First example: arrows in the plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Complete vector fields . 105 17. . .1 Gradient field . . .3 Operations on vector fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12External links .1 Line integral . . . . . . . .10References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .4 Alternative formulations and elementary consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 History . . . . . . . . 107 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 17. .4 Three dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 17. . . . . . . . . . 103 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 18. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Curl .11Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Symmetry groups in general . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . .4 Index of a vector field . .3 Two dimensions . . 101 16. . . . . . . . . . .5 Flow curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 101 17 Vector field 102 17. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 99 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 17. . . . 105 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 18. . . . . .1. . . 100 16. . . . . 98 16. . . . . . . . . . 105 17. . . .2. . .8 External links . . . . . . .2 Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Generalizations .2 Coordinate transformation law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 17. . . . . . . .CONTENTS ix 16 Symmetry group 98 16. . . . . . . . . .1 Example 1 . . 106 17. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 107 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 18. . . . . . .3 Vector fields on manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 17. 106 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Vector fields on subsets of Euclidean space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . .1 Introduction and definition 108 . . . . . . . . . . . 107 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 18 Vector space 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Second example: ordered pairs of numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Divergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . 108 18. . . . . . . . .2 One dimension .6 Difference between scalar and vector field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Central field . . . . 107 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 f-relatedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Further reading . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 See also .2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Tensor product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 18. . . . . . . . . . .5 Linear maps and matrices . . . . . . . . . . .2 Non-examples . . . . . 115 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Further references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 18. . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . .1 Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Basic constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . .1 Coordinate spaces . . . 126 19. .9. . . . 113 18. . 120 18. . . . . . . . . 112 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 18. . . . . . .4 Linear equations . . . . .2 Topological vector spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 18.1 One-sided zero-divisor . . . . . . . . . . 110 18. . . . . . . . . . . . 123 18. . . . . . .14External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 18.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .2 Modules . . 123 18. . .3 Properties . . . . . . .6. . . .2 Complex numbers and other field extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Fourier analysis . . . . . . . . .2 Direct product and direct sum . . . .9 Generalizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Vector spaces with additional structure . . . . . .13References . . . . . . . 113 18. . . . . . . . . . . . .x CONTENTS 18. . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Function spaces . . . . . . . . . 123 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 118 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Algebras over fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 19 Zero divisor 126 19. 121 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Vector bundles .1 Algebra . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . 111 18. . 118 18. . . . . 117 18. 119 18. . .2 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . 119 18. . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .4 Basis and dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Affine and projective spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 19. . . 120 18. . . . .4 Zero as a zero divisor .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Historical references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 18. . . . . . . . . 110 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 19. . . . . . . . . .1 Normed vector spaces and inner product spaces . . . . . . . . . . . 114 18. . . . . . . . . 127 .1 Subspaces and quotient spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Differential geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 18. . . . . 126 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Text . . . . . . . . .2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 19. . . . . . . .6 See also . 127 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 19. . . . . . 128 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 19. contributors. . .CONTENTS xi 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Content license . . . .8 References . . 136 . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Zero divisor on a module . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 19. . . . . .9 Text and image sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . .

where an operation is written additively even when non-abelian.1.2 Multiplication table holder for a concretely given operation. abelian if and only if this table is symmetric about the Associativity For all a. an abelian group is a commutative group.2 axiom of commutativity). a • b = b • a. then gi ⋅ gj = gj ⋅ gi. the equation (a • b) main diagonal. mutative group. j)th entry Closure For all a.1 Niels Henrik Abel. while the additive notation is the usual notation for modules and rings. together with an operation • that combines any two elements a and b to form another element denoted a • b.Chapter 1 Abelian group For the group described by the archaic use of the related More compactly.1 Definition An abelian group is a set. 1. e = a holds. also called a com. A. the (i.2. g2 . This implies that the (i. There are two main notational conventions for abelian groups – additive and multiplicative. see Symplectic group. b in A. • c = a • (b • c) holds. denoted (Z. where e is the identity element. The group is b is also in A. They are named after 1. the result of the operation a • of this table contains the product gi ⋅ gj. such as modules and vector spaces are developed. thus the table is symmetric about the that for all elements a in A. •). the multiplicative notation is the usual notation for groups. j)th entry of the table equals Identity element There exists an element e in A.2. i)th entry.. from which many other basic concepts. the set and operation. If the group is G = {g1 = e.3 Examples • For the integers and the operation addition "+". must satisfy To verify that a finite group is abelian. To qualify as an abelian group. Generally. some notable exceptions being near-rings and partially ordered groups. b and c in A. the operation + combines any two inte- Commutativity For all a. a table (matrix) – known as a Cayley table – can be constructed in a similar five requirements known as the abelian group axioms: fashion to a multiplication table. The theory of abelian groups is generally simpler than that of their non-abelian counterparts. b in A. commutative is called a “non-abelian group” or “nonIn abstract algebra. (A. such the (j. +). 1 . whenever both abelian and non-abelian groups are considered. Abelian groups generalize the arithmetic of addition of integers. is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written (the 1. there exists an element b in A such that a • b = b • a = e. The symbol • is a general place. The additive notation may also be used to emphasize that a particular group is abelian.. This is true since if the group is abelian.commutative group”. and finite abelian groups are very well understood. 1. Inverse element For each a in A. On the other hand. the theory of infinite abelian groups is an area of current research.[1] Facts Notation See also: Additive group and Multiplicative group The concept of an abelian group is one of the first concepts encountered in undergraduate abstract algebra. the equation e • a = a • main diagonal. an abelian group. .. gn} under the operation ⋅. A group in which the group operation is not term “Abelian linear group”.

every abelian group has a rank.[3] In general. form an abelian group under addition. • Every subgroup of an abelian group is normal. and the nonzero real numbers are an abelian group under multiplication. the The fundamental theorem of finite abelian groups modules over Z can be identified with the abelian groups. form an abelian multiplicative group. forming a complete system of 1. Subgroups. See important chapter of linear algebra. Z/nZ. In fact. In this way. and therefore abelian.[4] In fact. • The concepts of abelian group and Z-module agree. The finite simple abelian groups are exactly the cyclic groups of prime order. ABELIAN GROUP gers to form a third integer. It turns out that an arbitrary finite abelian group is isomorphic to a direct sum of finite cyclic groups of prime power order. It is defined as the cardinality of the largest set of linearly independent elements of the group. so each subgroup gives rise to a quotient group. Section 6. defined by (f + g) (x) = f(x) + g(x). A typical example is the classification of finitely generated abelian groups which is a specialization of the structure theorem for finitely generated modules over a principal ideal domain. + x (n summands) and (−n)x = −(nx). states that every finite abelian group G can be expressed . g : G → H are two group homomorphisms between abelian groups. then nx can be defined as x + x 1. is again a homomorphism.4 Historical remarks invariants.e. for every prime number p there are (up to isomorphism) exactly two 1. and the addition operation is commutative since m + n = n + m for any two integers m and n. Z/nZ. do not form an abelian group under multiplication because matrix multiplication is generally not commutative. namely Zp2 and Zp×Zp. the real numbers are an abelian group under addition. forming an polynomial can be calculated by using radicals. A group G is abelian if and only if it is equal to its center Z(G). and the latter is a direct sum of finitely many copies of Z. and every abelian group is a module over the ring of integers Z in a unique way. The automorphism group of a finite abelian group can be described directly in terms of these invariAbelian groups were named after Norwegian ants. addition is associative. this theorem guarantees that an abelian group splits as a direct sum of a torsion group and a free abelian group.[2] Somewhat akin to the dimension of vector spaces.. • Every cyclic group G is abelian. matrices.paper of Georg Frobenius and Ludwig Stickelberger and dan because Abel found that the commutativity of the later was both simplified and generalized to finitely gengroup of a polynomial implies that the roots of the erated modules over a principal ideal domain. some groups of matrices are abelian groups under matrix multiplication – one example is the group of 2×2 Cyclic groups of integers modulo n.) The set Hom(G.1 Classification + . If f. −n. then xy = am an = am + n = an + m = an am = yx. If the quotient group G/Z(G) of a group by its center is cyclic then G is abelian. or units. as well as every subgroup of the rationals. even invertible matrices. then their sum f + g. y are in G.6 Finite abelian groups ever.6. The center of a group G is always a characteristic abelian subgroup of G.5 of Cox (2004) for more information on the Any group of prime order is isomorphic to a cyclic group historical background. Theorems about abelian groups (i. every Z-module is an abelian group with its operation of addition. and these orders are uniquely determined. How. Z. and direct sums of abelian groups are again abelian. because if x. were among rotation matrices.2 CHAPTER 1. H) of all group homomorphisms from G to H thus turns into an abelian group in its own right. G becomes a module over the ring Z of integers. modules over the principal ideal domain Z) can often be generalized to theorems about modules over an arbitrary principal ideal domain. The former may be written as a direct sum of finitely many groups of the form Z/pk Z for p prime. The theory had been first developed in the 1879 mathematician Niels Henrik Abel by Camille Jor. every integer n has an additive inverse. quotients.5 Properties groups of order p2 . as do the integers modulo n. In particular. Any group whose order is a square of a prime number is abelian. In a commutative ring the invertible elements. Thus the integers. The integers and the rational numbers have rank one. In the case of finitely generated abelian groups. More specifically.1. zero is the additive identity. the first examples of groups. (This is not true if H is a non-abelian group.. • Every ring is an abelian group with respect to its addition operation. The center Z(G) of a group G is the set of elements that commute with every element of G. If n is a natural number and x is an element of an abelian group G written additively.

and the prime powers giving Zpe1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Zpen . Fix a prime p and suppose the exponents ei of the cyclic factors of the Sylow p-subgroup 1. One needs to find the automorphisms of rect sum of finitely many cyclic groups of primary orders. which divides k3 . It follows that any finite abelian group G is isomorphic to Zp ⊕ · · · ⊕ Zp .group can be used. the fundamental theorem shows that to compute the automorphism group of G it suffices to compute One can check that this yields the orders in the previous the automorphism groups of the Sylow p-subgroups sep. ⊕ {0. Even though the decomposition is not unique.examples as special cases (see [Hillar. order. cyclic prime-power factor in the Sylow p-subgroup P.6. Any finitely generated abelian group A is isoe1 ≤ e2 ≤ · · · ≤ en morphic to the direct sum of r copies of Z and a finite abelian group. one is considering finitely generated abelian groups when G has zero rank.e. Fp ). that all abelian groups of order 15 are isomorphic. Z15 can be expressed as the direct sum of two cyclic subgroups of order 3 and 5: Z15 ≅ {0. each with order a power of p).1. or Z2 ⊕ Z2 ⊕ Z2 . 5. classification of general infinitely generated this case the theory of automorphisms of a finite cyclic abelian groups is far from complete.. and sometimes determine) the automorphisms of a given finite abelian group G. Z4 ⊕ Z2 (the odd integers 1 to 15 under multiplication modulo 16). ku are powers of primes • k1 divides k2 . It For another example. Aut(P ) ∼ = GL(n. 3. a direct sum of the form so elements of this subgroup can be viewed as comprising a vector space of dimension n over the finite field of p u elements Fp. In By contrast. The same can be said for any abelian |Aut(P )| = (p − 1) · · · (p − p group of order 15. Here. 9. 10} n n n−1 ). Divisible groups. where GL is the appropriate general linear group. . ck ≤ k. the orders of finite cyclic summands are uniquely deterOne special case is when n = 1. that if one defines isomorphic to either Z8 (the integers 0 to 7 under addition modulo 8). then Aut(H ⊕ K) ≅ Aut(H) ⊕ Aut(K).Rhea]). . 12}. This is easily shown to have order For example. all direct sums of cyclic subgroups. leading to the remarkable conclusion In the most general case. k=1 j=1 i=1 Given this.2 Automorphisms ck = min{r|er = ek } One can apply the fundamental theorem to count (and then one has in particular dk ≥ k. which in turn is decomposable into a difor some n > 0. every abelian group of order 8 is is known. however. The automorphisms of this subgroup are ⊕ therefore given by the invertible linear transformations. called the rank of A. To do this. 1. Zki i=1 so in either of the following canonical ways: • the numbers k1 . and so on up to ku. P to be of the form The cyclic group Zmn of order mn is isomorphic to the direct sum of Zm and Zn if and only if m and n are coprime. one uses the fact that if n n n ∏ ∏ ∏ G splits as a direct sum H ⊕ K of subgroups of coprime dk k−1 ej n−dj |Aut(P )| = (p − p ) (p ) (pei −1 )n−ci +1 . the number r. d = max{r|e = e } k r k See also list of small groups for finite abelian groups of and order 16 or less. where the ei and n are arbitrary. so that there is only one mined.. 6.7 Infinite abelian groups are arranged in increasing order: Тhe simplest infinite abelian group is the infinite cyclic group Z. the automorphism group is more difficult to determine. i. Another special case is when n is arder.7. arately (that is. This is a special case of the fundamental theorem of bitrary but ei = 1 for 1 ≤ i ≤ n.. INFINITE ABELIAN GROUPS 3 as the direct sum of cyclic subgroups of prime-power or.

while torsion-free abelian groups of rank 1 are necessarily subgroups of Q and can be completely described. In a different direction. 1. . 1. and David Arnold. and conversely. is not a direct summand of A. Every divisible group is isomorphic to a direct sum. if a divisible group A is a subgroup of an abelian group G then A admits a direct complement: a subgroup C of G such that G = A ⊕ C. and the cardinality of the set of summands of each type is uniquely determined.8 Relation to other mathematical topics Many large abelian groups possess a natural topology. torsion-free.3 Invariants and classification One of the most basic invariants of an infinite abelian group A is its rank: the cardinality of the maximal linearly independent subset of A. and rank 1 torsion-free abelian groups explained above were all obtained before 1950 and form a foundation of the classification of more general infinite abelian groups.7. Introduction of various invariants of torsion-free abelian groups has been one avenue of further progress. An abelian group without non-zero divisible subgroups is called reduced. divisible. Abelian groups of rank 0 are precisely the periodic groups. ABELIAN GROUP abelian groups A in which the equation nx = a admits a solution x ∈ A for any natural number n and element a of A.[6] The cardinality of the set of direct summands isomorphic to Z/pm Z in such a decomposition is an invariant of A. then A is isomorphic to a direct sum of finite cyclic groups. 1. The first and second Prüfer theorems state that if A is a periodic group and either it has bounded exponent. 1. Thus divisible groups are injective modules in the category of abelian groups. László Fuchs. Although the converse statement is not true in general. 1.7. Important technical tools used in classification of infinite abelian groups are pure and basic subgroups. some special cases are known. Some important topics in this area of study are: • Tensor product • Corner’s results on countable torsion-free groups • Shelah’s work to remove cardinality restrictions. On the other hand. as well as the proceedings of the conferences on Abelian Group Theory published in Lecture Notes in Mathematics for more recent results. groups. so A is not isomorphic to T(A) ⊕ A/T(A). forms the category Ab. However. exemplified by the groups Q/Z does not even fully capture properties of some familiar (periodic) and Q (torsion-free). Thus the theory of mixed groups involves more than simply combining the results about periodic and torsion-free groups. More generally.e. Helmut Ulm found an extension of the second Prüfer theorem to countable abelian p-groups with elements of infinite height: those groups are completely classified by means of their Ulm invariants.e.4 CHAPTER 1. constitute one important class of infinite abelian groups that can be completely characterized. nA = 0 for some natural number n. the group of p-adic integers Zp is a torsionTwo important special classes of infinite abelian groups free abelian group of infinite Z-rank and the groups Zpn with diametrically opposite properties are torsion groups with different n are non-isomorphic. If A is an abelian group and T(A) The collection of all abelian groups. i. a torsion-free abelian group of finite rank r is a subgroup of Qr . every injective abelian group is divisible (Baer’s criterion). A direct sum of finite cyclic groups is periodic. arbitrary direct sums of Z • Cotorsion and algebraically compact torsion-free groups such as the p-adic integers • Slender groups The classification theorems for finitely generated.7.7.2 Torsion-free and mixed groups An abelian group is called torsion-free if every non-zero element has infinite order. These theorems were later subsumed in the Kulikov criterion. together with the is its torsion subgroup then the factor group A/T(A) is homomorphisms between them.[5] Moreover. Phillip Griffith. free is called mixed. countable periodic. with summands isomorphic to Q and Prüfer groups Qp/Zp for various prime numbers p. but not all abelian groups are additive groups of rings (with nontrivial multiplication).which turns them into topological groups. See the books by Irving Kaplansky.1 Torsion groups An abelian group is called periodic or torsion if every element has finite order. or if A is countable and the p-heights of the elements of A are finite for each p.4 Additive groups of rings The additive group of a ring is an abelian group. i. so this invariant and torsion-free groups. Several classes of torsion-free abelian groups have been studied extensively: • Free abelian groups. in general the torsion subgroup the prototype of an abelian category. An abelian group that is neither periodic nor torsion.

SEE ALSO Nearly all well-known algebraic structures other than Boolean algebras are undecidable. Chicago Lectures in Mathematics. Q/Z ≅ ∑p Qp/Zp. England. quite surprisingly. Pure and Applied Mathematics 36–I. plus the fundamental theorem of finite abelian groups described above. [6] Countability assumption in the second Prüfer theorem cannot be removed: the torsion subgroup of the direct product of the cyclic groups Z/pm Z for all natural m is not a direct sum of cyclic groups. • Fuchs. the conventional axiomatic set theory from which nearly all of present-day mathematics can be derived. Moreover. p. . Hence it is surprising that Tarski’s student Wanda Szmielew (1955) proved that the first order theory of abelian groups. rather than an uppercase A. the smallest non-Abelian group • Elementary abelian group • Pontryagin duality • Pure injective module • Pure projective module 1.9 A note on the typography • Griffith. • Undecidable even if ZFC is augmented by taking the generalized continuum hypothesis as an axiom.10 See also • Abelianization • Class field theory • Commutator subgroup • Dihedral group of order 6. 32 [3] Rose 2012. indicating how ubiquitous the concept is in modern mathematics. highlight some of the successes in abelian group theory. 1. p. Dover Publications. This decidability. Phillip A. p. to deep questions about the set theory commonly assumed to underlie all of mathematics. p. Take the Whitehead problem: are all Whitehead groups of infinite order also free abelian groups? In the 1970s. Infinite Abelian group theory. • Positively answered if ZFC is augmented with the axiom of constructibility (see statements true in L). MR 0349869. Among mathematical adjectives derived from the proper name of a mathematician. the case of countable mixed groups is much less mature. Galois Theory. Academic Press. 1. only the finitely generated case and the rank 1 case are well understood. • Finite abelian groups remain a topic of research in computational group theory. • There are many unsolved problems in the theory of infinite-rank torsion-free abelian groups. MR 2119052. ISBN 0-486-68194-7.11 Notes [1] Jacobson (2009). 36-II. Cambridge. Infinite Abelian Groups. in 1978. David (2004).[7] • Rose. • While countable torsion abelian groups are well understood through simple presentations and Ulm invariants. (1970). 79 [5] For example. Saharon Shelah proved that the Whitehead problem is: • Undecidable in ZFC (Zermelo–Fraenkel axioms). 41 [2] Rose 2012. Interscience. University of Chicago Press. (2012). Infinite Abelian Groups. The Whitehead problem is also the first question in ordinary mathematics proved undecidable in ZFC. abelian groups of infinite order lead. 5 1. • Many mild extensions of the first order theory of abelian groups are known to be undecidable.1. MR 0255673. 48 [4] Rose 2012. László (1973). ISBN 0-226-30870-7. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. John S. is decidable. Unabridged and unaltered republication of a work first published by the Cambridge University Press. but there are still many areas of current research: • Amongst torsion-free abelian groups of finite rank.10. Wiley- • Fuchs. unlike its nonabelian counterpart. [7] “Abel Prize Awarded: The Mathematicians’ Nobel”. Pure and Applied Mathematics. A Course on Group Theory. László (1970). Academic Press. the word “abelian” is rare in that it is often spelled with a lowercase a. Retrieved 3 July 2016.12 References • Cox.

Topics in Algebra (2nd ed. • Jacobson. Darren (2007).6 CHAPTER 1. ed. Christopher. Fundamenta Mathematicae 41: 203–271. N. Wanda (1955). ISBN 9781-55608-010-4 . “Automorphisms of finite abelian groups”. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. 1. American Mathematical Monthly 114 (10): 917–923.). Michiel. Rhea. Springer. “Elementary properties of abelian groups”.13 External links • Hazewinkel. ABELIAN GROUP • Herstein. Dover Publications. (1975). (2001).). ISBN 978-0-486-47189-1. Nathan (2009). ISBN 0-471-02371-X. • Szmielew. I. arXiv:math/0605185. • Hillar. “Abelian group”. Basic Algebra I (2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons.

The language of category theory has been used to formalize concepts of other high-level abstractions such as sets. g ∘ f. are used differently from their uses in the Categories now appear in many branches of mathematics. A category has two basic properties: the ability to compose the arrows associatively and the existence of an identity arrow for each object.Chapter 2 Category theory study of monads in functional programming. and Z. Y. including the term “morphism”. if explicitly represented. 2. Hence category theory uses abstraction to make it possible to state and prove many intricate and subtle mathematical results in these fields in a much simpler way. and natural transforma. g. rings. where the objects are sets and the arrows are functions from one set to another. Z and of objects and arrows is a valid category—and all the remorphisms f. many applications where much more abstract concepts are represented by objects and morphisms. 2. in other words. each having as its “shaft” a circular arc measuring almost 360 degrees. 2. they can be used to describe vector spaces. 1Y and 1Z. However. would appear as three arrows. next to the letters X. or in many cases a “structure-preserving” transformation connecting two objects.3 Utility Category theory has practical applications in programming language theory. and groups. There are. however. the objects of a category need not be sets. rest of mathematics. Y. Many areas of mathematics can be formalised by category theory as categories.matrices.2 Applications of Categories Several terms used in category theory. functors.1 Basic concepts Categories represent abstraction of other mathematical concepts.) The “arrows” of category theory are often said to represent a process connecting two objects. respectively.[2] A basic example of a category is the category of sets. with the goal of understanding the processes that preserve mathematical structure. in particular for the 7 .[4] tions in 1942–45 in their study of algebraic topology.[3] Linear alSamuel Eilenberg and Saunders Mac Lane introduced the gebra can also be expressed in terms of categories of concepts of categories. arranged in a sequence to form a new arrow. (The category’s three identity morphisms sults of category theory apply to it. and mathematical physics where conditions specific to category theory itself. Any way of formalising a mathematical concept such that it meets the basic conditions on the behaviour Schematic representation of a category with objects X. In category theory. The most important property of the arrows is that they can be “composed”. 1X. and the arrows need not be functions. Category theory[1] formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a collection of objects and of arrows (also called morphisms). morphisms obey some areas of theoretical computer science where they can correspond to types.

3. objects. CATEGORY THEORY Categories. The class Grp of groups consists of all objects having a “group structure”.8 2.3 Natural transformations Main article: Natural transformation Abstracting yet again. in a way that carries along information about the structure of the first group into the second group. By studying categories and functors. the standard example is the category of homotopies between pointed topological spaces. some diagrammatic and/or sequential constructions are often “naturally related” – a vague notion. 1965).1 Categories A category C consists of the following three mathematical A category is itself a type of mathematical structure. whose elements are called objects.2 Functors Main article: Functor See also: Adjoint functors § Motivation 2. A functor associates to every object of . In the case of groups. at first sight. such as the fundamental group or the fundamental groupoid of a topological space. it is immediately proven from the axioms that the identity element of a group is unique.is a natural transformation when it is subject to certain sociated category is called Top). category theory emphasizes the morphisms – the structure-preserving mappings – between these objects. and the concept is pervasive in algebra and its applications. 2. The study of group homomorphisms then provides a tool for studying general properties of groups and consequences of the group axioms.g. Functors and natural transformations ('naturality') are the [5] Not all categories arise as “structure preserving (set) key concepts in category theory. like general covariance in physics. functions”. Each morphism f resented by arrows between categories. objects. we are not just studying a class of mathematical structures and the morphisms between them. would be verbally stated fine (construct) categorical diagrams and sequences (viz. Diagram chasing is a visual method of arguing with abstract “arrows” joined in diagrams. the morphisms are the group homomorphisms.1 CHAPTER 2.4 Categories. Many important constructions in mathematics can be studied in this context. groups) possessing a given structure. and to every morphism in the first category a morphism in the second. whose elements are called morphisms or maps or arrows. can be expressed as functors to the category of groupoids in this way. and the study of smooth naturality or commutativity conditions. as "f is a morphism from a to b". a way to “map” one functor to another. An arrow between two functors phisms) between topological spaces in topology (the as. one obtains the theory of allegories. Functors can deThe expression f : a → b. Functors are rep• A class hom(C).3. This leads to the clarifying concept of natural transformation.ple. which first surfaced in algebraic topology.4. such a process is called a functor. cific defining commutativity conditions. and the morphisms (between categories) are functors. one category an object of another category. we are able to learn more about the structure of the objects. 2. subject to spehas a source object a and target object b. such as the study of continuous maps (mor. we are studying the relationships between various classes of mathematical structures. Instead of focusing merely on the individual objects (e. and morphisms The study of categories is an attempt to axiomatically capture what is commonly found in various classes of related mathematical structures by relating them to the structurepreserving functions between them. Difficult topological questions can be translated into algebraic questions which are often easier to solve. Mitchell. and morphisms Main articles: Category (mathematics) and Morphism 2. A systematic study of category theory then allows us to prove general results about any of these types of mathematical structures from the axioms of a category. • A class ob(C).than is initially apparent. what we have done is define a category of categories and functors – the objects are categories. by studying these morphisms. If one axiomatizes relations instead of functions.3. “Naturality” is a princiA similar type of investigation occurs in many mathemat. however. This is a fundamental idea. A group homomorphism between two groups “preserves the group structure” in a precise sense – it is a “process” taking one group to another. Basic constructions. functions (morphisms) in manifold theory.. In fact. One can proceed to prove theorems about groups by making logical deductions from the set of axioms. that cuts deeper ical theories. Consider the following example. so entities: we can look for “processes” which preserve this structure in some sense. For example.

e. Functors often describe “natural constructions” and • endomorphism if a = b. More specifically. Relations among morphisms (such as fg = h) are often depicted using commutative diagrams. if there exists C. a morphism F(f) : F(x) → F(y). F(1x) = 1F₍x₎. b).if there exists a natural transformation from F to G such ments are equivalent: that ηX is an isomorphism for every object X in C. g1 = g2 for all morphisms g1 .5 Functors Main article: Functor Functors are structure-preserving maps between cate• Identity: For every object x. written F : C → D. a contravarimorphism f : a → b is a: ant functor acts as a covariant functor from the opposite op • monomorphism (or monic) if f ∘ g1 = f ∘ g2 implies category C to D. Some authors deviate from the definition just given by identifying each object with its identity morphism. and c. associates to every object X in C a morphism ηX : F(X) → G(X) in D such that for every morphism f : X → Y in • section if a left inverse of f exists. for x. this • automorphism if f is both an endomorphism and an is expressed by a natural isomorphism between the two isomorphism. The composition of f : a → b and g : b → c is written as g ∘ f or gf.4.[7] tors. phisms of a. b) — alternatively expressed as homC(a.2 Morphisms • for each object x in C. this means that the a morphism g : b → a with g ∘ f = 1a. b. A phism f : x → y in C must be assigned to a morphism F(f) : F(y) → F(x) in D. then a natural transformation η from F to G exists a morphism g : b → a with f ∘ g = 1b. consists of: From the axioms. with “points” A contravariant functor F: C → D. end(a) denotes the class of natural transformations then describe “natural homomorendomorphisms of a. Sometimes two quite different constructions yield “the same” result.2. i. aut(a) denotes the class of automorfunctors. F(g ∘ f) = F(g) ∘ F(f). Furthermore. 2. it can be proved that there is exactly one identity morphism for every object.e. c) × hom(a.gories. • For all morphisms f : x → y and g : y → z. and 9 • f is a monomorphism and a retraction.5. such that for any three objects a. FUNCTORS The expression hom(a. an object F(x) in D. Main article: Natural transformation • isomorphism if there exists a morphism g : b → a A natural transformation is a relation between two funcsuch that f ∘ g = 1b and g ∘ f = 1a. If F and G are (covariant) functors between the categories • retraction if a right inverse of f exists. we have hom(b. 2. verses all the arrows”). g2 : b → x. and every section is a The two functors F and G are called naturally isomorphic monomorphism. there exists a mor. • f is an epimorphism and a section. following diagram is commutative: Every retraction is an epimorphism. b) — denotes the hom-class of all morphisms from a to b. such that the following two properties hold: • For every object x in C. c). g2 : x → a. b) → hom(a. phisms” between two such constructions. D. • epimorphism (or epic) if g1 ∘ f = g2 ∘ f implies g1 = g2 for all morphisms g1 . every morMorphisms can have any of the following properties. They can be thought of as morphisms in the catephism 1x : x → x called the identity morphism gory of all (small) categories. if there C and D. • A binary operation ∘. is like a covariant (corners) representing objects and “arrows” representing functor. . i. b). 2. we have ηY ∘ F(f) = G(f) ∘ ηX. mor(a. g : b → c and h : c → d then h ∘ (g ∘ f) = (h ∘ g) ∘ f. A (covariant) functor F from a category C to a category we have 1b ∘ f = f = f ∘ 1a. except that it “turns morphisms around” (“remorphisms. or C(a. called composition of morphisms.[6] governed by two axioms: • Associativity: If f : a → b. the following three state. such that for every morphism f : a → b. and • for each morphism f : x → y in C.6 Natural transformations • bimorphism if f is both epic and monic. In other words. • f is an isomorphism.

objects are considered atomic. additional important topics are listed below.e. which is given by appropriate functors between two categories. it describes representable functors in functor categories. or any other cally arises from a construction defined by a univerabstract concept. if we consider a morphism between tions can be described in a purely categorical way. the given order can be considered as a guideline for further reading. Such a pair of adjoint functors typiwhether an object A is a set. CATEGORY THEORY can two categories be considered essentially the same. . For example.7.7 Other concepts 2.7.2 Equivalent categories which allow us to transform one morphism into another. This duality. or definition in category theory has a dual which is essentially obtained by “reversing all the arrows”. a (strict) 2-category is a category together with “morphisms between morphisms”.7. many areas of mathematical study can be categorized. groups and topologies.10 CHAPTER 2. The definitions of categories and functors provide only the very basics of categorical algebra. Categorical equivalence has found numerous applications in mathematics.7. especially equivalence of categories. relating the two composition laws.2. the standard example is Cat.1 Universal constructions. and can be dualized to yield the notion us to profitably generalize this by considering “higherof a colimit. the challenge is to define spesal property. and in this example. Hence.categories. Each category is distinguished by properties that all its objects have in common. In this context. can be situated into the context of higher-dimensional Indeed. as given by the mor. the task is to find universal properties that uniquely determine the ob. or the product topology without referring to open sets. i. one can characterize these objects in terms of their relations to other objects. If one statement is true in a category C then its dual is true in the dual category C op . adjoint functor pairs. dimensional processes”.3 Further concepts and results Commutative diagram defining natural transformations 2. To define the empty set without referring to elements.e. which is transparent at the level of category theory. • Duality: Every statement. The two objects as a “process taking us from one object central concept which is needed for this purpose is called to another”. jects of interest. this can be seen as a more abstract and cial objects without referring to the internal structure of powerful view on universal properties. such as the empty set or the • Adjoint functors: A functor can be left (or right) product of two topologies.. limits. Categories include sets. i. and functor categories. the It is a natural question to ask: under which conditions 2-category of all (small) categories. it turns out that numerous important construc. Although there are strong interrelations between all of these topics. those objects. in the sense that theorems about one category can readily be transformed into theorems about the other category? The major tool one employs to describe such a situation is called equivalence of categories. theorem. • The functor category DC has as objects the functors from C to D and as morphisms the natural transformations of such functors. we do not know site direction. then higher-dimensional categories allow categorical limit. The Yoneda lemma is one of the most famous basic results of category theory.Many of the above concepts. is often obscured in applications and can lead to surprising relationships. and colimits Main articles: Universal property and Limit (category theory) Using the language of category theory. 2. and we require a 2-dimensional Isomorphism of categories “exchange law” to hold. yet in the definition of a cateadjoint to another functor that maps in the oppogory. We can then “compose” these “bimorphisms” both horMain articles: Equivalence of categories and izontally and vertically. Briefly.4 Higher-dimensional categories phisms of the respective categories. a topology. Thus.. processes 2.

2.9. SEE ALSO
bimorphisms of morphisms are simply natural transformations of morphisms in the usual sense. Another basic
example is to consider a 2-category with a single object;
these are essentially monoidal categories. Bicategories
are a weaker notion of 2-dimensional categories in which
the composition of morphisms is not strictly associative,
but only associative “up to” an isomorphism.

11
as a specific type of category with two additional topos
axioms. These foundational applications of category theory have been worked out in fair detail as a basis for, and
justification of, constructive mathematics. Topos theory
is a form of abstract sheaf theory, with geometric origins,
and leads to ideas such as pointless topology.

Categorical logic is now a well-defined field based on
This process can be extended for all natural numbers n, type theory for intuitionistic logics, with applications in
and these are called n-categories. There is even a notion functional programming and domain theory, where a
of ω-category corresponding to the ordinal number ω.
cartesian closed category is taken as a non-syntactic deHigher-dimensional categories are part of the broader scription of a lambda calculus. At the very least, category
mathematical field of higher-dimensional algebra, a con- theoretic language clarifies what exactly these related arcept introduced by Ronald Brown. For a conversational eas have in common (in some abstract sense).
introduction to these ideas, see John Baez, 'A Tale of n- Category theory has been applied in other fields as
categories’ (1996).
well. For example, John Baez has shown a link between
Feynman diagrams in Physics and monoidal categories.[8]
Another application of category theory, more specifically: topos theory, has been made in mathematical mu2.8 Historical notes
sic theory, see for example the book The Topos of Music,
Geometric Logic of Concepts, Theory, and Performance
Main article: Timeline of category theory and related by Guerino Mazzola.
mathematics
More recent efforts to introduce undergraduates to categories as a foundation for mathematics include those
In 1942–45, Samuel Eilenberg and Saunders Mac Lane of William Lawvere and Rosebrugh (2003) and Lawintroduced categories, functors, and natural transfor- vere and Stephen Schanuel (1997) and Mirroslav Yotov
mations as part of their work in topology, especially (2012).
algebraic topology. Their work was an important part
of the transition from intuitive and geometric homology
to axiomatic homology theory. Eilenberg and Mac Lane
2.9 See also
later wrote that their goal was to understand natural transformations. That required defining functors, which re• Domain theory
quired categories.
Stanislaw Ulam, and some writing on his behalf, have
claimed that related ideas were current in the late 1930s
in Poland. Eilenberg was Polish, and studied mathematics
in Poland in the 1930s. Category theory is also, in some
sense, a continuation of the work of Emmy Noether (one
of Mac Lane’s teachers) in formalizing abstract processes;
Noether realized that understanding a type of mathematical structure requires understanding the processes that
preserve that structure. To achieve this understanding,
Eilenberg and Mac Lane proposed an axiomatic formalization of the relation between structures and the processes that preserve them.
The subsequent development of category theory was
powered first by the computational needs of homological
algebra, and later by the axiomatic needs of algebraic geometry, the field most resistant to being grounded in either axiomatic set theory or the Russell-Whitehead view
of united foundations. General category theory, an extension of universal algebra having many new features allowing for semantic flexibility and higher-order logic, came
later; it is now applied throughout mathematics.
Certain categories called topoi (singular topos) can even
serve as an alternative to axiomatic set theory as a foundation of mathematics. A topos can also be considered

• Enriched category theory
• Glossary of category theory
• Group theory
• Higher category theory
• Higher-dimensional algebra
• Important publications in category theory
• Lambda calculus
• Outline of category theory
• Timeline of category theory and related mathematics

2.10 Notes
[1] Awodey, Steve (2010) [2006]. Category Theory. Oxford Logic Guides 49 (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-19-923718-0.

12

CHAPTER 2. CATEGORY THEORY

[2] Geroch, Robert (1985). Mathematical physics ([Repr.]
ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 7. ISBN
0-226-28862-5. Note that theorem 3 is actually easier for
categories in general than it is for the special case of sets.
This phenomenon is by no means rare.

• Goldblatt, Robert (2006) [1979]. Topoi: The Categorial Analysis of Logic. Studies in logic and the
foundations of mathematics 94 (Reprint, revised
ed.). Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-450261.

[3] B. Coecke, editor New Structures for Physics Number 831
in Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer-Verlag, 2011

• Hatcher, William S. (1982). “Ch. 8”. The logical
foundations of mathematics. Foundations & philosophy of science & technology (2nd ed.). Pergamon
Press.

[4] Macedo, H.D.; Oliveira, J.N. (2013). “Typing linear algebra: A biproduct-oriented approach”. Science of Computer Programming 78 (11): 2160–2191.
doi:10.1016/j.scico.2012.07.012.
[5] Mac Lane 1998, p. 18: “As Eilenberg-Mac Lane first observed, 'category' has been defined in order to be able to
define 'functor' and 'functor' has been defined in order to
be able to define 'natural transformation'.”
[6] Some authors compose in the opposite order, writing fg or
f ∘ g for g ∘ f. Computer scientists using category theory
very commonly write f ; g for g ∘ f
[7] Note that a morphism that is both epic and monic is not
necessarily an isomorphism! An elementary counterexample: in the category consisting of two objects A and B,
the identity morphisms, and a single morphism f from A
to B, f is both epic and monic but is not an isomorphism.
[8] Baez, J.C.; Stay, M. (2009). “Physics, topology, logic and
computation: A Rosetta stone” (PDF). arXiv:0903.0340.

2.11 References
• Adámek, Jiří; Herrlich, Horst; Strecker, George E.
(1990). Abstract and concrete categories. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-60922-6.
• Barr, Michael; Wells, Charles (2012), Category Theory for Computing Science, Reprints in Theory and
Applications of Categories 22 (3rd ed.).
• Barr, Michael; Wells, Charles (2005), Toposes,
Triples and Theories, Reprints in Theory and Applications of Categories 12 (revised ed.), MR
2178101.
• Borceux, Francis (1994). Handbook of categorical
algebra. Encyclopedia of Mathematics and its Applications 50-52. Cambridge University Press.
• Bucur, Ion; Deleanu, Aristide (1968). Introduction
to the theory of categories and functors. Wiley.

• Herrlich, Horst; Strecker, George E. (2007), Category Theory (3rd ed.), Heldermann Verlag Berlin,
ISBN 978-3-88538-001-6.
• Kashiwara, Masaki; Schapira, Pierre (2006).
Categories and Sheaves. Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften 332. Springer. ISBN 9783-540-27949-5.
• Lawvere, F. William; Rosebrugh, Robert (2003).
Sets for Mathematics. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 978-0-521-01060-3.
• Lawvere, F. W.; Schanuel, Stephen Hoel (2009)
[1997]. Conceptual Mathematics: A First Introduction to Categories (2nd ed.). Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-89485-2.
• Leinster, Tom (2004). Higher operads, higher categories. London Math. Society Lecture Note Series 298. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780-521-53215-0.
• Leinster, Tom (2014). Basic Category Theory.
Cambridge University Press.
• Lurie, Jacob (2009). Higher topos theory. Annals of
Mathematics Studies 170. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press. arXiv:math.CT/0608040. ISBN
978-0-691-14049-0. MR 2522659.
• Mac Lane, Saunders (1998). Categories for the
Working Mathematician. Graduate Texts in Mathematics 5 (2nd ed.). Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-38798403-8. MR 1712872.
• Mac Lane, Saunders; Birkhoff, Garrett (1999)
[1967]. Algebra (2nd ed.). Chelsea. ISBN 0-82181646-2.
• Martini, A.; Ehrig, H.; Nunes, D. (1996).
“Elements of basic category theory”. Technical Report (Technical University Berlin) 96 (5).

• Freyd, Peter J. (1964). Abelian Categories. New
York: Harper and Row.

• May, Peter (1999). A Concise Course in Algebraic
Topology. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226-51183-9.

• Freyd, Peter J.; Scedrov, Andre (1990). Categories,
allegories. North Holland Mathematical Library 39.
North Holland. ISBN 978-0-08-088701-2.

• Guerino, Mazzola (2002). The Topos of Music, Geometric Logic of Concepts, Theory, and Performance.
Birkhäuser. ISBN 3-7643-5731-2.

2.13. EXTERNAL LINKS
• Pedicchio, Maria Cristina; Tholen, Walter, eds.
(2004). Categorical foundations. Special topics in
order, topology, algebra, and sheaf theory. Encyclopedia of Mathematics and Its Applications 97.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521-83414-7. Zbl 1034.18001.
• Pierce, Benjamin C. (1991). Basic Category Theory
for Computer Scientists. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0262-66071-6.
• Schalk, A.; Simmons, H. (2005). An introduction
to Category Theory in four easy movements (PDF).
Notes for a course offered as part of the MSc. in
Mathematical Logic, Manchester University.
• Simpson, Carlos. Homotopy theory of higher categories. arXiv:1001.4071., draft of a book.
• Taylor, Paul (1999). Practical Foundations of Mathematics. Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics 59. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780-521-63107-5.
• Turi, Daniele (1996–2001). “Category Theory Lecture Notes” (PDF). Retrieved 11 December 2009.
Based on Mac Lane 1998.

2.12 Further reading
• Jean-Pierre Marquis (2008). From a Geometrical
Point of View: A Study of the History and Philosophy
of Category Theory. Springer Science & Business
Media. ISBN 978-1-4020-9384-5.

2.13 External links
• Theory and Application of Categories, an electronic
journal of category theory, full text, free, since
1995.
• nLab, a wiki project on mathematics, physics and
philosophy with emphasis on the n-categorical point
of view.
• André Joyal, CatLab, a wiki project dedicated to the
exposition of categorical mathematics.
• Category Theory, a web page of links to lecture
notes and freely available books on category theory.
• Hillman, Chris, A Categorical Primer, CiteSeerX:
10.1.1.24.3264, a formal introduction to category
theory.
• Adamek, J.; Herrlich, H.; Stecker, G. “Abstract and
Concrete Categories-The Joy of Cats” (PDF).

13
• Marquis, Jean-Pierre. “Category Theory”. Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. with an extensive bibliography.
• List of academic conferences on category theory
• Baez, John (1996). “The Tale of n-categories”. —
An informal introduction to higher order categories.
• WildCats is a category theory package for
Mathematica. Manipulation and visualization of
objects, morphisms, categories, functors, natural
transformations, universal properties.
• The catsters’s channel on YouTube, a channel about
category theory.
• Category Theory at PlanetMath.org.
• Video archive of recorded talks relevant to categories, logic and the foundations of physics.
• Interactive Web page which generates examples of
categorical constructions in the category of finite
sets.
• Category Theory for the Sciences, an instruction on
category theory as a tool throughout the sciences.

Similarly. ing (not exhaustive) chain of class inclusions: such that a + (−a) = 0. As an algebraic structure. this theory leads to impossibility proofs for the classical problems of angle trisec. vision is possible but commutativity is not assumed (such called the multiplicative identity element and deas the quaternions) is called a division ring or skew field. In mathematics. with “compatible” being formalized by distributivity. + and · are binary operations on F). the algebraic insolubility of quintic equations. or equivalently a ring whose nonzero elements form an abelian group under multiplication. a field is a set F that is a commutative group with respect to two compatible operations. the theory of fields (or field theory) plays Associativity of addition and multiplication For all a. It is a nonzero commutative division ring.) multiplicative identity are required to be distinct. see Vector field. but not Commutativity of addition and multiplication For all every ring is a field. multiplication. rewhich is the standard general context for linear algebra. the additive identity and the exclude the as fields. a field may be classified as a specific type of integral domain. such that for all field is required to be commutative. while a ring need not possess multiplicative inverses. Also. and can be characterized by the follow. but 2x = 1 has no so. every field is a ring. such that the following axioms hold (note that The theory of field extensions (including Galois theory) subtraction and division are defined in terms of the inverse involves the roots of polynomials with coefficients in a operations of addition and multiplication):[note 1] field. the field of complex numbers. A ring in which dia in F. and c in F.Existence of additive and multiplicative identity elements There exists an element of F. algebraic number fields. as well as a proof of the Abel–Ruffini theorem on formally. The most commonly used fields are the field of real numbers. and the caveat that the additive and the multiplicative identities are distinct (0 ≠ 1). addition and multiplication (the latter excluding zero). called the additive lution in integers. there is an element. The most common way to formalize this is by defining a field as a set together with two operations. and so forth. usually called Any field may be used as the scalars for a vector space. integrally closed domains ⊃ GCD domains ⊃ unique factorization domains ⊃ principal ideal domains ⊃ Euclidean domains ⊃ fields ⊃ finite fields 3.Existence of additive inverses and multiplicative inverses For every a in F. both a + b and a · b are in F (or more edge. noted by 1. addition and multiplication. a · 1 = a. The most important difference is a and b in F. the following equalities hold: a + (b + an essential role in number theory and algebraic geomec) = (a + b) + c and a · (b · c) = (a · b) · c. there exists an element a−1 in F. and denoted by + and ·. for example the integers form a ring. try. To (Historically.Closure of F under addition and multiplication For tion and squaring the circle with a compass and straightall a. see Field (disambiguation). a + 0 = a. p-adic fields. the following equalities hold: a + b that fields allow for division (though not division by zero). but there are also finite fields. while fields were called commutative fields. As such it is an algebraic structure with notions of addition. algebraic function fields.Chapter 3 Field This article is about fields in algebra. For other uses. among other results. Likewise. As a ring. division rings were sometimes referred to trivial ring. and the field of rational numbers. a field is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.1 Definition and illustration Intuitively. for any a in F commutative rings ⊃ integral domains ⊃ other than 0. such that for all a in F. b in F. b. there exists an element −a in F. For fields in geometry. the multiplication operation in a identity element and denoted by 0. such 14 . and division satisfying the appropriate abelian group equations and distributive law. = b + a and a · b = b · a. In modern mathematics. spectively. subtraction.

there are other. 0 . A · (B + A) = A · I = A. and describing its inner structure. subtraction and division operations exist. it is important to include all operations as explicitly · + given. tion table. and B) is a power of A: A = A1 . • F under +. respectively. from a glance at the multiplica• F ∖ {0} under ·. I. ·. 1. Field theory is concerned with understanding the reasons for the existence of this field. whose primitives are merely a set R with 1 ∈ R. 1. but rather one of the starting points of a deeper understanding of (finite) fields. subtract. 0. and 1. not a more general object. To see the latter.2 3.2 Related algebraic structures Second example: a field with four el. it can be seen that any non-zero element (i. and inverses are precisely the axioms for an abelian group. and with · distributing over +. multiply. rather than implicitly defined (compare topological b d f group).1 First example: rational numbers A simple example of a field is the field of rational numbers. associativity.. there exist alternative axiomatizations. defined in a fairly ad-hoc manner. and the multiplicative inverse (provided that a ≠ 0) is b/a. divide) with axioms relating these. b d b f or the law of commutativity and law of associativity. 3.1. See Tarski’s axiomatization of the reals. consisting of two abelian The above field is called a finite field with four elements.mutativity. such as the law of The usual axiomatization in terms of the two operations distributivity of addition and multiplication is brief and allows the other operations to be defined in terms of these basic ones. and b ≠ 0. together with its comIn addition to familiar number systems such as the ratio. "<". 1 . dard properties of rational numbers.1. The abstractly required field axioms reduce to stan. For example. −. .e. For example: a. note that 3. I. as required by the distributivity. a b ab operations (additive inverse and multiplicative inverse). one can alternatively axiomatize a field by explicitly assuming that there are four binary operations (add. +. For example. 0. A and B. and 0. Because of the relations between the operations. The following example is a field consisting of four elements called O. ( ) a c f e d the implicitly defined inverses may not be continuous (in = · · + · topology). The notation is chosen such that O plays the role of the additive identity element (denoted 0 in the axioms). consisting of numbers which can be written as fractions a/b. This is not a coincidence. A field is therefore an algebraic structure F.) In other words. a e a c = · + · .2. of type 2. A. The additive inverse of such a fraction is simply −a/b. but in other contexts. the following equality holds: a · (b + c) = (a · b) + (a · c). 2. such as topology and category the( ) a c e ory. −1 . B = A2 = A · A. or may not be able to be defined (in category b d f f d ( ) theory).1. This is because without further assumptions. and a binary relation. = + = + = bdf bdf bdf bd bf addition. which equals A · B + A · A = I + B = A. One can check that all field axioms Distributivity of multiplication over addition For all are satisfied. (multiplicative) identity element nals. where a and b are integers. Defining an inverse requires that one is working a cf ed a cf + ed with a set. groups: and can be denoted F4 . (The elements a + (−b) and a · b−1 are also denoted a − b and a/b. and I is the multiplicative identity (denoted 1 above).3 Alternative axiomatizations As with other algebraic structures. = · + = · b df fd b df For a very economical axiomatization of the field of real acf aed ac ae a(cf + ed) numbers. −1 .3. the exisements tence of the binary operation "·". 3. RELATED ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES 15 that a · a−1 = 1.The axioms imposed above resemble the ones familiar from other algebraic structures. b and c in F.or other variants. with 0 ≠ 1. less immediate examples of fields. −. or (by functional decomposition) in terms of b a ba two binary operations (add and multiply) and two unary · = = 1.[1] finally I = A3 = A · A · A.

A related class of fields very important in number theory are algebraic number fields. if the requirement of commutativity of the multiplication operation · is dropped. namely the field Q(ζ) consisting of numbers of Similar direct consequences from the field axioms include the form −(a · b) = (−a) · b = a · (−b). fields The concept of field was used implicitly by Niels Henrik containing Q having finite dimension as a Q-vector space. In 1893.[2] This construction has been frequently readdition and multiplication. applied to the abelian groups The field of rational numbers Q has been introduced (F × . and p-adic degree five or higher. and (F. For example. FIELD In other words. This field extension can be used to prove a special case of Fermat’s last theorem. Ernst Steinitz published the very influential paper Algebraische Theorie der Körper (English: Algebraic Theory of Fields). Weber gave the first clear definition of an abstract field. a complex number satisfying ζ3 = 1. +) is an abelian group.16 CHAPTER 3. +). the German word Körper. the subset of nonzero elements F \ {0}. ·) usually called multiplicative group of the field.3 History numbers In 1857. a (non-real) number Hilbert. Algebraic number fields are by definition finite field extensions of Q. In the language of field extensions detailed below. ·). Richard Dedekind introduced. 3. i. Heinrich M. perfect field and the transcendence degree of a field extension.[7] In 1910. a + bζ with a. ple. where ζ is a primitive third root of unity. Q(ζ) is a field extension of degree 2. When the real numbers are called as a contribution to the foundations of mathematgiven the usual ordering. b ∈ Q. they form a complete ordered ics. for any field. which is indeed a field of polynomials in modern terms.and fields in great detail from 1928 through 1942. complex numbers. the additive inverse −a and the multi. Important other algebraic structures such as rings arise Emil Artin developed the relationship between groups when requiring only part of the above axioms. Addition and multiplication of real concept “field” in English.. under the usual operations of of a field.4.[4] In 1893.[3] hence the common use of the letter K to denote a field. The structure of a field is hence the same as specifying such two group structures (on the same set). Both can be shown by replacing b or c with 0 in the distributive property. field. Leopold Kronecker defined what he called a “do.2 Reals.2.[8] In this paper he axiomatically studies the properties of fields and defines many important field theoretic concepts like prime field.e.4. Likewise (F.. is an abelian group (F × .1 Rationals and algebraic numbers By elementary group theory. the distributive law enforces main of rationality”. He also defined rings (then called order or ordermodul). but the term “a ring” (Zahlring) was invented by where i is the imaginary unit.[5][6] numbers are defined in such a way that all field axioms In 1881. . in particular −a = (−1) · a as well as a · 0 = 0. 3. that is.above.4 Examples 3. for a set of real most formal treatments of calculus. obeying the distributivity. which asserts the non-existence of rational nonzero solutions to the equation x3 + y3 = z3 . which means “body” or “corpus” (to suggest an organically closed a + bi entity). For exam. ζ ≠ 1. (a + bi)·(c + di) = ac + bci + adi + bdi2 .e. it is this structure which provides the foundation for In 1871.1 Remarks 3. example. Abel and Évariste Galois in their work on the solvability of polynomial equations with rational coefficients of 3. Eliakim Hastings Moore called the satisfying i2 = −1. We will first give an plicative inverse a−1 are uniquely determined by a.hold for C. or complex numbers which is closed under the four arithThe complex numbers C consist of expressions metic operations. Karl von Staudt published his Algebra of Throws which provided a geometric model satisfying the axioms Take the real numbers R. which equals ac−bd + (bc + ad)i. i. also often denoted F × . one gets structures usually called division rings or skew fields.

on the plane. every element of which is greater than every infinitesimal. This set. Thus we may speak of the finite field with q elements. 0 and 1. . in particular the notion of the splitting field of a polynomial f over a field K. An Archimedean field is an ordered field such that for each element there exists a finite expression 1 + 1 + ··· + 1 whose value is greater than that element. In antiquity. Using the field notion and field theory allows these problems to be settled.. and the Euclidean fields are precisely the ordered extensions thereof.4.[9] and therefore may be viewed as a vector space over Fp. 1/3. because by definition a field has at least two distinct elements 1 ≠ 0. the square root of f is Main article: Archimedean field also a constructible number. i.5 Archimedean fields obtained field F contains all rational numbers. one can show that two finite fields with the same number of elements are isomorphic. the field of constructible numbers is considered. r1 and r2 .. which is the smallest field containing K and all roots of f. up to isomorphism finitely many elements. the construction yields r1 ·r2 where the operations are defined by performing the operation in the set of integers Z. i. based on the intercept theorem.. For example. EXAMPLES 17 The real numbers can be constructed by completing the rational numbers. filling the “gaps": for example √2 is such a gap. i.4. the points 0 and 1. that is. A basic class of finite fields are the fields Fp with p elements (p a prime number): Fp = Z/pZ = {0. since in any non3.3 Constructible numbers the characteristic of the field. and all complex numbers that can be constructed from these two by a finite number of construction steps using only compass and straightedge. has no limit. another important class of fields. usually denoted by Fq or GF(q). The above introductory exam. (And since every proper subfield Finite fields (also called Galois fields) are fields with of the reals also contains such gaps. the characteristic is said to be zero. such as in Q. endowed with the usual addition and multiplication of complex numbers does form a field. ple F4 is a field with four elements. It contains. for any number of summands.) . there are no infinite elements. To do so. It is used in number theory and p-adic analysis.4 Finite fields Archimedean field there is neither a greatest infinitesimal nor a least positive rational. several geometric problems concerned the (in)feasibility of constructing certain numbers with compass and straightedge. the field of p-adic numbers Qp is built. the field contains no infinitesimals. If a (necessarily infinite) field has the property that 1 + 1 + ··· + 1 is never zero. For example. it was unknown to the Greeks that it is in general impossible to trisect a given angle.3. of finite dimension if K is finite. for example. dividing by p and taking the remainder. A closely related concept is that of a Euclidean field..e. Equivalently.the reals form the unique complete ordered field.4. numbers. the field is isomorphic to a subfield of the reals. called 3. This way.e. Given 0. 1. especially in cryptography numbers with the addition of infinitesimal and infinite and coding theory.4..e. namely an ordered field whose positive elements are closed under square root. but is bigger than Q. this field finds appliHyperreal numbers and superreal numbers extend the real cations in computer science. A necessary condition for an ordered field to be complete is that it be Archimedean. Interpreting the addition and multiplication in this latter field as XOR and AND operations. the 3. The real constructible numbers form the least Euclidean field.. multiplying two (real) numbers r1 and r2 that have already been constructed can be done using construction at the right. F2 consists of two elements. Thus a finite field K has prime power order. By a formally very similar procedure. …. By developing more field theory. p − 1}. 1. whence the sequence 1/2. K has q = pn elements (where n > 0 is the number of elements in a basis of K over Fp). This is the smallest field. It can be shown that the smallest such n must be a prime number. or. In a finite field there is necessarily an integer n such that 1 + 1 + ··· + 1 (n repeated terms) equals 0. A field K of characteristic p necessarily contains Fp. see modular arithmetic. there is a one-to-one mapping of one field onto the other that preserves multiplication and addition. because for any f ∈ F. Main article: Finite field 1/4.

−.1 Closure operations where p(X) and q(X) are polynomials with coefficients in E. informally. For example..5 Some first theorems field extension F / E is simply a field F and a subfield E ⊂ × F. i. • Isomorphism extension theorem 3. the function field of X. especially with regard to number theory. closed under the operations +. the real numbers contain several interesting subfields: the real algebraic numbers. Equivalently. This field is actually the ring of Laurent series over the field E.e. for every field F. In the introductory example. one refers to such a F as an algebraic closure of F.. q(X) 0. This field consists of the functions that are defined and are the quotient of two polynomial functions outside some subvariety. and the attached local fields are Qp and R (Ostrowski’s theorem).. then the rational functions X → F form a field. Under certain circumstances. then the meromorphic functions S → C form a field. since the isomorphism above is not itself unique. FIELD 3. It is possible however .4. are defined and have a non-zero value. is algebraic over F. denoted ement x of F satisfies a polynomial equation E((X)) . · and multiplicative inverses and with its own operations defined by restriction. namely when S is compact. (f ⋅ g)(x) = f(x) ⋅ g(x) this leads to a field. Constructing such a field extension F / E can be done • Every finite subgroup of the multiplicative group F by “adding new elements” or adjoining elements to the is cyclic. with coefficients fn. Likewise for separable closures. if S is a Riemann surface.2 Subfields and field extensions A subfield is. instead of all polynomials. there and again the (equivalence classes of) fractions of the exists a field F. all algebraic closures of a field are isomorphic. the set F = E(X) of cyclic of order q − 1. f 0 ∈ F. one has to consider partial functions. Likewise. The field of algebraic numbers is an example of an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. as such it satisfies the same first-order sentences as the field of complex numbers C. fnxn + fn₋₁xn−1 + ··· + f 1 x + f 0 = 0.18 CHAPTER 3. it is not appropriate to treat F as being uniquely determined by F. and q is not the zero polynomial. Q is a global field. However. .4. called the algebraic closure of F. S can be reconstructed from this field. The algebraic closure is unique up to isomorphism inducing the identity on F. for having multiplicative inverses.6. i. forms a field. i.. In general. If X is an algebraic variety over a field F. the computable numbers and the rational numbers are examples. Algebraic number fields and function fields over Fq are further global fields.e.e.form the field of fractions for E[[X]] . Studying arithmetic questions in global fields may sometimes be done by looking at the corresponding questions locally—this technique is called local-global principle. It also is an example of a domain (the ring of polynomials E in this case) being embedded into its field of fractions E(X) . in many circumstances in mathematics. a subfield E of a field F is a subset containing 0 and 1.6 Field of functions Given a geometric object X. containing all roots of separable polynomials. For example. The notion of field extension lies at the heart of field theory. are local fields and global fields. The ring of formal power series E[[X]] is also a domain. However. a small field contained in a bigger one. For example. an integral domain is a field if and only if its Krull dimension is p(X) . given a field E. if F = Q.6. 3. Adding and multiplying them pointwise. 3. For example.6 Constructing fields 3.. However. This applies in particular to Fq× . A similar concept is the separable closure. rational functions.7 Local and global fields Another important distinction in the realm of fields. which means that any el. Formally. This is the simplest example of a transcendental extension of E. and is crucial to many other algebraic domains. almost everywhere. A 3. the added symbol X and its powers did not interact with elements of E. and is algebraically closed. Local fields are completions of global fields at a given place. In these cases. any such polynomial does have at least one solution in F.. there is in general no preferable isomorphism between two closures. one can consider functions on such objects. of the kind • An integral domain is a field if and only if it has no ideals except {0} and itself. which form p(X)/ q(X) where p and q are elements of E[[X]] contains F. equivalence classes of expressions × a generator of F4 is the element A. In the above two cases. the algebraic closure Q is also called field of algebraic numbers. which. it is field E. Assuming the axiom of choice.

the field of the topology of the Galois group. qualities. C can be obtained from R by adjoining the imaginary symbol i which satisfies i2 = −1. This nonzero ring map from the quotient to C is necessarily an isomorphism of Main article: Galois theory rings. Gal(E sep /E). E sep . As explained above. is the group of field automorphisms of F that also called simple extensions. i. For example. The aim of Galois theory is the one must consider the absolute Galois group of E. In this way. Also. This is different from adjoining the symbol X to R. a polynomial p(X) that cannot be written as a product of nonconstant polynomials.. The above construction generalises to any irreducible polynomial in the polynomial ring E[X]. For example. for In the case where F / E is a finite (Galois) extension..4 Ultraproducts If I is an index set. a non-principal ultraproduct of finite fields is a pseudo finite field. the bijections σ : F → F that preserve type. Suppose given a field E. For example.6. an extension K of a field k is called gives an explicit correspondence and further properties. and the fundamental theorem of Galois theory states that there is a one-to-one correspondence form a + bi where both a and b are rational numbers. a PAC field having exactly one extension of any degree. Fp = Z / pZ. 19 3. in fact. if a bigger container is already given. GALOIS THEORY that the adjoined symbol may interact with E. The quotient ring R[X]/(X 2 + 1) can be mapped onto C using the map a + bX → a + ib . Then there is a smallest subfield of subfields of F. choosp(X) is equivalent to the maximality of the ideal generated ing a different separable closure would give the same Gaby this polynomial. Specifically. For instance. Many extensions are of this are trivial on E (i.e. i2 =−1 is actually an element of R. the field F(X) it states that there this a one-to-one correspondence beis the quotient field of the ring of polynomials F[X]. It is possible that the degree of this extension is infinite (as in the case of E = Q). defined as the Galois group of the separable closure. the ultraproduct of the Fi with respect to U is a field. The above construction of F = E[X] / (p(X)). the Galois group of F over E. the powers of X are all distinct objects. tween closed subgroups of Gal(E sep /E) and the set of all Another method to obtain a field from a commutative ring separable algebraic extensions of E (technically. but here. one only R is taking the quotient R / m.7 Galois theory hence the quotient ring is a field. Galois theory aims to study the algebraic extensions of a field by studying the symmetry in the arithmetic operations of addition and multiplication.3 Rings vs fields the Galois groups of the finite Galois extensions of E. The result is that R[i]=C. where m is any maximal obtains those separable algebraic extensions of E that ocideal of R. Another way to view this last example is to note that i is a zero of the polynomial p(X) = X2 + 1. It is thus necessary to have a notion of Galois group for an infinite algebraic extension.6.3. addition and multiplication and that send elements of E Q(i) is the subfield of C consisting of all numbers of the to themselves). C is an extension of R. see the primitive element theorem. and Fi is a field for every i in I. because in that case. 3. the ideal is maximal. The Galois group in this case is obtained as a “limit” (specifically an inverse limit) of 3. The theorem.[note 2] The fundamental theorem of Galois theory can be generalized to the case Adding multiplicative inverses to an integral domain R of infinite Galois extensions by taking into consideration yields the field of fractions of R. This idea will be illustrated by adjoining an element to the field of real numbers R. and in the case of E sep /E fractions of the integers Z is just Q. is called transcendental. denoted extension F / E generated by x in G. and a field G containing E as a subfield. denoted F = E(x) and called field sions. Let x be an lois theory studies the algebraic extensions of E that are element of G not in E.e. i. but an example. it acquires a topology.. . U is an ultrafilter on I. because the irreducibility of the polynomial since all separable closures of E are isomorphic. if every element of K is a root of some polynomial with coefficients in k. Since the ideal (X2 +1) is generated by a polynomial irreducible over R.[10] Such extensions are Gal(F/E). constructing such field extensions can also the set of algebraic extensions.. is again a field. The quotient ring F = E[X] / (p(X)). between subgroups of Gal(F/E) and the set of intermediOne distinguishes between extensions having various ate extensions of the extension F/E. algebraic. is cur as subfields of the chosen separable closure E sep . Another example are the finite fields lois group and thus an “equivalent” set of algebraic extensions). of E study of algebraic extensions of a field. Otherwise. over E i. Gaexample G could be the algebraic closure of E. be done.e.7.e. Such fields are called intermediate extenG containing E and x. the extension To study all (separable) algebraic extensions of E at once. The fundamental theorem of Galois theory shows that there is a strong relation between the structure of the symmetry group and Alternatively.

two structures in linear algebra whose components can be elements of an arbitrary field. a. together with the standard derivative of polynomials forms a differential field. also denoted by "−". volume 2 (Nürnberg. The familiar addition/subtraction. the field R(X). Staudt. coding theory and combinatorics. Beiträge zur Geometrie der Lage (Contributions to the Geometry of Position). are fields equipped with an exponential function that provides a homomorphism between the additive and multiplicative groups within the field. FIELD 3. not a partially defined binary function. instead. pp. pp.8 Generalizations Finite fields are used in number theory. Note that the exponential operation of ab is neither associative nor commutative. 3. with a capital F: • The surreal numbers form a Field containing the reals. differential fields are fields equipped with a derivation. In the same way.8. as − : F × F → F. pp. 1857). meanwhile. and There are also proper classes with field structure. [2] As an inverse limit of finite discrete groups.12 References [1] Wallace. In a different direction. which again the notion of algebraic extension is an important tool. D A R (1998) Groups. Exponential fields. 176-182. this is not taken as given. unlike addition and multiplication. The usual exponential function makes the real and complex numbers exponential fields. • Heyting field • Lefschetz principle • Puiseux series • Ring • Vector space • Vector spaces without fields 3.20 CHAPTER 3. The set of nimbers with n birthday smaller than 22 . Rings. a. Springer-Verlag: 151. mean that generalizing exponentiation as a binary operation is tempting. Generalizing in a more categorical direction yields the field with one element and related objects. 3. are sometimes called Fields. Th. b 7→ a − b := a + (−b) in terms of addition and additive inverse. an exponential field assumes a unary exponential function from the additive group to the multiplicative group. • The nimbers form a Field. For example. 166171 . in defining vectors and matrices. “Potenzen von Würfen” (powers of throws). (Germany): Bauer and Raspe. and would be a field except for the fact that they are a proper class. exponentiation/root-extraction/logarithm operations from the natural numbers to the reals. SUMS. but is implicitly defined in terms of addition as " −a is the unique b such that a + b = 0 ". one defines the binary operation of division ÷ in terms of the assumed binary operation of multiplication and the implicitly defined operation of “reciprocal” (multiplicative inverse). and further is √ not defined for many pairs—for example. See: “Summen von Würfen” (sums of throws). it is equipped with the profinite topology. 171-176 . Galois theory.9 Applications The concept of a field is of use. for instance).11 Notes [1] That is. [2] Karl Georg Christian v. (−1)1/2 = −1 does not define a single number. the nimbers with birthday smaller than any infinite cardinal are all examples of fields.10 See also • Category of fields • Glossary of field theory for more definitions in field theory. “implicitly” because it is defined in terms of solving an equation—and one then defines the binary operation of subtraction. “Produckte aus Würfen” (products of throws). These all show that even for rational numbers exponentiation is not nearly as well-behaved as addition and multiplication. nor has a unique inverse ( ±2 are both square roots of 4. for example. cryptography. which is why one does not in general axiomatize exponentiation. . b 7→ a + b. the axiom for addition only assumes a binary operation + : F × F → F. These fields are central to differential Galois theory. denoted Rₑₓ and Cₑₓ respectively. 3. multiplication/division. each built up in terms of iteration of the last. The axiom of inverse allows one to define a unary operation − : F → F a 7→ −a that sends an element to its negative (its additive inverse).1 Exponentiation One does not in general study generalizations of fields with three binary operations. 2. not a set. and Fields. but has generally not proven fruitful. making it a profinite topological group 3.

Algebra.14 External links • Hazewinkel. [5] Moore. rings and fields: Algebra through practice. T. Groups. p.J. especially Chapter 13 • Allenby.0445. 239–271 21 3. Dedekind. Michiel. JFM 25. (1991).G. EXTERNAL LINKS [3] Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet with R. ed. Vieweg. welches in sich so abgeschlossen und vollständig ist. doi:10. 1871). Multiplication und Division von je zwei dieser Zahlen immer wieder eine Zahl desselben Systems hervorbringt. multiplication. “Field”. The elementary theory of finite fields. 2nd ed. 213 [10] Jacobson (2009). • Jacobson. 424. From page 75: “Such a system of s marks [i. . Vorlesungen über Zahlentheorie von P. JFM 41. (1985).) [4] J J O'Connor and E F Robertson.S. Basic algebra 1 (2nd ed.1910. 213 3. Prentice Hall.167. Ann. Subtraction.14. F. E. Lejeune Dirichlet (Lectures on Number Theory by P. of Math.org. See especially Book 3 (ISBN 0521-27288-2) and Book 6 (ISBN 0-521-27291-2). doi:10. Bulletin of the New York Mathematical Society 3 (3): 73–78.13 Sources • Artin. dass die Addition. E. Robert. p. ISBN 978-0-340-544402 • Blyth.0198.e.03 [9] Jacobson (2009).1515/crll.. and division of any two of these numbers always again produces a number of the same system.0042. Springer. (2). Ernst (1910). which is so closed and complete that the addition. Hastings (1893). Lejeune Dirichlet). Dover.. Weber. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. a finite field with s elements] we call a field of order s. R. • Field at PlanetMath. Fields and Groups. Robertson. subtraction.T.3. ISSN 0075-4102.). “A doubly-infinite system of simple groups”..137. 88. ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4 • Field Theory Q&A • Fields at ProvenMath definition and basic properties. p. G. Butterworth-Heinemann.” (By a “field” we will understand any system of infinitely many real or complex numbers. Michael (1991).B. Nathan (2009).03 [8] Steinitz. (2001). September 2004. ISBN 978-0-13-004763-2. volume 1 (Braunschweig. Rings.01. The development of Ring Theory. Lehrbuch der Algebra. Germany: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn.1090/S0002-9904-189300178-X. “Algebraische Theorie der Körper”.” [6] Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics (F) [7] Fricke. Cambridge University Press. JFM 50. Heinrich Martin (1924). ISBN 978-0-486-47189-1 • James Ax (1968). Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik 137: 167–309. From page 424: “Unter einem Körper wollen wir jedes System von unendlich vielen reellen oder complexen Zahlen verstehen.

• Consider the field K = Q(³√2). see the article on Galois theory. An automorphism of E/F is defined to be an automorphism of E that fixes F pointwise. then Gal(E/F) can be given tomorphism and the complex conjugation a topology. the field extension. called the Krull topology.2 Examples • If f is an irreducible polynomial of prime degree p with rational coefficients and exactly two nonreal roots. In mathematics.If E/F is a Galois extension. generated by the qth power Frobenius automorphism. 22 . the identity automorphism and the automorphism which exchanges √2 and −√2. R.the Galois group correspond to the intermediate fields of ment. that makes it into a automorphism. The group Gal(L/Q) is isomorphic to S 3 . respectively. Indeed. ω).[1] If E/F is not a Galois extension. and if F = GF(q) and E = GF(qn ) denote the Galois fields of order q and qn respectively. where ω is a primitive third root of unity. so named in honor of Évariste Galois who first discovered them. 4.Chapter 4 Galois group • Aut(R/Q) is trivial. the Galois group of a certain type of field extension is a specific group associated with the field extension. obeys the fundamental theorem of Galois theory: the closed (with respect to the Krull topology) subgroups of • Gal(F/F) is the trivial group that has a single ele. The notation F(a) indicates the field extension obThe significance of an extension being Galois is that it tained by adjoining an element a to the field F. we always have Gal(Fqn /Fq ) cyclic of order n. more specifically in the area of modern algebra known as Galois theory. The study of field extensions and their relationship to the polynomials that give rise to them via Galois groups is called Galois theory. namely the identity automorphism. and rational numbers. • If q is a prime power. then the Galois group of (the extension) E over F is sometimes defined as Aut(G/F). This group is sometimes denoted by Aut(E/F). • Gal(C/R) has two elements. since the other two cube roots of 2 (both complex) are missing from the extension — in other words K is not a splitting field. then Gal(E/F) is cyclic of order n and generated by the Frobenius homomorphism. the identity au. If E/F is a Galois extension.1 Definition Suppose that E is an extension of the field F (written as E/F and read E over F). • Aut(C/Q) is an infinite group. In other words. it can be shown that any automorphism of R must preserve the ordering of the real numbers and hence must be the identity. then the Galois group of f is the full symmetric group Sp. real.3 Properties the fields of complex. • Gal(Q(√2)/Q) has two elements. an automorphism of E/F is an isomorphism α from E to E such that α(x) = x for each x in F. For a finite field Fqn . then Aut(E/F) is called the Galois group of (the extension) E over F. 4. and L is in fact the splitting field of x3 − 2 over Q. For a more elementary discussion of Galois groups in terms of permutation groups. and C.[2] profinite group. • Consider now L = Q(³√2. the dihedral group of order 6. The set of all automorphisms of E/F forms a group with the operation of function composition. Q are 4. This is because K is not a normal extension. The group Aut(K/Q) contains only the identity automorphism. In the following examples F is a field. and is usually denoted by Gal(E/F). where G is the Galois closure of E.

5 Notes [1] Some authors refer to Aut(E/F) as the Galois group for arbitrary extensions E/F and use the corresponding notation. Classical Algebra: Its Nature.6 References • Jacobson. Algebra. Basic algebra I (Second ed. Roger L. Springer. Dover Publications. Origins. Jacobson 2009. ISBN 9781-55608-010-4 • “Galois Groups” at MathPages. EXTERNAL LINKS 4. (2008). New York: Springer-Verlag. MR 1878556 4.4 See also • Absolute Galois group 4. e. 23 . John Wiley & Sons. 4. “Galois group”. 138. (2001). p. Serge (2002). and Uses.).7. ISBN 9780470277973.).4. ISBN 978-0-387-95385-4.g. Nathan (2009) [1985]. Encyclopedia of Mathematics.com. Michiel. ISBN 978-0-48647189-1 • Lang. ed.7 External links • Hazewinkel. [2] Cooke. Graduate Texts in Mathematics 211 (Revised third ed.

metry features of a geometrical object: the group consists of the set of transformations that leave the object un• For any two integers a and b.. both from a theoretical and a computational point of view.are the symmetry groups used in the Standard Model of particle physics. a group is an algebraic structure con. detached as it is from the concrete nature of any particular group and its operation. Lie groups In mathematics. such as subgroups. −3. and outside mathematics makes them a central organizing principle of contemporary mathematics.. Modern group theory—an active mathematical discipline— studies groups in their own right.1.1 Definition and illustration group is the set of integers together with the addition operation. ory.which consists of the numbers cal origins in abstract algebra and beyond to be handled in a flexible way while retaining their essential structural . identity and invertibility. geometric group thegroup. can express the physical symmetry underlying special relativity. 0. which studies finitely generated groups as geometric objects. The operation satisfies four conditions called the group axioms.a[›] To explore groups. 2. −2. −4. . quotient groups and simple groups. mathematicians have devised various notions to break groups into smaller. associativity.[1][2] The following properties of integer addition serve as a Groups share a fundamental kinship with the notion of model for the abstract group axioms given in the definition symmetry. namely closure.. One of the most familiar examples of a 5..aa[›] Since the mid-1980s.below. 3.5. that combines any two elements to form a third element. For a more advanced treatment. starting with Évariste Galois in the 1830s. A theory has been developed for finite groups. completed The manipulations of this Rubik’s Cube form the Rubik’s Cube in 2004. a symmetry group encodes sym.. has become a particularly active area in group sisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation theory. In addition to their abstract properties. but the abstract formalization of the group ax. group theorists also study the different ways in which a group can be expressed concretely (its group representations). better-understandable pieces.Chapter 5 Group This article is about basic notions of groups in mathemat. the group notion was generalized and firmly established around 1870. After contributions from other fields such as number theory and geometry. and Point groups are used to help understand symmetry phenomena in molecular chemistry. formations by performing one after the other. which are also Lie groups. 4. The concept of a group arose from the study of polynomial equations. The ubiquity of groups in numerous areas within with addition. For example. applies much more One of the most familiar groups is the set of integers Z widely.[3] together aspects. the sum a + b is also 24 . which culminated with the classification of finite simple groups.changed and the operation of combining two such transics. Poincaré groups. It allows entities with highly diverse mathemati.1 First example: the integers ioms. 1. −1.. see Group theory.

r1 sends a point to its rotation 90° clockwise around the square’s center. and these extra congruences are A group is a set. The element of the integer a and is denoted −a. DEFINITION AND ILLUSTRATION 25 an integer. tity. However. . section is an example of a group that is not abelian. reflections. may not always be true. then one may choose to denote • For every integer a. the group is called an additive group. or through the two diagonals (f and f ). r2 and r3 . denoted by r1 . the operands. 5. •)" or “an element of the underlying set G of the group (G. a property known as holds are called abelian groups (in honor of Niels Henrik Abel). A square has eight symmetries. If a group is abelian. together with an operation • (called called symmetries. Often the group’s underlying set G is used as a short name for the group (G.5. The integers. there exists an element b in G. must satisfy four • the identity operation leaving everything unchanged. (a + b) + c = a + (b + group of integers under addition. b in G. Such an element is unique (see below). and f sends a point to its reflection across the square’s vertical middle line. identity element can also be written as id.. (a • b) • c = a • (b • c). denoted a • b or ab. [T]he axioms for a group are short and natural.. there is an integer b such that a the group operation by + and the identity element by 0. (G. the set and operation. These symmetries are represented by functions. The symmetry group described in the following associativity. a notation inherited from the multiplicative idenadding it to any integer returns the same integer. • rotations of the square around its center by 90° clockwise. Identity element There exists an element e in G. the following abstract definition is developed. addition of integers always yields a•b=b•a an integer.b[›] Associativity For all a. where e is the identity element. because a + b = b + a c). • If a is any integer. such that a • b = b • a = e. adding a to b first. To qualify as a group.1. Closure For all a. This property is known as closure under addition. it is clear from the context whether a symbol like G refers to a group or to an underlying set. The underlying set of the group is the above set of symmetry functions. Yet somehow hidden behind these axioms is the monster simple group. The axioms for groups give no obvious hint that Two figures in the plane are congruent if one can be changed into the other using a combination of rotations. the result of combining These symmetries determine a group called the dihedral element a with element b need not yield the same result group of degree 4 and denoted D4 .1. commonly denoted a−1 (or −a. In other words. a huge and extraordinary mathematical object. the equation Inverse element For each a in G. and 270° clockwise. the result of the operation. Each of these functions sends a point in the square to the corresponding point under the symmetry. + b = b + a = 0. then 0 + a = a + 0 = a. G. The integer b is called the inverse in that case. such that for every element a in G. shorthand expressions such as “a subset of the group G" or “an element of group G" are used when what is actually meant is “a subset of the underlying set G of the group (G. is also in G. Usually. the equation e • a = a • e = a holds. respectively. •). This equation always holds in the • For all integers a. Any figure is congruent to itRichard Borcherds in Mathematicians: An Outer View of self. •). form a mathematical object belonging to a broad class sharing similar structural aspects. and then for any two integers (commutativity of addition). That is. together with the operation +. These the group law of G) that combines any two elements a and are: b to form another element.1. some figures are congruent to themselves the Inner World [4] in more than one way. and translations. requirements known as the group axioms:[5] denoted id. To appropriately understand these structures as a collective.2 Definition The set G is called the underlying set of the group (G. 5. •). •)". Along the same lines. anything like this exists. if the operation is denoted "+"). • reflections about the vertical and horizontal middle line (f and fᵥ). Composing two of these The result of an operation may depend on the order of symmetry functions gives another symmetry function. b and c in G. Expressed in words. b and c. For example.3 Second example: a symmetry group which appears to rely on numerous bizarre coincidences to exist. and thus one speaks of the identity element. and as combining element b with element a. Zero identity element of a group G is often written as 1 or is called the identity element of addition because The[6] 1G. a • b. Groups adding the result to c gives the same final result as for which the commutativity equation a • b = b • a always adding a to the sum of b and c. 180° clockwise.

The associativity constraint deals with composing polynomial equations of degree higher than 4. as depending on the symbolic equation θn means that these two ways are the same. where the order Given this set of symmetries and the described operation. gave a criterion for the solvability of a particutermine a symmetry of the square. f . which makes the group structure more difficult than the 1. 5. Felix Klein's 1872 Erlangen program. especially symmetry groups as part of While associativity is true for the symmetries of the square and addition of numbers. there are two possible ways ing prior work of Paolo Ruffini and Joseph-Louis Laof using these three symmetries in this order to de. then to compose that symmetry with c.grange. The closure axiom demands that the composition b • integers introduced first. f • f = id. Klein used group theory to organize them in a more coherent way. tivation for group theory was the quest for solutions of 2. The rotations r3 and r1 are each other’s inverses. it does matter in D4 : f • r1 the group axioms can be understood as follows: = f but r1 • f = f .of its roots (solutions).26 CHAPTER 5. One of these lar polynomial equation in terms of the symmetry group ways is to first compose a and b into a single sym. rotating by 270° clockwise (r3 ) and then reflecting horizontally (f ) is the same as performing a reflection along the diagonal (f ). it is not true for all operations. The result of performing first a and then b is written symbolically from right to left as b • a (“apply the symmetry b after performing the symmetry a"). (f • fᵥ) • r2 = f • (fᵥ • r2 ) Geometry was a second field in which groups were used can be checked using the group table at the right systematically.[8][9][10] The original mothe group table. The group correspond to certain permutations of the roots. Sophus Lie founded the study of Lie groups in 1884. id • a = a.e. Using the above symbols. that is. because rotating 90° and then rotation 270° (or vice versa) yields a rotation over 360° which leaves the square unchanged. a prod. fᵥ. The right-to-left notation is the same notation that is used for composition of functions.[15] . Indeed every other combination of two symmetries still gives a symmetry.and published only posthumously. In contrast to the group of integers above. The group table on the right lists the results of all such compositions possible. rotating 270° clockwise after reflecting horiMain article: History of group theory zontally equals reflecting along the counter-diagonal (f ). extendements a. 4. the reflections f .century French mathematician Évariste Galois.2 History i.. For instance. as can be checked using The modern concept of an abstract group developed out of several fields of mathematics. Further advancing these ideas. Arthur Cayley's On the the(a • b) • c = a • (b • c) ory of groups.[13] grouping. Galois’ ideas were rejected by his contemporaries. b and c of D4 .e. The elements of such a Galois metry. a of any two symmetries a and b is also a symmetry. then to com.[7] Two symmetries are combined by composing them as functions.[11][12] More general ity condition permutation groups were investigated in particular by Augustin Louis Cauchy. because performing it twice brings the square back to its original orientation. highlighted in blue in the group table: f • r3 = f . 3. and the second one to the result of the first application. For example. applying the first one to the square. i. performing id after a (or a after id) equals a. The associativ.[14] After novel geometries such as hyperbolic and projective geometry had emerged. in symbolic form. D4 is not abelian. The identity element is the symmetry id leaving everything unchanged: for any symmetry a. subtraction of numbers is not associative: (7 − 3) − 2 = 2 is not the same as 7 − (3 − 2) = 6. In other words. GROUP the group operation is function composition. Every symmetry can be undone: each of the following transformations— identity id. An inverse element undoes the transformation of some other element. a • id = a. For example. f and the 180° rotation r2 —is its own inverse. Another example for the group operation is r3 • f = f .= 1 (1854) gives the first abstract definition of a finite uct of many group elements can be simplified in any group. of the operation is irrelevant. In symbols. At other way is to first compose b and c.first. The 19thmore than two symmetries: Starting with three el. pose the resulting symmetry with a. r3 • r1 = r1 • r3 = id.

x may be different from y. right translation by g is a bijection from G to itself sending h to h • g. was first shaped by Claude Chevalley (from the late 1930s) and later by the work of Armand Borel and Jacques Tits. Because this im.c[›] There is a conceptual principle . there is a bijection from G to itself called left the group axioms translation by g sending h ∈ G to g • h. Thus. If G is abelian. This project exceeded previous math. and was also the first to give an axiomatic definition of an “abstract group”.[21] Its algebraic counterpart. suppose that a has two inverses. and each element in a group has exactly one inverse element. Élie Cartan and many others. Then The two extremal terms b and c are equal. Similarly.3.[18] Walther von Dyck (1882) introduced the idea of specifying a group by means of generators and relations. right multiplication of the equation by proof and number of researchers. parentheses are usually omitted. so the resulting definition is equivalent to the one given above. with input from numerous 5. In fact. If the • operation is commutative. the theory of algebraic groups. and more explicitly by Leopold Kronecker. plications of the associativity axiom show that the unambiguity of 5. the invertibility of the group action means that and Smith in 2004. laying the foundation of a collaboration that. more structural concepts of a left identity and left inverses. There can be only one identity element in a group.division is possible: given elements a and b of the group is exactly one solution x in G to the equation x • ematical endeavours by its sheer size.4 Basic concepts a • b • c = (a • b) • c = a • (b • c) generalizes to more than three factors. Then e = e • f The University of Chicago's 1960–61 Group Theory Year = f. Ernst Kummer made early attempts to prove Fermat’s Last Theorem by developing groups describing factorization into prime numbers. namely y = a • b. John G. Both can be shown to be have to be employed. Similarly.3 Elementary consequences of the group G. and more generally locally compact groups was studied by Hermann Weyl. Research is ongoing −1 a gives the solution x = x • a • a−1 = b • a−1 .[26] 5. there [27] a = b. BASIC CONCEPTS The third field contributing to group theory was number theory.1 Uniqueness of identity element and inverses Two important consequences of the group axioms are the uniqueness of the identity element and the uniqueness of inverse elements. Richard Brauer's modular representation theory and Issai Schur's papers. if g is an element of 5.[22] 27 actually two-sided.[17] The convergence of these various sources into a uniform theory of groups started with Camille Jordan's Traité des substitutions et des équations algébriques (1870).[19] As of the 20th century. Certain abelian group structures had been used implicitly in Carl Friedrich Gauss' number-theoretical work Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (1798). left and right translation by a group Basic facts about all groups that can be obtained directly element are the same. since they are connected by a chain of equalities. there is only one inverse element of a. who worked on representation theory of finite groups. •). These days. Specifically. we get that x = y. solution y in G to the equation a • y = group theory is still a highly active mathematical branch. repeated apelementary group theory. Similarly [23] to simplify the proof of this classification.3. A consequence of this is that multiplying by a group element g is a bijection.4.[27] To prove the uniqueness of an inverse element of a. If not. led to the classification of finite simple groups. hence e and f are equal. from the group axioms are commonly subsumed under [24] For example. groups gained wide recognition by the pioneering work of Ferdinand Georg Frobenius and William Burnside.Further information: Glossary of group theory plies that parentheses can be inserted anywhere within such a series of terms. in both length of G.2 Division other mathematicians. a[›] impacting many other fields. there is exactly one −1 b. to prove that the identity element of a group is unique.[25] To understand groups beyond the level of mere symThe axioms may be weakened to assert only the existence bolic manipulations as above.5. and the inverse of an element. Thompson and Walter Feit. In other words. denoted b and c. in the terminology of the time.[16] In 1847. brought together group theorists such as Daniel Gorenstein. it is customary to speak of the identity. in a group (G. with the final step taken by Aschbacher In groups.[20] The theory of Lie groups. assume G is a group with two identity elements e and f.

e. In symbolic terms.4. and 90° for 270° (note that rotation in the opposite direction is not defined). the left and right cosets of H containing g are Two groups G and H are called isomorphic if there exist group homomorphisms a: G → H and b: H → G. Knowing the subgroups is important in understanding the group as a whole. because applying a to the first equality yields the second. and also a(g)−1 = a(g−1 ) for all g in G. a subgroup is a group H contained within a be a normal subgroup. and a rotation can be undone by (i. r1 . they are required to respect the group structures in a precise sense. which can be thought of as translations of H by arbitrary group elements g. fᵥ. group structure. f } (highlighted in green). the result is the same when performing the group operation after or before applying the map a. The structure of groups can also be understood by breaking them into pieces called subgroups and quotient groups. Thus a group homomorphism respects all the structure of G provided by the group axioms. groups carry the same information. By the mentioned principle. groups can be related to each other via functions called group homomorphisms.[30] Concretely. For example. once a reflection is performed. A function a: G → H between two groups (G. in this case the category of groups.e.4. i. h ∈ H. gH = Hg. The subgroup R is also normal. if g is an element of R itself. GROUP underlying all of the following notions: to take advantage of the structure offered by groups (which sets. then H is said to Informally. For example.e. This requirement ensures that a(1G) = 1H.28 CHAPTER 5. 180° for 180°. a(b(h)) = h and b(a(g)) = g for any g in G and h in H. the identity element id and f = fᵥ • r2 . From an abstract point of view. For example.4. the subgroup generated by S consists of products of elements of S and their inverses. G. ∗) is called a homomorphism if the 5. the identity and the rotations constitute a subgroup R = {id. bigger one. in D4 above. The subgroup test is a necessary and sufficient condition for a nonempty subset H of a group G to be a subgroup: it is sufficient to check that g−1 h ∈ H for all elements g. being “structureless”. It is the smallest subgroup of G containing S. indeed form a group. i.[28] In the example above. these same g[›] Group homomorphisms are functions that preserve elements) yields an element of this subgroup. such that applying the two functions one after another in each of the two possible orders gives the identity functions of G and H. beMain article: Group homomorphism cause combining any two of these four elements or their inverses (which are. This compatibility manifests itself in the following notions in various ways. the subgroup generated 5. proving respectively. k in G. Again. i. because f R = U = Rf and . Similar considerations apply to the right cosets of H. isomorphic gH = {g • h : h ∈ H} and Hg = {h • g : h ∈ H}. The principle of “preserving structures”—a recurring topic in mathematics throughout—is an instance of working in a category. that is. so the elements of H. the introductory symmetry group. equipped with the group operation on G restricted to H. In D4 . Cosets are used to formalize this insight: a subgroup H defines left and right cosets. if the two elements differ by an element of H.[32] that g • g = 1G for some element g of G is equivalent to proving that a(g) ∗ a(g) = 1H.[29] In many situations it is desirable to consider two group elements the same if they differ by an element of a given subgroup. In other words.[31] In the introductory example above.e.2 Subgroups g2 ∈ H. and whenever h1 and h2 are in H. the union of all left cosets is equal to G and two left cosets are either equal or have an empty intersection. r3 }.1 Group homomorphisms by r2 and fᵥ consists of these two elements.d[›] Given any subset S of a group G. The left and right cosets of H may or may not be equal. the identity element of G is contained in H. the square never gets back to the r2 configuration by just applying the rotation operations (and no further reflections). then so are h1 • h2 and h1 −1 . That is. highlighted in red in the group table above: any two rotations composed are still a rotation. Main article: Subgroup If they are. in this particular case. this is a subgroup. the rotation operations are irrelevant to the question whether a reflection has been performed. the left cosets gR of the subgroup R consisting of the rotations are either equal to R. for all g in G. constructions related to groups have to be compatible with the group operation. is inverse to) the complementary rotations 270° for 90°. •) and (H. second gives back the first. r2 .3 Cosets equation Main article: Coset a(g • k) = a(g) ∗ a(k) holds for all elements g. f . or otherwise equal to U = f R = {f . do not have).[33] The first case g1 H = g2 H happens precisely when g1 −1 • 5. and applying b to the The left cosets of any subgroup H form a partition of G.

or by general abstract considerations called universal properties. for example. Examples and applications of groups abound. For this to be possible. Mathematical objects are often examined by group can also be used to construct the Cayley graph. homomorphisms are neither injective nor surjective. which means that every symmetry of the square is a finite composition of these two symmetries or their inverses. U • U = fᵥR • fᵥR = (fᵥ • fᵥ)R = R. The coset eN = N serves as the identity in this group. Building bigger groups by smaller ones. and the inverse of gN in the quotient group is (gN)−1 = (g−1 )N. A presentation of a areas.y[›] Interthat f R = fᵥR = f R = f R. topological properties such as proximity and that maps to it. The fundamental group of a plane minus a point (bold) consists of loops around the missing point.5. giving a quotient group or fac. introduced above. any element of the target has at most one element connection.e[›] The elements of the quotient group D4 / R are R itself. These groups are predecessors of important constructions in abstract algebra. A starting point is the group Z of integers with addition as group operation.) preting subgroup and quotients in light of these homomorphisms emphasizes the structural concept inherent to these definitions alluded to in the introduction. Groups are also applied in many other mathematical the group is completely described. Quotient groups and subgroups together form a way of describing every group by its presentation: any group is the quotient of the free group over the generators of the group. and U = fᵥR. If instead of addition multiplication is considered. troducing the fundamental group. quotiented by the subgroup of relations. EXAMPLES AND APPLICATIONS 29 similarly for any element other than f . (In fact. Together with the relations r4=f 2 = (r • f)2 = 1.[35] A periodic wallpaper pattern gives rise to a wallpaper group. Both the subgroup R = {id. such as the canonical map G → G / N.e. or coset addition) from the original group G: (gN) • (hN) = (gh)N for all g and h in G. r = r1 . the right rotation and f = fᵥ the vertical (or any other) reflection). The counterpart to injective maps are continuity translate into properties of groups. r1 . g ∈ G}.4.[36] By means of this i.[34] This set inherits a group operation (sometimes called coset multiplication.and quotient groups are related in the following way: founded what is now called algebraic topology by ina subset H of G can be seen as an injective map H → G. Kernel and image of group homomorphisms and the first Main article: Quotient group isomorphism theorem address this phenomenon. as well as the corresponding quotient are abelian. For example.4 Quotient groups eral. such onto). observe that all such cosets are equal. the subgroup has to be normal.5. a associating groups to them and studying the properties of device used to graphically capture discrete groups. the corresponding groups. "G modulo N". The group operation on the quotient is shown at the right. r3 }. Henri Poincaré Sub. one obtains multiplicative groups.5. This group is isomorphic to the integers. in the surjective maps (every element of the target is mapped case of D4 . Given any normal subgroup N.5 Examples and applications tor group. whereas D4 is not abelian. the quotient Main articles: Examples of groups and Applications of group is defined by group theory G / N = {gN. This definition is motivated by the idea (itself an instance of general structural considerations outlined above) that the map G → G / N that associates to any element g its coset gN be a group homomorphism. In some situations the set of cosets of a subgroup can be endowed with a group law. For example. can be generated by two elements r and f (for example. which represents the identity.i[›] For ex- . In gen5. r2 . such as D4 from its subgroup R and the quotient D4 / R is abstracted by a notion called semidirect product. The dihedral group D4 .

2 Modular arithmetic Numbers Many number systems.[38] ter removing zero.e. sciences such as physics. The rational numbers (including 0) also form a group under addition. chemistry and computer science benefit from the concept.5.However.k[›] Rationals 0 0 +4h 9 3 6 9 3 6 The hours on a clock form a group that uses addition modulo 12. This way. There is still a minor obstacle for (Q. Group theoretic arguments therefore underlie parts of the theory of those entities. practical applications of groups exist. but not an integer. ·).n[›] 5. because the product of two nonzero In addition to the above theoretical applications. +). Intertwining addition and multiplication operations yields more complicated structures called rings and—if division is possible. the fundamental group detects the hole. such as in Q—fields. the inverse of a/b is b/a. The second image at the right shows some loops in a plane minus a point. ·). Here 9 + 4 = 1.30 CHAPTER 5. The blue loop is considered null-homotopic (and thus irrelevant). Further abstract algebraic concepts such as modules.. (Q.j[›] In a similar vein. such as with the rationals. Finally. Such number systems are predecessors to more general algebraic structures known as rings and fields. The desire for the existence of multiplicative inverses suggests considering fractions The group of integers modulo n is written Zn or Z/nZ. the set of all nonzero rational numbers Q ∖ theoretical background. generated by the orange loop (or any other loop winding once around the hole). n. This is expressed by saying that 9 + 4 equals 1 “modulo 12” or.therefore the axiom of the inverse element is satisfied. has been described above. which is a rational number. In modular arithmetic. The closure. This is familiar from the addition of hours on the face of a clock: if the hour hand is on 9 and is advanced 4 hours. which occupy a central position in abstract algebra. In more recent applications. the influence has also been reversed to motivate geometric constructions by a group. in particular when implemented for finite groups. for example der multiplication.5.[37] Further branches and identity element axioms follow from the properties crucially applying groups include algebraic geometry and of integers. (Z.l[›] The set of all such fractions is commonly denoted Q. because it can be continuously shrunk to a point. with the operation of multiplication instead of addition. and 0 is the identity element. The presence of the hole prevents the orange loop from being shrunk to a point. such as the integers and the rationals enjoy a naturally given group structure. GROUP ample. both addition and multiplication operations give rise to group structures. in symbols. denoted (Z. as shown at the right. geometric {0} = {q ∈ Q | q ≠ 0} does form an abelian group ungroup theory employs geometric concepts. two integers are added and then the sum is divided by a positive integer called the modulus. associativity and identity axioms are satisfied. lies on the combination of the abstract group theory approach together with algorithmical knowledge obtained in computational group theory. In some cases. a . many rationals is never zero. but inverses do not exist: for example.m[›] Associativity in the study of hyperbolic groups. The closure requirement still holds true afnumber theory. a = 2 is an integer. The integers. the rationals with multiplication. The fundamental group of the plane with a point deleted turns out to be infinite cyclic. Cryptography re. 9 + 4 ≡ 1 modulo 12. b Fractions of integers (with b nonzero) are known as rational numbers. vector spaces and algebras also form groups. the set of integers from 0 to n − 1 forms a group under modular addition: the inverse of any element a is n − a. denoted (Q ∖ {0}. there is no x such that x · 0 = 1). being a group: because the rational number 0 does not have a multiplicative inverse (i. For any modulus. The result of modular addition is the remainder of that division. it ends up on 1. elements of the fundamental group are represented by loops. ·) is still not a group. ·) do not form a group. Hence not every element of Z has a (multiplicative) inverse.[39] Applications of group theory are not restricted to mathematics. but the only solution to the equation a · b = 1 in this case is b = 1/2. Integers The group of integers Z under addition.1 5. .

Hence all group axioms are fulfilled.4 Symmetry groups the requirement for an element to be primitive is that each element of the group can be written as Main article: Symmetry group See also: Molecular symmetry. there exists an integer b such that z a · b ≡ 1 (mod p). . 4. ·) above: it consists of exactly those elements in Z/pZ that have a multiplicative inverse. such as center and . a. a.Some cyclic groups have an infinite number of elements. 2. An infinite cyclic 5. +). if p = 5. the group Fp× can be shown to be cyclic: for example.p[›] In these groups. For example. A second example for cyclic groups is the group of n-th complex roots of unity. In additive notation. Indeed. and Symmetry in physics . the powers of the elements do not cycle. 5. as 3 · 2 = 6 ≡ 1 (mod 5). p divides the difference a · b − 1. These numbers can be visualized as the vertices on a regular n-gon. given by complex numbers z satisfying zn = 1. a−3 .[42] These groups are denoted Fp× .[41] In the case p = 5 above.. The study of finitely generated abelian groups is quite mature. and reflecting this state of affairs.. as usual for a multiplicative group. the inverse of 4 is 4. That is. and the associativity follows from The 6th complex roots of unity form a cyclic group. The group operation is multiplication of complex numbers. such as the introductory symmetry group of the square. despite the name “cyclic group”. In this group.5. each element is expressible as a sum all of whose terms are 1.. there is also the multiplicative group of integers modulo p. hence the indicated set of classes is closed under o[›] multiplication. which divided by 5 yields a remainder of 1. −a−a. a0 = e. They are crucial to public. because the usual product 16 is equivalent to 1. denoted 31 z z 2 z 1 0 z =1 3 16 ≡ 1 (mod 5). because the odd powers of z are not a verse element axiom requires that given an integer a not power of z2 . including the fundamental theorem of finitely the elements of the group are: generated abelian groups. all the powers of a are distinct. EXAMPLES AND APPLICATIONS For any prime number p. . but z2 is not. a+a. 3 is a generator since 31 = 3.. for 5 divides 16 − 1 = 15. and the inverse of 3 is 2. the usual product is divided by p and the remainder of this division is the result of modular multiplication. The inverse b can be found by using Bézout’s identity and the fact that the greatest common divisor gcd(a. this example is similar to (Q ∖ {0}. the group of integers under addition introduced above. A cyclic group is a group all of whose elements are powers of a particular element a.. multiplying with z corresponds to a counter-clockwise rotation by 60°. if p = 5.5. 32 = 9 ≡ 4.. Actually. there are four group elements 1. Space group.. the element 1 is primitive. p) equals 1. such as polynomial equa- .. i. z is a primithe corresponding property of integers. −a. and 34 ≡ 1. commutator.e.5. divisible by p. many group-related notions. describe the extent to which a given group is not abelian. 0. a3 .[44] Using some field theory. the intive element. as shown in blue at the right for n = 6.5. z group.[45] As these two prototypes Main article: Cyclic group are both abelian. 4 · 4 = 1. or of algebraic nature. 3.3 Cyclic groups group is isomorphic to (Z. a2 .. a−2 .[43] In multiplicative notation. 33 ≡ 2. In the picture. a−1 . The identity element is 1. for every non-zero element a. so is any cyclic group. In the groups Z/nZ introduced above. Finally.. and a−3 stands for a−1 • a−1 • a−1 = (a • a • a)−1 etc.[40] Its elements are the integers 1 to p − 1. The group operation is multiplication modulo p. so these groups are cyclic. The primality of p ensures that the product of two integers neither of which is divisible by p is not divisible by p 4 5 either.[46] where a2 means a • a.h[›] Such an element a is called a generator or a primitive element of the group.. Any cyclic group with n elements is isomorphic to this Symmetry groups are groups consisting of symmetries of given mathematical objects—be they of geometric nature. key cryptography.

the group pattern is connected to the structure of the object being acted on. for example. The Jahn-Teller effect is a distortion of a molecule of high symmetry when it adopts a particular ground state of lower symmetry from a set of possible ground states that are related to each other by the symmetry operations of the molecule. while the right-most one stretches the x-coordinate by factor 2. space groups and point groups describe molecular symmetries and crystal symmetries.[47] Conceptually. R) consists of all invertible n-by-n matrices with real entries. giving group-theoretic criteria for when solutions of certain differential equations are well-behaved. group theory helps predict the changes in physical properties that occur when a material undergoes a phase transition. By a group action. In the rightmost example below. A broad class of group representations are linear representations.u[›] Geometric properties that remain stable under group actions are investigated in (geometric) invariant theory. The general linear group GL(n.32 tions and their solutions. group theory is used to show that optical transitions between certain quantum levels cannot occur simply because of the symmetry of the states involved.[51] Such spontaneous symmetry breaking has found further application in elementary particle physics. This way. a vibrational lattice mode that goes to zero frequency at the transition. Another important matrix group is the special orthogonal group SO(n). from a cubic to a tetrahedral crystalline form. rotation matrices are used in computer graphics.[49][50] Two vectors (the left illustration) multiplied by matrices (the middle and right illustrations). such as crystallography. the . It describes all possible rotations in n dimensions. and group theory enables simplification of quantum mechanical analysis of these properties. and in CD players. i.[52] Another application is differential Galois theory. The middle illustration represents a clockwise rotation by 90°. too).[53] 5. Finite symmetry groups such as the Mathieu groups are used in coding theory. CHAPTER 5.t[›] Symmetries in mathematics greatly simplify the study of geometrical or analytical objects. an element of order 7 of the (2. Via Euler angles.from the group to the general linear group. GROUP called soft phonon mode. which characterizes functions having antiderivatives of a prescribed form.5. where the change from a paraelectric to a ferroelectric ρ: G → GL(n.5 General linear group and representation theory Main articles: General linear group and Representation theory Matrix groups consist of matrices together with matrix Rotations and reflections form the symmetry group of a great icosahedron.e.[54] Its subgroups are referred to as matrix groups or linear groups. A group is said to act on another mathematical object X if every group element performs some operation on X compatibly to the group law.[56][57] It studies the group by its group actions on other spaces. These symmetries underlie the chemical and physical behavior of these systems. which is in turn applied in error correction of transmitted data. such as the three-dimensional Euclidean space R3 . R) state occurs at the Curie temperature and is related to a change from the high-symmetry paraelectric state to the lower symmetry ferroelectric state.[55] Representation theory is both an application of the group concept and important for a deeper understanding of groups. The dihedral group example mentioned above can be viewed as a (very small) matrix group. but surprisingly they also predict that molecules sometimes can change symmetry. multiplication. where its occurrence is related to the appearance of Goldstone bosons.7) triangle group acts on the tiling by permuting the highlighted warped triangles (and the other ones. In chemical fields.[48] For example. group theory can be thought of as the study of symmetry. accompanied by a so. An example is ferroelectric materials. A representation of G on an n-dimensional real vector space is simply a group homomorphism Likewise. Not only are groups useful to assess the implications of symmetries in molecules. the group is acting on a vector space.3.

[63] An important class is the symmetric groups SN. the groups of permutations of N letters. algebraic groups and topological groups. this aim leads to difficult mathematics.e. but do not exist have order p − 1. contains the elements ABC. the solutions of the quadratic equation ax2 counting cosets. translates rem). Given a group action.[61] Abstract properties of Galois groups associated with polynomials (in particular their solvability) give a criterion for polynomials that 5. in general for degree 5 and higher. this gives further means to study the object being acted on. equations by capturing their symmetry features. which may be abstractly given. and string theory. for example For example.[59][60] More sophisticated counting techniques. is 2. The groups Fp× above known for cubic and quartic equations.6. Both orders divide 8.s[›] The Jordan–Hölder theorem exhibits finite simple groups as the building blocks for all finite groups. Lie groups.e.[56][58] The order of an element a in a group G is the least positive integer n such that a n = e. in total 6 (or 3 factorial) elements. multiplication.5. as a (very simple) group operation.[62] 5. . According to Lagrange’s theorem. The order of the reing the two solutions of the equation can be viewed as flection elements fᵥ etc.6 Finite groups Main article: Finite group A group is called finite if it has a finite number of elements. as the non-abelian group D4 of order 8 = 23 above shows. i. (If • represents multiplication.e.e. the symmetric group on 3 letters S3 is the group consisting of all possible orderings of the three letters ABC. i.[65] Listing all finite simple groups was a major achievement in contemporary group theory. This class is fundamental insofar as any finite group can be expressed as a subgroup of a symmetric group SN for a suitable integer N (Cayley’s theo- Mathematicians often strive for a complete classification (or list) of a mathematical notion. Parallel to the group of symmetries of the square to the multiplication of matrices making it accessible to above.x[›] On the other hand. yield more precise statements about fi+ bx + c = 0 are given by nite groups: Lagrange’s Theorem states that for a finite group G the order of any finite subgroup H divides the order of G. up to CBA. Modern Galois theory generalizes the above type of Galois groups to field extensions and establishes—via the fundamental theorem of Galois theory—a precise relationship between fields and groups.. such an n may not exist. ACB. Main article: Classification of finite simple groups and roots similar to the formula above. as is the order of the subExchanging "+" and "−" in the expression. The order of r1 is 4. it also yields information about the group. The order of an element equals the order of the cyclic subgroup Galois groups were developed to help solve polynomial generated by this element. solutions expressible using solely addition. application of the operation • to n copies of a. Main article: Galois group in which case the order of a is said to be infinity. | ·{z nfactors i. Group representations are an organizing principle in the theory of finite groups. In the context of finite groups. a prime number.[66] . For example. Similar formulae are predicted by Lagrange’s theorem. 1998 Fields Medal winner Richard Borcherds succeeded in proving the monstrous moonshine conjectures. permut. The Sylow theorems give a partial converse. √ −b ± b2 − 4ac x= . FINITE GROUPS 33 group operation.w[›] tries of an equilateral triangle. especially (locally) compact groups.r[›] A nontrivial group is called simple if its only normal subgroups are the trivial group and the group itself. where a n represents a · · a}...group R it generates (see above).) In infinite groups.6 Galois groups The problem can be dealt with by shifting to field theory and considering the splitting field of a polynomial. then an corresponds to the nth power of a. The number of elements is called the order of the group. a piece of classical complex analysis.[64] Computer algebra systems can be used to list small groups. finite groups of order p. but there is no classification of all finite groups. a theory supposed to unify the description of many physical phenomena.6. a statement which does not generalize to order p3 . 5. The dihedral group (discussed above) is a finite group of 2a order 8. Groups of order p2 can also be shown to be abelian. S3 can also be interpreted as the group of symmeexplicit computations. are necessarily cyclic (abelian) groups Zp.q[›] An intermediate step is the classification of finite simple groups.1 Classification of finite simple groups have all their solutions expressible by radicals. a surprising and deep relation between the largest finite simple sporadic group—the "monster group"—and certain modular functions.5. i. underlining once again the ubiquity of groups in mathematics.

the so-called Krull topology.[69] An advanced generalization of this idea. they are spaces looking locally like some Euclidean space of the appropriate dimension. as do adele rings and adelic algebraic groups. is known as the Poincaré group. they are group objects in a category. The former offer an abstract formalism of invariant integrals.e.[76] . For example.e. meaning that they are objects (that is. Invariance means.v[›] Another example are the Lorentz transformations. the group operations must be continuous functions. examples of another mathematical structure) which come with transformations (called morphisms) that mimic the group axioms. which relate measurements of time and velocity of two observers in motion relative to each other. as well as translations in space and time are basic symmetries of the laws of mechanics.[74] The full symmetry group of Minkowski space. i. in the case Lie groups are of fundamental importance in modern physics: Noether’s theorem links continuous symmetries to conserved quantities. the additional structure.7. it plays a pivotal role in special relativity and. i. where A denotes an n-by-n matrix. by expressing the transformations as a rotational symmetry of Minkowski space. has to be compatible. ·).[75] Symmetries that vary with location are central to the modern description of physical interactions with the help of gauge theory. A standard example is the general linear group introduced above: it is an open subset of the space of all n-by-n matrices.7. and g−1 must not vary wildly if g and h vary only little. Matrix groups over these fields fall under this regime. axial symmetry on a situation will typically lead to significant simplification in the equations one needs to solve to provide a physical description. All of these groups are locally compact. so they have Haar measures and can be studied via harmonic analysis. is the étale fundamental group. be used to construct simple models—imposing. such as the red arc in the figure. Main article: Topological group Some topological spaces may be endowed with a group law. It is topological since complex multiplication and division are continuous. They can be deduced in a purely group-theoretical way. therefore. and they are the group objects in the category of topological spaces.2 Lie groups Main article: Lie group z 0 1 Lie groups (in honor of Sophus Lie) are groups which also have a manifold structure.34 CHAPTER 5. and similarly with any other topological field such as the complex numbers or p-adic numbers. here the manifold structure.1 Topological groups zw w of real numbers for example: ∫ ∫ f (x) dx = f (x + c) dx for any constant c. 5. (R ∖ {0}. Such groups are called topological groups. so a group is a group object in the category of sets. i. The latter serves—in the absence of significant gravitation—as a model of space time in special relativity.[67] The most basic examples are the reals R under addition. They can. In the language of category theory. It is a manifold and thus a Lie group. because it is given by the inequality det (A) ≠ 0.7 Groups with additional structure Many groups are simultaneously groups and examples of other mathematical structures. for quantum field theories. by implication. including translations. By the above. that is. looks like a part of the real line (shown at the bottom).[68] Galois groups of infinite field extensions such as the absolute Galois group can also be equipped with a topology. In order for the group law and the topology to interweave well.[71] Again. the maps corresponding to multiplication and the inverse have to be smooth.e. GROUP 5. which in turn is central to generalize the above sketched connection of fields and groups to infinite field extensions. adapted to the needs of algebraic geometry. a topological group.[73] Rotation. because every small piece.[72] The unit circle in the complex plane under complex multiplication is a Lie group and. for instance. which are basic to number theory. g • h. every group (as defined above) is also a set. say.[70] 5.

Eick & O'Brien 2001. ^ s: Equivalently. See Besche. With the proper generalization of the group axioms this gives rise to an n-ary group. ^ p: For example. ^ l: The transition from the integers to the rationals by adding fractions is generalized by the quotient field. ^ j: An example is group cohomology of a group which equals the singular cohomology of its classifying space. ^ e: The fact that the group operation extends this canonically is an instance of a universal property.5. ^ i: See the Seifert–van Kampen theorem for an example. a group is not determined by its lattice of subgroups. ^ n: For example. ·). Finally. an operation taking n arguments). There is a general method to formally add inverses to elements to any (abelian) monoid. the resulting algebraic structure is called a monoid.10 Notes In abstract algebra. p. ^ d: However. ·). See Aschbacher 2004.[28][77][78] For example. Frucht 1939. §III. the Diffie-Hellman protocol uses the discrete logarithm. ^ h: The additive notation for elements of a cyclic group would be t • a. t in Z. §II. ^ r: The gap between the classification of simple groups and the one of all groups lies in the extension problem. ^ k: Elements which do have multiplicative inverses are called units. ^ g: The word homomorphism derives from Greek ὁμός—the same and μορφή—structure.224 research papers on group theory and its generalizations written in 2005. ^ a: Mathematical Reviews lists 3. They arise in the study of more complicated forms of symmetry. as do the nonzero integers under multiplication (Z ∖ {0}. more general structures are defined by relaxing some of the axioms defining a group. the books of Lang (2002. NOTES 35 5. Up to isomorphism. the monodromy action on the vector space of solutions of the differential equations is 5. Theorem IV. so a closure step is common in proofs that a system is a group. See Lang 2005. known as the Grothendieck group. ^ b: The closure axiom is already implied by the condition that • be a binary operation.9 See also • Abelian group • Cyclic group • Euclidean group • Finitely presented group • Free group • Fundamental group • Grothendieck group • Group algebra • Group ring • Heap (mathematics) • List of small groups • Nilpotent group • Non-abelian group • Quantum group • Reductive group • Solvable group • Symmetry in physics • Computational group theory .8 Generalizations 5. much the same way as (Q ∖ {0}.[79] The table gives a list of several structures generalizing groups. 2005) and Herstein (1996.1.10. if G is finite. Groupoids are similar to groups except that the composition a • b need not be defined for all a and b. group constructions often start with an operation defined on a superset. a nontrivial group is simple if its only quotient groups are the trivial group and the group itself. such as the fundamental groupoid or stacks. See classification of finite simple groups for further information. ^ m: The same is true for any field F instead of Q. ·) is derived from (Z ∖ {0}. Lang 2002 ^ c: See. a finite subgroup of the multiplicative group of a field is necessarily cyclic. see Lang 2002. See Suzuki 1951. ^ f: For example. p.9. The natural numbers N (including 0) under addition form a monoid. ^ q: The groups of order at most 2000 are known. see above. 84. ^ t: More rigorously. ^ aa: The classification was announced in 1983. see Frucht’s theorem. 737. See Michler 2006.1. 1975). a problem too hard to be solved in general. for example. but gaps were found in the proof.1. every group is the symmetry group of some graph. Some authors therefore omit this axiom. it is possible to generalize any of these concepts by replacing the binary operation with an arbitrary n-ary one (i. See prime element. p. See Lang 2002. 86. ^ u: More precisely. according to Lagrange’s theorem. often in topological and analytical structures. ^ o: The stated property is a possible definition of prime numbers. then the size of any subgroup and any quotient group divides the size of G.e. Carter 1989. However. if the requirement that every element has an inverse is eliminated. there are about 49 billion. The notions of torsion of a module and simple algebras are other instances of this principle.

N. 34 [30] Lang 2005.1.1. for example.4 [52] Welsh 1989 [18] Jordan 1870 [53] Mumford. ^ w: This was crucial to the classification of finite simple groups. Mathematicians: An Outer View of the Inner World. §I. p. Schur’s Lemma for the impact of a group action on simple modules.1) [42] Lang 2005. Chapter VII [41] Rosen 2000.3. §II. 30 [2] Hall 1967. Martin T (2003). §II.3. p. for example. class groups and Picard groups. “Identity Element”.4. p. A more involved example is the action of an absolute Galois group on étale cohomology. §II. 292 [43] Lang 2005. p. 54 (Theorem 2. §VIII. CHAPTER 5. 26 [8] Wussing 2007 [45] Lang 2005. 2001.2. Mariana R.. p. §I. 265.6. p. see Neukirch 1999. MathWorld. §2. p. p.12 and I.2 [50] Jahn & Teller 1937 [15] Lie 1973 [51] Dove. See also Bishop 1993 [12] Kleiner 1986.” [37] Coornaert. Structure and Dynamics: an atomic view of materials. Isaac (2006). Cambridge University Press.1. p. §I.4. 4–5 [25] Ledermann 1973. Oxford University Press.2. §I. 7 [27] Lang 2005. 9 [1] Herstein 1975. ^ x: See. p. §II.: Princeton University Press.2. 105–113. 39 [32] Lang 2005. p. 45 [35] Lang 2002. 22 (example 11) [9] Kleiner 1986 [46] Lang 2002. p. p. App. p. p. p. 54 [44] Lang 2005. 360 [38] for example. Eric W. p. §I. §2. (2009). 22 [7] Herstein 1975. §II. 19 [31] Ledermann 1973. GROUP [24] Ledermann 1953. §II. Chapter I.5. 202 [13] Cayley 1889 [49] Bersuker. p. 17 [28] Mac Lane 1998 [29] Lang 2005. 3 [26] Lang 2002. §2. pp.11 Citations [34] Lang 2005.36 considered. p. 41 [33] Lang 2002. Fogarty & Kirwan 1994 [19] von Dyck 1882 [54] Lay 2003 [20] Curtis 2003 [55] Kuipers 1999 [21] Mackey 1976 [56] Fulton & Harris 1991 [22] Borel 2001 [57] Serre 1977 [23] Aschbacher 2004 [58] Rudin 1990 . p.1. p. p. p. ISBN 0-19-850678-3 [16] Kleiner 1986. 204 [17] Wussing 2007. §I. p. p. 27 [6] Weisstein. ISBN 9780691139517 [5] Herstein 1975. 2.2. Delzant & Papadopoulos 1990 [3] Lang 2005. ISBN 0-521-82212-2 [14] Wussing 2007. Princeton. Delgado Friedrichs & Huson et al.J. p. §III. §II.1.1. 1: “The idea of a group is one which pervades the whole of mathematics both pure and applied. See Kuga 1993.12. 24. pp. See Aschbacher 2004. 26 [36] Hatcher 2002. in particular §§I. [40] Lang 2005. ^ y: Injective and surjective maps correspond to monoand epimorphisms. §1.13 [39] Seress 1997 [4] Cook. respectively. 12 5. The Jahn-Teller Effect.2. They are interchanged when passing to the dual category. §II. 2. 29 [10] Smith 1906 [47] Weyl 1952 [11] Galois 1908 [48] Conway.1.1. p. 26. §1. ^ v: See Schwarzschild metric for an example where symmetry greatly reduces the complexity of physical systems. §II.

Applied group theory. §I. O'Brien. ISBN 978-0-89871-510-1. New York: Springer-Verlag. Simple groups of Lie type. New York: Springer-Verlag. American Elsevier Publishing Co. G. • Becchi. Introduction to Gauge Theories. MR 0356988.. • Herstein.7. Roger W. (1997). Berlin.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. “The groups of order at most 2000”. New York: Springer-Verlag. Armand (1991). • Lang. Serge (2002). A course in the theory of groups. New York: Springer-Verlag. (1993).. Edinburgh and London. an elementary introduction. Introduction to group theory. Michael (2004). Inc. Electronic Research Announcements of the American Mathematical Society 7: 1–4. Mass. C. Representation theory. MR 1102012. ISBN 978-0-387-95385-4.).2) [63] Kurzweil & Stellmacher 2004 [64] Artin 1991.12 References 5. New York: SpringerVerlag. See also Lang 2002. A. A first course. • Robinson.. ISBN 978-0387-97370-8. Prentice Hall. Harris. Graduate Texts in Mathematics 126 (2nd ed.ph. • Ledermann. Theorem 6. MR 1826989.1090/S10796762-01-00087-7. New York. New York: Dover Publications. Graduate Texts in Mathematics.1. Eick. David H. ISBN 978-0-387-97495-8. 273 for concrete examples) [62] Lang 2002. ISBN 978-0-8050-7254-9. MR 0054593.1 General references • Artin.2 Special references • Artin. 5. Readings in Mathematics 129. E. Introduction to the theory of finite groups. Michael (1991). Berlin.12. (1989).5211B. [65] Lang 2002. • Aschbacher. Chapter 5 provides a laymanaccessible explanation of groups. (1967). Abstract algebra (3rd ed.). • Fulton. Upper Saddle River. Hans Ulrich. 22 [66] Ronan 2007 [67] Husain 1966 [68] Neukirch 1999 [69] Shatz 1972 [70] Milne 1980 [71] Warner 1983 [72] Borel 1991 [73] Goldstein 1980 [74] Weinberg 1972 37 • Herstein. p. Chapter 2 contains an undergraduate-level exposition of the notions covered in this article. Algebra. Topics in algebra (2nd ed. Bettina. 292 (Theorem VI. Graduate Texts in Mathematics 211 (Revised third ed. Walter (1973). G. Israel Nathan (1996). ISBN 978-0-387-22025-3. ISBN 978-0-486-67355-4. ISBN 978-0-387-94461-6.12. p. NJ: Prentice Hall Inc.5. • Besche. “The Status of the Classification of the Finite Simple Groups” (PDF)..).. Bibcode:1997hep. L. MR 1153249. Chapter VI (see in particular p. • Hall. ISBN 978-0-387-97527-6. p. viii [60] Artin 1998 [61] Lang 2002. 3. p. 77 for similar results. Galois Theory. Israel Nathan (1975). Algebra. William. Notices of the American Mathematical Society 51 (7): 736–740. Derek John Scott (1996). Group theory and chemistry. Keith (2000). MR 1375019. MR 0219593. • Bishop. (2001). OCLC 795613. Oliver and Boyd. 5211. • Carter. arXiv:hep-ph/9705211.). REFERENCES [59] Robinson 1996. Undergraduate Algebra (3rd ed. MR 1878556 • Lang. ISBN 978-0-13-374562-7. [75] Naber 2003 [76] Becchi 1997 [77] Denecke & Wismath 2002 [78] Romanowska & Smith 2002 [79] Dudek 2001 5.. • Borel.12. ISBN 978-0-47150683-6. Emil (1998). doi:10. Berlin. The Language of Mathematics: Making the Invisible Visible.: Xerox College Publishing. p.14. Walter (1953). • Ledermann. • Devlin. Joe (1991). Owl Books. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-62342-9. Linear algebraic groups. . New York: Barnes and Noble. Lexington. Serge (2005).

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Israel (1986). Évariste (1908).: American Mathematical Society. Armand (2001). Codes and cryptography.. 5. University of Chicago Press. Essays in the History of Lie Groups and Algebraic Groups. ISBN 978-0-19-8532873. II (1851–1860). Manuscrits de Évariste Galois [Évariste Galois’ Manuscripts] (in French). Providence.: American Mathematical Society. 1. Cambridge University Press. and Brauer. ed. J. Paris: Gauthier-Villars (Galois work was first published by Joseph Liouville in 1843). Hermann (1952).I. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp. No. doi:10. Symmetry. ISBN 978-0-486-45868-7. Arthur (1889). Gesammelte Abhandlungen. “The evolution of group theory: a brief survey”.. Walther (1882). The Genesis of the Abstract Group Concept: A Contribution to the History of the Origin of Abstract Group Theory. Traité des substitutions et des équations algébriques [Study of Substitutions and Algebraic Equations] (in French). (2003). History of Mathematics.J. Mathematics Magazine 59 (4): 195–215. ISBN 978-0-691-02374-8. New York: Dover Publications. Steven (1972). Providence. Tannery. Paris: GauthierVillars.2307/2690312. • Galois. • Jordan.12. • Kleiner. MR 0396826 39 • Smith. doi:10.I. MR 863090. Band 1 [Collected papers. • Wussing.F. • Welsh. Pioneers of Representation Theory: Frobenius. David Eugene (1906).3 Historical references See also: Historically important publications in group theory • Borel. R. The theory of unitary group representations. “Gruppentheoretische Studien (Group-theoretical Studies)". Sophus (1973). • Lie. New York: John Wiley & Sons. • Weyl. The development of group theory. • Mackey. Mathematical Monographs. MR 0392459. Mathematische Annalen (in German) 20 (1): 1–44. Robertson. History of Modern Mathematics. Charles W. Jules.12. R. REFERENCES • Weinberg. ISBN 9780-8218-0288-5 • Cayley. Hans (2007). Dominic (1989). • Curtis. George Whitelaw (1976).1007/BF01443322. E. Gravitation and Cosmology. Oxford: Clarendon Press. . Princeton University Press. • O'Connor. Burnside. • von Dyck. ISBN 0-47192567-5. (1996). ISBN 978-08218-2677-5.5. The collected mathematical papers of Arthur Cayley. Volume 1] (in German). Schur. Camille (1870).

6. in this way one proves that mathematics. does fluenced many parts of algebra. or linear groups. that culminated in a complete classification of finite simple groups. such as crystals and the hydrogen atom. G is a group The popular puzzle Rubik’s cube invented in 1974 by Ernő Rubik acting on X. Linear algebraic groups not admit any proper normal subgroups. the alternating group An is simple. If X consists of n elements and G consists of all permutations. such as rings. Group theory is also central to public key cryptography. their own right.000 journal pages and mostly published between 1960 and 1980. For group theory in social sciences. chemistry. For basic topics. has been used as an illustration of permutation groups. can all be seen as groups endowed with adbe studied using the properties of its action on the corditional operations and axioms. and the methods of group theory have infor n ≥ 5. Given any set X and a collection G of bijections of X into itself (known as permutations) that is closed under compositions and inverses. Thus group theory and the closely related representation theory have many important applications in physics. any permutation group G is a subgroup of the symmetric group of X. see social group. 6. acting on itself (X = concept of a group is central to abstract algebra: other G) by means of the left regular representation. 6. Groups recur throughout responding set.1 Main classes of groups Main articles: Group (mathematics) and Glossary of group theory The range of groups being considered has gradually expanded from finite permutation groups and special examples of matrix groups to abstract groups that may be specified through a presentation by generators and relations. and materials science. An early construction due to Cayley exhibited studies the algebraic structures known as groups. Here G is a set consisting of invertible matrices of given order n over a field K that is 40 .e. G is the symmetric group Sn. taking up more than 10.Chapter 6 Group theory This article covers advanced notions.2 Matrix groups The next important class of groups is given by matrix groups. i. the structure of a permutation group can vector spaces.1.1 Permutation groups The first class of groups to undergo a systematic study was permutation groups. group theory One of the most important mathematical achievements of the 20th century[1] was the collaborative effort. Various physical systems. well-known algebraic structures. in general. This fact plays a and Lie groups are two branches of group theory that have key role in the impossibility of solving a general algebraic experienced advances and have become subject areas in equation of degree n' ≥ 5 in radicals. The any group as a permutation group. and In many cases. may be modelled by symmetry groups. see Group (mathematics). For example. In mathematics and abstract algebra.1. fields.

are compatible with this structure. notably.1. a single p-adic analytic group G has a family of quotients which are finite p-groups of various orders. Certain classificaMost groups considered in the first stage of the develop. as well as the classes of group with a given such property: finite groups. the geometry and analysis pertaining to G yield generators and relations. [2] line of research. This action makes matrix groups conceptually similar to permutation groups. ized through numbers.1 Finite group theory crepancy. A comparatively recent trend in the theory of finite groups exploits their connections with compact topological groups (profinite groups): for G = ⟨S|R⟩. and mathematicians of their school. and the geometry of the action may be usefully exploited to establish properties of the group G. solvable groups. a Lie group.4 Abstract groups mation groups) are the mainstays of differential geometry and unitary representation theory. X is a vector space.1.2.6. or quotient group. then G becomes a topological group.1.6. or matrices. meaning that all those simple groups from which all finite groups can be built are now known. consid. The concept of a transformation group is closely related with the concept of a symmetry group: m : G × G → G. of Permutation groups and matrix groups are special cases a topological space.3 41 importance for the development of mathematics: it foreshadowed the creation of abstract algebra in the works of Hilbert. for matrix groups. . The new paradigm was of paramount During the twentieth century. and A significant source of abstract groups is given by the properties of G translate into the properties of its finite construction of a factor group. having been real. ers group actions on manifolds by homeomorphisms or The presence of extra structure relates these types of diffeomorphisms. Such a group acts on the n-dimensional vector space K n by linear transformations.tion questions that cannot be solved in general can be apment of group theory were “concrete”. Emil Artin. G/H. differentiable manifold.proached and resolved for special subclasses of groups. X is a set. permutations. i.5 Topological and algebraic groups Transformation groups An important elaboration of the concept of a group occurs if G is endowed with additional structure.smooth or regular (in the sense of algebraic geometry) necting group theory with differential geometry. There is a fruitful relation between inabstract group as a set with operations satisfying a certain finite abstract groups and topological groups: whenever system of axioms began to take hold. Emmy Noether. example. BRANCHES OF GROUP THEORY closed under the products and inverses. (g. h) 7→ gh. and so on. are continuous. compact connected Lie groups have been comnot until the late nineteenth century that the idea of an pletely classified. but the idea of an abstract group permits one not to worry about this dis. In the case of (inversion). mathematicians investigated some aspects of the theory of finite groups in great depth. of a group G by a normal subgroup H. It was Thus.2 Branches of group theory If a group G is a permutation group on a set X. permutation groups. transformation groups frequently consist of all transformations that preserve a certain structure. The groups themselves may be discrete groups with other mathematical disciplines and means or continuous. 6. 6. originating with Lie and Klein. 6. important results about Γ. that more tools are available in their study. or algebraic of transformation groups: groups that act on a certain variety. simple groups. g 7→ g −1 . Topological groups form a natural domain for abstract harmonic analysis. especially the local theory of finite groups and the theory of solvable and nilpotent groups. the factor group G/H is no longer acting on X. or in modern language. If the group operations m (multiplication) and i space X preserving its inherent structure. Rather than exploring properties of an individual group.2. of much interest in number theory. i : G → G. Class groups of algebraic number fields were among the earliest examples of factor groups. quotients. The change of perspective from concrete to abstract Main article: Finite group groups makes it natural to consider properties of groups that are independent of a particular realization. the complete classification of finite simple groups was achieved. one seeks to establish results that apply to a whole class of groups. whereas Lie groups (frequently realized as transfor6. The theory of transformation groups forms a bridge con.or an algebraic group. As a consequence.e. A long maps. invariant under isomorphism. A typical way of a group Γ can be realized as a lattice in a topological specifying an abstract group is through a presentation by group G. periodic groups.

The kernel of this map is called subgroup of relations. also called the presentation of a group. which may be viewed as dealing with "continuous symmetry". One such family of groups is the family of general linear groups over finite fields. the group Z = a | can be generated by one element a (equal to +1 or −1) and no relations. it may yield new information about the group G: often.[3] On the one hand. one can show that there is in general no algorithm solving this task.[4] On the other hand. Finite groups can be described by writing down the group table consisting of all possible multiplications g • h. which makes them indispensable tools for many parts of contemporary mathematics. or finitely presented representations of G exist. when those objects admit just a finite number of structure-preserving transformations.ery subgroup of a free group is free. The theory of Lie groups. The properties of finite groups can thus play a role in subjects such as theoretical physics and chemistry. and groups (i.3 Lie theory Main article: Lie group A Lie group is a group that is also a differentiable manifold. way compatible with the group structure. A string consisting of generator symbols and their inverses is called a word. it corresponds to the multiplication of matrices.2.[6] It is particularly V (via Schur’s lemma). Main article: Geometric group theory Groups can be described in different ways. .[5] Lie groups represent the best-developed theory of continuous symmetry of mathematical objects and structures. who laid the foundations of the theory of continuous transformation groups. A more compact way of defining a group is by generators and relations. The the employed methods and obtained results are rather dif. the free group generated by F subjects onto the group G. mathematicians such as Chevalley and Steinberg also increased our understanding of finite analogs of classical groups. By relating the problem to Turing machines. mains of the theory.4 Combinatorial and geometric group momorphism: theory ρ : G → GL(V). These parts Combinatorial group theory studies groups from the perin turn are much more easily manageable than the whole spective of generators and relations. The totality of representations is governed by the group’s characters. The presentation is usually denoted by F | D . GROUP THEORY During the second half of the twentieth century.e. representation theory then asks what ample finitely generated groups. because n · 1 never equals 0 unless n is zero. 6. this simplifies the study of the object in question. For example. for exGiven a group G. Another. For example. Lie groups are named after Sophus Lie. one can show that evand representations of Lie groups are two main subdo. Fourier polynomials can be interpreted as the characters of U(1). acting on the L2 -space of periodic functions. if G is finite.42 CHAPTER 6. There are several natural questions arising from giving a group by its presentation. The word problem asks whether two words are effectively the same group element. For example. This definition can be understood in two directions.2 Representation of groups differential equations (differential Galois theory). useful where finiteness assumptions are satisfied. which is very explicit. both of which give rise to whole new domains of mathematics. Given any set F of generators {gi}i ∈ I. in much the same way as permutation groups are used in Galois Main article: Representation theory theory for analysing the discrete symmetries of algebraic equations.2. These are finite groups generated by reflections which act on a finitedimensional Euclidean space. the group of complex numbers of absolute value 1. the group operation in G is abstractly given. given a well-understood group acting on a complicated object. generated by some subset D. it is known that V above decomposes into irreducible parts. page 3.6. to every group element g is assigned an automorphism ρ(g) such that ρ(g) ∘ ρ(h) = ρ(gh) for any h in G. where GL(V) consists of the invertible linear transformations of V. as well as for modern theoretical physics. For example. is strongly influenced by the associated Weyl groups. In other words. Finite groups often occur when considering symmetry of mathematical or physical objects. When X has more structure.area makes use of the connection of graphs via their ferent in every case: representation theory of finite groups fundamental groups. with the property that the group operations are compatible with the smooth structure. The term groupes de Lie first appeared in French in 1893 in the thesis of Lie’s student Arthur Tresse. and other related groups. but via ρ. They provide a natural framework for analysing the continuous symmetries of 6. There are several settings. An extension of Galois theory to the case of Saying that a group G acts on a set X means that every continuous symmetry groups was one of Lie’s principal element of G defines a bijective map on the set X in a motivations. in addition the relations are finite). it is useful to restrict this notion further: a representation of G on a vector space V is a group ho.2.

Given two elements. one speaks of conformal maps.position of functions are associative. The corresponding group is called isometry group of X. metric objects.4. A theorem of Milnor and Svarc then says ing the structure are then the morphisms. can be viewed as abelian groups (corresponding to addition) together with a second operation Main article: Symmetry group (corresponding to multiplication). and − 3 . In this case. The identity keeping the object fixed is always a symmetry of The Cayley graph of x. looks similar from a distance) to the space X. is quasi-isometric (i. a symmetry is a bijective map from the set to itself.4 Applications of group theory 6. algorithmically insoluble problem is the group isomorphism problem. the result will still be a symmetry. one constructs the word The saying of “preserving the structure” of an object can metric given by the length of the minimal path between be made precise by working in a category. the equation b e x2 − 3 = 0 a √ √ has the two solutions + 3 .[8] The first idea is made precise by means Frucht’s theorem says that every group is the symmetry of the Cayley graph. Therefore. the additive group Z of integers can also be presented by x. Almost all structures in abstract algebra are special cases of groups. for example. either by viewing groups as geo. 6. a mapping of the object onto itself which preserves the structure. or by finding suitable geometric objects a group acts on. 3. a symmetry is those entities. the group that exchanges the two roots is the Galois group belonging to the equation. If X is a set with no additional structure. If the object X is a set of points in the plane with its metric structure or any other metric space. a symmetry is a bijection of the set to itself which preserves the distance between each pair of points (an isometry). For example. and then apply another symmetry. it may not be obvious that these groups are isomorphic.6. which asks whether two groups given by different presentations are actually isomorphic. . the free group of rank 2. So every abstract group is actually elements and edges correspond to right multiplication in the symmetries of some explicit object. for example. the group. APPLICATIONS OF GROUP THEORY generally harder. If instead angles are preserved.3 Connection of groups and symmetry Applications of group theory abound. y | xyxyx = e . Existence of inverses is guaranteed by undoing the symmetry and the associativity comes from the Geometric group theory attacks these problems from a fact that symmetries are functions on a space. an object. giving rise Main article: Galois theory to permutation groups. Symmetries are not restricted to geometrical objects. Rings. whose vertices correspond to group group of some graph. and the symthat given a group G acting in a reasonable manner on a metry group is the automorphism group of the object in metric space X. Maps preservthe elements. that is a certain permutation group on its roots.4.e. for example 6. Conformal maps give rise to Kleinian groups. group theoretic arguments underlie large parts of the theory of Given a structured object X of any sort. y ∣ . For instance. Symmetries form a group: they are closed because if you take a symmetry of an object. Every polynomial equation in one variable has a Galois group. 4. but include algebraic objects as well.1 Galois theory 1.[7] 43 2. then G question. This occurs in many cases. for example a compact manifold. The axioms of a group formalize the essential aspects of symmetry. and comgeometric viewpoint.

the general quintic equation cannot be solved by radicals in the way equations of lower degree can. Similarly algebraic K-theory relies in a way on classifying spaces of groups.[10] Very large groups of prime order constructed in Elliptic-Curve Cryptography serve for public key cryptography. They are both theoretically and practically intriguing. The Poincaré conjecture. thereby following the rules of the latter. groups are used to describe certain invariants of topological spaces. Toroidal embeddings have recently led to advances in algebraic geometry. Its abelian group structure is induced from the map C → C/Z + τZ.[11] 6. Cryptographical methods of this kind benefit from the flexibility of the geometric objects. For example. S 5 . The theory. being one of the historical roots of group theory. . namely elliptic curves is studied in particular detail. Algebraic geometry and cryptography likewise uses group theory in many ways. may also be interpreted as a (very easy) group operation. For example.44 CHAPTER 6. algebraic topology makes use of Eilenberg–MacLane spaces which are spaces with prescribed homotopy groups. GROUP THEORY Galois theory uses groups to describe the symmetries of the roots of a polynomial (or more precisely the automorphisms of the algebras generated by these roots). The presence of the group operation yields additional information which makes these varieties particularly accessible. Main articles: Algebraic geometry and Cryptography 6. hence their group structures. The fundamental theorem of Galois theory provides a link between algebraic field extensions and group theory. the fundamental group “counts” how many paths in the space are essentially different.[9] The one-dimensional case. in particular resolution of singularities. Euler’s product formula ∏ ∑ 1 1 = ns 1 − p−s n≥1 A torus.4. proved in 2002/2003 by Grigori Perelman. pprime captures the fact that any integer decomposes in a unique way into primes. Abelian varieties have been introduced above.2 Algebraic topology Main article: Algebraic topology Algebraic topology is another domain which prominently associates groups to the objects the theory is interested in. For example. For example. There. together with the complicated structure of these groups. toric varieties are algebraic varieties acted on by a torus.4 Algebraic number theory Main article: Algebraic number theory Algebraic number theory is a special case of group theory. is not solvable which implies that The cyclic group Z26 underlies Caesar’s cipher. The failure of this statement for more general rings gives rise to class groups and regular primes. the name of the torsion subgroup of an infinite group shows the legacy of topology in group theory. They are called “invariants” because they are defined in such a way that they do not change if the space is subjected to some deformation. They also often serve as a test for new conjectures. In another direction.4. is still 6. Finally.4. the symmetric group in 5 elements. which make the discrete logarithm very hard to calculate.3 Algebraic geometry and cryptografruitfully applied to yield new results in areas such as class phy field theory. One of the earliest encryption protocols. though. The influence is not unidirectional. which feature in Kummer’s treatment of Fermat’s Last Theorem. is a prominent application of this idea. It gives an effective criterion for the solvability of polynomial equations in terms of the solvability of the corresponding Galois group. Caesar’s cipher. where τ is a parameter living in the upper half plane.

that is. The assigned point groups [12] techniques.4. lemma.4. magnetic cirIn combinatorics.6 Combinatorics troscopy. see in particular Burnside’s orbitals. whereas the symmetry group of a chiral molecule consists of only the identity operation. This is equivalent to any number of full rotations around any axis. Molecular symmetry is responsible for many physical and spectroscopic properties of compounds and provides relevant information about how chemical reactions occur. Physicists are very interested in group representations. groups are important because they describe the symmetries which the laws of physics seem to obey. spectroscopic properties (particularly useful for Raman spectroscopy. especially of Lie groups. it is necessary to find the set of symmetry operations present on it. and the concept of group action are often used to simplify the fluorescence spectroscopy). circular dichroism spectroscopy. This is a symmetry of all molecules. The symmetry operations of a molecule determine the specific point group for this molecule. and the used for pattern recognition and other image processing symmetries of molecules. the notion of permutation group and cular dichroism spectroscopy.4. APPLICATIONS OF GROUP THEORY 6. In order to assign a point group for any given molecule.5 Harmonic analysis 45 the Standard Model. since these representations often point the way to the “possible” physical theories. Examples of the use of groups in physics include Water molecule with symmetry axis In chemistry. gauge theory. The identity operation (E) consists of leaving the molecule as it is. These elements can be a point.4. every continuous symmetry of a physical system corresponds to a conservation law of the system.4. The circle of fifths may be endowed with a cyclic group structure 6. infrared spec6. can then be used to determine physical properties (such as polarity and chirality). Haar measures. and the Poincaré group. Main article: Harmonic analysis 6. the Lorentz group. it is an operation that moves the molecule such that it is indistinguishable from the original configuration. the rotation axes and mirror planes are called “symmetry elements”. inteIn chemistry and materials science. According to Noether’s theorem. and to construct molecular counting of a set of objects.8 Physics In physics. In other words. The symmetry operation is an action.4.7 Music The presence of the 12-periodicity in the circle of fifths yields applications of elementary group theory in musical set theory. such as a rotation around an axis or a reflection through a mirror plane. regular polyhedra. UV/Vis spectroscopy.9 Chemistry and materials science Analysis on Lie groups and certain other groups is called harmonic analysis. line or plane with respect to which the symmetry operation is carried out. are classify crystal structures.6. groups are used to grals invariant under the translation in a Lie group. In group theory. 6. Rota- . there are five important symmetry operations.

between the nascent theory of groups and field theory. the impact of group Porto Alegre. Reiner (1990). the theory of algebraic equations.5 History Main article: History of group theory Group theory has three main historical sources: number theory. doi:10. at [12] Lenz. Évariste Galois coined the term “group” and established a connection. non-Euclidean geometry. The theory of groups was uni. Kenji. classifying all the finite simple ple. Thirdly. For exam. later." Plus Magazine. In this case. The number-theoretic strand was begun by Leonhard Euler. Issue 41. and Abel in their quest for general solutions of polynomial equations of high degree. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 413. Cybernetics: Or Control and Communitheory. Sophus 00396-X. Ruffini. • List of group theory topics 6.F. In geometry. Matsuki.. The cation in the Animal and the Machine.10 Statistical Mechanics Group theory can be used to resolve the incompleteness of the statistical interpretations of mechanics developed by Willard Gibbs. Early results about permutation groups were obtained by Lagrange. Kalle.1090/S0894-0347-02Felix Klein initiated the Erlangen programme.[13] Shriver. 2003. theory has been ever growing.W. New York: Springer-Verlag. [4] In particular. “Sur les invariants différentiels des groupes continus de transformations”. Felix Klein's Erlangen program proclaimed group theory to be the organizing principle of geometry. representation [14] Norber Weiner. Journal of the American Mathematical hyperbolic or projective geometry) using group theory. Química Inorgânica. if a water molecule rotates 180° around the axis that groups. fied starting around 1880. termine the solvability of polynomial equations.1007/bf02418270. Ch 2 . now known as Galois theory. The second historical source for groups stems [11] Abramovich. it is in the same configuration as it started. ISBN 978-0-387-52290-6 The different scope of these early sources resulted in different notions of groups. if the representation is faithful.4. Atkins. doi:10. [5] Arthur Tresse (1893).[9] For example the Hodge conjecture (in certain cases). Dan. MR 1896232 Lie. one of the millennium problems tigations further by creating the theory of permutation groups. Acta Mathematica 18: 1–88. Bookman.7 Notes [1] • Elwes. in 1884.6 See also tity operation. started using groups (now called Lie groups) attached to analytic problems. and developed by Gauss’s work on modular arithmetic and additive and multiplicative groups related to quadratic fields. [2] This process of imposing extra structure has been formalized through the notion of a group object in a suitable category. 52290-5. used in algebraic numage processing. Wlodarfrom geometrical situations. [3] Such as group cohomology or equivariant K-theory.1007/3-540ber theory. 3ª ed. relating to the summing of an infinite number of probabilities to yield a meaningful solution[14] 6. GROUP THEORY tion around an axis (Cn) consists of rotating the molecule classification of finite simple groups is a vast body of work around a specific axis by a specific angle. and many more influential spin-off domains. giving rise to the birth of abstract algebra in the early 20th century. one has G = z. "An enormous theorem: the classification of finite simple groups. Arthur Cayley and Augustin Louis Cauchy pushed these inves. groups first became important in projective geometry and. Berlin. groups were. y | z3 = y = z . since applying it twice produces the iden6.from the mid 20th century. in the 1830s. was the first to employ groups to de. [6] Schupp & Lyndon 2001 [7] Writing z = xy. birational maps”. n = 2. Karu. passes through the oxygen atom and between the hydrogen atoms.[13] 6. In an attempt to come czyk. Group theoretical methods in imfirst implicitly and later explicitly. Since then. Society 15 (3): 531–572. inversion and improper rotation (rotation followed • Glossary of group theory by reflection). D. Other symmetry operations are: reflection. Thus Lie groups are group objects in the category of differentiable manifolds and affine algebraic groups are group objects in the category of affine algebraic varieties. Richard. “Torification and factorization of to grips with possible geometries (such as euclidean. December 2006.[10] See the Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture..46 CHAPTER 6. P. and geometry. doi:10. Jaroslaw (2002). [8] La Harpe 2000 Galois.

integral domains. • Plus teacher and student package: Group Theory This package brings together all the articles on group theory from Plus.6. MR 1102012 • Carter. Ian (2006). EXTERNAL LINKS 47 6. R. (1972). David (1970). and geometry. Stephen S. MR 2504193 • Cannon. Abstract Algebra: Theory and Applications An introductory undergraduate text in the spirit of texts by Gallian or Herstein. An introduction to homological algebra. Nathan C. ISBN 978-0-226-31721-2 • Livio. doi:10.9. Berlin..). 2006. ISSN 0010-437X • Golubitsky. and notation. Soc. doi:10. Oxford University Press. style. Mathematics Magazine 59 (4): 195–215. Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery 12: 3–12.9 External links • History of the abstract group concept • Higher dimensional group theory This presents a view of group theory as level one of a theory which extends in all dimensions. Simon & Schuster. Charles A.) 43 (03): 305–364. MR 0347778 • Weibel. ISBN 978-0-691-08017-8.362837. Paul E. ISBN 978-0-88385-757-1.S. ISBN 0-486-65377-3 Inexpensive and fairly readable. (1997). ISBN 978-0-19-560528-0. (N. “Nonlinear dynamics of networks: the groupoid formalism”. rings. M. New York: Springer-Verlag. New York: SpringerVerlag. Bull. ISBN 0-19-280722-6. ISBN 978-0387-97370-8. • Rotman. fields and Galois theory. Martin. OCLC 36131259. Armand (1991). John J. (1987) [1964]. Linear algebraic groups. Combinatorial group theory. JSTOR 2690312. Free downloadable PDF with opensource GFDL license. Topics in geometric group theory. ISBN 978-3-540-41158-1 • Borel. Group Theory. “Computers in group theory: A survey”. Describes the quest to find the basic building blocks for finite groups. but somewhat dated in emphasis. Compositio Mathematica 6: 239–50. Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics 38. • Shatz. ISBN 0387-94285-8 A standard contemporary reference. University of Chicago Press. the online mathematics magazine produced by the Millennium Mathematics Project at the University of Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-55987-4..1145/362835. • Scott. (2009). Joseph (1994). Oxford University Press. W. • Mumford. ISSN 0025-570X. MR 1269324 6. The Equation That Couldn't Be Solved: How Mathematical Genius Discovered the Language of Symmetry. An introduction to the theory of groups. “Herstellung von Graphen mit vorgegebener abstrakter Gruppe”. covering groups.1090/S0273-0979-0601108-6. R. Visual group theory. arithmetic. exploring applications and recent breakthroughs. OCLC 138290 • Ronan M. New York: Dover. Stewart. • Kleiner. “The evolution of group theory: a brief survey”. MR 863090 • La Harpe. Cambridge University Press. Amer. Classroom Resource Materials Series. MR 2223010 Shows the advantage of generalising from group to groupoid. For lay readers. (2001). Graduate Texts in Mathematics 126 (2nd ed. Symmetry and the Monster. Math. New York: Springer-Verlag. Roger C. Abelian varieties. (1994). . Pierre de (2000). • US Naval Academy group theory guide A general introduction to group theory with exercises written by Tony Gaglione. and has applications in homotopy theory and to higher dimensional nonabelian methods for local-to-global problems. • Judson. MR 0290613 • Frucht. ISBN 07432-5820-7 Conveys the practical value of group theory by explaining how it points to symmetries in physics and other sciences. Israel (1986). (2005). Berlin.8 References • Schupp.2307/2690312. Princeton University Press. Mathematical Association of America. Thomas W. Lyndon. and giving explicit definitions and examples of groups. doi:10. Profinite groups. (1939). (1969).

rings. The word homocategories. morphism comes from the ancient Greek language: ὁμός (homos) meaning “same” and μορφή (morphe) meaning “form” or “shape”.(H. a homomorphism f : A → B is a function between • A group homomorphism is a homomorphism that two algebraic structures of the same type such that preserves the group structure. Since inverses 48 . The scalar type binary operation.. It may equivalently be defined as a semigroup homomorphism between f(μA(a1 . If (G. with the structure to be preserved being given by the naming of the homomorphism. an)) = μB(f(a1 ). H to G • A linear map is a homomorphism that preserves is also called the G-structure. namely the abelian group algebraic object consisting of a set together with a single structure and scalar multiplication. 0.. phism. ∗) → (H.. ∗′) are groups.. The algebraic structure to be preserved may include more than one operation. a ring has both addition and multiplication. ∗′) is a function f : (G. If rings are not required to be unital. ∗′) such that f(g1 ∗ g2 ) = but not vice versa. g2 ∈ G. a homomorphism is a structurepreserves the algebra structure. +. Particular definitions of homomorphism include the following: • A semigroup homomorphism is a map that preserves an associative binary operation. the last condition is omitted. • A monoid homomorphism is a semigroup homo. identity is to be preserved depends upon the definiThe function between two algebraic structures of the tion of ring in use.1.The notion of a homomorphism can be given a formal morphism that maps the identity element to the iden. and Not all structure that an object possesses need be preendomorphisms are special types of homomorphisms. and this will not be a monoid homomorphism if it does not map the identity of the domain to that of the codomain. f(g1 ) ∗′ f(g2 ) for all elements g1 . . a homomorphism from (G. 1′) is a function such that f(r + s) = f(r) +′ f(s).1 Definition and illustration 7. preserving these would be added requirements. ∗′. or • An algebra homomorphism is a homomorphism that In abstract algebra.. and a homomorphism is required to preserve each operation.definition in the context of universal algebra. and a homomorphism from the ring (R. Whether the multiplicative ∈ A. with holomorphism • A module homomorphism is a map that preserves module structures. . 0 and additive inverses in the case of a ring) were not necessarily preserved by the above. For example. preserving map between two algebraic structures (such • A functor is a homomorphism between two as groups. satisfying certain axioms.g.1 Definition A homomorphism is a map that preserves selected structure between two algebraic structures. 0′. one may have a semigroup homomorphism between two monoids. served by a homomorphism.. a group is an the vector space structure. ∗. setting. or vector spaces). Isomorphisms. +′. 7. an serves the ring structure.. 1) to the ring (R′.Chapter 7 Homomorphism Not to be confused homeomorphism. In this tity of the codomain. every R-linear map is a Z-linear map...g. . automorphisms. In addition.for each n-ary operation μ and for all elements a1 . e. f(r ∗ s) = f(r) ∗′ f(s) and f(1) = 1′ for any elements r and s of the domain ring. same type is a reduction of the structure group. ∗) and must further be specified to specify the homomor. f(an)) groups. For example. ∗) to (H. a field which studies ideas common to all algebraic structures. For example. • A ring homomorphism is a homomorphism that pre. if defining structures of (e.

complex number z. Due to the different names of corresponding operations. having both addition and ties on the set. functions which preserve the operations multiplication. 1). translates into e2 · e3 = e5 . 0) to the monoid (N. operation( ) ( ) ( ) preserving functions exist between the set of real numr+s 0 r 0 s 0 f (r+s) = = + = f (r)+f (s) bers ℝ with addition and the positive real numbers ℝ+ 0 r+s 0 r 0 s with multiplication. 0 rs 0 r 0 s For another example. Because abstract algebra studies sets endowed with operations that generate interesting structure or properThe real numbers are a ring. It is injective. The set of all 2 × 2 matrices is also a ring. f(x) = 3x is one such homomorphism. (a single binary operation.2. A function which preserves addition should have this property: f(a + b) = f(a) + f(b). as do the nonzero real numbers. ×. since f preserves both addition: Homomorphisms do not have to map between sets which have the same operations.7. Then f is a homomorphism of groups. because it may fail to preserve the additional monoid structure required by the definition of a ring. . INFORMAL DISCUSSION 49 exist in G and H. and identity. define a function between these rings as follows: For example. +. one can show that the identity of G maps That is. the same function might be a group homomorphism. which is required for elements of a group. If we are considering multiple operations on a set.2 Basic examples f(z1 z2 ) = |z1 z2 | = |z1 | |z2 | = f(z1 ) f(z2 ). 7. consider the natural numbers with addition as the operation. the structure preservation properties satisfied by f amount to f(x + y) = f(x) × f(y) and f(0) = 1. are especially important. (Zero must be excluded from both groups since it does not have a multiplicative inverse. Even though the set may be the same. but not surjective. since f(a f (r) = 0 r + b) = 3(a + b) = 3a + 3b = f(a) + f(b). an inverse operation. For ( ) r 0 example. rings. f(x) = ex satisfies this condition: 2 + 3 = 5 rs 0 r 0 s 0 f (rs) = = = f (r) f (s). Note that this homomorphism maps the natural numbers back into themwhere r is a real number. ƒ(z) is the absolute value (or modulus) of the to the identity of H and that inverses are preserved. and multiplication: since addition is the operation in the first set and multiplication is the operation in the second.1. A function which preserves operation should have this property: f(a + b) = f(a) · f(b).2 Informal discussion Monoid homomorphism f from the monoid (N.) Define a function f from the nonzero complex numbers to the nonzero real numbers by f(z) = |z|. then f is a homomorphism of selves. As another example. since it does not preserve addition: |z1 + z2 | ≠ |z1 | + |z2 |. 1). since it preserves multiplication: 7. the additive inverse and the identity elements). For example. Note that ƒ cannot be extended to a homomorphism of rings (from the complex numbers to the real numbers). These functions are known as under matrix addition and matrix multiplication. 0) to the monoid (N. the nonzero complex numbers form a group under the operation of multiplication. If we homomorphisms. being a nullary operation) but not a ring isomorphism (two binary operations. ×. defined by f(x) = 2x . the picture shows a monoid homomorphism f from the monoid (N. Given the laws ( ) ( )( ) of exponents. +. then all operations must be preserved for a function to be considered as a homomorphism. being a unary operation.

Proof 2. Notice that: Mon ∩ Epi = Iso.3 Types In abstract algebra. However. The quotient set X / ~ can then be given an • The trivial homomorphism between unital mag. which is a homomorphism. we may consider the analogous specific kinds of morphisms defined in any category. For instance. not epi in surjective homomorphism. (A sufficient condition for this is f having a left inverse. if f(g(b)) = b for all b ∈ B. cf. since a function is bijective if the structure of the quotient. In category theory.) • isomorphism if there exists a morphism g: B → A such that f ∘ g = 1B and g ∘ f = 1A. Proof 1). • An endomorphism is a homomorphism from an al. groups These descriptions may be used in order to derive several or rings).[3][4] This inclusion thus also is an ex→ A. they are said to be isomorphic.) • epimorphism if g1 ∘ f = g2 ∘ f implies g1 = g2 for all morphisms g1 .e. but not iso. 7.object-structure in a natural way. in abstract algebra a homomorphism is an isomorphism if and only if it is both a monomorphism and an epimorphism. Equivalently. Mon = set of Monomorphisms.[2] f is necessarily isomorphic to X / ~. they are completely indistinguishable as far as the structure in question is concerned. (A sufficient condition for this is f having a right inverse. Aut = set of Automorphisms. Epi = set of Epimorphisms. i. ample of a ring homomorphism which is (in the sense of • A monomorphism (sometimes called an category theory) both mono and epi.[note 2] • An isomorphism is a bijective homomorphism.Main article: Kernel (algebra) gebraic structure to itself. [note 1] f: A the set-theoretic sense).3. Hom = set of Homomorphisms.e. where “1X" denotes the identity morphism on the object X. a morphism f : A → B is called: • monomorphism if f ∘ g1 = f ∘ g2 implies g1 = g2 for all morphisms g1 . i. the inclusion ring homomorphism of Z as • An epimorphism (sometimes called a cover) is a a (unitary) subring of Q is not surjective (i. embedding or extension) is an injective homomorphism. (f ∘ g1 )(x) = f(g1 (x)) in abstract algebra. where "∘" denotes function composition corresponding to e. Iso = set of Isomorphisms. If there is an isomorphism between two algebraic structures. Equivalently. The relation ~ is called the kernel of f. this fact is one of the isomorphism theorems. in this case. Note in some cases (e. For instance. a single equivalence class K suffices to specify properties.1 Category theory Since homomorphisms are morphisms in an appropriate category. For endomorphisms and automorphisms.e.. cf. i. but an epimorphic in the sense → B is an epimorphism if it has a right inverse g: B of category theory. an isomorphism from an relation ~ on X by a ~ b if and only if f(a) = f(b).[1] relation on X. g2 : X → A. 7. The sets (Mon ∩ End) \ Aut and (Epi ∩ End) \ Aut contain only homomorphisms from some infinite structures to themselves. the first three descriptions do not.g. the descriptions above coincide with the category theoretic definitions. the definitions in category theory are somewhat different. HOMOMORPHISM Hom Mon Iso ∞ Aut Epi ∞ End Relationships between different kinds of homomorphisms. • An automorphism is an endomorphism which is Any homomorphism f : X → Y defines an equivalence also an isomorphism.50 CHAPTER 7. [x] ∗ [y] = [x ∗ y].e.4 Kernel if g(f(a)) = a for all a ∈ A. It is a congruence algebraic structure to itself.e. g2 : B → X. several specific kinds of homomorphisms are defined as follows: and only if it is both injective and surjective. Iso ∩ End = Aut. An isomorphism always has an inverse f −1 . too (cf. In mas is the constant map onto the identity element of that case the image of X in Y under the homomorphism the codomain. End = set of Endomorphism. 7. [note 1] f: A → B is a monomorphism if it has a left inverse g: B → A.g. i. in which case we can write . Proof 3.

Providence.5. I §2. Morphisms in Handbook of Formal Languages. R. Rozenberg. (X/K is usually read as "X mod K".8. Algebraic and automata theoretic properties of formal languages.3. 7. 51 7.8 Notes [1] tacitly assuming the nonconstructive setting axiom of choice and a [2] The notion of “object” and “morphism” in category theory generalizes the notion of “algebraic structure” and “homomorphism”.9 References [1] Birkhoff. the notion of an algebraic structure is generalized to structures involving both operations and relations. If h is a homomorphism on Σ1 ∗ and h(x) ≠ e for all x ≠ e in Σ1 ∗ .[5] [3] Mac Lane. NOTES it X/K. Sankappanavar. Stanley N. Graduate Texts in Mathematics 5.7. Karhumӓki. Zbl 0962. Algebra. [5] Section 17.. ch. J.VI. edited by G. a function h : Σ1 ∗ → Σ2 ∗ such that h(uv) = h(u) h(v) for all u and v in Σ1 ∗ is called a homomorphism (or simply morphism) on Σ1 ∗ . commonly denoted by juxtaposition. Hopf Algebra: An Introduction. in Gunther Schmidt. 13 In the special case with just one binary relation.…. 1975.an) implies RB (h(a1 ).h(an)) for each n-ary relation symbol R in L.6 Formal language theory [4] Dăscălescu.16026. Lattice theory. Năstăsescu. A. NY: Marcel Dekker. then h is called an e-free homomorphism.134 [2] Bourbaki. A Course in Universal Algebra.). ISBN 978-0-52176268-7 [6] Seymour Ginsburg. Categories for the Working Mathematician. and H. we obtain the notion of a graph homomorphism. [3] In homomorphisms on formal languages. Springer-Verlag.…. Pure and Applied Mathematics 235. 363. SpringerVerlag. B be two L-structures. MR 598630 Here: Sect. Cambridge University Press. Let L be a signature consisting of function and relation symbols. 2010. 1997. H.h(an)) for each nary function symbol F in L.18001. Exercise 4 in section I. • Burris. Harju. ISBN 0-7204-2506-9.I. p. [7] T. p. Springer. often they are briefly referred to as morphisms[7] ). that is called the kernel of f (cf. This type of homomorphism can be thought of as (and is equivalent to) a monoid homomorphism where Σ∗ the set of all words over a finite alphabet Σ is a monoid (in fact it is the free monoid on Σ) with operation concatenation A monograph available free online: and the empty word as the identity. • RA (a1 . Zbl 0232.7 See also • Continuous function • Diffeomorphism • Homomorphic encryption • Homomorphic secret sharing – a simplistic decentralized voting protocol • Morphism . Raianu. it is K. the ∗ operation is the Kleene star operation. The ⋅ and ∘ are both concatenation.[note 3] Let e denote the empty word.1. normal subgroup). and A. p. ISBN 0824704819.: American Mathematical Society. Constantin. 7. 7. Salomaa. Volume I. Given alphabets Σ1 and Σ2 . 7. ISBN 978-0-8218-1025-5. rather than ~. Şerban (2001).5 Relational structures In model theory. ISBN 0-38790036-5.…. respectively. New York. ISBN 3-540-90578-2.4. Then a homomorphism from A to B is a mapping h from the domain of A to the domain of B such that • h(F A (a1 . 1981.) Also in these cases. North-Holland.. Homomorphisms are also used in the study of formal languages[6] (although within this context.…. Sorin. P. ISBN 3-540-61486-9. Relational Mathematics.an)) = F B (h(a1 ). For a detailed discussion of relational homomorphisms and isomorphisms see. Garrett (1967) [1940]. American Mathematical Society Colloquium Publications 25 (3rd ed. Saunders (1971).P.

and the Chinese remainder the. the left: The concept of an order ideal in order theory is derived from the notion of ideal in ring theory. ∀r ∈ R : x · r. Addition and subtraction of even numbers preserves evenness.[4] The left ideals in R are exactly the right ideals in the opposite ring Ro and vice versa. 8. (I. orem can be generalized to ideals. the ide1.of R . a normal subgroup can be used to construct a quotient group. +) als may be distinct from the ring elements. an ideal of R is a sub-R-bimodule of R. ∀r ∈ R : x · r ∈ I. 52 . that is: is a principal ideal consisting of the multiples of a single non-negative number. A subset I of R is called a right ideal of R [3] if it is an Among the integers. When R is a commutative ring. +) is a subgroup of (R. and the usual ideals are 2. ∀x ∈ I. +) 2. ply an ideal) of R if it is an additive subgroup of R that “absorbs multiplication by elements of R". Ideals generalize certain subsets of the integers. +) is a subgroup of (R. properties of integers. every ideal right. in other rings. the definiFor an arbitrary ring (R. these closure and absorption properties are the defining properties of an ideal. +. an ideal is a special subset of a ring.1 History Ideals were first proposed by Richard Dedekind in 1876 in the third edition of his book Vorlesungen über Zahlentheorie (English: Lectures on Number Theory). y ∈ I : x − y ∈ I . and multiplying an even number by any other integer results in another even number. the prime ideals of a ring are analo. A fractional ideal 1. I is non-empty and ∀x. in group theory.2 Definitions ideal except to emphasize that there might exist singlesided ideals. A two-sided ideal is a left ideal that is also a right ideal. +) is a subgroup of (R. ∀x ∈ I. Formally we mean that I is an ideal if it satisfies the following conditions: 1. There is a version of Similarly a subset I of R is called a left ideal of R if it unique prime factorization for the ideals of a Dedekind is an additive subgroup of R absorbing multiplication on domain (a type of ring important in number theory). such as the even numbers or the multiples of 3. and the group. sometimes called integral ideals for clarity. They were a generalization of the concept of ideal numbers developed by Ernst Kummer. and certain 2. attach more naturally to the ideals than to the elements of the ring. a right ideal of R is a right R -submodule gous to prime numbers. A subset I is called a two-sided ideal (or sim. ∀r ∈ R : r · x ∈ I. and is often called an 8.[1][2] Later the concept was expanded by David Hilbert and especially Emmy Noether. and two-sided ideal coincide. Equivalently.Chapter 8 Ideal In ring theory. the first condition can be replaced by the following well-known criterion that ensures a nonempty subset of a group is a subgroup: 1'. In all cases. However. let (R. An ideal can be used to construct a quotient ring similarly to the way that.term ideal is used alone. r · x ∈ I Equivalently. (I. +) is a generalization of an ideal. when generalized to rings. a branch of abstract algebra. ∀x ∈ I. (I. a left ideal of R is a left R -submodule of R. ·) . +) be its additive tions of left. For instance.Equivalently. the ideals correspond one-for-one additive subgroup of R and absorbs multiplication on the with the non-negative integers: in this ring. right.

then the left. The set of all n-by-n matrices whose last column is zero forms a left ideal but not a right ideal.generated by a subset X of R can be expressed internally ated (see below) by Z is exactly the set of elements that as we will now describe. i. Another ideal in C(R) is given by those functions which vanish for large enough arguments. xi ∈ X}. To remember which is which. IDEAL GENERATED BY A SET 8. respectively. • The even integers form an ideal in the ring Z of all integers. or two-sided ideal of R The definition of an ideal is such that the ideal I gener. • A is a right ideal of R if and only if it is a kernel of a homomorphism from the right R module RR to another right R module.6.3 Properties {0} and R are ideals in every ring R. If X is any subset of R. If p is in R. then the intersection of all left ideals of R containing X is a left ideal I of R containing X. and the quotient ring R/I is the desired ring where Z is zero. The following set is a left ideal: are forced to become zero if Z becomes zero. • Compact operators form an ideal in the ring of bounded operators. be zero for any element r (zero or not). and rz1 as well as z1 r should or two-sided ideals in place of left ideals. ri ∈ R. so this left ideal is in fact the left ideal generated by X. This is because the sum of any even integers is even. The ideal R is called the unit ideal. The right ideal and ideal generated by X homomorphism. those continuous functions f for which there exists a number L > 0 such that f(x) = 0 whenever |x| > L. then these are its only ideals. It is not a left ideal. Similar definitions can be created by using right ideals z1 + z2 should be zero too. Any intersection of any nonempty family of left ideals of R is again a left ideal of R. These are called. si ∈ R.8. This ideal I is said to be the left ideal generated by But if z1 = 0 and z2 = 0 in our new ring. note that right ideals are stable under right-multiplication (IR ⊆ I) and left ideals are stable under left-multiplication (RI ⊆ I). • The ring C(R) of all continuous functions f from R to R under pointwise multiplication contains the ideal of all continuous functions f such that f(1) = 0.4 Motivation 53 forms an ideal. it is usually denoted by 2Z . • A is a left ideal of R if and only if it is a kernel of a homomorphism from the left R module RR to another left R module. that is.[5] Just as normal subgroups of groups are kernels of group homomorphisms.5 Examples {x1 r1 + · · · + xn rn | n ∈ N. 8. I does not equal R. then pR is a right ideal and Rp is a left ideal of R. For a nonempty subset A of R: • A is an ideal of R if and only if it is a kernel of a ring homomorphism from R. . Also. If R has unity. The connection between cosets and ideals can be seen by switching the operation from “multiplication” to “addition”. except that the elements of Z should be zero (they are in some sense “negligible”). the set R itself forms an ideal of R.e. Similarly. and only elements that are forced by Z to be zero are zero. ri ∈ R. If R is a division ring or a field. xi ∈ X}.Each element described would have to be in every left tion that the projection from R to R/I is a (surjective) ring ideal containing X. ideals have interpretations as kernels. These two ideals are usually referred to as the trivial ideals of R. • The set of all n-by-n matrices whose last row is zero forms a right ideal in the ring of all n-by-n matrices. 8. the definition can be motivated as follows: Suppose we have a subset of elements Z of a ring R and that we would like to obtain a ring with the same structure as R. the set of all integers divisible by a fixed integer n is an ideal denoted nZ . xi ∈ X} • In a ring R. then surely X. I is a proper ideal if it is a proper subset of R. ri ∈ R. and is clearly the smallest left ideal to do so. 8. can also be expressed in the same way: Intuitively. and the product of any integer with an even integer is also even. The {r1 x1 + · · · + rn xn | n ∈ N. the subset containing only the additive identity 0R {r1 x1 s1 +· · ·+rn xn sn | n ∈ N. • The set of all polynomials with real coefficients which are divisible by the polynomial x2 + 1 is an ideal in the ring of all polynomials. requirement that R and R/I should have the same structure (except that I becomes zero) is formalized by the condi.6 Ideal generated by a set Let R be a (possibly not unital) ring. the principal right and left ideals generated by p. right.

and n-fold sums of the form (−x)+(−x)+. then a is in I. If a left ideal I of R has a finite subset F such that I is the left ideal generated by F. then the above definitions turn into the following: Ra = {ra | r ∈ R} aR = {ar | r ∈ R} RaR = {r1 as1 +· · ·+rn asn | n ∈ N. Different types of ideals are studied because they can be used to construct different types of factor rings. See their respective articles for details: • Fractional ideal: This is usually defined when R is a commutative domain with quotient field K. Two other important terms using “ideal” are not always ideals of their ring. fractional ideals are R submodules of . then at least one of a and bn is in I for some natural number n. This explains the case of Z since 1 and −1 are the only units of Z . In the special case where the set X is just a singleton {a} for some a in R. So. The factor ring of a radical ideal is a semiprime ring for general rings. For commutative rings the primitive ideals are maximal. then au = b for some unit u.[6] • Minimal ideal: A nonzero ideal is called minimal if it contains no other nonzero ideal. In addition to the finite sums of products of things in X with things in R. • Principal ideal: An ideal generated by one element. • Prime ideal: A proper ideal I is called a prime ideal if for any a and b in R. and so commutative primitive rings are all fields. but not conversely. IDEAL The former is the right ideal generated by X. Similar terms are also applied to right ideals and two-sided ideals generated by finite subsets. Actually (despite the name) the left and right primitive ideals are always two-sided ideals. Conversely. • Nil ideal: An ideal is a nil ideal if each of its elements is nilpotent.. • Primary ideal: An ideal I is called a primary ideal if for all a and b in R.6.. and is a reduced ring for commutative rings. then at least one of a and b is in I. every ideal can be generated by a single number (so Z is a principal ideal domain). These ideals are known as the left/right/two-sided principal ideals generated by a. The factor ring of a prime ideal is a prime ring in general and is an integral domain for commutative rings. this extra requirement becomes superfluous. the generators of the ideal aR are just the elements au where u is an arbitrary unit. • Maximal ideal: A proper ideal I is called a maximal ideal if there exists no other proper ideal J with I a proper subset of J. then the internal descriptions above must be modified slightly. If aR = bR in an arbitrary domain. and the latter is the ideal generated by X. The concepts of “ideal” and “number” are therefore almost identical in Z .+(−x) for every x in X and every n in the natural numbers. we must allow the addition of n-fold sums of the form x+x+. If R does not have a unit. 8. j are said to be comaximal if x + y = 1 for some x ∈ i and y ∈ j . and the only two generators of pR are p and −p. • Finitely generated ideal: This type of ideal is finitely generated as a module.. The factor ring of a maximal ideal is a simple ring in general and is a field for commutative rings. in a commutative principal ideal domain. • Irreducible ideal: An ideal is said to be irreducible if it cannot be written as an intersection of ideals which properly contain it. A factor rings constructed with a right (left) primitive ideals is a right (left) primitive ring. By convention.54 CHAPTER 8. ri ∈ R. • Radical ideal or semiprime ideal: A proper ideal I is called radical or semiprime if for any a in R. • Comaximal ideals: Two ideals i. 0 is viewed as the sum of zero such terms. • Regular ideal: This term has multiple uses. for any unit u. Ideals are important because they appear as kernels of ring homomorphisms and allow one to define factor rings. Primitive ideals are prime. See the article for a list. It is also very common to denote the two-sided ideal generated by a as (a). Every prime ideal is primary. 8. The non-commutative case is discussed in detail in the respective articles.+x. A semiprime primary ideal is prime. if an is in I for some n. agreeing with the fact that the ideal of R generated by ∅ is {0} by the previous definition. if ab is in I. aR = auu−1 R = auR. si ∈ R}.1 Example • In the ring Z of integers. Despite their names.. A right primitive ideal is defined similarly. if ab is in I. When R has a unit. • Primitive ideal: A left primitive ideal is the annihilator of a simple left module.7 Types of ideals To simplify the description all rings are assumed to be commutative. then the left ideal I is said to be finitely generated.

tion given by set intersection. Some authors may also apply “invertible ideal” to ordinary ring ideals A and B with AB=BA=R in rings other ab := {a1 b1 +· · ·+an bn | ai ∈ a and bi ∈ b. then all three sorts of module are the same. • Ideal quotient • Ideal norm • Artinian ideal 8.e. just as all three sorts of ideal are the same. the union of two ideals is a subset of the sum • The set of ideals of any ring are partially ordered of those two ideals. Then I is an ideal of R. It can be checked that Zorn’s lemma now applies to this collection. a distributive tions lattice. this collection can be reexpressed as “the collection of ideals which do not contain 1”. the union of two eration given by addition of ideals and meet opera. and the two-sided ideals are submodules of R as a bimodule over itself. • The ring R can be considered as a left module over itself. we can write it as a+0. Similarly. 2. However. i = 1. ideals of a ring R. If the fractional ideal is contained entirely in R. in general. and the smallest ideal is the zero 8. if it does not contain 1 or equivalently it does not with these two operations as join and meet.tained in the sum as well. The product ab is contained in the 8. an ideal is proper if and only The sum and the intersection of ideals is again an ideal. Also. • Noncommutative ring • Regular ideal • Idealizer . • In rings with identity. therefore. However. in fact they are additionally a ideal. the set of all ideals of a given ring forms a complete modular latcontain a unit. it can be shown that every proper ideal is contained in a maximal ideal. the right ideals are submodules of R as a right module over itself. because for any element a inside an via subset inclusion. IDEALS AND CONGRUENCE RELATIONS 55 K with a special property.8.8 Further properties intersection of a and b . let I = {x : x ~ 0}.11 See also • Modular arithmetic • Noether isomorphism theorem • Boolean prime ideal theorem • Ideal theory • Every ideal is a pseudo-ring. then it is truly an ideal of R. There is a bijective correspondence between ideals and congruence relations (equivalence relations that respect the ring structure) on the ring: Given an ideal I of a ring R. when R has identity 1. • Ideal (order theory) • The ideals of a ring form a semiring (with identity element R) under addition and multiplication of ideals.10 Ideals and congruence relaideal. tice. i.10. With a little more work. it is concomplete modular lattice in this order with join op.and other fractional ideal B such that AB=BA=R. the product of two ideals a and b is defined to be the ideal ab generated by all products of the form ab with a in a and b in b . for n = 1. The lattice is not. Conversely. .9 Ideal operations The sum and product of ideals are defined as follows. given a congruence relation ~ on R. 8. . • Unfortunately Zorn’s lemma does not necessarily apply to the collection of proper ideals of R. 2 than domains. and the left ideals of R are then seen as the submodules of this module. let x ~ y if x − y ∈ I. Then ~ is a congruence relation on R. and consequently there are maximal proper ideals of R. a + b := {a + b | a ∈ a and b ∈ b} • Invertible ideal: Usually an invertible ideal A is defined as a fractional ideal for which there is an. The trivial ideals supply the least and greatest elements: the largest ideal is the entire ring. or 0+a.ideals is not necessarily an ideal. If R is commutative. See Krull’s theorem at maximal ideal. . For a and b . n. .

2004.2 [6] Because simple commutative rings are fields. Nadezhda Mikhaĭlovna Gubareni. 39. 76. Volume 1. (2005). p. since the second condition implies that −y is in I. • Lang. An introduction to number theory. [4] In fact. Section III. 2004. [5] Lang 2005. rings and modules.). IDEAL . 83. Vladimir V. p. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-387-22025-3 • Michiel Hazewinkel.. p. A First Course in Noncommutative Rings. [3] See Hazewinkel et al. Nadiya Gubareni. Undergraduate Algebra (Third ed. Ward T.56 8. Springer. Edwards (1977). Serge (2005). since R is assumed to be unital. See Lam (2001). ISBN 1-4020-2690-0 CHAPTER 8. [2] Everest G. it suffices that x + y is in I. Fermat’s last theorem. Springer-Verlag.12 References [1] Harold M. Kirichenko. (2004). A genetic introduction to algebraic number theory. Algebras.

but some authors do not follow this. • An integral domain is a ring that is (isomorphic to) a subring of a field. 57 Z ⊃ 2Z ⊃ · · · ⊃ 2n Z ⊃ 2n+1 Z ⊃ · · · • Rings of polynomials are integral domains if the coefficients come from an integral domain. In particular. an equality ab = ac implies b = c. every Artinian integral domain is a field. • An integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring for which every non-zero element is cancellable under multiplication. by not requiring integral domains to have a multiplicative identity. the ring Z[X] of all polynomials in one variable with integer coefficients is an integral domain. that is. an integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring in which the product of any two nonzero elements is nonzero. Elements r with this property are called regular. however. • An integral domain is a ring for which the set of nonzero elements is a commutative monoid under multiplication (because the monoid is closed under multiplication). • An integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring with no nonzero zero divisors.2 Examples • The archetypical example is the ring Z of all integers.Chapter 9 Integral domain • An integral domain is a commutative ring in which the zero ideal {0} is a prime ideal.[3][4] Noncommutative integral domains are sometimes admitted.) • An integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring in which for every nonzero element r. (This implies it is a nonzero commutative ring. the function that maps each element x of the ring to the product xr is injective. Conversely. finite domains are finite fields). if a ≠ 0. all finite integral domains are finite fields (more generally. . and specifically in abstract algebra. Some sources. “Integral domain” is defined almost universally as above. use the term entire ring for integral domain.[6] Some specific kinds of integral domains are given with the following chain of class inclusions: 9.1 Definitions There are a number of equivalent definitions of integral domain: • An integral domain is a nonzero commutative ring in which the product of any two nonzero elements is nonzero. generally denoted 1.[1][2] Integral domains are generalizations of the ring of integers and provide a natural setting for studying divisibility. but there is some variation. In mathematics. commutative rings ⊃ integral domains ⊃ integrally closed domains ⊃ GCD domains ⊃ unique factorization domains ⊃ principal ideal domains ⊃ Euclidean domains ⊃ fields ⊃ finite fields • Every field is an integral domain. possessing infinite descending sequences of ideals such as: 9.[5] This article. In an integral domain the cancellation property holds for multiplication by a nonzero element a. This article follows the convention that rings have a multiplicative identity. For instance. by Wedderburn’s little theorem. follows the much more usual convention of reserving the term “integral domain” for the commutative case and using "domain" for the general case including noncommutative rings. The ring of integers Z provides an example of a non-Artinian infinite integral domain that is not a field. so it is equivalent to require that every nonzero element of the ring be regular. notably Lang.

a GCD domain). the set of all real numbers of the form a + b√n with a and b integers is a subring If q is a nonzero non-unit. 2 2 • A regular local ring is an integral domain. 9. an element p is prime if and this integral domain is called the Gaussian integers. whenever p divides a product ab. and irreducible elements 9. if a ≠ 0 and ab = ac then b = c. See Lasker– The following rings are not integral domains. The same true for example. we say that p is a prime eleof the form a + bi√n with a and b integers is a subring ment if. In a unique factorization domain (or more generally. • The cancellation property holds in any integral domain: for any a. C. sociated elements or associates. then either x is zero or I = J. a but there are no norm 3 elements since a + 5b = 3 [7][8] regular local ring is a UFD. we say that a divides b. The elements that divide 1 are called the units of R. only if the principal ideal (p) is a nonzero prime ideal. the factors would each have to have norm 3. • An integral domain is equal to the intersection of its localizations at maximal ideals. • The ring of n × n matrices over any nonzero ring when n ≥ 2.5 Properties • A commutative ring R is an integral domain if and only if the ideal (0) of R is a prime ideal. since (xy) is not a prime ideal. there is unique factorization of ideals. units. prime elements. (i⊗ 1 − 1 ⊗ i) (i ⊗ 1 + 1 ⊗ i) = 0 ). y]/(xy) for any field k . trivially. b.4 Divisibility. then the ring H(U) consisting of all holomorphic Every prime element is irreducible. • The cancellation property holds for ideals in any integral domain: if xI = xJ. an irreducible element is a prime element. R is an integral domain. • The zero ring in which 0=1. Equivalently. then the quotient ring R/P is an integral domain if and only if P is a prime ideal. Noether theorem. • The quotient ring Z/mZ when m is a composite number. • The product ring Z × Z. and c in an integral domain. (has no√integer ) ( solutions).[9] Equivalently. except that it • If U is a connected open subset of the complex plane allows for negative prime elements. Given elements a and b of R. • The ring of continuous functions on the unit interval. definition of prime number in the ring Z. • For each integer n > 1. In the case n = 1 or p divides b.3 Non-examples [√ ] While unique factorization does not hold in Z −5 . or that a is a divisor of b. Then there is an integral domain S such that R ⊂ S and S has an element which is transcendental over R. then p divides a of C and hence an integral domain. for example. then we say a and b are asables with real coefficients. 9. . in the quadratic integer ring [√in general: ] is true for rings of analytic functions on connected Z −5 the element 3 is irreducible (if it factored nonopen subsets of analytic manifolds. we say that q is an irreducible element if q cannot be written as a product of two nonof R and hence an integral domain.Y] of all polynomials in two vari. • For each integer n > 0 the set of all complex numbers If p is a nonzero non-unit. √ ) but not prime (since 3 divides 2 + −5 2 − −5 without dividing either factor). if there exists an element x in R such that ax = b.If a divides b and b divides a. See also: Divisibility (ring theory) In this section. • An inductive limit of integral domains is an integral domain. • Let R be an integral domain. Units divide all other elements. or that b is a multiple of a. Another way to state this is that the function x ↦ ax is injective for any nonzero a in the domain. a and b are associates if a=ub for some unit u. these are precisely the invertible elements in R. INTEGRAL DOMAIN so is the ring R[X. • The tensor product C⊗R C (since.58 CHAPTER 9. The notion of prime element generalizes the ordinary • The ring of p-adic integers is an integral domain. • If R is a commutative ring and P is an ideal in R. The converse is not functions f : U → C is an integral domain. • The quotient ring k[x. In fact.

9. Berlin. Algebra. in algebraic geometry. NOTES 9.6 Field of fractions Main article: Field of fractions 59 9.2307/2372791. ISBN 003-030558-6. Algebra. Zbl 0848. p. Rinehart and Winston. Nicolas (1998).13001 [7] Auslander. Mass. ISBN 156881-068-7. 9. (2004).L. A. 88-90. It follows that the unique minimal prime ideal of a reduced and irreducible ring is the zero ideal. Algebra. Graduate Texts in Mathematics 211. a commutative ring is an integral domain if and only if its spectrum is an integral affine scheme. so that the intersection of all the ring’s minimal primes is zero.C. Algebra Erster Teil. “Unique factorization in regular local rings”. doi:10. 9. New York: Wiley. The former condition ensures that the nilradical of the ring is zero. (1974). van der Waerden. ISBN 0-47151001-7. (1959).). Elements a and b of [an integral domain] are called associates if a | b and b | a. AMS) [6] Pages 91–92 of Lang. Sci. 228. Saunders. PMID 16590434. • Mac Lane.733. “A general theory of algebraic geometry over Dedekind domains. Inc.1073/pnas. Iain T. MR 1878556. David (1987). and the zero ideal is the unique minimal prime ideal. p. Natl.5. [9] Durbin. [5] J.). Richard M. • Bourbaki. Birkhoff. MR 0214415.: Addison-Wesley Pub.8 Characteristic and homomorphisms The characteristic of an integral domain is either 0 or a prime number. New York: Holt.9 See also • Dedekind–Hasse norm – the extra structure needed for an integral domain to be principal • Zero-product property [3] B. p. . • Hungerford. 30. The field of fractions K of an integral domain R is the set of fractions a/b with a and b in R and b ≠ 0 modulo an appropriate equivalence relation. Serge (2002). doi:10. ISBN 978-0-387-95385-4. Reading. so such rings are integral domains. [2] Dummit and Foote. (1993).7 Algebraic geometry Integral domains are characterized by the condition that they are reduced (that is x2 = 0 implies x = 0) and irreducible (that is there is only one minimal prime ideal). D. McConnel and J.. equipped with the usual addition and multiplication operations.45. • Dummit. Berlin. JSTOR 2372791. Herstein. London 1964. Berlin. Math. II”. 116. into the fact that the coordinate ring of an affine algebraic set is an integral domain if and only if the algebraic set is an algebraic variety. More generally. David S.C. USA 45 (5): 733–734. • Sharpe. [8] Masayoshi Nagata (1958). p.9.10 Notes [1] Bourbaki.10. ISBN 0-521-33718-6. PMC 222624. It is “the smallest field containing R" in the sense that there is an injective ring homomorphism R → K such that any injective ring homomorphism from R to a field factors through K. New York: SpringerVerlag. 36. Elementary rings and modules. 224. • Lang. ISBN 978-3540-64243-5. The latter condition is that the ring have only one minimal prime. Abstract Algebra (3rd ed. Springer-Verlag. Co.11 References • Adamson. Maurice. Algebra. The field of fractions of a field is isomorphic to the field itself. Thomas W. Heidelberg 1966. The converse is clear: an integral domain has no nonzero nilpotent elements. John Wiley and Sons. New York: The Macmillan Co. ISBN 978-0201-55540-0. This translates. Garrett (1967). J. Serge (1993).). Modern Algebra: An Introduction (3rd ed. If R is an integral domain of prime characteristic p. The field of fractions of the ring of integers Z is the field of rational numbers Q. Rings and factorization. [4] I. Buchsbaum. (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 80 (2): 382–420. University Mathematical Texts. ISBN 978-0-471-43334-7. Oliver and Boyd. p. Proc. 9. (1972). Algebra (Third ed. Chapters 1–3. John R. Amer. then the Frobenius endomorphism f(x) = x p is injective. New York: Springer-Verlag. Robson “Noncommutative Noetherian Rings” (Graduate Studies in Mathematics Vol.N. Blaisdell Publishing Company. Acad.. ISBN 0-05-002192-3. Foote. Topics in Algebra. Cambridge University Press.

• Milies. Sehgal. Algebra. An introduction to group rings. • Lanski. Berlin Heidelberg. Sudarshan K. A K Peters. AMS Bookstore.L. César Polcino. ISBN 1-56881-028-8. ISBN 14020-0238-6. and fields. • B. van der Waerden. (2002). rings.60 • Rowen. Springer. Louis Halle (1994). 1966. ISBN 0-534-42323-X. Charles (2005). Concepts in abstract algebra. Algebra: groups. INTEGRAL DOMAIN . CHAPTER 9. Springer-Verlag.

a quotient set of the space of Cauchy secongruent transformation) is a distance-preserving quences on M. or from M into M'. the completion of a metric space M involves an isometry In mathematics. A reflection in a line is an opposite isometry. they are related by an isometry. A global isometry.[3] the isometry that relates There is also the weaker notion of path isometry or arcthem is either a rigid motion (translation or rotation). This proof is similar to the proof that an order embedding between partially ordered sets is injective. A2 T B2 C2 T B1 A1 Δ1 R2 R 1 10.[1] isomorphic to a subspace of a complete metric space. thereby contradicting the coincidence axiom of the metric d. a and b. Like any other Given a metric space (loosely.Chapter 10 Isometry This article is about distance-preserving functions. Isometries are often used in constructions where one For non-mathematical uses. A map ƒ : X → Y is called an isometry or distance preserving if for any a. isometric isomorphism or congruence mapping is a bijective isometry.isometries from a metric space to itself forms a group ric space. two geometric figures are congruent if group.bijection. called the isometry Euclidean space. and it is usually identified with this subspace.1 Introduction Let X and Y be metric spaces with metrics dX and dY.b ∈ X one has An isometry is automatically injective. could be mapped to the same point. The signing distances between elements of the set). [4] T A composition of two opposite isometries is a direct isometry. try is a transformation which maps elements to the same or another metric space such that the distance between Two metric spaces X and Y are called isometric if there the image elements in the new metric space is equal to is a bijective isometry from X to Y. or wise isometry: 61 .e. Other embedding constructions show that every metric space is isoA R1 ( A ) A 1 R 2 ( A 1 ) A 2 metrically isomorphic to a closed subset of some normed vector space and that every complete metric space is isoD metrically isomorphic to a closed subset of some Banach space. Translation T is a direct isometry: a rigid motion. other mathematical uses. The original space M is thus isometrically injective map between metric spaces. a global isometry has a function inverse. see Isometric.[2] 10. an isome. space is embedded in another space. b).2 Formal definitions Δ2 C1 D1 S S dY (f (a). Clearly. f (b)) = dX (a. a set and a scheme for as. For a composition of a rigid motion and a reflection. The set of bijective the distance between the elements in the original met. an isometry (or congruence. For instance.inverse of a global isometry is also a global isometry. C S B An isometric surjective linear operator on a Hilbert space is called a unitary operator. In a two-dimensional or three-dimensional with respect to function composition. see isometry (disambiguation). like R1 or R2 on the image. every isometry between metric spaces is a topological embedding (i.[1] otherwise two distinct points. a homeomorphism).

This term is often abridged to simply isometry. translation and rotation is a global isometry on Euclidean spaces. y> and then applying the Riesz representation theorem.[5][6][7][8] 10. • The map x 7→ |x| in R is a path isometry but not an isometry. for x. 29 “We shall find it convenient to use the word transformation in the special sense of a one-to-one correspondence P → P ′ among all points in the plane (or in space). the term isometry means a linear bijection preserving magnitude. See also Quadratic spaces. • The isometric linear maps from Cn to itself are given by the unitary matrices. a rule for associating pairs of points. that is.x′)| < ε.7 References [1] Coxeter 1969. They are global isometries if and only if they are surjective. an ε-isometry or almost isometry (also called a Hausdorff approximation) is a map f : X → Y between metric spaces such that 1. it is not injective. the fact that any linear isometry is an orthogonal transformation can be shown by using polarization to prove <Ax. By the Mazur-Ulam theorem. • Quasi-isometry is yet another useful generalization. such a map is not necessarily an isometry in the distance preserving sense.x′ ∈ X one has |dY(ƒ(x). a linear isometry is a linear map f : V → W that preserves the norms: further than ε away from the image of an element of the domain. • One may also define an element in an abstract unital C*-algebra to be an isometry: a ∈ A is an isometry if and only if a∗ · a=1. Ay> = <x. Note that as mentioned in the introduction this is not necessarily a unitary element because one does not in general have that left inverse is a right inverse. • On a pseudo-Euclidean space. See also Euclidean group.3 Examples • Any reflection. with the understanding that each pair has a first member P and a second member . Note that ε-isometries are not assumed to be continuous. or even injective. In an inner product space. Note that unlike an isometry. for any point y ∈ Y there exists a point x ∈ X with dY(y. and it need not necessarily be bijective. and 2. Linear isometries are distance-preserving maps in the above sense. an ε-isometry preserves distances to within ε and leaves no element of the codomain • Beckman–Quarles theorem • Semidefinite embedding • Flat (geometry) • Euclidean plane isometry • 3D isometries that leave the origin fixed • Space group • Involution • Symmetry in mathematics • Homeomorphism group • Partial isometry • The second dual of a Banach space as an isometric isomorphism 10. 10.62 CHAPTER 10.5 Generalizations • Given a positive real number ε.ƒ(x′))−dX(x. • The restricted isometry property characterizes nearly isometric matrices for sparse vectors. any isometry of normed vector spaces over R is affine. p. ISOMETRY A path isometry or arcwise isometry is a map which preserves the lengths of curves. 10.4 Linear isometry Given two normed vector spaces V and W.ƒ(x)) < ε That is. so one should take care to determine from context which type is intended.6 See also • Motion (geometry) ∥f (v)∥ = ∥v∥ for all v in V. 10.

ISBN 9780471504580. 63 . “On isometries of Euclidean spaces” (PDF). H. 46 3. Wiley.. Jr.1126/science. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 19. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing 26 (1): 313–338. fit locally: Unsupervised learning of nonlinear manifolds". “Think globally.. and let Tp. q) be the distance between points p and q of E n . “MLLE: Modified Locally Linear Embedding Using Multiple Weights”. M..11 Any two congruent triangles are related by a unique isometry. Introduction to Geometry. F. q) = a . Lawrence K. Zhenyue. 10. Roweis.2323. L. (2003). “Principal Manifolds and Nonlinear Dimension Reduction via Local Tangent Space Alignment". [5] Roweis. Hongyuan (2004). Science 290 (5500): 2323–2326.” or “congruence”) is a transformation which preserves length. Quadratic optimisation of M = (I −W )⊤ (I −W ) (page 135) such that M ≡ Y Y ⊤ [7] Zhang. S. S. Journal of Machine Learning Research (http: //jmlr.8. S.. Second edition.8 Bibliography • Coxeter.. Sam T.1137/s1064827502419154. 39 3. respectively. Jing (2006).5500.. It can retrieve the ideal embedding if MLLE is applied on data points sampled from an isometric manifold. doi:10.290. Quarles. Tq be any images of p and q. In particular. doi:10. (1969).51 Any direct isometry is either a translation or a rotation. Saul. p. “Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction by Locally Linear Embedding”. A. Any opposite isometry is either a reflection or a glide reflection. Zhenyue.10. T q) = a whenever d(p. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society 4: 810–815. [8] Zhang. [6] Saul. BIBLIOGRAPHY P' and that every point occurs as the first member of just one pair and also as the second member of just one pair.2307/2032415. Wang. then T is a Euclidean transformation of E n onto itself. Let d(p. Zha.. MR 0058193. [3] Coxeter 1969.” [2] Coxeter 1969.org/papers/v4/saul03a. T. (2000).html) 4 (June): 119–155. (1953).. an isometry (or “congruent transformation. If there is a length a > 0 such that d(T p. p. [4] Beckman. doi:10. PMID 11125150. D. K. Let T be a transformation (possibly many-valued) of E n ( 2 ≤ n < ∞ ) into itself.

Brandt strongly disagreed with this overloading of terminology. being replaced just with juxtaposition.[4] If • is instead a partial operation. that abbreviated to the following expression.3 Morphism of magmas A morphism of magmas is a function. in which the innermost operations and pairs of 11. chapitres 1 à 3. a • parentheses: 64 . which is notated with parentheses. Hausmann and Øystein Ore (1937)[1] in the sense (of a set with a binary operation) used in this article. influential books in semigroup theory. 11. b ∈ M: a • b ∈ M. The term magma was used by Serre [Lie Algebras and Lie Groups. equipped with a single binary operation. Algèbre. xy • z = (x • y) • z. mapping magma M to magma N. still containing sends any two elements a. not to be confused with groupoids in category theory) is a basic (known as the magma or closure axiom): kind of algebraic structure. the above is A magma is a set M matched with an operation. A. is often omitted and notated by juxtaposition: (a • (b • c)) • d = (a(bc))d A shorthand is often used to reduce the number of parentheses. f : M → N. the order matters. a magma conFor all a. The word groupoid is used by many universal algebraists. but not in the sense used by Hausmann and Ore. a magma (or groupoid. M. the operation. The term was then appropriated by B. To qualify as a magma. 1965]. Specifically. then S is called a partial magma[5] or more often a partial groupoid. b. In a couple of reviews of subsequent papers in Zentralblatt. The Brandt groupoid is a groupoid in the sense used in category theory. The binary operation must be closed by definition but no other properties are imposed. The symbol.4 Notation and combinatorics The magma operation may be applied repeatedly.Chapter 11 Magma For other uses. the result of the operation a • sists of a set. is a general placeholder for a properly defined operation. and in the general. M × M → M. Also. including Clifford and Preston (1961) and Howie (1995) use groupoid in the sense of Hausmann and Ore.1 History and terminology The term groupoid was introduced in 1926 by Heinrich Brandt describing his Brandt groupoid (translated from the German Gruppoid). 1970. •. •. b ∈ M to another element. non-associative case. but workers in category theory and related areas object strongly to this usage because they use the same word to mean “category in which all morphisms are invertible”.[5][6] 11. the set and operation (M. •. •) must satisfy the following requirement In abstract algebra. Nevertheless. 11. b in M. Hollings (2014) writes that the term groupoid is “perhaps most often used in modern mathematics” in the sense given to it in category theory.[2] According to Bergman and Hausknecht (1996): “There is no generally accepted word for a set with a not necessarily associative binary operation. b is also in M. that preserves the binary operation: f (x •M y) = f(x) •N f(y) where •M and •N denote the binary operation on M and N respectively. For example. see Magma (disambiguation).2 Definition parentheses are omitted. And in mathematical notation: ∀ a.”[3] It also appears in Bourbaki's Éléments de mathématique.

yz • x ≡ yx • zx axioms one might require of the operation. xx • yz ≡ xy • xz See also: Free semigroup.11. as the magma of binary trees with leaves labelled by elements of X. 10. Commonly studied types of magmas include: Autodistributive If it is both left and right distributive Quasigroups Magmas where division is always possible Commutative If it satisfies the identity.. 3. then there A magma (S.[7] Monoids Semigroups with identity elements 11. depending on what Right distributive If it satisfies the identity.. 1. C 3 = 5: ((ab)c)d.. and Wedderburn–Etherington number Right semimedial If it satisfies the identity. C 2 = 2. The total number of different ways of writing n applications of the magma operator is given by the Catalan number. The corresponding numbers of non-isomorphic and non-antiisomorphic magmas Semilattices Semigroups where the operation are 1. ence. there are no relations Abelian groups Groups where the operation is commutative or axioms imposed on the generators. . (a(bc))d.5 Free magma is Groups Monoids with inverse elements. u. It can be described as the set of non-associative words on X with parentheses retained:. associative loops or non-empty associative quasigroups A free magma.7. yz • xx ≡ yx • zx Semimedial If it is both left and right semimedial 11. z ∈ S. is the “most general possible” magma generated by X (i. instead there are several different kinds of magmas.. (sequence A001424 in commutative and idempotent OEIS). The operation is that of joining trees at the root. xx ≡ yy .7 Classification by properties A free magma has the universal property such that. or equivalently. MX.cancellation property. in terms familiar in computer sci.. if f : X → N is a function from X to any magma. in which the same expression would be written ••a•bcd. It therefore has a foundational role in syntax. Free group. 1. Thus. (sequence A001329 in OEIS). f ′ Medial If it satisfies the identity. with x. 4. see free object). is called is a unique extension of f to a morphism of magmas. Cn. N. 2. (ab)(cd). 3330.. 11. 89521056. elements are 1. on a set. A way to avoid completely the use of parentheses is prefix notation. X. 7. Left semimedial If it satisfies the identity. for example. xx ≡ x Semigroups Magmas where the operation is associative Unipotent If it satisfies the identity. . xy • uz ≡ xu • yz f ′ : MX → N. CLASSIFICATION BY PROPERTIES 65 Magma (a • bc)d. 178981952.e. Hall set. a((bc)d). 1. divisibility associativity Quasigroup Semigroup identity identity Loop Monoid associativity invertibility Group The number of non-isomorphic magmas having 0.. and a(b(cd)). The set of all possible strings consisting of symbols denoting elements of the magma. 1734. and sets of balanced parentheses is called the Dyck language. x • yz ≡ xy • xz Magmas are not often studied as such.6 Types of magmas Left distributive If it satisfies the identity. •). . y. xy ≡ yx Loops Quasigroups with identity elements Idempotent If it satisfies the identity. Less trivially. which is just the statement that (ab)c and a(bc) are the only two ways of pairing three elements of a magma with two operations.[8] Note that each of divisibility and invertibility imply the It can also be viewed.

B. p. y. or null semigroup [4] Bourbaki. MAGMA 11. Michiel. and. Nineteen Papers on Algebraic Semigroups. Jaroslav. [8] Rowen. z. ISBN 978-08218-0495-7 Semigroup with zero multiplication. • M. “Free magma”. Commentationes Mathematicae Universitatis Carolinae 22 (2): 223–233. E. for all x. Eric W. ISBN 9781-4704-1493-1 [3] Bergman. Hazewinkel (2001). Kepka. ISBN 978-0-38703497-3 . P. George M. Cogroups and Co-rings in Categories of Associative Rings. Mathematica 35 (1): 53–60 [10] Ježek. p.. 1. yx ≡ zx CHAPTER 11. ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4 • Auto magma object • M. Algebra I: Chapters If it satisfies the identity. p. Eric W.1. in Silver. A. ISBN 978-3-540-64243-5 Unital If it has an identity element Left-cancellative If. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. xy ≡ uv 1–3. Michiel. American Mathematical Society. ISBN 0-8218-3115-1 [7] Weisstein. “Simple balanced groupoids” (PDF). Mathematics across the Iron Curtain: A History of the Algebraic Theory of Semigroups. Stasheff. z. JSTOR 2371362 [2] Hollings. Hazewinkel (2001). Springer. for all x.10 References [1] Hausmann. T. “Free entropic groupoids” (PDF). holds A semigroup with right zeros If it is a semigroup and. Ore. Springer. “Definition 21B. Graduate Studies in Mathematics. 61. Jean Marcel. Adam O. Hausknecht. the identity. or associative If it satisfies the identity. Pallo. in Hazewinkel.). Tomáš (1981).. and. ISBN 0-8218-8408-5 [9] Kepka. • Magma category • Magma computer algebra system.[10] 11. “A survey of partial groupoids”. “Theory of quasi-groups”. MathWorld. xy ≡ xz A right unar If it satisfies the identity. ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4 11. 321. 11. “Magma”. American Mathematical Society.66 Zeropotent If it satisfies the identities. Michiel. (2012). Springer. American Mathematical Society. Hazewinkel (2001). ISBN 978-3-0348-0405-9 [6] Evseev. Graduate Algebra: Noncommutative View.1 Laws of Composition: Definition 1”. Springer. (1996). American Journal of Mathematics 59 (4): 983–1004. for all x.. eds. Øystein (October 1937). Encyclopedia of Mathematics. See n-ary group. xy = xz implies y=z Right-cancellative If.11 Further reading • Bruck. Folkert. xx • y ≡ xx ≡ y • xx[9] Alternative If it satisfies the identities xx • y ≡ x • xy and x • yy ≡ xy • y Power-associative If the submagma generated by any element is associative A semigroup. holds Trimedial If any triple of (not necessarily distinct) elements generates a medial submagma Entropic If it is a homomorphic image of a medial cancellation magma. in Hazewinkel. Tamari Lattices and Related Structures: Tamari Memorial Festschrift. A survey of binary systems (3rd ed. named after the object of this article. Jim. pp. doi:10.”. yx = zx implies y=z Cancellative If it is both right-cancellative and leftcancellative A semigroup with left zeros If it is a semigroup and. Springer.8 Generalizations [5] Müller-Hoissen. the identity. “Groupoid”. Ben. x ≡ xy. “Algebraic Structures: §1. Christopher (2014). American Mathematical Society. 142–3. (1996). Richard Hubert (1971). for all x. ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4 • Universal algebra • Weisstein. (1988). “Groupoid”. x • yz ≡ xy • z A left unar If it satisfies the identity. Němec. “Groupoid”. N. (1998) [1970]. Springer. Facultas Rerum Naturalium. in Hazewinkel. x ≡ yx.2307/2371362. A. MathWorld. • Commutative non-associative magmas • Algebraic structures whose axioms are all identities • Groupoid algebra 11.. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. p. MR 620359. Louis Halle (2008). y. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis.9 See also • M. Associahedra..

More precisely: if H is a subgroup of G. e. see Order (mathematics). is 1. following: if we write • The ordering relation of a partially or totally ordered group.number 2 has order 3: ber of elements in its set. of an element a of a group is the smallest positive integer m such that am = e (where e de2 + 2 + 2 = 6 ≡ 0 (mod 6) notes the identity element of the group. and am denotes the product of m copies of a).) As an immediate consequence of the above. if a is the identity. (This is. the order of any subgroup of G divides the order of G. For other If the order of group G is 1. a is said to have infinite order. ⟨a⟩ = {ak : k ∈ Z} This article is about the first sense of order. If every (non-identity) element in G is the same as its inverse (so that a2 = e). The converse is used in two unrelated senses: of this statement is not true. so ord(S3 ) = 6. the quotient ord(G) / ord(H) does not make sense. in the symmetric group shown The order of a group and that of an element tend to speak above. for example. For other trivial group. The symmetric group S3 has the following multiplication table. Completing the enumeration. In general. and w squares to e. the (additive) cyclic group Z6 of integers modulo 6 is abelian. where ord(S3 ) = 6. If ord(G) = ∞. the num. If no such m The relationship between the two concepts of order is the exists. the term order =−1 b a−1 = ba by Elementary group theory. 2. then The order of a group G is denoted by ord(G) or | G | and the order of an element a is denoted by ord(a) or | a |. Each of s. 12. ord(G) / ord(H) = [G : H]. only true when G has finite order. for the subgroup generated by a. where [G : H] is called the index of H in G. and v2 = u and v3 = uv = e. For example. but the • The order of a group is its cardinality. the orders of the elements are about the structure of the group.2 Order and structure 67 . see Order.1 Example For any integer k. both u and v have order 3. Example. Also. we have ak = e if and only if ord(a) divides k. we see that the order of every element of a group divides the order of the group. ord(a) = ord(⟨a⟩). i. then the group is called a uses in mathematics. however. the order. Given an element a. By definition. This is Lagrange’s theorem. or 3. the order of the identity. Roughly speaking. so these group elements have order 2.e. complicated the group. sometimes period. a branch of mathematics. then ord(a) 2 and consequently G is abelian since ab = (ab)−1 = In group theory. an integer.Chapter 12 Order This article is about order in group theory. for u2 = v and u3 = vu = e. the 1.. 12. ord(a) = 1 if and only uses. t. more complicated the factorization of the order the more The following partial converse is true for finite groups: if d divides the order of a group G and d is a prime number. then This group has six elements.

it is possible that both a and b have finite order while ab has infinite order. some of these questions are still open. the Klein four-group does not have an element of order four). we can at least say that ord(ab) divides lcm(ord(a).[2] be used to prove that there are no (injective) homomorphisms between two concretely given groups. For example. then all powers of a have infinite order as well. and d is a divisor of n. This can often 12. An example of the former is a(x) = 2-x. 12. If a has infinite order. which does not divide the orders 1. (For example. ord(b)). and they are also equal to the indices of the centralizers in G of the representatives of the non-trivial conjugacy classes. “Proof of Cauchy’s Theorem” (PDF). and the equation reads |S3 | = 1+2+3.g. it relates the order of a finite group G to the order of its center Z(G) and the sizes of its non-trivial conjugacy classes: In any group. “Consequences of Cauchy’s Theorem” (PDF). then ord(f(a)) divides ord(a). An example of the latter is a(x) = x+1.8 See also • Torsion subgroup • Lagrange’s theorem (group theory) . 2011.3 Counting by order of elements Suppose G is a finite group of order n. In particular.6 Open questions abelian group. If ab = ba. we have the following formula for the order of the powers of a: 12. e. there can be no nontrivial homomorphism h: S3 → Z5 . An important result about orders is the class equation. ORDER then there exists an element of order d in G (this is sometimes called Cauchy’s theorem). φ(3) = 2. and there are zero elements of order 6 in S3 .4 In relation phisms to homomor- Group homomorphisms tend to reduce the orders of elements: if f: G → H is a homomorphism.68 CHAPTER 12. [2] Conrad. 12. As a consequence. giving the number of positive integers no larger than d and coprime to it. the center of S3 is just the trivial group with the single element e. Retrieved May 14. and we have exactly two elements of order 3. Keith.) A further consequence is that conjugate elements have the same order. 2. For example. and a is an element of G of finite order. their elements are contained in the various Burnside problems.[1] The consequences of the theorem include: the order of a group G is a power of a prime p if and only if ord(a) is some power of p for every a in G. in the case of S3 . then every element’s order Several deep questions about the orders of groups and divides m. because φ(2) = 1. Retrieved May 14. The number of order-d-elements in G is a multiple of φ(d) (possibly zero). 2011. and 3 of elements in S3 .5 Class equation ord(ak ) = ord(a) / gcd(ord(a). where φ is Euler’s totient function. 12. since φ(6)=2. because every number except zero in Z5 has order 5. The theorem provides no useful information about elements of order 2. a and its inverse a−1 have the same order. The statement does not hold for composite orders. these are proper divisors of |G| bigger than one. one can prove that in a finite 12. If a has finite order. then ord(f(a)) = ord(a). b(x) = 1-x with ab(x) = x-1 in the group Sym(Z) . or that both a and b have infinite order while ab has finite order. b(x) = x-1 with ab(x) = id.7 References [1] Conrad. |G| = |Z(G)| + ∑ di i ord(ab) = ord(ba) where the di are the sizes of the non-trivial conjugacy classes. This can be shown by inductive proof. and is only of limited utility for composite d such as d=6. There is no general formula relating the order of a product ab to the orders of a and b. In fact. Keith. if m denotes the maximum of all the orders of the group’s elements. If f is injective. k) for every integer k.

matrices and functions. commonly known as commutative algebra. . 0. Examples of noncommutative rings include the ring of n × n real square matrices with n ≥ 2. theorems integers. is distributive over the abelian group operation. −2. Whether a ring is commutative or not (i. −4. the coordinate ring of an affine algebraic variety. Through this generalization. By extension from the integers. −5. consisting of the numbers from arithmetic are extended to non-numerical objects such as polynomials. For the set theory concept. . and Noether. . is a key topic in ring theory. 2.e. the set of polynomials equipped with the addition and multiplication of functions. a ring is one of the fundamen- rings of invariants that occur in algebraic geometry and invariant theory. and the ring of integers of a number field. Chapter IX of David Hilbert's Die Theorie der algebraischen Zahlkörper. Its development has been greatly influenced by problems and ideas occurring naturally in algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry. and has an identity element. operator algebras in functional analysis. The conceptualization of rings started in the 1870s and completed in the 1920s. Afterward.. 4. For geometric rings. 13. see Ring of sets. . series. A ring is an abelian group with a second binary operation that is associative. see Annulus (mathematics). rings of differential operators in the theory of differential operators. Hilbert. Key contributors include Dedekind. In mathematics. Z. . . commutative ring theory. The chapter title is Die Zahlringe des Körpers.1 Definition and illustration tal algebraic structures used in abstract algebra. group rings in representation theory. . and of polynomial rings and integers serve as a model for the axioms for rings. −1. Fraenkel. As a result. Examples of commutative rings include the set of integers equipped with the addition and multiplication operations. literally “the number rings of the field”. whether the order in which two elements are multiplied changes or not the result) has profound implications on its behavior as an abstract object. 5. 3.Chapter 13 Ring This article is about an algebraic structure. the abelian group operation is called addition and the second binary operation is called multiplication. The word “ring” is the contraction of “Zahlring”. and the cohomology ring of a topological space in topology. 1. 69 . −3. they also proved to be useful in other branches of mathematics such as geometry and mathematical analysis. It consists of a set equipped with two binary operations that generalize the arithmetic operations of addition and The most familiar example of a ring is the set of all multiplication. Rings were first formalized as a generalization of Dedekind domains The familiar properties for addition and multiplication of that occur in number theory.

xy means x ⋅ y. then R has only one element. • There is an element 1 in R such that a ⋅ 1 = a and 1 ⋅ a = a for all a in R (1 is the multiplicative identity).e. any x and y such that xy = yx). A ring is a set R equipped with binary operations[1] + and The additive group of a ring is the ring equipped just · satisfying the following three sets of axioms. Some basic properties of a ring follow immediately from the axioms: • There is an element 0 in R such that a + 0 = a for all a in R (0 is the additive identity). b. A structure satisfying all the axioms except possibly the existence of a multiplicative identity 1 is called a rng (or sometimes pseudo-ring).[5] 3. so the juxtaposition of ring elements is interpreted as multiplication. RING Definition algebraic geometry often adopt the convention that “ring” means “commutative ring”. meaning that: • (a ⋅ b) ⋅ c = a ⋅ (b ⋅ c) for all a. and is called the zero ring.1. c in R (⋅ is associative). Then Z4 is a ring: each axiom follows from the corresponding axiom for Z.3. unless otherwise stated. R is a monoid under multiplication.2 Notes on the definition As explained in § History below. 2 · 3 = 2 and 3 · 3 = 1 . the additive inverse of each element. For example. the set of even integers with the usual + and ⋅ is a rng. 2. If x is an integer. For example.1. 0 is a unit element). Multiplication is distributive with respect to addition: • a ⋅ (b + c) = (a ⋅ b) + (a ⋅ c) for all a.1.. a ring is assumed to have such an identity. which is consistent with the notation for 0.1. The multiplication symbol ⋅ is often Main article: Matrix ring omitted.1 CHAPTER 13. and the multiplicative identity are unique.2. For example. 13. meaning that ferred from the other ring axioms. 13. one has x0 = 0 = 0x and (–1)x = –x. b. 13. c in R (right distributivity). • For any element x in a ring R.3 Basic properties • a + b = b + a for all a.written tion is not required to be commutative: ab need not necessarily equal ba. • If 0 = 1 in a ring R (or more generally. 2. The additive inverse of any x in Z4 is −x . • The product x · y in Z4 is the remainder when the integer xy is divided by 4. • The additive identity. ring multiplica. b in R (+ is commutative). c in R (+ is associative).5 Example: 2-by-2 matrices The operations + and ⋅ are called addition and multiplication.70 13. 2 + 3 = 1 and 3 + 3 = 2 . Although the definition ring axioms[2][3][4] assumes that the additive group is abelian. • The binomial formula holds for any commuting pair of elements (i. 13. This article adopts the convention that. c in R (left distributivity). respectively. • For each a in R there exists −a in R such that a + (−a) = 0 (−a is the additive inverse of a). b. this can be in1. Rings that also satisfy commutativity {( ). to simplify terminology. R is an abelian group under addition.1. the remainder of x when divided by 4 is an element of Z4 . −3 = −3 = 1. called the with the structure of addition. For example. and this element is often denoted by "x mod 4” or x . many authors follow an alternative convention in which a ring is not defined to have a multiplicative identity. but not a ring. The set of 2-by-2 matrices with real number entries is Although ring addition is commutative.[6] • (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) for all a. • (b + c) ⋅ a = (b ⋅ a) + (c ⋅ a) for all a.4 Example: Integers modulo 4 See also: Modular arithmetic Equip the set Z4 = {0. 3} with the following operations: • The sum x + y in Z4 is the remainder when the integer x + y is divided by 4. b.1. 1. For example.

} for multiplication (such as the ring of integers) are called a b .

.

commutative rings. b. c. a. Books on commutative algebra or M2 (R) = c d . d ∈ R .

.

13.2. HISTORY
With the operations of matrix addition and matrix multiplication,
( this)set satisfies the above ring axioms. The ele1 0
ment
is the multiplicative identity of the ring. If
)
)
( 0 1)
(
(
0 1
0 1
0 0
A=
and B =
, then AB =
1 0 (
0 0
0 1
)
1 0
while BA =
; this example shows that the ring
0 0
is noncommutative.

71

13.2.2 Hilbert

The term “Zahlring” (number ring) was coined by David
Hilbert in 1892 and published in 1897.[9] In 19th century German, the word “Ring” could mean “association”,
which is still used today in English in a limited sense
(e.g., spy ring),[10] so if that were the etymology then it
would be similar to the way “group” entered mathematics by being a non-technical word for “collection of related things”. According to Harvey Cohn, Hilbert used
More generally, for any ring R, commutative or not, and
the term for a ring that had the property of “circling diany nonnegative integer n, one may form the ring of nrectly back” to an element of itself.[11] Specifically, in
by-n matrices with entries in R: see matrix ring.
a ring of algebraic integers, all high powers of an algebraic integer can be written as an integral combination of
a fixed set of lower powers, and thus the powers “cycle
back”. For instance, if a3 − 4a + 1 = 0 then a3 = 4a − 1,
13.2 History
a4 = 4a2 − a, a5 = −a2 + 16a − 4, a6 = 16a2 − 8a + 1,
a7 = −8a2 + 65a − 16, and so on; in general, an is going
See also: Ring theory § History
to be an integral linear combination of 1, a, and a2 .

13.2.3 Fraenkel and Noether
The first axiomatic definition of a ring was given by Adolf
Fraenkel in 1914,[12][13] but his axioms were stricter than
those in the modern definition. For instance, he required every non-zero-divisor to have a multiplicative inverse.[14] In 1921, Emmy Noether gave the modern axiomatic definition of (commutative) ring and developed
the foundations of commutative ring theory in her paper
Idealtheorie in Ringbereichen.[15]

13.2.4 Multiplicative identity: mandatory
vs. optional
Fraenkel required a ring to have a multiplicative identity
1,[16] whereas Noether did not.[15]

Richard Dedekind, one of the founders of ring theory.

13.2.1

Dedekind

The study of rings originated from the theory of
polynomial rings and the theory of algebraic integers.[7]
In 1871, Richard Dedekind defined the concept of the
ring of integers of a number field.[8] In this context, he introduced the terms “ideal” (inspired by Ernst Kummer's
notion of ideal number) and “module” and studied their
properties. But Dedekind did not use the term “ring” and
did not define the concept of a ring in a general setting.

Most or all books on algebra[17][18] up to around 1960 followed Noether’s convention of not requiring a 1. Starting in the 1960s, it became increasingly common to
see books including the existence of 1 in the definition of ring, especially in advanced books by notable
authors such as Artin,[19] Atiyah and MacDonald,[20]
Bourbaki,[21] Eisenbud,[22] and Lang.[23] But even today,
there remain many books that do not require a 1.
Faced with this terminological ambiguity, some authors
have tried to impose their views, while others have tried
to adopt more precise terms.
In the first category, we find for instance Gardner and
Wiegandt, who argue that if one requires all rings to have
a 1, then some consequences include the lack of existence
of infinite direct sums of rings, and the fact that proper direct summands of rings are not subrings. They conclude
that “in many, maybe most, branches of ring theory the
requirement of the existence of a unity element is not sensible, and therefore unacceptable.”[24]

72

CHAPTER 13. RING

In the second category, we find authors who use the following terms:[25][26]
• rings with multiplicative identity: unital
ring, unitary ring, ring with unity, ring
with identity, or ring with 1
• rings not requiring multiplicative identity: rng or pseudo-ring.

13.3 Basic examples
Commutative rings:
• The prototype example is the ring of integers with
the two operations of addition and multiplication.
• The rational, real and complex numbers are commutative rings of a type called fields.
• An algebra over a ring is itself a ring. These are also
modules. Some examples:
• Any algebra over a field.
• The polynomial ring R[X] of polynomials over
a ring R is itself a ring. A free module over R
of infinite dimension
• Z[c] , the integers with an irrational number c
adjoined. A free module of infinite dimension
if c is a transcendental number, a free module
of finite dimension if c is an algebraic integer
• Z[1/n] , the set of fractions whose denominators are a power of n (including negative ones).
A non-free module.

• The set of all continuous real-valued functions defined on the real line forms a commutative ring. The
operations are pointwise addition and multiplication
of functions.
• Let X be a set and R a ring. Then the set of all functions from X to R forms a ring, which is commutative
if R is commutative. The ring of continuous functions in the previous example is a subring of this ring
if X is the real line and R is the field of real numbers.
Noncommutative rings:
• For any ring R and any natural number n, the set
of all square n-by-n matrices with entries from R,
forms a ring with matrix addition and matrix multiplication as operations. For n = 1, this matrix ring
is isomorphic to R itself. For n > 1 (and R not the
zero ring), this matrix ring is noncommutative.
• If G is an abelian group, then the endomorphisms of
G form a ring, the endomorphism ring End(G) of G.
The operations in this ring are addition and composition of endomorphisms. More generally, if V is a
left module over a ring R, then the set of all R-linear
maps forms a ring, also called the endomorphism
ring and denoted by EndR(V).
• If G is a group and R is a ring, the group ring of
G over R is a free module over R having G as basis. Multiplication is defined by the rules that the
elements of G commute with the elements of R and
multiply together as they do in the group G.
• Many rings that appear in analysis are noncommutative. For example, most Banach algebras are noncommutative.

• Z[1/10] , the set of decimal fractions.

• Z[(1 + d)/2] , where d is a square-free inte- Non-rings:
ger of the form 4n+1. A free module of rank
two. Cf. Quadratic integers.
• The set of natural numbers N with the usual opera• Z[i] , the Gaussian integers.
tions is not a ring, since (N, +) is not even a group

(the
elements are not all invertible with respect to
• Z[(1 + −3)/2] , the Eisenstein integers.
addition).
For instance, there is no natural number
Also their generalization, a Kummer ring.
which can be added to 3 to get 0 as a result. There
• The set of all algebraic integers forms a ring. This
is a natural way to make it a ring by adding negafollows for example from the fact that it is the
tive numbers to the set, thus obtaining the ring of
integral closure of the ring of rational integers in the
integers. The natural numbers (including 0) form
field of complex numbers. The rings in the three
an algebraic structure known as a semiring (which
previous examples are subrings of this ring.
has all of the properties of a ring except the additive
inverse property).
• The set of formal power series R[[X1 , …, Xn]] over
a commutative ring R is a ring.
• Let R be the set of all continuous functions on the
real line that vanish outside a bounded interval de• If S is a set, then the power set of S becomes a ring
pending on the function, with addition as usual but
if we define addition to be the symmetric difference
with multiplication defined as convolution:
of sets and multiplication to be intersection. This
∫ ∞
corresponds to a ring of sets and is an example of a
(f ∗ g)(x) =
f (y)g(x − y)dy.
Boolean ring.
−∞

13.4. BASIC CONCEPTS
Then R is a rng, but not a ring: the Dirac delta
function has the property of a multiplicative
identity, but it is not a function and hence is
not an element of R.

13.4 Basic concepts
13.4.1

Elements in a ring

A left zero divisor of a ring R is an element a in the ring
such that there exists a nonzero element b of R such that
ab = 0 .[27] A right zero divisor is defined similarly.
A nilpotent element is an element a such that an = 0 for
some n > 0 . One example of a nilpotent element is a
nilpotent matrix. A nilpotent element in a nonzero ring is
necessarily a zero divisor.

73
copies of 1 and −1 together many times in any mixture.
It is possible that n · 1 = 1 + 1 + . . . + 1 (n times) can
be zero. If n is the smallest positive integer such that this
occurs, then n is called the characteristic of R. In some
rings, n · 1 is never zero for any positive integer n, and
those rings are said to have characteristic zero.
Given a ring R, let Z(R) denote the set of all elements
x in R such that x commutes with every element in R:
xy = yx for any y in R. Then Z(R) is a subring of R;
called the center of R. More generally, given a subset X
of R, let S be the set of all elements in R that commute
with every element in X. Then S is a subring of R, called
the centralizer (or commutant) of X. The center is the
centralizer of the entire ring R. Elements or subsets of the
center are said to be central in R; they generate a subring
of the center.

An idempotent e is an element such that e2 = e . One 13.4.3 Ideal
example of an idempotent element is a projection in linear
Main article: Ideal (ring theory)
algebra.
A unit is an element a having a multiplicative inverse; in
this case the inverse is unique, and is denoted by a−1 .
The set of units of a ring is a group under ring multiplication; this group is denoted by R× or R∗ or U (R) . For
example, if R is the ring of all square matrices of size n
over a field, then R× consists of the set of all invertible
matrices of size n, and is called the general linear group.

13.4.2

Subring

The definition of an ideal in a ring is analogous to that of
normal subgroup in a group. But, in actuality, it plays a
role of an idealized generalization of an element in a ring;
hence, the name “ideal”. Like elements of rings, the study
of ideals is central to structural understanding of a ring.
Let R be a ring. A nonempty subset I of R is then said to
be a left ideal in R if, for any x, y in I and r in R, x + y
and rx are in I. If RI denotes the span of I over R; i.e.,
the set of finite sums

Main article: Subring
A subset S of R is said to be a subring if it can be regarded as a ring with the addition and the multiplication
restricted from R to S. Equivalently, S is a subring if it is
not empty, and for any x, y in S, xy , x + y and −x are in
S. If all rings have been assumed, by convention, to have
a multiplicative identity, then to be a subring one would
also require S to share the same identity element as R.[28]
So if all rings have been assumed to have a multiplicative
identity, then a proper ideal is not a subring.
For example, the ring Z of integers is a subring of the
field of real numbers and also a subring of the ring of
polynomials Z[X] (in both cases, Z contains 1, which is
the multiplicative identity of the larger rings). On the
other hand, the subset of even integers 2Z does not contain the identity element 1 and thus does not qualify as a
subring.

r1 x1 + · · · + rn xn ,

ri ∈ R,

xi ∈ I,

then I is a left ideal if RI ⊆ I . Similarly, I is said to
be right ideal if IR ⊆ I . A subset I is said to be a
two-sided ideal or simply ideal if it is both a left ideal
and right ideal. A one-sided or two-sided ideal is then an
additive subgroup of R. If E is a subset of R, then RE is
a left ideal, called the left ideal generated by E; it is the
smallest left ideal containing E. Similarly, one can consider the right ideal or the two-sided ideal generated by a
subset of R.

If x is in R, then Rx and xR are left ideals and right ideals,
respectively; they are called the principal left ideals and
right ideals generated by x. The principal ideal RxR is
written as (x) . For example, the set of all positive and
negative multiples of 2 along with 0 form an ideal of the
integers, and this ideal is generated by the integer 2. In
An intersection of subrings is a subring. The smallest sub- fact, every ideal of the ring of integers is principal.
ring containing a given subset E of R is called a subring Like a group, a ring is said to be a simple if it is nonzero
generated by E. Such a subring exists since it is the inter- and it has no proper nonzero two-sided ideals. A commutative simple ring is precisely a field.
section of all subrings containing E.
For a ring R, the smallest subring containing 1 is called the Rings are often studied with special conditions set upon
characteristic subring of R. It can be obtained by adding their ideals. For example, a ring in which there is no

Then x 7→ xp is a ring endmorphism of R called the universal property since the image of such a map is a the Frobenius homomorphism. such that. A ring in which there is no strictly decreasing infinite chain of left ideals is called a left Artinian ring. is analogous to the notion of A ring homomorphism is said to be an isomorphism a quotient group of a group. +)) together with the operations: isomorphism between them and in that case one writes R ≃ S . respect to the additive group of (R. The image of f. Equivalently. This latter formulation illustrates the idea of ideals as generalizations of elements. the ideals generalize the classical notion of divisibility and decomposition of an integer into prime numbers in algebra. one sees that the quotient ring R/ ker f is isomorphic to the image of f. It is a somewhat surprising fact that a left Artinian ring is left Noetherian (the Hopkins–Levitzki theorem). • f(a + b) = f(a) ‡ f(b) • f(a · b) = f(a) * f(b) 13. ·) to a ring (S. J we have that IJ ⊆ P implies either I ⊆ P or J ⊆ P. form a Noetherian ring which is not Artinian.taking I to be the kernel. a (R. is not always an ideal. For example. i. . then there is a • If u is a unit element in a ring R.To give a ring homomorphism from a commutative ring erations. ‡.4 Homomorphism Main article: Ring homomorphism • The Galois group of a field extension L/K is the set of all automorphisms of L whose restrictions to K are the identity. A ring homomorphism between the same ring is called an endomorphism and an isomorphism between the same ring an automorphism. called an inner au. · ) and a two-sided ideal I of (R. but it is always a subring of S. the set of all elements mapped to 0 by f is called the kernel of f. quotient ring. then R → R. (a + I) + (b + I) = (a + b) + I and (a + I)(b + I) = (ab) + I. x 7→ unique f : R/I → S such that f = f ◦ p .. • For any ring R. · ).4. · ). +. More formally. however. the fact known tomorphism of R. uxu−1 is a ring homomorphism. the quotient ring homomorphism which is an inverse function).4. *) is a function f from R to S that preserves the ring op. In particular. cosets with Two rings R.5 Quotient ring • f(1R) = 1S Main article: Quotient ring If one is working with not necessarily unital rings.e. Examples: for every a. +. Any ring (or factor ring) R/I is the set of cosets of I (with bijective ring homomorphism is a ring isomorphism. • An algebra homomorphism from a k-algebra to the endomorphism algebra of a vector space over k is called a representation of the algebra. on the other hand.74 CHAPTER 13. It is surjective morphism from the ring Z to the quotient ring Z/4Z and satisfies the universal property: if f : R → S is a (“quotient ring” is defined below). P is prime if for any ideals I. namely.e. b in R. as the first isomorphism theorem. there is a canonical der modulo 4 (a number in {0. The kernel is a two-sided ideal of R. ring homomorphism such that f (I) = 0 . For commutative rings. there are a unique ring homomorphism Z →R and a unique ring homomorphism R →0. RING strictly increasing infinite chain of left ideals is called a left Noetherian ring. then the third condition is dropped. A proper ideal P of R is called a prime ideal if for any elements x. The last fact implies • Let R be a commutative ring of prime characteristic that actually any surjective ring homomorphism satisfies p. • An epimorphism (i.e. The quotient ring of a ring. given a ring if there exists an inverse homomorphism to f (i. right-cancelable morphism) of rings need not be surjective. b in R the following R to a ring A with image contained in the center of A is identities hold: the same as to give a structure of an algebra over R to A (in particular gives a structure of A-module). +. Given a ring homomorphism f : R → S . The integers. 2. S are said to be isomorphic if there is an respect to (R. +. A homomorphism from a ring (R. • The function that maps each integer x to its remainLike the case of a quotient group. y ∈ R we have that xy ∈ P implies either x ∈ P or y ∈ P . 3}) is a homomap p : R → R/I given by x 7→ x + I . 13.. for all a. the unique map Z → Q is an epimorphism. 1.

one can consider the action of a group on a set. via Γ. ∏ R/ai . Then the Chinese morphic to the quotient of R by the kernel of R → M. a module can be viewed as an algebraic counterpart of a vector bundle. s1 + s2 ) vector space on M. the symmetric group of S. that is. i ̸= j. Equivalently.e. a2i ⊆ ai as a direct sum of abelian groups (because for abelian groups finite products are the same as direct sums). The same construction also works for an arbitrary ∏family of rings: if Ri are rings indexed by a set I. a ring homomorphism f from a ring R to the Let R and S be rings. Main article: Module (mathematics) 13. x mod an ) See § Domains for an example of an application to linear R/ (∩ai ) ≃ algebra. the category of vector bundles is equivalent to the category of finitely generated projective R-modules (“projective” corresponds to local trivialization. Then the direct 1 = e1 + · · · + en . sum of modules By the conditions on ai . this almultiplication. To give a group action.an be ideals such R that is cyclic. r2 in R and s1 . s2 in S. one can reverse the construction. let L be a line bundle on an algebraic variety (Γ(L) is a module over the coordinate ring of the variety). then M is iso. G acting on a set S. CONSTRUCTIONS 13. Namely. then any cyclic group (which is phism: cyclic as Z-module) is of the form Z/nZ. Then we can write In application. a ring R is a left module over R itself through l : R → End(R). i ̸= j (orthogonal). r ↦ remainder theorem says there is a canonical ring isomorrx. s1 ) + (r2 .sum of ideals. i. A particularly important case is when L is the canonical line bundle and then R is the canonical ring of the base variety. A “finite” direct product may also be viewed as a direct Any ring homomorphism induces the structure of a mod. then let has the structure of a commutative ring. 1 ≤ i ≤ n be rings. this amounts to giving a structure of a • (r1 .6. s1 ⋅ s2 ) for every r1 . • (r1 . Some ring-theoretic concepts can be stated in a module-theoretic language: for example. one often cooks up a ring by summing up modules.13. one has that ei are central idempotents and ei ej = 0. . ei ∈ ai . s2 ) = (r1 + r2 . a subset of a ring R is a left ideal of R if and only if it is an R-submodule with respect to the left R-module structure of R. In particular. A left ideal is principal if and only if it is a cyclic submodule. Let E be a vector bundle over a compact space. The ring R × S with the above operations of addition and multiplication and the multiplicative identity (1. and Γ(E) the space of its sections. For example. i ule: if f : R → S is a ring homomorphism. If each ei is not a . Then the product R × S can be endomorphism ring of an abelian group M. Again. say. x 7→ (x mod a1 . l(r)x = rx (called the left regular representation of R). . if R is Z. One usually equipped with the following natural ring structure: writes rm or r⋅m for f(r)m and calls M a left module over R. .) R = a1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ an . recovering the usual classification of cyclic groups. which are two-sided ideals. is to 13. the above can be done through central idempotents.··· . if M is a left module over a ring Let R be a commutative ring and a1 . A module particular a are rings though not subrings). 1) is called the direct product of R with S.) Main article: Direct product of rings In much the same way. . Example: Geometrically. Assume R has the above decomposition. s2 ) = (r1 ⋅ r2 .6 Constructions In group theory. If R is a field.5 Ring action: a module over a ring 75 section ring of L. then S is a R → R = ∏ R the inclusions with the images a (in i i i left module over R by the formula: r⋅s = f(r)s.6. Clearly the direct sum of such ideals also defines a product of rings that is isomorphic to R. let R . then i∈I Ri is a ring with componentwise addition and A Z-module is the same thing as an abelian group. lows one to use the module theory to study abelian groups. it is called the ai = Rei . ai aj = 0. Continuing the above geometric example.that ai + aj = (1) whenever i ̸= j . one can consider a ring action. Then Γ(E) is a module over the ring R of continuous functions on the base space. if one is given a ⊗n ⊕n≥0 Γ(L ) partition of 1 in orthogonal central idempotents.[29] Namely.. M = Rx for some x. s1 ) ⋅ (r2 .1 Direct product give a group homomorphism from G to the automorphism group of S (that is. In particular. Swan’s theorem states that. Then a are i i that is also a ring is called an algebra over the base ring ideals of R and (provided the base ring is central). in general.

Let x be the identity function. The important advantage of a Example: k[t2 . . . f 7→ f (t2 . . If R is a noetherian ring. y] → k[t]. In particular. together with multiplication and addition that mimic those for convergent series. Given an element x of power series ring R[[t]] consists of formal power series S. Because of this.. the set of polynomials (t maps to x) where f is the polynomial function defined by f. Given a right R-module U . In other words. . Another application is a restricted product of a family of To give an example. tn Let k be an algebraically closed field. R Given a non-constant monic polynomial f in R[t] . tn ] of all polynomials in variables t1 . It is called linear factors in S[t] . a series may not converge after a substitution.formal power series ring over a polynomial ring is that it phism is local (in fact. The set of all square matrices of size n with entries in R forms a ring with the entry-wise addition and the usual matrix multiplication. Example: let f be a polynomial in one variable. the set of all R-linear erty of a polynomial ring. f 7→ f ring R.Mn(R). many local problems in algebraic tions.of k n .2 Polynomial ring phism R → S . (cf. If R is a unique factorization domain. f 7→ f (x) ∞ ∑ a i ti . . then f(t)=f. There are some other related constructions. t ] and the set of closed subvarieties 1 n domain. then R[t] is erators of an ideal in a polynomial ring. Given a symbol t (called a variable) and a commutative R[t] → S. stellensatz (theorem of zeros) states that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between the set of all prime If R is an integral domain. the derivative of f at x. an element in a polynomial ring R. . . Finally.[31] For example. containing R as a subring.e.76 CHAPTER 13. the substitution). its field of fractions is the field of rational func. complete). 13. Gröbner a unique factorization domain. aj ∈infinite.e. If S=R[t] and x=t. the addition and the multiplication are those of functions.[30] then their direct sum is isomorphic to R. A formal Let R ⊆ S be commutative rings. It is called the matrix ring and is denoted by The substitution is a special case of the universal prop. RING there exists a unique ring homomorphism ϕ : R[t] → S such that ϕ(t) = x and ϕ restricts to ϕ . sal property and so is a polynomial ring. the set R[t1 . there forms a commutative ring with the usual addition and exists a ring S containing R such that f is a product of multiplication.3 Matrix ring and endomorphism ring Main articles: Matrix ring and Endomorphism ring Let R be a ring (not necessarily commutative). . The result of substituting zero to h in (f (x+h)−f (x))/h is f ′ (x) .. then R[t] is a noetherian geometry may be attacked through the study of the genring. it is the same thing as the subring of S generated by R and x.6. k[x. An important application of an infinite direct product is choosing a basis.[32] the polynomial ring over R. More generally. t3 ). . The Hilbert’s Nullforms a commutative ring. one can consider the ring homomorphism R[t] → S. it is the subalgebra of k[t] generated by t 2 and t 3 . Note a formal power series ring does not have the universal property of a polynomial ring. Each r in R defines a constant function. The resulting map is injective if and only if R is { n } n−1 R[t] = an t + an−1 t + · · · + a1 t + a0 | n ≥ 0. adele ring). a symmetric algebra satisfies the univerthe construction of a projective limit of rings (see below). i. giving rise to the homomor13. ai ∈ R 0 (i. Then f (x+h) is an element in R[h] and f (x + h) − f (x) is divisible by h in that ring.) only if R[t] is a principal ideal domain. The image of the map f 7→ f (x) is denoted by R[x] . R to itself. The universal property says that this map extends uniquely to Main article: Polynomial ring sum of orthogonal central idempotents. the polynomial f is often also denoted by f (t) . t3 ] denotes the image of the homomor. let S be the ring of all functions from rings (cf. .6. It contains R[t] as a subring. . The property states: given a maps from U to itself forms a ring with addition that is ring homomorphism ϕ : R → S and an element x in S of function and multiplication that is of composition of . containing R[ti ] as subrings. then R[t] is also an integral ideals in k[t . . R is a field if and basis.

t2 . CONSTRUCTIONS 77 functions. n ≥ 0 (to be precise. The field of fractions of an integral domain R is the localization of R at the prime ideal zero. then the localization of M with −→ of all Ri's modulo the equivalence relation x ∼ y if and respect to S is given by a change of rings M [S −1 ] = only if x = y in Ri for sufficiently large i. in fact. Given a (not necessarily commutative) ring R and a subset S of R. In that case S = R − p . This is a special case of the following fact: If f : ⊕n1 U → ⊕n1 U is an R-linear map. For an example of a projective limit.6. Examples of colimits: The most important properties of localization are the following: when R is a commutative ring and S a multiplica• A polynomial ring in infinitely many variables: tively closed subset R[t1 .[38] the formal power series ring k[[t]] . R[f −1 ] = R[t]/(tf − 1).[37] • The field of formal Laurent series over a field k: • R[S −1 ] = lim R[f −1 ] . 13. there exists a ring R[S −1 ] together with the ring homomorphism R → R[S −1 ] that “inverts” S. j ≥ i . then the localization R[f −1 ] consists of elements of the form r/f n . )[36] The localization is frequently applied to a commutative ring R with respect to the complement of a prime ideal (or a union of prime ideals) in R.13. • The function field of an algebraic variety over a field k is lim k[U ] where the limit runs over all the coordi−→ nate rings k[U ] of nonempty open subsets U (more succinctly it is the stalk of the structure sheaf at the generic point. Suppose we're given a family of rings Ri . If U = Ui⊕mi is i=1 a direct sum of mi-copies of simple R-modules Ui . i runEndR (⊕n1 U ) → Mn (S). A ring R and the matrix ring Mn(R) over it are Morita equivalent: the category of right modules of R is equivalent to the category of right modules over Mn(R). −→ prime ideals in R[S −1 ] . Rp is then a local ring with the maximal ideal pRp . For example.4 Limits and colimits of rings 13. a matrix ring may be canonically interpreted as an endomorphism ring: EndR (Rn ) ≃ Mn (R) . two-sided ideals in R correspond in one-to-one to two-sided ideals in Mn(R). if R is a commutative ring and f an element in R. Then lim Ri is the subring of ∏ Ri consisting of (xn ) ←− rings arises in this way. one often writes Rp for R[S −1 ] . tm ]. r ⊕ [34] then EndR (U ) is a division ring.6. Any commutative ring is the colimit of finitely generated subrings. −→ • p 7→ p[S −1 ] is a bijection between the set of all • The algebraic closure of finite fields of the same prime ideals in R disjoint from S and the set of all characteristic Fp = lim Fpm . it is called the endomorphism ring of U and is denoted by EndR (U ) . below) is of this form. Let Ri be a sequence of rings such that Ri is a subring of Ri₊₁ for all i.5 Localization The localization generalizes the construction of the field of fractions of an integral domain to an arbitrary ring and modules. and ring homomorphisms Rj → Ri . ning over positive integers. then f may be written as a matrix with entries fij in S = EndR (U ) . then EndR (U ) ≃ r ⊕ Mmi (EndR (Ui )) 1 The Artin–Wedderburn theorem states any semisimple ring (cf. If p is a prime ideal of a commutative ring R. j ≥ i such that Ri → Ri are all the identities Any ring homomorphism R → S induces Mn(R) → and Rk → Rj → Ri is Rk → Ri whenever k ≥ j ≥ i Mn(S). then the field of fractions of R/p is the same as the residue field of the local ring Rp and is denoted by k(p) . resulting in the ring isomorphism: A projective limit (or a filtered limit) of rings is defined as follows. r ∈ R. R[S −1 ] ⊗R M .[33] In particular. · · · .) . see #completion. This is the reason for the terminology “localization”.6.) As in linear algebra. Examples: • The automorphisms of the projective line over a ring are given by homographies from the 2 x 2 matrix ring.[35] The ring R[S −1 ] is called the localization of R with respect to S. any ring homomorphism between matrix . that is. Then the union (or filtered colimit) of Ri is the ring lim Ri defined as follows: it is the disjoint union If M is a left R-module. Schur’s lemma says that if U is a simple right R-module. any ring homomorphism from R that “inverts” S uniquely factors through R[S −1 ] . t2 . f running over elements in k((t)) = lim t−m k[[t]] (it is the field of fractions of −→ −→ S with partial ordering given by divisibility. and. moreover.[33] such that xj maps to xi under Rj → Ri . · · · ] = lim R[t1 . say. f 7→ (fij ). the homomorphism maps elements in S to unit elements in R[S −1 ] .

(One way to explain this 13.13. See also: tensor product of algebras. Explicitly.) especially useful when I is a maximal ideal. categorically. The most important integral domains are princiSimilarly.[39] The construction is to Set (and it is often called the free ring functor. that a complete local ring tends to M ′′ [S −1 ] → 0 is exact over R[S −1 ] look like a formal power series ring or a quotient of it. Let F be a free ring (i.7 Rings with generators and relations is that the localization allows one to view a module as a sheaf over prime ideals and a sheaf is inherently The most general way to construct a ring is by specifya local notion. . by Krull’s intersection theorem. The latter homomorphism is injec. We can turn it to a ring by extending linearly (x⊗u)(y⊗v) = xy ⊗ uv . and is universal with respect to this property.) ←− morphisms from R to the quotients R/I n induce a homoˆ . Thus. y ∈ X} . and let I be an ideal of R. main. then the resulting ring will be the usual polynomial Let R be a commutative ring. the formation S 7→ morphism R → R tive if R is a noetherian integral domain and I is a proper set the by generated ring free theS is the left adjoint ideal. PID for short. it is a commutative ring. The basic example is the completion Zp of Z at the principal ideal (p) generated by a prime number p.) ing generators and relations. the formal power series ring R[[t]] is the com.the set X to a ring R factors through F so that F → R ization of R with respect to a subset S of R is a functor is the unique ring homomorphism.e. sure and completion has been among the most important aspects that distinguish modern commutative ring theory ′ ′′ • Conversely.ring satisfies the universal property: any function from morphism of any R-module. or if R is a noetherian local ring with maximal ideal functor of the forgetful functor from the category of rings I. a localization of a category amounts i. Just as in the group from the category of R-modules to itself that sends ele. the definition of excellent ring. if 0 → Mm → Mm → Mm → 0 is from the classical one developed by the likes of Noether. The subring of Qp consisting of A nonzero ring with no nonzero zero-divisors is called a domain. • A remark: localization is no help in proving a global among other things.. (Of course. it is called the ring of p-adic integers. For example.7.case. existence. if E is a subset of F. ring with coefficients in A in variables that are elements ˆ = The completion of R at I is the projective limit R of X (It is also the same thing as the symmetric algebra lim R/I n . A commutative domain is called an integral doelements x with |x|p ≤ 1 is isomorphic to Zp. it does not follow that they are isomorphic. The completion can in this case be constructed also from the p-adic absolute value on Q. A principal pletion of R[t] at (t) . if E = {xy − yx | x. ideal domain is an integral domain in which every ideal is principal.over A with symbols X. change of rings. A as a base ring instead of Z. An important class of integral domains that See also: Hensel’s lemma. the interaction between the integral clois exact over R. The p-adic absolute value on Q is a map x 7→ |x| from Q to R given by |n|p = p−vp (n) where vp (n) denotes the exponent of p in the prime factorization of a nonzero in. A free in a commutative ring R may be thought of as an endo. a local. If we used a ring. On whenever 0 → M ′ → M → M ′′ → 0 the other hand. and fields.7 Special kinds of rings teger n into prime numbers (we also put |0|p = 0 and |m/n|p = |m|p /|n|p ). It defines a distance function on Q and the completion of Q as a metric space is denoted 13. This owns to the Cohen structure theorem. ′ exact for any maximal ideal m . It is again a field since the field operations extend to the completion. then the resulting ring 13. Now.78 CHAPTER 13. we can impose relations among symbols in X by R then maps to R[S −1 ] and R-modules map to R[S −1 ] taking a quotient.In the category-theoretic terms.6. then 0 → M → Pathological examples found by Nagata led to the reex′′ M → M → 0 is exact. amination of the roles of Noetherian rings and motivated. RING • The localization is exact: A complete ring has much simpler structure than a commutative ring.pal ideals domains.6 Completion will be over A.) quotient ring of F by the ideal generated by E is called the ring with generators X and relations E. The canonical homo.1 Domains by Qp. An element in noncommuting variables that are elements of X. say.e. Then the tensor product of R-modules A ⊗R B is a R-module. B be algebras over a commutative ring R. Let A. then the -modules.6. every ring can be represented as a quotient of a free [40] ments of S viewed as endomorphisms to automorphisms ring. One instance of this is that if two modules are isomorphic at all prime ideals. roughly.. F consists of polynomials with integral coefficients to making some morphisms isomorphisms. 0 → M ′ [S −1 ] → M [S −1 ] → which says. In category theory. free algebra over the integers) with the set X of symbols.

(The Jacobson radical is the intersection of all maximal left ideals. k is (Proof: any free module over a semisimple ring is clearly algebraically closed.. while a simple algebra structure theorem then says V is a direct sum of cyclic may have infinite dimension. does each inner automorphism of D restrict to an automorphism of S? The answer is negative: this is the Cartan–Brauer–Hua theorem. since k[t] is a unique factorization domain. fails to be a PID. separable extennent example of a division ring that is not a field is the ring sion. 13. consequently. A ring is called a semiprimitive ring if its Jacobson radical is zero.) A ring is semisimple if and only if it is artinian and is semiprimitive. an integral domain in which every nonunit element is a product of prime elements (an element is prime if it generates a prime ideal. i. More precisely. Examples of semisimple rings: In algebraic geometry. (Maschke’s theorem) • The Weyl algebra (over a field) is a simple ring. introduced by L. k the form k[t]/(pi j ) . Cartan famously algebra is a field. If A happens to be a field. a k-algebra is central if its center is k and is The study of conjugacy classes figures prominently in simple if it is a simple ring. prime elements): 79 asked the following question: given a division ring D and a proper sub-division-ring S that is not contained in the center. An algebra A over a field k is said to be separable if the base extension A ⊗k F is semisimple for any field extension A division ring is a ring such that every non-zero element F /k . A cyclic algebra. SPECIAL KINDS OF RINGS contain a PID is a unique factorization domain (UFD). Dickson. A commutative division ring is a field.7. q factors into powers of distinct irreducible polynomials (i. each of which is isomorphic to the module of operators.4 Central simple algebra and Brauer finite division ring) is a field. we make V a k[t]-module. UFD’s arise because of smoothness.g. is a generalization of a quaternion algebra.3 Semisimple rings A ring is called a semisimple ring if it is semisimple as a left module (or right module) over itself. much of linear algebra can be carried out over a division ring instead of a field. It turned out that every finite domain (in particular 13. domains and fields: • Commutative rings ⊃ integral domains ⊃ integrally closed domains ⊃unique factorization domains ⊃ principal ideal domains ⊃ Euclidean domains ⊃ fields • A matrix ring over a division ring is semisimple (actually simple).2 Division ring Every module over a division ring is a free module (has a Main article: Central simple algebra basis).[42] The following is a chain of class inclusions that describes the relationship between rings. Since the center of a simple kthe classical theory of division rings. Thus. • Clifford algebras are semisimple.7.) The fundamental question in algebraic number theory is on the extent to which the ring of (generalized) integers in a number field. • The group ring k[G] of a finite group G over a field k is semisimple if the characteristic of k does not divide the order of G. a direct sum of simple modules. Now. The theorem may be illustrated by the following application to linear algebra.7. An algebra over a field k is artinian if and only if it has finite dimension. then all pi 's are of the form t − λi semisimple and any module is a quotient of a free modand the above decomposition corresponds to the Jordan ule. q = pe11 . if pi (t) = t − λi ..) canonical form of f.13. Then.e. Semisimplicity is closely related to separability.) of quaternions.. Among theorems concerning a PID. Thus. the most important one is the structure theorem for finitely generated modules over a principal ideal domain.. if. 13. Any centralizer in a division ring is also a division ring. where an “ideal” admits prime factorization. the ring of differential modules. in particular commutative group (the Wedderburn’s little theorem). The is necessarily finite-dimensional. the center of a division ring is a field. A promithe usual definition in field theory (cf.[41] Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space over a field k and f : V → V a linear map with minimal polynomial q. A regular local ring is a UFD. then this is equivalent to is a unit. a semisimple algebra over a field Letting t · v = f (v) . E. any simple k-algebra is a central simple .. a point in a variety (over a perfect field) is smooth if the local ring at the point is a regular local ring.e.pess . For a field k. then such a cyclic module (for pi ) has a basis in which the restriction Any module over a semisimple ring is semisimple. of f is represented by a Jordan matrix. e. In particular. it is not semisimple since it has infinite dimension and thus not artinian. say.7.

thus.8 Rings with extra structure (a special case of the theorem of Frobenius). .[44] Azumaya algebras generalize the notion of central simple algebras to a commutative local ring. Examples: • The field of formal Laurent series k((t)) over a field k comes with the valuation v such that v(f) is the least degree of a nonzero term in f. the binomial coefficients. The valuation ring of v is the subring of K consisting of zero and all nonzero f such that v(f) ≥ 0. 13. The similarity classes [A] with the multiplication [A][B] = [A ⊗k B] form an abelian group called the Brauer group of k and is denoted by Br(k) .. each similarity See also: Novikov ring and uniserial ring. The subring consisting of elements with finite support is called the group ring of G (which makes sense even if G is not commutative). Z is a λ-ring with λn (x) = nx . For example. It is a field with the multiplication given by ( ) For example. Also. The notion plays a central rule in the algebraic approach to the Riemann–Roch theorem. For example: k ring over F (i. Tsen’s theorem). • A λ-ring is a commutative ring R together with operations λn : R → R that are like n-th exterior powers: λn (x + y) = n ∑ λi (x)λn−i (y) 0 • More generally. Finally. if F is a field extension of k.80 CHAPTER 13..) If the extension is finite and Galois. a central simple algebra is the matrix ring of a division ring. The matrix ring of size n over a ring R will be denoted by Rn . v(f + g) ≥ min{v(f).[43] Since kn ⊗k km ≃ knm . By the Artin–Wedderburn theorem. or the Zariski topology. then we recover the previous example (by identifying f with the series whose n-th coefficient is f(n). RING algebra over its center. It also comes with the valuation v such that v(f) is the least element in the support of f. k ∗ ) . addition operation). class is represented by a unique division ring.7. Its kernel is denoted by ematical objects which may be considered as rings with Br(F /k) . for any f. n-by-n matrices over the real numbers could be given either the Euclidean topology. Br(R) has order 2 13. If G is the ring of integers. cf. an algebra refers to a kalgebra. with extra structure: namely.g. the similarity is an equivalence relation. then the base extension multiplication. the set of n-by-n matrices over the real field R has dimension n2 as a real vector space. then A ring may be viewed as an abelian group (by using the Br(k) = Q/Z through the invariant map. we mostly fix the base field. • A ring R is a topological ring if its set of elements R is given a topology which makes the addition map ( + : R × R → R ) and the multiplication map ( · : R × R → R ) to be both continuous as maps between topological spaces (where X × X inherits the product topology or any other product in the category). then Br(F /k) is canonically isomorphic to H 2 (Gal(F /k). For example. For instance. a central simple algebra is assumed to have finite dimension. thus. In the same way. • An associative algebra is a ring that is also a vector space over a field K such that the scalar multiplication distributes over the ring multiplication. A is split by F.e. In this section. It consists of [A] such that A ⊗ F is a matrix extra structure. let k((G)) be the set of all functions from G to k whose supports (the sets of points at which the functions are nonzero) are well ordered. v(g)}. g in K with f + g nonzero. if k is a nonarchimedean local field (e. Qp ).) (f ∗ g)(t) = ∑ f (s)g(t − s) s∈G Two central simple algebras A and B are said to be similar if there are integers n and m such that A ⊗k kn ≈ B ⊗k km . ring Now. and in either case one would obtain a topological ring. given a field k and a totally ordered abelian group G. convolution: The Skolem–Noether theorem states any automorphism of a central simple algebra is inner. there are other math−⊗k F induces Br(k) → Br(F ) .5 Valuation ring Main article: valuation ring If K is a field. the valuation ring of v is the formal power series ring k[[t]] . a valuation v is a group homomorphism from the multiplicative group K * to a totally ordered abelian group G such that. Br(k) is trivial if k is a finite field or an algebraically closed field (more generally quasi-algebraically closed field.

2 Burnside ring of a group To any group is associated its Burnside ring which uses a ring to describe the various ways the group can act on a finite set.13. +) be an abelian group and let End(A) be its endomorphism ring (see above). Expressing a module in terms of the basis is finding an indecomposable decom13. To any irreducible algebraic variety is associated its function field.9. and indeed these were defined first. End(A) is the set of all morphisms of A. The representation Many different kinds of mathematical objects can be ring’s additive group is the free abelian group whose bafruitfully analyzed in terms of some associated ring. The monoid action of a ring R on an abelian group is simply an R-module. Z) of a space. tion theory on manifolds and algebraic varieties. Schubert calculus and much more. which is analogous to the observation that one can multiply pointwise a k-multilinear form and an lmultilinear form to get a (k + l)-multilinear form. Birational geometry studies maps between the subrings of the function field. The Burnside ring’s additive group is the free abelian group whose basis are the transitive actions of the group and whose addition is the disjoint union of the action. as a useful tool for distinguishing between certain pairs of topological spaces. Expressing an action in terms of the basis is decomposing an action into its transitive constituents. for which the methods of point-set topology are not well-suited. There are also homology groups Hi (X.1 Cohomology ring of a topological position of the module.9 Some examples of the ubiquity 13.4 Function field of an irreducible algebraic variety i=0 a graded ring. Since the Burnside ring is contained as a finite index subring of the representation ring. This ring reflects many of the combinatorial properties of the simplicial complex. In particular. The ring structure allows a formal way of subtracting one action from another. intersec. also called its Stanley–Reisner ring. To know each individual integral homology group is essentially the same as knowing each individual integral cohomology group. The multiplication is easily expressed in terms of the representation ring: the multiplication in the Burnside ring is formed by writing the tensor product of two permutation modules as a permutation module. 13. Cohomology groups were later defined in terms of homology groups in a way which is roughly analogous to the dual of a vector space. The multiplication is the tensor product. CATEGORY THEORETICAL DESCRIPTION 81 13. When the algebra is semisimple. an R-module is a generalization of the notion of a vector space – where rather than a vector space over a field. cohomology ring ∗ H (X.9.10. Note that. the following rules may be used to compute f + g and f · g: . Let (A. However. essentially. Z). one has a “vector space over a ring”. 13. one can pass easily from one to the other by extending the coefficients from integers to the rational numbers. the advantage of the cohomology groups is that there is a natural product.9.dimension of simplicial polytopes. the category of abelian groups (thought of as a monoidal category under the tensor product of Z -modules). the representaspace tion ring is just the character ring from character theory. the algebraic geometry of the Stanley–Reisner The ring structure in cohomology provides the founda. The points of an algebraic variety correspond to valuation rings contained in the function field and containing the coordinate ring.3 Representation ring of a group ring of rings To any group ring or Hopf algebra is associated its representation ring or “Green ring”. To any topological space X one can associate its integral which is more or less the Grothendieck group given a ring structure.10 Category theoretical description Main article: Category of rings Every ring can be thought of as a monoid in Ab. i 13. sis are the indecomposable modules and whose addition corresponds to the direct sum. The study of algebraic geometry makes heavy use of commutative algebra to study geometric concepts in terms of ringtheoretic properties. because of the universal coefficient theorem. so it is of particular interest in algebraic combinatorics. 13.9. Essentially. Z) = ∞ ⊕ H (X.ring was used to characterize the numbers of faces in each tion for characteristic classes of fiber bundles. where if f is in End(A).5 Face ring of a simplicial complex Every simplicial complex has an associated face ring.9. and g is in End(A). like the spheres and tori.

and pt →R (multiX-group.12. and ideals in S is a ring object in the category of S-schemes. except that the existence of a multiplicative identity is not assumed. +). A rng is the same as a ring. Witt vectors of length n over A. It is therefore natural to consider arbitrary Rings −→ Sets . RING • (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) 13. it is meant a group with X being its set of oper.13 See also 13. A notable example is a Lie algebra.3 Ring spectrum In algebraic topology. ConExample: a tropical semiring. let EndR(A) be the 13. any ring can be viewed (addition). In other words.11 Generalization 13.12. R) : the endomorphism group of some abelian X-group. In this sense. a ring scheme over a base scheme alize the concept of ring homomorphism. A ring object a that this association of any element of R. and func. as a function from R to EndR(A). +).plicative identity) satisfying the usual ring axioms.1 Ring object in a category set of all morphisms m of A. One exadditive categories can be defined as sets of morphisms ample is the ring scheme Wn over Spec Z. by right (or left) distributivity. Furthermore. many definitions and theorems originally given 13. and adding the axiom that 0 · a where + as in f(x) + g(x) is addition in A. There. C op → Sets through the category of rings: C op → Any ring can be seen as a preadditive category with a sinforgetful gle object.= a · 0 = 0 for all a in R (since it no longer follows from tion composition is denoted from right to left.11.+) is an abelian group to the assumption that (R. In practice.1 Rng of symmetric spectra. such that the ring axiom diagrams commute up to homotopy. (R. Let A = (R.+) is a commutative monoid.[45] In essence.2 Nonassociative ring A nonassociative ring is an algebraic structure that satisfies all of the ring axioms but the associativity and the existence of a multiplicative identity. is an isomorphism m 0 (additive of rings.12. Equivators). It is in fact true terminal object of C (an empty product). therefore.82 CHAPTER 13. Ri× R→R (multiplication). R→R (additive inverse). it is common to define a ring spectrum as a monoid object in a good category of spectra such as the category 13.2 Ring scheme for rings can be translated to this more general context. map S → X from the sphere spectrum S. · ).[46] 13.[47] • (f · g)(x) = f(g(x)) 13. Let pt denote a morphism of A: right multiplication by r. for every r in R. is a ring.the other axioms). Consider those 13.11. Additive functors between preadditive categories generIn algebraic geometry. fore. And indeed. is alently.11. to a morphism in C is an object R equipped with morphisms R × R→R of A.3 Semiring A semiring is obtained by weakening the assumption that (R. versely. There exists some structure theory for such algebras that generalizes the analogous results for Lie algebras and associative algebras. +. +) is an abelian group. pt →R 1 as the endomorphism ring of some abelian X-group (by identity). a ring object is an object R equipped with a factorization of its functor of points hR = Hom(−. preadditive categories to be generalizations of rings. that “factor through” right (or left) multiplication of R. a ring spectrum is a spectrum X toAlgebraists have defined structures more general than gether with a multiplication µ : X ∧ X → X and a unit rings by weakening or dropping some of ring axioms. which for any closed under addition and under composition with arbicommutative ring A returns the ring Wn(A) of p-isotypic trary morphisms. right (or left) multiplication by r gives rise to a morphism of (R. (R. having the property that m(r · x) = r · m(x). associated to any abelian group. • Algebra over a commutative ring • Algebraic structure • Categorical ring • Category of rings • Glossary of ring theory . It was seen that every r in R gives rise to a Let C be a category with finite products.12 Other ring-like objects endomorphisms of A. the most general form of a ring. given any ring.

p. CITATIONS • Nonassociative ring • Ring theory • Semiring • Spectrum of a ring 83 ^ d: The transition from the integers to the rationals by adding fractions is generalized by the quotient field. 85. 160. ISBN 978-0-48664023-5 [12] Fraenkel. Algebra (Third ed. we had functions "+" and "·" a priori taking values in some larger set S. [9] Hilbert 1897. instead of binary operations on R. [19] Artin. p. [4] Serge Lang (2002). AMS Chelsea.1.13. "§I.). the value of a + b is defined to be an element of R. p. [15] Noether. See next subsection [6] I. 83. p. 143–145 [13] Jacobson (2009). p. Closure would be an axiom. 86. New York: Dover Publications. 49. [7] The development of Ring Theory [8] Kleiner 1998. Garrett Birkhoff (1967). and more generally in Wikipedia. §II. 1930.b) of elements a and b of R. only if. 27. footnote 1. [14] Fraenkel. ^ b: Elements which do have multiplicative inverses are called units. 1994. [20] Atiyah and MacDonald. 144.15 Citations [1] Implicit in the assumption that "+" is a binary operation is that 1) a + b is defined for all ordered pairs (a.8”. In this article. ^ e: Many authors include commutativity of rings in the set of ring axioms (see above) and therefore refer to “commutative rings” as just “rings”. p. [10] [11] Cohn. SpringerVerlag. M. See the section Notes on the definition for more details. Algebra: A Graduate Course.14 Notes ^ a: Some authors only require that a ring be a semigroup under multiplication. p. 144. pp. do not require that there be a multiplicative identity (1). 29. p. then c1 = c2 . AMS. Harvey (1980). [3] Saunders MacLane. • Simplicial commutative ring Special types of rings: • Boolean ring • Commutative ring • Dedekind ring • Differential ring • Division ring (skew field) • Exponential ring • Field • Integral domain • Lie ring • Local ring • Noetherian and artinian rings • Ordered ring • Principal ideal domain (PID) • Reduced ring • Regular ring • Ring of periods • Ring theory • SBI ring • Unique factorization domain (UFD) • Valuation ring and discrete valuation ring • Zero ring 13. [5] The existence of 1 is not assumed by some authors. [2] Nicolas Bourbaki (1970). 346. 1958. 2) "+" is well-defined. p. p. axiom R₇₎. Algebra. meaning that for any a and b in R. [16] Fraenkel. Advanced Number Theory. [18] Zariski and Samuel. Some authors therefore omit this axiom. 84.15. axiom R₈₎. ^ c: The closure axiom is already implied by the condition that +/• be a binary operation. Springer-Verlag. The same applies to multiplication. and 3) R is closed under "+". that is. p. however. 1. see Lang 2002. . if a + b = c1 and a + b = c2 . we adopt the most common convention of the existence of a multiplicative identity. Isaacs. [17] Van der Waerden. Lang 2002 13. that is. p. Algebra. and use the term rng if this existence is not required.

). • Eisenbud. 1950/51 [45] Jacobson (2009). Tsit Yuen (2003). • Artin.).). Some other authors such as Lang require a zero divisor to be nonzero. • Lang. 242. Commutative rings (Revised ed. Dover. Cambridge University Press.1. the multiplicative identity must be restricted from the original ring. Theorem 2. Basic algebra 1 (2nd ed. [40] Cohn 1995. Algebra.. Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-387-95183-0. R. [23] Lang. 162. • Jacobson. Ch IV. Commutative Ring Theory. Wiegandt.17 and its corollaries. Graduate Texts in Mathematics 211 (Revised third ed. Proposition 6. Algebra. ISBN 978-1-85233-5878. Exercises in classical ring theory. §1.5. ISBN 088385-015-X. N. ISBN 0-387-98428-3. Joseph (1998). I. ISBN 0-387-98541-7. • Gardner. • Lam. The end of Chapter 7 [39] Atiyah and Macdonald.). [36] Eisenbud 2004. Introduction to commutative algebra.). • Lam. MR 1878556. 11. Galois Theory (2nd ed. Nathan (1943). Carus Mathematical Monographs 15. ISBN 978-0-486-47189-1.W. American Mathematical Society Colloquium Publications (Revised ed. • Jacobson. Springer. Springer. J-P . (1998). Michael. • Cohn. Addison–Wesley. [24] Gardner and Wiegandt 2003.). Problem Books in Mathematics (2nd ed. “Structure of rings”. p. Noncommutative rings. Serge (2002). [27] This is the definition of Bourbaki. 7. II. New York: Springer-Verlag. With an afterword by Lance W. Michael (1991). Springer.2. Lectures on modules and rings. Ch.). [35] Cohn 1995. rings. p. Mathematical Association of America.1 [30] such a central idempotent is called centrally primitive. ISBN 978-0-387-95385-4. Theorem 3. like addition and multiplication. [31] Jacobson 1974. 176. (2003). • Herstein. The definition is also equivalent to requiring the set-theoretic inclusion is a ring homomorphism.8 [43] Milne CFT. Tsit Yuen (1999). Irving (1974). Applications algébriques de la cohomologie des groupes. Theorem 10. Paul Moritz (2003). Springer. ISBN 0-387-00500-5. Exercise 2. [29] Cohn 2003. MR 0345945. §2 [44] Serre. Zbl 0984. 96. (1994) [reprint of the 1968 original]. • Rotman. ISBN 978-0-521-36764-6.3.10 [32] Bourbaki Algèbre commutative.00001. [22] Eisenbud. • Atiyah. Graduate Texts in Mathematics 189. XVII. [26] Rotman 1998. 13. 4. (1969). [47] Serre.84 CHAPTER 13. Proposition 1. §2 [42] Weibel. Ch XIV.16 References 13. [28] In the unital case. N. 44. I.4 [34] Lang 2002. Springer. p. Theorem 3. A first course in noncommutative rings. Chapman & Hall/CRC Pure and Applied Mathematics.) 37. Nathan (1964). Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics (2nd ed. Séminaire Henri Cartan. Springer. J. “A primer of commutative algebra”. Ch 5. Springer. Radical Theory of Rings. [41] Lang 2002. and fields. • Matsumura.2 [37] Milne 2012. p.. Tsit Yuen (2001). • Bourbaki. David (1995). p. 83. Ian G. American Mathematical Society Mathematical Surveys I. Lemma 2 [33] Cohn 2003. Theorem 4. Ch 1.4 [38] Milne 2012. ISBN 0824750330. Small. Commutative algebra with a view toward algebraic geometry.1. “The Theory of Rings”. Algebra I. • Kaplansky. RING [21] Bourbaki. University of Chicago Press. [46] Jacobson 2009. [25] Wilder 1965. Basic algebra: groups. pg. • Milne. Proposition 1. p. • Jacobson. Graduate Texts in Mathematics 131 (2nd ed. ISBN 0226-42454-5. Macdonald.16. Chapters 1-3. Hideyuki (1989). Nathan (2009). .1 General references • Lam. p. J.

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More precisely.[1][2] If H is a subgroup of G. ∗). every element a of H generates a finite cyclic subgroup of H. If <a> is isomorphic to Z/nZ for some positive integer n. then H is a subgroup if and only if H is closed under products. • If S is a subset of G.Chapter 14 Subgroup This article is about the mathematical concept. The group G is sometimes denoted by the ordered pair (G. • The inverse of an element in a subgroup is the inverse of the element in the group: if H is a subgroup of a group G.) 87 • The above condition can be stated in terms of a homomorphism. usually to emphasize the operation ∗ when G carries multiple algebraic or other structures. {e} ≠ H ≠ G). since for example 2 and 3 are in the union of 2Z and 3Z but their sum 5 is not. For the galaxy-related concept. then eH = eG. H ≠ G). This is usually denoted H ≤ G. The same definitions apply more generally when G is an arbitrary semigroup.e. a branch of mathematics. but this article will only deal with subgroups of groups.) In the case that H is finite.e. not the set-theoretic union . • Every element a of a group G generates the cyclic subgroup <a>. each of these objects is a subgroup but their union is not. The trivial subgroup of any group is the subgroup {e} consisting of just the identity element. whose intersection is precisely the identity. (While the infimum here is the usual settheoretic intersection. and H is a subgroup of G with identity eH. A proper subgroup of a group G is a subgroup H which is a proper subset of G (i. and a and b are elements of H such that ab = ba = eH. (The closure conditions mean the following: whenever a and b are in H. then G is sometimes called an overgroup of H. then n is the smallest positive integer for which an = e. 14. then ab = ba = eG. as is usual. • The intersection of subgroups A and B is again a subgroup. H is a subgroup of G if the restriction of ∗ to H × H is a group operation on H. called the lattice of subgroups. see galaxy group.[3] The union of subgroups A and B is a subgroup if and only if either A or B contains the other. • The subgroups of any given group form a complete lattice under inclusion. then ab and a−1 are also in H. read as "H is a proper subgroup of G". and the inverse of a is then a−1 = an − 1 . (In this case. where n is the order of a. An element of G is in <S> if and only if it is a finite product of elements of S and their inverses. Some authors also exclude the trivial group from being proper (i. In group theory.e. This also serves as an example of two subgroups. and n is called the order of a. which can be found by taking the intersection of all of subgroups containing S. i(a) = a for every a) from H to G. read as "H is a subgroup of G".. Another example is the union of the x-axis and the y-axis in the plane (with the addition operation). then a is said to have infinite order. H is a subgroup of a group G if and only if H is a subset of G and there is an inclusion homomorphism (i. that is.1 Basic properties of subgroups • A subset H of the group G is a subgroup of G if and only if it is nonempty and closed under products and inverses. This article will write ab for a ∗ b. given a group G under a binary operation ∗. If <a> is isomorphic to Z. • The identity of a subgroup is the identity of the group: if G is a group with identity eG. the supremum of a set of subgroups is the subgroup generated by the set-theoretic union of the subgroups. then there exists a minimum subgroup containing S. it is denoted by <S> and is said to be the subgroup generated by S. This is usually represented notationally by H < G. then ab−1 is also in H. a subset H of G is called a subgroup of G if H also forms a group under the operation ∗. These two conditions can be combined into one equivalent condition: whenever a and b are in H.

3. The index [G : H] is 4.3 Example: Subgroups of Z8 Let G be the cyclic group Z8 whose elements are G = {0. • Let A be an abelian group. every element of G is contained in precisely one left coset of H. then any subgroup of index p (if such exists) is normal. Furthermore. These small subgroups are not counted in the following list. 14. the integers mod 8 under addition.) If e is the identity of G. 14. 7} and whose group operation is addition modulo eight.6}. and also the right cosets. If aH = Ha for every a in G. In particular. 14.5 3 elements 14. The number of left cosets of H is called the index of H in G and is denoted by [G : H]. 6. The group G is cyclic.2 8 elements 14. 5.4. 0 1 2 3 G 4 H 5 1+H 6 2+H 7 3+H G is the group Z/8Z . Lagrange’s theorem states that for a finite group G and a subgroup H. subgroups of cyclic groups are also cyclic.2 Cosets and Lagrange’s theorem Given a subgroup H and some a in G.4} and H={0. Because a is invertible. 1+H. In general. the order of every subgroup of G (and the order of every element of G) must be a divisor of |G|. The subgroup H contains only 0 and 4. 2. and is isomorphic to Z/2Z .2.4 Example: Subgroups of S₄ (the symmetric group on 4 elements) Every group has as many small subgroups as neutral elements on the main diagonal: The trivial group and two-element groups Z2 .4. They are also the equivalence classes for a suitable maximum subgroup is the group G itself. and 3+H (written using additive notation since this is an additive group). then H is said to be a normal subgroup. More generally.5 Other examples • An ideal in a ring R is a subgroup of the additive group of R . Every subgroup of index 2 is normal: the left cosets.4. . if p is the lowest prime dividing the order of a finite group G. |G| [G : H] = |H| where |G| and |H| denote the orders of G and H. There are four left cosets of H: H itself.4 4 elements 14.88 CHAPTER 14.4. then the trivial Right cosets are defined analogously: Ha = {ha : h in group {e} is the minimum subgroup of G. while the H}. we define the left coset aH = {ah : h in H}. 2+H. SUBGROUP itself. are simply the subgroup and its complement. and so are its subgroups. the map φ : H → aH given by φ(h) = ah is a bijection.4. nonoverlapping sets. the elements of A that have finite period form a subgroup of A called the torsion subgroup of A . The Cayley table for H is the top-left quadrant of the Cayley table for G.4. Together they partition the entire group G into equal-size. where J is also a subgroup of H. 1. the left cosets are the equivalence classes corresponding to the equivalence relation a1 ~ a2 if and only if a1 −1 a2 is in H.1 12 elements 14.3 6 elements 14. Its Cayley table is This group has two nontrivial subgroups: J={0. respectively. equivalence relation and their number is equal to [G : H]. 4. 14.

p. 32 [2] Artin (2011). 41 14. Prentice Hall. REFERENCES The alternating group A4 showing only the even permutations Subgroups: 14. ISBN 9780132413770.). ISBN 978-0-486-47189-1. Basic algebra 1 (2nd ed. 43 [3] Jacobson (2009). Springer-Verlag.). • Hungerford. Algebra (2nd ed. Michael (2011). ISBN 9780387905181. • Artin. Algebra (1st ed. p. 89 . Nathan (2009).7 Notes [1] Hungerford (1974).6 See also • Cartan subgroup • Fitting subgroup • Stable subgroup • Fixed-point subgroup 14. Dover.8 References • Jacobson. p. Thomas (1974).14.).8.

and rotation. as a spatial relationSphere symmetrical group o representing an octahedral rotational ship. symmetry. so they are here discussed together. ment in dimensions.[3][lower-alpha 2] beautiful proportion and balance.Chapter 15 Symmetry For other uses. they are related. reflection. arrangement”)[1] in theoretic models. O 432 Mathematical symmetry may be observed with respect to the passage of time.[2][lower-alpha 1] In mathematics. language. due proportion. The opposite of symmetry is asymmetry. “symmetry” has a more precise definition. covering architecture. through other kinds of functional transformations. Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria “agree- SYMMETRIC ASYMMETRIC 4 3 2 3 Leonardo da Vinci's 'Vitruvian Man' (ca. by extension. meanings of “symmetry” can sometimes be told apart. the most familiar but including other transforms too. such as reflection in mathematics. music and even knowledge everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and itself. and in the arts. that an This article describes symmetry from three perspectives: object is invariant to a transformation. see Symmetry (disambiguation). The yellow region shows the fundamental domain. Although these two type of symmetry for many people. art and music. through geometric transformations such as scaling. in science and nature. and as an aspect of abstract objects. the natural universe. including geometry. 1487) is often used as a representation of symmetry in the human body and. 90 .

IN MATHEMATICS 91 15.1. where small portions of the fractal are similar in shape to large portions. The type of symmetry is determined by the way the pieces are organized. 15. rotational symmetry and self-similarity.[10] Symmetric arcades of a portico in the Great Mosque of Kairouan also called the Mosque of Uqba.[9] Fractals also exhibit a form of scale symmetry. The triskelion has 3-fold rotational symmetry.[6] • An object has translational symmetry if it can be translated without changing its overall shape. This shape is obtained by a finite subdivision rule. in Tunisia. whenever it’s true that Rab.1.1 In geometry Main article: Symmetry (geometry) A geometric shape or object is symmetric if it can be di- A fractal-like shape that has reflectional symmetry.[5] • An object has rotational symmetry if the object can be rotated about a fixed point without changing the overall shape.1.2 In logic 15. or by the type of transformation: • An object has reflectional symmetry (line or mirror symmetry) if there is a line going through it which divides it into two pieces which are mirror images of each other. “is the same .1 In mathematics A dyadic relation R is symmetric if and only if.[7] • An object has helical symmetry if it can be simultaneously translated and rotated in three-dimensional space along a line known as a screw axis.[8] • An object has scale symmetry if it does not change shape when it is expanded or contracted. vided into two or more identical pieces that are arranged in an organized fashion. three forms of symmetry.[11] Thus.15. • Other symmetries include glide reflection symmetry and rotoreflection symmetry. it’s true that Rba.[4] This means that an object is symmetric if there is a transformation that moves individual pieces of the object but doesn't change the overall shape.

this role inspired the Nobel laureate PW Anderson to write in his widely read 1972 article More is Different that “it is only slightly overstating the case to say that physics is the study of symmetry. Examples include even and odd functions in calculus.[16] 15.”[14] See Noether’s theorem (which. symmetric matrices in linear algebra.[13] This concept has become one of the most powerful tools of theoretical physics. we say that a mathematical object is symmetric with respect to a given mathematical operation. metries and discrete symmetries of spacetime.2 In science and nature Further information: Patterns in nature 15. Symmetric binary logical connectives are and (∧. and nor (not-or. or &). In statistics.[15] and also. there is a corresponding conserved quantity.2 In biology Further information: symmetry in biology and facial symmetry Bilateral animals. for example arbitrary coordinate transformations. Fivefold symmetry is found in the Important symmetries in physics include continuous sym. Wigner’s classification. it appears as symmetric probability distributions. though internal organs often remain asymmetric.[18] Plants and sessile (attached) animals such as sea anemones often have radial or rotational symmetry. the group that includes starfish. in Noether’s original language).2. the symmetric group in abstract algebra. and as skewness. with symmetrical pairs of muscles and skeletal elements. or ⊻).[19] . head and tail ends.[17] Animals that move in one direction necessarily have upper and lower sides. lack of change—under any kind of transformation.1 Many animals are approximately mirror-symmetric. when applied to the object.3 Other areas of mathematics Main article: Symmetry (mathematics) Generalizing from geometrical symmetry in the previous section. though internal organs are often arranged asymmetrically. this operation preserves some property of the object. or ⊽). sea urchins. which suits them because food or threats may arrive from any direction. which says that the symmetries of the laws of physics determine the properties of the particles found in nature. if. every kind of structure in mathematics will have its own kind of symmetry. or (∨. In general. 15. as it has become evident that practically all laws of nature originate in symmetries. xor (not-biconditional.echinoderms. or ⊼). SYMMETRY age as” is symmetrical. and therefore a left and a right.2. states that for every continuous mathematical symmetry. theories.92 CHAPTER 15. including humans. in greatly simplified form. The head becomes specialized with a mouth and sense organs. and supersymmetry of physical then Mary is the same age as Paul. are more or less symmetric with respect to the sagittal plane which divides the body into left and right halves. 15. and the Galois group in Galois theory. internal and sea lilies. for if Paul is the same age as Mary. nand (notand. and the body becomes bilaterally symmetric for the purpose of movement. or |). biconditional (if and only if) (↔). In fact. a conserved current. symmetries of particles.1.[12] The set of operations that preserve a given property of the object form a group. asymmetry of distributions. In physics Main article: Symmetry in physics Symmetry in physics has been generalized to mean invariance—that is.

empathy.[26] It has been said that only bad architects rely on a “symmetrical layout of blocks. it has fourfold symmetry. starting with International style. The control of the symmetry of molecules produced in modern chemical synthesis contributes to the ability of scientists to offer therapeutic interventions with minimal side effects.3 In social interactions People observe the symmetrical nature. whereas power relationships are based on asymmetry.[27] Modernist architecture.[23] Seen from the side. often including asymmetrical balance.[27] 15. justice. masses and structures".4.[22] Symmetrical relationships can to some degree be maintained by simple (game theory) strategies seen in symmetric games such as tit for tat. and human-made chiral molecules with inherently chiral biological systems). better than you. via the interaction of natural Symmetry finds its ways into architecture at every scale. A rigorous understanding of symmetry explains fundamental observations in quantum chemistry. The ceiling of Lotfollah mosque. the Taj Mahal has bilateral symmetry. respect. and in the applied areas of spectroscopy and crystallography. Reflective equilibrium is the balance that may be attained through deliberative mutual adjustment among general principles and specific judgments.” Peer relationships. are based on symmetry. Islamic buildings such as the Taj Mahal and the Lotfollah mosque make elaborate use of symmetry both in their structure and in their ornamentation. relies instead on “wings and balance of masses”. IN THE ARTS 15. from the top (in plan). Since the earliest uses of pottery wheels to help shape clay .15. apology.1 In architecture Symmetry is important to chemistry because it undergirds essentially all specific interactions between Further information: Mathematics and architecture molecules in nature (i. from the overall external views of buildings such as Gothic cathedrals and The White House. The theory and application of symmetry to these areas of physical science draws heavily on the mathematical area of group theory.4.[20] 15. and down to the design of individual building elements such as tile mosaics.. These include assessments of Reciprocity. dialog.[24][25] Moorish buildings like the Alhambra are ornamented with complex patterns made using translational and reflection symmetries as well as rotations. such as can be governed by the golden rule.4. Iran has 8-fold symmetries.2 In pottery and metal vessels 15.2. of social interactions in a variety of contexts.3 In chemistry 93 Further information: Mathematics and art Main article: molecular symmetry 15. through the layout of the individual floor plans. and revenge.[21] Symmetrical interactions send the moral message “we are all the same” while asymmetrical interactions may send the message “I am special.e.4 In the arts Clay pots thrown on a pottery wheel acquire rotational symmetry. Isfahan. sympathy.

SYMMETRY vessels. are sisting of fabric triangles.4. American Navajo In.4. Cyclic tonal progressions in the works of Romantic composers such as Gustav Persian rug with quadrilateral symmetry Mahler and Richard Wagner form a link with the cyclic A long tradition of the use of symmetry in carpet and rug pitch successions in the atonal music of Modernists such patterns spans a variety of cultures. 16.4.4 In carpets and rugs Thus in addition to being part of the interval-4 family.[32] Pitch structures Symmetry is also an important consideration in the formation of scales and chords. used symmetrical patterns in their bronze castings as early as the 17th century BC. The ancient Chinese. such as the arch (swell) form (ABCBA) used by Steve Reich. C–E belongs to a family of symmetrically related dyads as follows:" 15. Pottery created using a wheel acquires full rotational symmetry in its cross-section.5 In music 15. augmented chord. Béla Bartók. Bach used the symmetry concepts of permutation and invariance. the craft lends itself readily to different instances of the same interval … the other kind the application of symmetry. [and] Eb–G. Its role in the history of music touches many aspects of the creation and perception of music. a seven pitch segment of C5 (the cycle of fifths. Edgard Varèse. Kitchen Kaleidoscope Block Béla Bartók. Many Oriental rugs have intricate reflected centers and borders that translate a pattern. C–E is also a part of the sum-4 family (with C equal to 0). such as the whole tone scale. for example.as Bartók. or non-tonal tonal centers.[28] 15. motifs that are reflected across both the horizontal and vertical axes. potters from ancient times onwards have added patterns that modify the rotational symmetry to achieve visual objectives. or diminished seventh chord (diminished-diminished seventh). In classical music. (compare article) (file) Symmetry is not restricted to the visual arts.94 CHAPTER 15. and James Tenney. Symmetrical scales or chords. but otherwise provided a similar opportunity to decorate their surfaces with patterns pleasing to those who used them. composers such as Alban Berg. However. However. are said to lack direction or a sense of forward motion. Alexander Scriabin. Not surprisingly. such as the diatonic scale or the major chord. which are enharmonic with the cycle of fourths) will produce the diatonic major scale. and have a less specific diatonic functionality. dians used bold diagonals and rectangular motifs. rectangular rugs typically use quadrilateral symmetry—that is. D–F♯. and the .[30][31] Cast metal vessels lacked the inherent rotational symmetry of wheel-made pottery.[29] of identity.3 In quilts Major and minor triads on the white piano keys are symmetrical to the D. traditional or tonal music being made up of non-symmetrical groups of pitches. pottery has had a strong relationship to symmetry. 25 pieces to a block) with each smaller piece usually conPerle (1992)[33] explains “C–E. while allowing substantial freedom of shape in the vertical direction. and George Perle have used axes of symmetry and/or interval cycles in an analogous way to keys or As quilts are made from square blocks (usually 9. Musical form Symmetry has been used as a formal constraint by many composers. Bronze vessels exhibited both a bilateral main motif and a repetitive translated border design. … has to do with axes of symmetry. are ambiguous as to the key or tonal center. Interval cycles are symmetrical and thus non-diatonic. Upon this inherently symmetrical starting point.

Online Etymology Dictionary. SEE ALSO 95 Vienna school.8 In literature Symmetry can be found in various forms in literature. or it can be an abstract structure such as a mathematical equation or a series of tones (music).[37][38] Opposed to this is the tendency for excessive symmetry to be perceived as boring or uninteresting.[34] • Burnside’s lemma • Chirality • Even and odd functions Equivalency Tone rows or pitch class sets which are invariant under retrograde are horizontally symmetrical.6 Notes [1] For example. ceramic tilework.15. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Symmetry.4. Fearful Symmetry. but enough complexity to make them interesting. under inversion vertically. ISBN 981-256-192-7. Symmetries are central to the art of M. Aristotle ascribed spherical shape to the heavenly bodies.4. Geometry: Plane and Fancy. as in the rise:fall pattern of Beowulf. . See also Asymmetric rhythm. H. these progressions signal the end of tonality.[39] 15. Stories may have a symmetrical structure. London: Cambridge Press. and many kinds of textile and embroidery patterns.6 In other arts and crafts • Fixed points of isometry groups in Euclidean space – center of symmetry • Isotropy • Spacetime symmetries • Spontaneous symmetry breaking • Symmetry-breaking constraints • Symmetric relation • Symmetries of polyiamonds • Symmetries of polyominoes • Symmetry group • Time symmetry • Wallpaper group Celtic knotwork Symmetries appear in the design of objects of all kinds. knotwork. Klaus (2005). [1] “symmetry”. and musical instruments.4. sand paintings. People prefer shapes that have some symmetry. Symmetry And Complexity: The Spirit and Beauty of Nonlinear Science. [6] Singer. Macmillan. 15.7 In aesthetics 15.7 References The relationship of symmetry to aesthetics is complex. Humans find bilateral symmetry in faces physically attractive. At the same time.J. 15. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 0-691-02374-3. Examples include beadwork. Geometric Symmetry. 3 (1910).5 See also The first extended composition consistently based on symmetrical pitch relations was probably Alban Berg’s Quartet. Hermann (1982) [1952]. or molecule. [4] E. quilt. World Scientific.C. floor tiles. Op. David A. ISBN 978-0-691-13482-6. ikat. Escher and the many applications of tessellation in art and craft forms such as wallpaper.: Princeton University Press. masks. [2] Symmetric objects can be material.5. [2] Zee.[35] 15. 1978 [5] Weyl. Main article: Symmetry (physical attractiveness) 15. (2007). batik. Princeton. Lockwood. attributing this formally defined geometric measure of symmetry to the natural order and perfection of the cosmos. carpet-making. crystal. a simple example being the palindrome where a brief text reads the same forwards or backwards. [3] Mainzer. N. H. A. (1998). such as a person. R.[36] it indicates health and genetic fitness. furniture.

“Behind the Scenes: Edgar Martins Speaks”. New York.177. Chapter 8: Acoelomate Bilateral Animals. doi:10. Annals of Mathematics 40 (1): 149–204. Retrieved on 2013-04-16. Gregory N. Navajocentral. The Noether theorems: Invariance and conservation laws in the twentieth century. Retrieved 11 November 2014.us. [14] Anderson. 112.. Giovanni.393. [19] Stewart. Retrieved 29 May 2013. Sources and Studies in the History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences. 103. instead of symmetrical layout of blocks. Rudolf (1969). 89. Retrieved on 2013-04-16. Math. Members.4047. 417–429. John P. and B.. Tiddeman. Manifold Mirrors: The Crossing Paths of the Arts and Mathematics. D. Academic Press. Especially chapter 12. [37] Rhodes. D..) 108 (3): 233–42.. Gillian.nc. K.nus. Contemporary Music Review 6 (2): 81–96. (1972). Ablex. Larry S. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-12-457551-X.. Jean-François (1996). (31 July 2009).. Ian (2001). P.tripod. What Shape is a Snowflake? Magical Numbers in Nature. “More is Different” (PDF). [20] Lowe.177. 77–78. Quantum Chemistry (Third ed. Paris/New York: Masson Springer. Peterson. (2008). Springer-Verlag. [24] Williams: Symmetry in Architecture. [21] Daniels. (2002). M. [15] Kosmann-Schwarzbach. [34] Perle. Felix (2013). Little.W.. (1939). O. New York Times. Bibcode:1972Sci. Dover Publications (September 1990) [27] Dunlap. Cognitive.96 CHAPTER 15.154-155 [10] Gouyet. E. (2002). (1994). [35] Cucker. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 1-56750-636-4. R. University of California Press.149W. Symmetries and Group Theory in Particle Physics: An Introduction to Space-Time and Internal Symmetries. D. Zebrowitz. masses and structures.C. 790 [12] Christopher G. Nontechnical. the twelve-tone scale. Physics and fractal structures. [38] Jones. Thornhill. pp.. Bibcode:1939AnMat. ISBN 978-0387-87867-6.393A. What Science Is and How It Works. [22] Emotional Competency: Symmetry [23] Lutus. B. pp. C. Allan (2002). Facial symmetry and judgements of apparent health Support for a “‘ good genes ’” explanation of the attractiveness – symmetry relationship. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. A. Chinavoc (2007-11-19). p. Roth. [28] The Art of Chinese Bronzes. Facial Attractiveness .” pdf or Shockwave) [33] Perle. [8] Bottema. Souvenir Press 2006. p. Science 177 (4047): 393– 396. 83. Theoretical Kinematics. McGraw-Hill. A. ISBN 9781-4008-2311-6. Fogli. Springer Science & Business Media. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.org (2003-1026). & Perrett..1126/science. Cleveland P. [11] Josiah Royce. and community (Google eBook) Fordham Univ Press. Gianluigi (2012). “My starting point for this construction was a simple statement which I once read (and which does not necessarily reflect my personal views): ‘Only a bad architect relies on symmetry. “On unitary representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group”. Retrieved on 2013-04-16. [26] Derry. ISBN 0-28563743-6 . 269–. P. [25] Aslaksen: Mathematics in Art and Architecture. Its. MR 1503456.Evolutionary. Mario Livio. and tonality”. SYMMETRY [7] Stenger.. “Bilateria”. C. Retrieved on 2013-04-16.2307/1968551. doi:10. and Social Perspectives. [32] see (“Fugue No.40. pp.com (1998-12-31). 22. Yvette (2010). AccessScience. PMID 17796623. Prometheus Books.. “Animal Diversity (Third Edition)" (PDF). James W.edu.1080/07494469200640151. [30] Marla Mallett Textiles & Tribal Oriental Rugs.. Victor J. Kirk (2005). Roberts. I. The Listening Composer. p.guilford. Leslie. [18] Hickman. Retrieved on 2013-04-16. Morris (1992) Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology Gulf Professional Publishing [13] Costa. [17] Valentine. 64–65.8 Further reading • The Equation That Couldn't Be Solved: How Mathematical Genius Discovered the Language of Symmetry. doi:10. Visual Thinking. George (1990). “Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness and sexual selection: the role of symmetry and averageness”. “The Symmetry Principle”. 15.sg. loyalty. George (1992). [36] Grammer.k12. Timeless Reality. P. 2012. Burt. ISBN 978-0387-94153-0. P. Princeton University Press. (2001). Skrupskelis (2005) The Basic Writings of Josiah Royce: Logic. Ignas K.’ [9] Tian Yu Cao Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Field Theory Cambridge University Press p. “Reflective Equilibrium”. The [31] Dilucchio: Navajo Rugs. Retrieved 28 September 2015. Modernist architecture relies on wings and balance of masses. Norman (2003-04-28).). 21. [39] Arnheim. Larson. David W. B. Retrieved October 25. University of California Press. (2000) and Mahou Shiro (2007). Journal of Comparative Psychology (Washington. “Symmetry. ISBN 978-0-521-728768. 139. [16] Wigner. [29] Quate: Exploring Geometry Through Quilts.

9 External links • Dutch: Symmetry Around a Point in the Plane • Chapman: Aesthetics of Symmetry • ISIS Symmetry 97 .9. EXTERNAL LINKS 15.15.

reflections excluded. (2) infinite lattice groups. and (3) infinite space groups which combines elements of both previous types. The subgroup of orientation-preserving isometries (i. 16. There are also continuous symmetry groups. the symmetry group of an object The “objects” may be geometric figures. can be represented as a subgroup of the orthogonal group O(n) by choosing the origin to be a fixed point. The proper symmetry group is then a subgroup of the special orthogonal group SO(n). For a space with a metric. it is a subgroup of the isometry group of the space concerned. inversion and rotoinversion – they are just the finite subgroups of O(n). translations.) is the group of all transformations under which the object is invariant with composition as the group operation. which include only rotations. one may also want to take their physical composition into account.Chapter 16 Symmetry group Not to be confused with Symmetric group. 120° 120° 120° A tetrahedron is invariant under 12 distinct rotations. and patterns. and may also include extra transformations like screw axis and glide reflection.g. For symmetry of physical objects. etc. The proper symmetry group of an object is equal to its full symmetry group if and only if the object is chiral (and thus there are no orientationreversing isometries under which it is invariant). Discrete symmetry groups come in three types: (1) finite point groups. The group of isometries of space induces a group action on objects in it. The group of 98 . signal. a function of position with values in a set of colors. If not stated otherwise. For other uses. rotations. 180° 180° 180° 180° The symmetry group is sometimes also called full symmetry group in order to emphasize that it includes the orientation-reversing isometries (like reflections. which contain rotations of arbitrarily small angles or translations of arbitrarily small distances. and is therefore also called rotation group of the figure. and compositions of these) that leave the figure invariant is called its proper symmetry group.e. (image.1 Introduction This article is about the abstract algebraic structures. glide reflections and improper rotations) under which the figure is invariant. this article considers symmetry groups in Euclidean geometry. The definition can be made more precise by specifying what is meant by image or pattern. along with the 180° edge (blue arrows) and 120° vertex (reddish arrows) rotations that permute the tetrahedron through the positions. e. see Symmetry group (disambiguation). The 12 rotations form the rotation (symmetry) group of the figure. but the concept may also be studied in more general contexts as expanded below. In abstract algebra. images. such as a wallpaper pattern. A discrete symmetry group is a symmetry group such that for every point of the space the set of images of the point under the isometries in the symmetry group is a discrete set. which is true for all finite symmetry groups and also for the symmetry groups of bounded figures.. which include only translations. 180° 180° 120° 120° 120° 120° 120° 120° 120° 120° 120° Any symmetry group whose elements have a common fixed point. reflections. These are illustrated here in the cycle graph format.

without being really homogeneous. • cyclic groups C1 . they are isomorphic with Z. all points the set of images under the isometries is one twofold axis of rotation. one may restrict oneself to those where for all points the set of images under the isometries is topologically closed. H 2 of a group G are conjugate. C1 is the trivial group containing only the identity operation. • the groups of two elements generated by a reflection The actual symmetry groups in each of these cases have in a point. D4 . where two subgroups H 1 . C4 of a swastika. C3 . 16.. A “figure” with this symmetry group is non-drawable and up to arbitrarily fine detail homogeneous. for example the letter F. D2 . When considering isometry groups. D3 . each in one direction. where Dn (of order 2n) consists of the rotations in Cn together with reflections in n axes that pass through the fixed point.. they are isomorphic with the as Lie groups. but excludes for example in 1D the group of translations by a rational number. C3 that of a triskelion. This figThe isometry groups in one dimension where for ure has four symmetry operations: the identity operation. etc. C2 is the symmetry group of the letter Z. Dih(Z). where for all points the set of images under • the infinite discrete groups generated by a transla. etc. and in the case of the dihedral groups. There is no geometric figure that has as it would be homogeneous. arms instead of four. C6 . Dih(R). • the special orthogonal group SO(2) consisting of all also denoted by D∞ (which is a semidirect product rotations about a fixed point. but with respect to different axes. is the symmetry group of a non-equilateral rectangle. they are isomorphic with the generalized dihedral group of Z. C4 . It is the proper symwith the additive group of the real numbers R). Two geometric figures are considered to be of the same symmetry type if their symmetry groups are conjugate subgroups of the Euclidean group E(n) (the isometry 16. D4 etc. where Cn consists of all rotations about a fixed point by multiples of the angle 360°/n • dihedral groups D1 . the multiplicative group of complex • the group generated by all translations (isomorphic numbers of absolute value 1. circle group S1 . C2 . • two 2D patterns have translational symmetry. this metry group of a circle and the continuous equivagroup cannot be the symmetry group of a “pattern": lent of Cn. and two nonequivalent mirror planes. a uniform one-dimensional vector tor field it may apply (see the three-dimensional case field has this symmetry group. .. and • the group generated by all translations and rein general such continuous symmetry groups are studied flections in points. but with respect to different mirror planes.the isometries is topologically closed are: tion and a reflection in a point. the additive group The remaining isometry groups in two dimensions with a of the integers fixed point. and C5 . This includes all discrete isometry groups and also those involved in continuous symmetries. which occurs when the figure has only a single axis of bilateral symmetry. are the symmetry groups of the regular polygons. Up to conjugacy the discrete point groups in twoFor example: dimensional space are the following classes: • two 3D figures have mirror symmetry. six. which is isomorphic to the Klein four-group. .3.2 One dimension D2 . topologically closed are: • the trivial group C1 D3 . tion. Euclidean group corresponds a categorization of symmetry groups. which occurs when the figure has no symmetry at all. they are isomorphic with C2 two degrees of freedom for the center of rotation. it is also called the of Z and C2 ).16. With a categorization of subgroups of the generalized dihedral group of R. are the symmetry groups of similar swastika-like figures with five. if there exists g ∈ G such that H 1 = g−1 H 2 g. hence could also be refull symmetry group the circle group. . one more for the positions • the infinite discrete groups generated by a translaof the mirrors.. However. See also symmetry groups in one dimension. • two 3D figures have 3-fold rotational symmetry. for example the letter A. below)..3 Two dimensions group of Rn ). the two translation vectors have the same length but a different direction. TWO DIMENSIONS 99 all symmetries of a sphere O(3) is an example of this. D1 is the 2-element group containing the identity operation and a single reflection. but for a vecflected.

It is also called Dih(S1 ) as it is the generalized dihedral group of S1 . For spherical symmetry there is no such distinction. and 5 of the 7 There is a bijection between every pair of equivalence others). this is one way of looking at the Erlangen the combination of all symmetries in that group in programme. a symmetry group may be any kind of For non-bounded figures. but it means “exactly the same”). Once we know what kind of mathematical structure we are concan include translations. A = Aρ ρˆ + Aϕ ϕ symmetry with respect to the axis if and only if Aρ . • cylindrical symmetry with a symmetry plane per.space. Up to conjugacy the set of three-dimensional point groups consists of 7 infinite series.alence class.Examples: pendicular to the axis • spherical symmetry For objects and scalar fields the cylindrical symmetry implies vertical planes of reflection. geometric language in which • for each of the symmetry groups in one dimension. for 6 isomorphic versions of the figure. composed with a representative of the second.e. However. and every equivalence class corresponds to one isomorphic version of the figure. the automorphisms of the space are the 48 isometries. classes: the inverse of a representative of the first equivThe continuous symmetry groups with a fixed point in.. although they preserve symmetry. They do this by preserving families of point-sets rather than point-sets (or tion “objects”) themselves. or at least clarify what • the 17 wallpaper groups we mean by an invariant. the figures include cubes of the same size as the space.5 Symmetry groups in general about a fixed point and reflections in any axis through that fixed point. and the group of all translations in the For example. we should be able to pinpoint what mappings preserve the structure.sense. specifying the sym• the 7 frieze groups metry can define the structure. and Az have this symmetry. one direction. the figure has a symmetry group of 8 isometries. SYMMETRY GROUP • the orthogonal group O(2) consisting of all rotations 16. • Isometries of the Euclidean plane. for vector fields it does not: in cylindrical coordinates with respect ˆ + Az zˆ has cylindrical to some axis. proof. each contains 4 isometries. to discuss it. Conversely. For a given geometric figure in a given geometric space. This crystallographic restriction of the infinite families of general point groups results in 32 crystallographic point groups (27 from the 7 infinite series. the figure is a cube of which one face has a different color. this applies for example often figure multiplied by the number of isomorphic versions for a bottle of the figure. clude those of: In the case of a finite automorphism group of the whole • cylindrical symmetry without a symmetry plane per. consider the following equivalence relation: two automorphisms of space are equivalent if and only if the two images of the figure are the same (here “the same” does not mean something like e. with colors or patterns on the faces.g. Aϕ . it implies planes of reflection. there are 6 equivalence classes of 8 isometries. and 7 separate ones. the group of automorphisms of space induces a group action on objects in it. Additionally there is reflectional symmetry if and only if Aϕ = 0 . • The space is a cube with Euclidean metric. such as an infinite helix. 16. i. the additional isometry groups transformation group. the closed ones are: cerned with. automorphism groups of certain models of perpendicular direction finite geometries are not “symmetry groups” in the usual • ditto with also reflections in a line in the first direc. This is the symmetry group of a See also: Automorphism circle. they do not depend on φ. or automorphism group.100 CHAPTER 16. Compare Lagrange’s theorem (group theory) and its See also subgroups of the Euclidean group. the figure is a rectangle: there are infinitely many equivalence classes. . In wider contexts. Then the equivalence class of the identity is the symmetry group of the figure. The continuous symmetry groups without a fixed point include those with a screw axis. In crystallography they are restricted to be compatible with the discrete translation symmetries of a crystal lattice. “the same up to translation and rotation”. its order is the order of the symmetry group of the pendicular to the axis.4 Three dimensions See also: Point groups in three dimensions Like above.

• O'Keeffe. Eric MathWorld. A. W (1998). “Symmetry Group”. Glazer.16. Space Groups for Scientists and Engineers (2nd ed.7 Further reading • Burns. W.. G. DC: Mineralogical Society of America. Crystal Structures. Willard Jr. I. ISBN 0-19-855901-1. Retrieved 2009-09-28. ISBN 0-939950-40-5. • Clegg.). “Tetrahedral Group”. Inc. 16. Hyde. New York: Academic Press. M. G. W.. Crystal Structure Determination (Oxford Chemistry Primer). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-12-145761-3.. OCLC 589081.8. Eric MathWorld. • Overview of the 32 crystallographic point groups form the first parts (apart from skipping n=5) of the 7 infinite series and 5 of the 7 separate 3D point groups . Patterns and Symmetry. (1972). EXTERNAL LINKS 101 16. M. Monograph Series. • Weisstein. Symmetry Groups and Their Applications. Washington.8 External links • Weisstein. (1996).. Boston: Academic Press. • Miller. (1990). B.6 See also • Crystallography • Crystallographic point group • Crystal system • Euclidean plane isometry • Fixed points of isometry groups in Euclidean space • Group action • Molecular symmetry • Permutation group • Point group • Space group • Symmetric group • Symmetry • Symmetry in quantum mechanics 16.

The arrows depict the field at discrete points. Vector fields can usefully be thought of as representing the velocity of a moving flow in space.1 Definition A portion of the vector field (sin y. Given a subset S in Rn . . In coordinates. the line integral of a vector field represents the work done by a force moving along a path. In this setting.1 Vector fields on subsets of Euclidean space In vector calculus. then V is a continuous vector field. which are spaces that look like Euclidean space on small scales. and there is a well-defined transformation law in passing from one coordinate system to the other. Vector fields are often discussed on open subsets of Euclidean space. and this physical intuition leads to notions such as the divergence (which represents the rate of change of volume of a flow) and curl (which represents the rotation of a flow). The elements of differential and integral calculus extend naturally to vector fields. the speed and direction of a moving fluid throughout space.. each attached to a point in the plane. If each component of V is continuous.Chapter 17 Vector field tion of a vector field depends on the coordinate system. as it changes from point to point. W defined on S and a real 102 . Vector fields are one kind of tensor field.. but also make sense on other subsets such as surfaces. Two representations of the same vector field: v(x. a vector field on a domain in nto dimensional Euclidean space can be represented as a A vector field can be visualized as assigning a vector [1] individual points within an n-dimensional space. or the strength and direction of some force. This representa. but may have more complicated structure on larger scales. where they associate an arrow tangent to the surface at each point (a tangent vector). for example. vector-valued function that associates an n-tuple of real numbers to each point of the domain. and more generally V is a Ck vector field if each component of V is k times continuously differentiable. sin x) 17. can be visualised as: a collection of arrows with a given magnitude and direction. vector fields are defined on differentiable manifolds. the field exists everywhere. such as the magnetic or gravitational force. 17. y) = −r.Given two Ck -vector fields V.[1] A vector field in the plane (for instance). More generally. a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. a vector field gives a tangent vector at each point of the manifold (that is. however. a vector field is represented by a vector-valued function V: S → Rn in standard Cartesian coordinates (x1 . When a vector field represents force. xn). Vector fields are often used to model.1. and under this interpretation conservation of energy is exhibited as a special case of the fundamental theorem of calculus. a section of the tangent bundle to the manifold)..

17.2. EXAMPLES

103

z

valued Ck -function f defined on S, the two operations
scalar multiplication and vector addition

(f V )(p) := f (p)V (p)
(V + W )(p) := V (p) + W (p)
define the module of Ck -vector fields over the ring of Ck functions.

17.1.2

y

Coordinate transformation law

x

In physics, a vector is additionally distinguished by how
its coordinates change when one measures the same vector with respect to a different background coordinate system. The transformation properties of vectors distinguish A vector field on a sphere
a vector as a geometrically distinct entity from a simple
list of scalars, or from a covector.
can make sense of the notion of smooth (analytic) vecThus, suppose that (x1 ,...,xn) is a choice of Cartesian co- tor fields. The collection of all smooth vector fields on
ordinates, in terms of which the components of the vector a smooth manifold M is often denoted by Γ(TM) or
V are
C ∞ (M,TM) (especially when thinking of vector fields as
sections); the collection of all smooth vector fields is also
denoted by X(M ) (a fraktur “X”).
Vx = (V1,x , . . . , Vn,x )
and suppose that (y1 ,...,yn) are n functions of the xi defining a different coordinate system. Then the components
of the vector V in the new coordinates are required to
satisfy the transformation law

17.2 Examples

Such a transformation law is called contravariant. A
similar transformation law characterizes vector fields in
physics: specifically, a vector field is a specification of n
functions in each coordinate system subject to the transformation law (1) relating the different coordinate systems.
Vector fields are thus contrasted with scalar fields, which The flow field around an airplane is a vector field in R3 , here viassociate a number or scalar to every point in space, and sualized by bubbles that follow the streamlines showing a wingtip
are also contrasted with simple lists of scalar fields, which vortex.
do not transform under coordinate changes.

Given a differentiable manifold M, a vector field on M is
an assignment of a tangent vector to each point in M.[2]
More precisely, a vector field F is a mapping from M into
the tangent bundle TM so that p ◦ F is the identity mapping where p denotes the projection from TM to M. In
other words, a vector field is a section of the tangent bundle.

• A vector field for the movement of air on Earth will
associate for every point on the surface of the Earth
a vector with the wind speed and direction for that
point. This can be drawn using arrows to represent
the wind; the length (magnitude) of the arrow will
be an indication of the wind speed. A “high” on the
usual barometric pressure map would then act as a
source (arrows pointing away), and a “low” would be
a sink (arrows pointing towards), since air tends to
move from high pressure areas to low pressure areas.

If the manifold M is smooth or analytic—that is, the
change of coordinates is smooth (analytic)—then one

• Velocity field of a moving fluid. In this case, a
velocity vector is associated to each point in the

17.1.3

Vector fields on manifolds

104

CHAPTER 17. VECTOR FIELD
fluid.

• Streamlines, Streaklines and Pathlines are 3 types of V = ∇f =
lines that can be made from vector fields. They are :
streaklines — as revealed in wind
tunnels using smoke.
streamlines (or fieldlines)— as a
line depicting the instantaneous
field at a given time.
pathlines — showing the path that a
given particle (of zero mass) would
follow.

(

)
∂f ∂f ∂f
∂f
,
,
,...,
.
∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3
∂xn

The associated flow is called the gradient flow, and is
used in the method of gradient descent.
The path integral along any closed curve γ (γ(0) = γ(1))
in a conservative field is zero:
I

I
⟨V (x), dx⟩ =

γ

⟨∇f (x), dx⟩ = f (γ(1)) − f (γ(0)).
γ

where the angular brackets and comma: ⟨, ⟩ denotes the
• Magnetic fields. The fieldlines can be revealed using inner product of two vectors (strictly speaking – the integrand V(x) is a 1-form rather than a vector in the elesmall iron filings.
mentary sense).[4]
• Maxwell’s equations allow us to use a given set
of initial conditions to deduce, for every point
in Euclidean space, a magnitude and direction 17.2.2 Central field
for the force experienced by a charged test particle at that point; the resulting vector field is the A C ∞ -vector field over Rn \ {0} is called a central field
if
electromagnetic field.
• A gravitational field generated by any massive object
is also a vector field. For example, the gravitational
field vectors for a spherically symmetric body would
all point towards the sphere’s center with the magnitude of the vectors reducing as radial distance from
the body increases.

V (T (p)) = T (V (p))

(T ∈ O(n, R))

where O(n, R) is the orthogonal group. We say central fields are invariant under orthogonal transformations
around 0.
The point 0 is called the center of the field.

17.2.1

Gradient field

Since orthogonal transformations are actually rotations
and reflections, the invariance conditions mean that vectors of a central field are always directed towards, or away
from, 0; this is an alternate (and simpler) definition. A
central field is always a gradient field, since defining it on
one semiaxis and integrating gives an antigradient.

17.3 Operations on vector fields
17.3.1 Line integral
Main article: Line integral

A vector field that has circulation about a point cannot be written
as the gradient of a function.

A common technique in physics is to integrate a vector
field along a curve, i.e. to determine its line integral.
Given a particle in a gravitational vector field, where each
vector represents the force acting on the particle at a given
point in space, the line integral is the work done on the
particle when it travels along a certain path.

Vector fields can be constructed out of scalar fields using The line integral is constructed analogously to the
Riemann integral and it exists if the curve is rectifiable
the gradient operator (denoted by the del: ∇).[3]
A vector field V defined on a set S is called a gradient (has finite length) and the vector field is continuous.
field or a conservative field if there exists a real-valued Given a vector field V and a curve γ parametrized by [a,
function (a scalar field) f on S such that
b] (where a and b are real) the line integral is defined as

17.4. HISTORY

105

b

⟨V (x), dx⟩ =
γ

17.3.2

from this sphere to a unit sphere of dimensions n − 1 can
be constructed by dividing each vector on this sphere by
its length to form a unit length vector, which is a point on
the unit sphere Sn-1 . This defines a continuous map from
S to Sn-1 . The index of the vector field at the point is the
degree of this map. It can be shown that this integer does
not depend on the choice of S, and therefore depends only
on the vector field itself.

⟨V (γ(t)), γ ′ (t) dt⟩.

a

Divergence

Main article: Divergence

The index of the vector field as a whole is defined when
it has just a finite number of zeroes. In this case, all zeroes
The divergence of a vector field on Euclidean space is a are isolated, and the index of the vector field is defined to
function (or scalar field). In three-dimensions, the diver- be the sum of the indices at all zeroes.
gence is defined by
The index is not defined at any non-singular point (i.e.,
a point where the vector is non-zero). it is equal to
+1 around a source, and more generally equal to (−1)k
∂F1
∂F2
∂F3
div F = ∇ · F =
+
+
,
around a saddle that has k contracting dimensions and n-k
∂x
∂y
∂z
expanding dimensions. For an ordinary (2-dimensional)
with the obvious generalization to arbitrary dimensions. sphere in three-dimensional space, it can be shown that
The divergence at a point represents the degree to which the index of any vector field on the sphere must be 2.
a small volume around the point is a source or a sink This shows that every such vector field must have a zero.
for the vector flow, a result which is made precise by the This implies the hairy ball theorem, which states that if a
divergence theorem.
vector in R3 is assigned to each point of the unit sphere
2
The divergence can also be defined on a Riemannian S in a continuous manner, then it is impossible to “comb
manifold, that is, a manifold with a Riemannian metric the hairs flat”, i.e., to choose the vectors in a continuous
way such that they are all non-zero and tangent to S2 .
that measures the length of vectors.

17.3.3

For a vector field on a compact manifold with a finite
number of zeroes, the Poincaré-Hopf theorem states that
the index of the vector field is equal to the Euler characteristic of the manifold.

Curl

Main article: Curl (mathematics)
The curl is an operation which takes a vector field and
produces another vector field. The curl is defined only in
three-dimensions, but some properties of the curl can be
captured in higher dimensions with the exterior derivative. In three-dimensions, it is defined by
(
curl F = ∇×F =

∂F3
∂F2

∂y
∂z

)

(

∂F3
∂F1
e1 −

∂x
∂z

)

17.4 History

(
)
∂F2
∂F1
e2 +

e3 .
∂x
∂y

The curl measures the density of the angular momentum
of the vector flow at a point, that is, the amount to which
the flow circulates around a fixed axis. This intuitive description is made precise by Stokes’ theorem.

17.3.4

Index of a vector field

The index of a vector field is an integer that helps to describe the behaviour of a vector field around an isolated
zero (i.e., an isolated singularity of the field). In the plane,
the index takes the value −1 at a saddle singularity but +1
at a source or sink singularity.

Magnetic field lines of an iron bar (magnetic dipole)

Vector fields arose originally in classical field theory in
19th century physics, specifically in magnetism. They
were formalized by Michael Faraday, in his concept of
lines of force, who emphasized that the field itself should
be an object of study, which it has become throughout
Let the dimension of the manifold on which the vector physics in the form of field theory.
field is defined be n. Take a small sphere S around the In addition to the magnetic field, other phenomena that
zero so that no other zeros lie in the interior of S. A map were modeled as vector fields by Faraday include the elec-

For. they are given by the functions ′ γ (t) = V (γ (t)) (t ∈ (−ε. the vector field now looks different. vEuclidean : (x. The difference between a scalar and vector field is not that “a scalar is just one number while a vector is several numbers”. with initial condition x(0) = x0 . 17.2 Example 2 Consider the 1-dimensional Euclidean space R with its standard Euclidean coordinate x. y) and polar (r. An example of an incomplete vector field V on the real line R is given by V(x) = x2 .[5] In particular. This example is about 2-dimensional Euclidean space 2 By the Picard–Lindelöf theorem. ( x y Typical applications are streamline in fluid. then the particle will remain at p. θ) tinuous there is a unique C 1 -curve γx for each point x in coordinates (which are undefined at the origin). compactly supported vector fields on a manifold are complete.6. every smooth vector field is complete. y) 7→ (cos θ. The converse is also true: it is possible to associate a flow to a vector field having that vector field as its velocity. +ε) ⊂ R). vEuclidean : x 7→ 1. geodesic flow.5 Flow curves Main article: Integral curve 17. cos θ S so that.6. as illustrated by the next example. If p is a stationary point of V (i. one defines curves but it is not the collection of its coordinates. x x The curves γx are called integral curves or trajectories (or less commonly.t) if x0 ≠ 0 (and x(t) = 0 for all t if x0 = 0). The flow may for example reach the edge of S in a finite time. It is not always possible to extend the interval (−ε. ) . the differential equation dx/dt = x2 . Thus x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ and also r2 = x2 + y2 . .1 Complete vector fields By definition. sin θ) = √ . unique solution x(t) = 1/(x0 . The same holds even in the 1-dimensional case. then the oneparameter group of diffeomorphisms generated by the flow along X exists for all time. If X is a complete vector field on M. vpolar : (r. and a vector field which attaches a vector in the γx (0) = x r-direction with length 1 to each point. a vector field is called complete if every one of its flow curves exist for all time. = x/(x2 + y2 )1/2 and sin θ = y/(x2 + y2 )1/2 . any point of the fluid has a particular velocity associated with it. In two or three dimensions one can visualize the vector field as giving rise to a flow on S..e.5. More precisely. Suppose we have a scalar field and a vector field which are both given in the x coordinate by the constant function 1. Given a vector field V defined on S. spolar : (r. sEuclidean : x 7→ 1.106 CHAPTER 17.6 Difference between scalar and vector field Consider the flow of a fluid through a region of space. γ(t) on S such that for each t in an interval I 17. θ) 7→ (1.(R ) where we examine Euclidean (x. Thus in Euclidean coordinates the same fields are described by the functions sEuclidean : (x. Let us convert these fields to Euclidean coordinates. x(t) is undefined at t = x0 so cannot be defined for all values of t. y) 7→ 1. The vector of length 1 in the r-direction has the x coordinate cos θ and the y coordinate sin θ. has as its 17. At any given time. if V is Lipschitz con.1 Example 1 ′ γ (t) = V (γ(t)) . The difference is in: how their coordinates respond to coordinate transformations. flow lines) of the vector field V and partition S into equivalence classes. 0). We see that while the scalar field remains the same. A scalar is a coordinate whereas a vector can be described by coordinates. for some ε > 0. VECTOR FIELD trical field and light field. thus there is a vector field associated to any flow. θ) 7→ 1. Suppose we have a scalar field which is given by the constant function 1. the vector field is equal to the zero vector at the point p). If we drop a particle into this flow at a point p it will move along the curve γp in the flow depending on the initial point p. 17. On a compact manifold without boundary.√ x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 and one-parameter subgroups and the exponential map in Lie groups. Hence for x0 ≠ 0. +ε) to the whole real number line.

Springer- 17. Therefore. W 2 ]. p. this means v*dx=v'*dξ. If Vᵢ is f-related to Wᵢ. P. 2. ed. Loring W. Foundations of differentiable manifolds and Lie groups. Orlando. ISBN 9781-55608-010-4 • Vector field — Mathworld • Vector field — PlanetMath 17.10. CRC Press. [3] Dawber. Algebraically. “Vector field”.G. f*: TM → TN. Vectors and Vector Operators. ISBN 978-1107602601 [5] Sharpe. NJ: Prentice Hall. Differential geometry. and combining these yields general tensor fields. [4] T. Verlag. William (1986). H. B. linear algebra. 12. 17. R. so v' must be 2. xxxviii. (1997). ISBN 0-387-90894-3. the derivative is an induced map on tangent bundles. V 2 ] is f-related to [W 1 . An introduction to differentiable manifolds and Riemannian geometry. Vector Analysis Versus Vector Calculus. ISBN 0-387-94732-9. J. vunusual : ξ 7→ 2 which are different. in the ξ coordinate the scalar field and the vector field are described by the functions sunusual : ξ 7→ 1. i = 1. 29. and differential forms. Thus this vector field has a magnitude of 2 in units of ξ. volume 120 (second ed. 17. B. p. Pure and Applied Mathematics. 107 17.).10 References [1] Galbis. p. [2] Tu.7 f-relatedness Given a smooth function between manifolds. taking the dual space and exterior powers yields differential k-forms.9 See also • 3D Magnetic field viewer • Eisenbud–Levine–Khimshiashvili signature formula • Vector fields and field lines • Field line • Vector field simulation An interactive application to show the effects of vector fields • Field strength • Lie derivative • Scalar field • Time-dependent vector field • Vector fields in cylindrical and spherical coordinates • Tensor fields . then the Lie bracket [V 1 . “Vector fields”. ISBN 0-13-657446-7. Antonio & Maestre. Springer. Frankel (2012). ISBN 9781-4614-2199-3. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. If x changes one unit then ξ changes 2 units. we say that W is f-related to V if the equation W ∘ f * = f* ∘ V holds. (2001). ISBN 0-12-116053X. The Geometry of Physics (3rd ed.). Frank (1983) [1971]. Manuel (2012). (1999). ξ increases by 1/2 unit. p. Hubbard. • Warner. Vector calculus. 149. Upper Saddle River.11 Bibliography • Hubbard. vector fields can be characterized as derivations of the algebra of smooth functions on the manifold. An Introduction to Manifolds. which is developed in the theory of differential calculus over commutative algebras. FL: Academic Press.12 External links • Hazewinkel.. Cambridge University Press. (2010). Michiel. 17. (1987). But since we wish the integral of v along a path to be independent of coordinate. REFERENCES Thus. we have a scalar field which has the value 1 everywhere and a vector field which attaches a vector in the x-direction with magnitude 1 unit of x to each point.8 Generalizations Replacing vectors by p-vectors (pth exterior power of vectors) yields p-vector fields. which leads to defining a vector field on a commutative algebra as a derivation on the algebra. Springer. A unified approach. ISBN 978-1-4419-7399-3. New YorkBerlin: Springer-Verlag. Now consider the coordinate ξ := 2x. So from x increase by 1 unit. Springer. Given vector fields V: M → TM and W: N → TN.17. f: M → N. • Boothby. ISBN 978-0-85274-585-4.

Among these topologies. called axioms. more abstract treatment. which may be added together and multiplied (“scaled”) by numbers. Today. but there are also vector spaces with scalar multiplication by complex numbers.1 First example: arrows in the plane Vector spaces are the subject of linear algebra and are well characterized by their dimension. but much of the 2w theory can be seen as an extension of classical geometVector addition and scalar multiplication: a vector v (blue) is ric ideas like lines. yielding the sum v + 2w. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements. the first ideas leading to vector spaces can be traced back as far as the 17th century’s analytic geometry. rational numbers. first formulated by Giuseppe Peano in 1888. which is employed in image compression routines. Vector spaces may be generalized in several ways. see Linear space (geometry). vectors representing displacements in 18. This in turn allows the examination of local properties of manifolds by linearization techniques. the parallelogram spanned by these two arrows contains one diagonal arrow that starts at the 108 . systems of linear equations. The modern. planes and their higher-dimensional added to another vector w (red. and the multiplication of a force vector by a real multiplier is another force vector. Euclidean vectors are an example of a vector space.ity and continuity. offer a framework for Fourier expansion. 18. as having a notion of distance between two vectors. Furthermore. but in a more geometric sense. allowing the consideration of issues of proximA vector space (also called a linear space) is a col. whose vectors are functions. science and engineering. Scalars are often taken to be real numbers. v and w. In the same vein. leading to more advanced notions in geometry and abstract algebra. called scalars in this context. listed below. For the struc. which in some cases can be visualized as arrows. This is used in physics to describe forces or velocities. Below. Vectors in vector spaces do not necessarily have The concept of vector space will first be explained by deto be arrow-like objects as they appear in the mentioned scribing two particular examples: examples: vectors are regarded as abstract mathematical objects with particular properties. or provide an environment that can be used for solution techniques for partial differential equations. which are fundamental in mathematical analysis. They are the appropriate linear-algebraic notion to deal with systems of linear equations. those that are defined by a norm or inner product are more commonly used. lection of objects called vectors. vector spaces furnish an abstract. which. upper illustration). They represent physical quantities such as forces: any two forces (of the same type) can be added to yield a third. specifies the number of independent directions in the space. Infinite-dimensional vector spaces arise naturally in mathematical analysis.1. coordinate-free way of dealing with geometrical and physical objects such as tensors. or generally any field. stretched by a factor of 2. and Euclidean v v+2w vectors. vector spaces are applied throughout mathematics. w Historically.1 Introduction and definition the plane or in three-dimensional space also form vector spaces. matrices. Given any two such arrows. These vector spaces are gener- The first example of a vector space consists of arrows in a fixed plane. which may be a ture in incidence geometry. topology. as function spaces. starting at one fixed point. w is analogs.ally endowed with additional structure. roughly speaking. encompasses more general objects than Euclidean space.Chapter 18 Vector space This article is about linear (vector) spaces. v+w This is particularly the case of Banach spaces and Hilbert v spaces.

The sum of v/a = (1/a)v. and u. y1 ) + (x2 .[2] (x1 . Indeed. their end points. too. The second operation. multiplication and division The first example above reduces to this one if the arrows operations. ay). the set V and the operations of addition and multiplication must adhere to a number of requirements called axioms. the resulting vector aw has the same direction as w. When the scalar field is the complex numbers. space over F. in general 18. To deal with such matters. no notion of nearness. Moreover. let u. their sum is the arrow on this line whose length is the sum or the difference of the lengths. Equivalently 2w is the sum w + w.satisfying the closure property: u + v and av are in V for tion takes any scalar a and any vector v and gives another all a in F. y). yᵥ) + (x . INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION origin. In contrast to the intuition stemming from vectors in the plane and higher-dimensional cases. in the geometric example of vectors as arrows. This new arrow is called the sum of the two arrows and is denoted v + w. instead. v in V. essentially. vectors. (−1)v = −v has the opposite direction and the same length as v (blue vector pointing down in the right image). y1 + y2 ) In this article. y ) + (xᵥ. properties as separate axioms. the result of addition of two ordered pairs (as in the second example above) does not depend on the order of the summands: (xᵥ. angles or distances. called scalar multiplica. called 18. av is defined as the arrow pointing in the opposite direction. In other words. All other axioms can be checked in a similar manner in both examples. In the parlance of abstract algebra. The following shows a few examples: if a = 2.1. Another operation that can be done with arrows is scaling: given any positive real number a. (The order of the compov − w = v + (−w). respectively. operations that satisfy the eight axioms listed below. and called the sum of these two Vector addition and scalar multiplication are operations.1. The remaining axioms give this group an F-module structure. the definition incorpoSecond example: ordered pairs of rates these two and many more examples in one notion of vector space. These two cases are the ones used most often in engineering. When a is negative. the vector space is called a real vector space. there is. Thus.3 Definition vector spaces. These axioms generalize properties of the vectors introduced in the above examples. see below. A field is. it is called a complex vector space. The first operation. Elements of F are commonly called scalars.1. 109 To qualify as a vector space.1.2 Likewise. particular types of vector A vector space over a field F is a set V together with two spaces are introduced. nents x and y is significant. by disregarding the concrete nature of the particular type of vectors. and a and b scalars in F. is called multiplication of v by a. numbers Subtraction of two vectors and division by a (non-zero) A second key example of a vector space is provided by scalar can be defined as pairs of real numbers x and y. but is dilated or shrunk by multiplying its length by a. but is stretched to the double length of w (right image below).[1] In the list below.) Such a pair is written as (x. two such pairs and multiplication of a pair with a number is defined as follows: When the scalar field F is the real numbers R. depending on whether the arrows have the same direction. subtraction. Elements of V are commonly called vectors.[nb 1] In the two examples above. vectors are distinguished from scalars by boldface. y) = (ax. a set of numbers possessing addition.4 Alternative formulations and elevector addition or simply addition. It is denoted av. y ) = (x . y2 ) = (x1 + x2 . The general definition of a vector space and allows scalars to be elements of any fixed field F. In the special case of two arrows on the same line. the field is the field of the real numbers and the set of the vectors consists of the planar arrows with fixed starting point and of pairs of real numbers. yᵥ). v and w be arbitrary vectors in V. the first four axioms can be subsumed by requiring the set of vectors to be an abelian group under addition. Some older sources mention these vector av. there is a ring homomorphism f from the field F into the . takes any two vectors mentary consequences v and w and assigns to them a third vector which is commonly written as v + w. rational numbers also form are represented by the pair of Cartesian coordinates of a field. so such a pair is also called an ordered pair. the arrow that has the same direction as v.[nb 3] For example. The notion is then known as an F-vector spaces or a vector a (x. 18.18. v + w = w + v since the parallelogram defining the sum of the vectors is independent of the order of the vectors.

Grassmann studied the barycentric calculus initiated by Möbius. a2 .3 Function spaces Vector spaces.[7] The definition of vectors was founded on Bellavitis' notion of the bipoint.[11] tension Q(i√5) is a vector space over Q. to achieve geometric solutions without using coordinates. which are predecessors of vectors..110 endomorphism ring of the group of vectors. an oriented segment of which one end is the origin and the other a target. notably with key concepts such as spaces of p-integrable functions and Hilbert spaces. the comconstruction of function spaces by Lebesgue. In 1857.. are present. around 1920. their treatment as linear combinations can be traced back to Laguerre in 1867.[14] For example. Mourey sug. Around the same time.3. particularly in algebra and algebraic number theory: a field F containing a smaller field E is an E-vector space.[13] analytic geometry by equating solutions to an equation [4] of two variables with points on a plane curve. it is isomorphic) to the vector space of ordered pairs of real numbers mentioned above: if we think of the complex number x + i y as representing the ordered pair (x.Main article: Examples of vector spaces tor space axioms.[5] His work case n = 1 is the above-mentioned simplest example. A vector space composed of all the n-tuples of a field F n Bolzano introduced certain operations on points. i. the concepts of linear independence and dimension. as well as scalar products. Other properties follow 18. including infinite-dimensional ones. then further elaborated with the presentation of complex numbers by Argand and Hamilton and the introduction of quaternions and biquaternions by the latter.of F. Descartes and Fermat founded F. usually denoted F .[10] extensions The set of complex numbers C. Grassmann’s 1844 work exceeds the framework of vector spaces. dinary algebra but also two-dimensional algebra created by him searching a geometrical interpretation of complex 18. This was plex numbers are a vector space over R.1 Coordinate spaces from the distributive law.2 Complex numbers and other field numbers. More generally. The most simple example of a vector space over a field F is the field itself. VECTOR SPACE 18. In 1804. V. b and c. a vector space can be composed of n-tuples (sequences of length n) of elements Vector spaces stem from affine geometry via the intro. for example av equals 0 if and Main article: Coordinate space only if a equals 0 or v equals 0.e.e.introduction above. then became a firmly established notion. a. by the given multiplication An important development of vector spaces is due to the and addition operations of F. equipped with its standard addition 18.[9] In his work. lines is known as a coordinate space.Functions from any fixed set Ω to a field F also form vecical branches started making use of this concept. Then scalar multiplication av is defined as (f(a))(v). and the field exlater formalized by Banach and Hilbert. tor spaces. In fact. Some of them derive from elementary group theory. form a vector space over the reals with the usual addition and multiplication: (x + iy) + (a + ib) = (x + a) + i(y + b) and c ⋅ (x + iy) = (c ⋅ x) + i(c ⋅ y) for real numbers x. In fact. The various axioms of a vector space follow from the fact that the same rules hold for complex number arithmetic. . such as duction of coordinates in the plane or three-dimensional (a1 . He envisaged sets of abstract objects endowed with operations..which the field F is also regarded as a vector space over nates by Möbius in 1827.[3] CHAPTER 18. Around 1636.[8] They are elements in R2 . who also defined systems of linear equations. y.[6] In 1828 C. y) in the complex plane then we see that the rules for sum and scalar product correspond exactly to those in the earlier example. in was then used in the conception of barycentric coordi. since his consideration of multiplication led him to what are today called algebras. which allows for a harmonization and simplification of linear maps. algebra and the new field of functional analysis began to interact. numbers that can be written in the form x + iy for real numbers x and y where i is the imaginary unit. The and planes. by performing addition and scalar multiplica- .. Cayley introduced matrix notation. R4 . The case F = R and n = 2 was discussed in the gested the existence of an algebra surpassing not only or. Peano was the first to give the modern definition of vector spaces and linear maps in 1888.[12] 18. applied to the additive group of vectors: for example the zero vector 0 of V and the additive inverse −v of any vector v are unique.itself. the example of complex numbers is essentially the same (i. an).3 Examples There are a number of direct consequences of the vec. and R8 ..3.3. and many mathemat. More generally. where each ai is an element of space. field extensions provide another class of examples of vector spaces. At that time.2 History and multiplication.

+ rn₋₁xn−1 + rnxn . 0.. e2 = (0. .. and Systems of linear equations often indexed by some index set I..[19] The ultrafilter lemma. integrability or differentiability are well-behaved with respect to linearity: sums and scalar multiples of functions possessing such a property still have that property. xn are just the Cartesian coordinates of the vector. .. 0. xnen. x is the vector (a.. and similarly for multiplication. For example.. xn) = x1 (1. where the coefficients r0 ..3... an equivalent formulation of the Axiom of Choice. + differential equations form vector spaces. . 0.4 Basis and dimension iom of choice.. to en = (0. b.[16] 18.18. implies that all bases of a Main articles: Basis and Dimension given vector space have the same number of elements. and c = −5a/2. too. when Ω is the real line or an interval. x2 . the set of such functions are vector spaces. 1). They are studied in greater detail using the methods of functional analysis.[15] Therefore.. For example. n) elements of B. A basis is a (finite or Main articles: Linear equation.. Such function spaces occur in many geometric situations. Linear independence means that the coordinates ak are uniquely determined for any vector in the vector space. 1. . 1. where a and b are arbitrary Every vector space has a basis. Linear differential infinite) set B = {bi}i ∈ I of vectors bi.. the existence of bases is equivalent to the ax18. called the coordinates (or the components) of the vector v with respect to the basis B. . called the standard basis. namely where the ak are scalars. Matrices can be used to condense multiple linear equations as above into one vector equation.. thus they are solutions. or other subsets of R.[20] . Ax denotes the matrix product. rn are in F.. . and 0 = (0. the solutions of sum (called a linear combination) of the basis elements: are given by triples with arbitrary a. . F n . 0. ... yields f(x) = a e−x + bx e−x ... 0. 0) is the zero vec(x1 . form a basis of Ax = 0. the sum of two functions f and g is the function (f + g) given by (f + g)(w) = f(w) + g(w). 0). Dimension theorem for vector spaces).[18] Given the other axioms of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory. that spans the whole space and is linearly independent.. + xn(0. BASIS AND DIMENSION 111 tion pointwise. Algebraic constraints also yield vector spaces: the vector space F[x] is given by polynomial functions: f(x) = r0 + r1 x + . .. x2 .. They form a vector space: sums and scalar multiples of such triples still satisfy the same ratios of the three variables. 0).. 0. see below..... “Spanning the whole Systems of homogeneous linear equations are closely tied space” means that any vector v can be expressed as a finite to vector spaces. Linear equations called coordinates or components. and bik (k = 1. since any vector (x1 . f′′(x) + 2f′(x) + f(x) = 0 The corresponding coordinates x1 . such as continuity. 0. Many notions in topology and analysis. tor. 0) + x2 (0. [ ] xn) can be uniquely expressed as a linear combination of 1 3 1 where A = is the matrix containing the coef. or Bases allow to represent vectors by a sequence of scalars cardinality (cf... b = a/2.. and using a different... . which is weaker than the axiom of choice. 1) = x1 e1 + x2 e2 + .these vectors: 4 2 2 ficients of the given equations. c). for convenience equation.4 A vector v in R2 (blue) expressed in terms of different bases: using the standard basis of R2 v = xe1 + ye2 (black). .. the solutions of homogeneous linear 0) + . Zorn’s lemma..4.[17] For example. the coordinate vectors e1 = (1. non-orthogonal basis: v = f1 + f2 (red).. and ex is the natural exponential function.. x2 .. This follows from constants. In a similar vein... That is.

they are then essentially identical as vector spaces. they preserve sums and scalar multiplication: f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) and f(a · x) = a · f(x) for all x and y in V.[26] If there exists an isomorphism between V and W. the complex numbers C are a if x is negative). also denoted L(V. the dimension is finite. A fortiori. such as the space of functions on some (bounded or unbounded) interval. generated by 1 and the back the arrow v. because any element of V is expressed uniquely as a linear combination of them. The dimension (or degree) of the Describing an arrow vector v by its coordinates x and y yields an field extension Q(α) over Q depends on α. y).[28] Via the injective natural map V → V ∗∗ . VECTOR SPACE It is called the dimension of the vector space. a basis is given by 1. linear maps f : V → W are completely determined by specifying the images of the basis vectors. There is. These two functions are linearly independent over R. no “canonical” or preferred isomorphism.and y-component of the arrow. defining scalar multiplication as field multiplication by elements of Q. If α satisfies isomorphism of vector spaces. denoted V ∗ . A field extension over the rationals Q can be thought of as a vector space over Q (by defining vector addition as field addition. since all identities holding in V n The dimension of the coordinate space F is n. W). 2 imaginary unit i. all a in F. the two spaces are said to be isomorphic. C). + q0 = 0. [23] as a root. Equivalently. (fixed) coordinate system can be expressed as an ordered pair by considering the x. More precisely. which is a map such that the two possible compositions f ∘ g : W → W Once a basis of V is chosen. x. W). if y is negative) turns two-dimensional real vector space. It is an isomorphism. q0 . and vice versa basis exhibited above. . by the are. the arrow going by x to the right (or to the left.. actually an isomorphism φ : F n → V is equivalent to the choice of a basis of V... The dimension of the polynomial via g.e.[21] and g ∘ f : V → V are identity maps.. the “arrows in the plane” and “ordered pairs of numbers” vector spaces in the introduction are isomorn n−1 qnα + qn₋₁α + . any n-dimensional F-vector space V is isomorphic to F n . Another way to express this is that any vector space is completely classified (up to isomorphism) by its dimension. Thus. some polynomial equation For example. If α is not algebraic.[24] map is an isomorphism if and only if the space is finitedimensional. as shown in the image at the right. C is a two-dimensional R-vector Linear maps V → W between two vector spaces form a space (and. two vector spaces are isomorphic if their dimensions agree and vice versa. the dimension of Q(α) space of linear maps from V to F is called the dual vector over Q is infinite. as is the degree of the equation.5 Linear maps and matrices Main article: Linear map The relation of two vector spaces can be expressed by linear map or linear transformation.[31] Therefore. denoted dim V. The latter satisfies i + 1 = 0.[22] For example. in other words π is transcendental. the dimension of the solution space of a homogeneous ordinary differential equation equals the degree of the equation. a single number.[nb 4] Under suitable regularity assumptions on the coefficients involved. so the dimension of this space is two. is infinite. an equation of degree two.[30] If dim V = dim W. with rational phic: a planar arrow v departing at the origin of some coefficients qn. For instance. however.[29] 18. Conversely. and y up (down. the above statements can be proven without such fundamental input from set theory. In particular. x2 . If the space is spanned by finitely many vectors. for α = π there is no such space.. ring F[x] introduced above is countably infinite. by its very definition... as any field..[25] An isomorphism is a linear map f : V → W such that there exists an inverse map g : W → V. For example. one-dimensional as a vector space vector space HomF(V.112 CHAPTER 18. They are functions that reflect the vector space structure—i. ("α is algebraic"). the equation. given a it equals the degree of the minimal polynomial having α pair (x. the dimension of more general function spaces. and otherwise ignoring the field multiplication). f is both one-to-one (injective) and onto (surjective). a 1-to-1 correspondence between fixed bases of V and W gives rise to a linear map that maps any basis element of V to the corresponding basis element of W. any vector space can be embedded into its bidual. transported to similar ones in W. . by mapping the stan- . via f.[27] The over itself. the solution space for the above equation is generated by e−x and xe−x .

j=1 a2j xj .2 a1.[33] The determinant det (A) of a square matrix A is a scalar that tells whether the associated map is an isomorphism or not: to be so it is sufficient and necessary that the determinant is nonzero.6 Basic constructions In addition to the above concrete examples. If V is finite-dimensional. . and r3 . . . .2 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors . .j A typical matrix They are written as a rectangular array of scalars as in the image at the right.[36] If the field F is large enough to contain a zero of this polynomial (which automatically happens for F algebraically closed. they are also characterized by universal properties. · · · . the expression on the left hand side can be seen to be a polynomial function in λ.. j changes n columns m rows .3 . 18.3 a2. with their image under f. 18.[34] The linear transformation of Rn corresponding to a real n-by-n matrix is orientation preserving if and only if its determinant is positive. · · · . which determine an object X by Endomorphisms. where λ is a scalar. . xn ) 7→ ) ∑n ∑n a1j xj . To achieve the spectral theorem. The vector space V may or may not possess an eigenbasis. Moreover. where denotes summation.2 a3. . .1 Matrices Main articles: Matrix and Determinant Matrices are a useful notion to encode linear maps. ai. x2 .[32] a1. This phenomenon is governed by the Jordan canonical form of the map.2 a2. via φ. . j=1 amj xj ∑ . . r2 . linear maps f : V → V.[nb 5][35] Equivalently. .5.5. 18. any linear map f : V → W is uniquely represented by a matrix via this assignment. The volume of this parallelepiped is the absolute value of the determinant of the 3-by-3 matrix formed by the vectors r1 . v is an element of the kernel of the difference f − λ · Id (where Id is the identity map V → V). In addition to Main article: Eigenvalues and eigenvectors the definitions given below. a basis consisting of eigenvectors.[nb 6] The set of all eigenvectors corresponding to a particular eigenvalue of f forms a vector space known as the eigenspace corresponding to the eigenvalue (and f) in question. . The freedom of choosing a convenient basis is particularly useful in the infinitedimensional context. By spelling out the definition of the determinant. . Any nonzero vector v satisfying λv = f(v).18. by the following = (x1 .1 a3. . the corresponding statement in the infinite-dimensional case. see below. such as F = C) any linear map has at least one eigenvector. after choosing bases of V and W. see below. are particularly specifying the linear maps from X to any other vector important since in this case vectors v can be compared space.1 a2. i c h a n g e s . . . using the matrix multiplication of the matrix A with the coordinate vector x: x ↦ Ax. is called an eigenvector of f with eigenvalue λ. BASIC CONSTRUCTIONS 113 dard basis of F n to V.6. x ( ∑ n j=1 or. f(v). a1.1 . Any m-by-n matrix A gives rise to a linear map from F n to F m .3 a3. there are a number of standard linear algebraic constructions that yield vector spaces related to given ones. this can be rephrased using determinants: f having eigenvalue λ is equivalent to det(f − λ · Id) = 0. called the characteristic polynomial of f. the machinery of functional analysis is needed.

[40] Both kernel and image im(f) = {f(v) : v ∈ V} are subspaces of V and W. Expressed in terms of elements. Since differentiation is a linear procedure (i. (f + g)′ = f′ + g ′ and (c·f)′ = c·f′ for a constant c) this assignment is linear. or simply a subspace of V. called a linear differential operator.2 Direct product and direct sum the ambient space is a vector hyperplane. which specify for each index i in some index set I an element vi of Vi. too. The direct product of vector spaces and the direct sum of vector spaces are two ways of combining an indexed family of vector spaces into a new vector space. If the index set I is finite. but in general they are different. thick) in R3 is a linear subspace. A linear subspace of dimension 1 is a vector line.6.3 Tensor product ages is part of the statement that the category of vector spaces (over a fixed field F) is an abelian category. under addition and scalar multiplication (and therefore contains the 0-vector of V) is called a linear subspace of V. In particular. where the coefficients ai are functions in x. of two the category of abelian groups.[nb 8] This way. The kernel of this map is the subspace of vectors x such that Ax = 0.e. It is the intersection of two planes (green and yellow). a Main article: Tensor product of vector spaces corpus of mathematical objects and structure-preserving maps between them (a category) that behaves much like The tensor product V ⊗F W. which is precisely the set of solutions to the system of homogeneous linear equations belonging to A. where only tuples with finitely many nonzero vectors are allowed. A linear subspace that contains all elements but one of a basis of 18. The sum of two such elements v1 + W and v2 + W is (v1 + v2 ) + W. when the ambient space is unambiguously a vector space. . many vector spaces V and W is one of the central notions of The counterpart to subspaces are quotient vector spaces. and the second and third isomorphism theorem can be formulated and proven in a way very similar to the corresponding statements for groups. This concept also extends to linear differential equations 2 n df a0 f +a1 dx +a2 ddxf2 +· · ·+an ddxnf = 0 . An important example is the kernel of a linear map x ↦ Ax for some fixed matrix A. or simply V ⊗ W. The intersection of all subspaces containing a given set S of vectors is called its span.18. it consists of v + W = {v + w : w ∈ W}.e.6.114 18.[43] Addition and scalar multiplication is performed componentwise. and scalar multiplication is given by a · (v + W) = (a · v) + W. of vectors v that are mapped to 0 in W. i.. the quotient space V/W ("V modulo W") is defined as follows: as a set. the two constructions The kernel ker(f) of a linear map f : V → W consists agree.[39] Given any subspace W ⊂ V. A linear subspace of dimension 2 is a vector plane. respectively. where v is an arbitrary vector in V. the solutions to the differential equation D(f) = 0 form a vector space (over R or C). for example). VECTOR SPACE Subspaces and quotient spaces Main articles: Linear subspace and Quotient vector space A nonempty subset W of a vector space V that is closed statements such as the first isomorphism theorem (also called rank–nullity theorem in matrix-related terms) V / ker(f) ≡ im(f).[42] Because of this. ∏ The direct product i∈I Vi of a family of vector spaces Vi consists of the set of all tuples (vi)i ∈ I.[37][nb 7] Subspaces of V are vector spaces (over the same field) in their own right. A line passing through the origin (blue. A variant of this construction is the⨿ direct sum ⊕i∈I Vi (also called coproduct and denoted i∈I Vi ). the quotient space “forgets” information that is contained in the subspace W. In a vector space of finite dimension n.[38] In the corresponding map f 7→ D(f ) = n ∑ i=0 ai di f dxi the derivatives of the function f appear linearly (as opposed to f′′(x)2 . the span is the subspace consisting of all the linear combinations of elements of S. and it is the smallest subspace of V containing the set S. The key point in this definition is that v1 + W = v2 + W if and only if the difference of v1 and v2 lies in W.1 CHAPTER 18.[41] The existence of kernels and im.6. as above. a vector hyperplane is thus a Main articles: Direct product and Direct sum of modules subspace of dimension n – 1.

. 0.[45] This is called the universal property of the tensor product. y⟩ = x · y = x1 y1 + · · · + xn yn . by defining the associated norm |v| := ⟨v. Because of this. That is to say. Ordered vector spaces. there exists a unique map u. Singling out the fourth coordinate—corresponding to time.[44] f = f + − f −. Norms and inner products are denoted |v| and ⟨v. w⟩ . vector spaces are completely understood insofar as any vector space is characterized. These rules ensure that the map f from the V × W to V ⊗ W that maps a tuple (v. 18.7. by the law of cosines: x · y = cos (∠(x. for fixed w the map v ↦ g(v.1 Normed vector spaces and inner product spaces Main articles: Normed vector space and Inner product space Commutative diagram depicting the universal property of the tensor product. + vn ⊗ wn. In R2 . shown in the diagram with a dotted arrow. this reflects the common notion of the angle between two vectors x and y.. v⟩ . linear algebra is not adapted to deal with infinite series. respectively. (v1 + v2 ) ⊗ w = v1 ⊗ w + v2 ⊗ w. 115 terms to be added. [49] In contrast to the standard dot product. However. The universality states that given any vector space X and any bilinear map g : V × W → X. an instance of the method—much used in advanced abstract algebra—to indirectly define objects by specifying maps from or to this object. the needs of functional analysis require considering additional structures. w).[47] 18. which relies on the ability to express a funcsums of symbols called tensors tion as a difference of two positive functions v1 ⊗ w1 + v2 ⊗ w2 + .[48] Coordinate space F n can be equipped with the standard dot product: ⟨x. Therefore. universal recipient of bilinear maps g. it is not positive definite: ⟨x|x⟩ also takes negative values. Vector spaces endowed with such data are known as normed vector spaces and inner product spaces. A vector space may be given a partial order ≤. by its dimension. y⟩ = 0 are called orthogonal. An important variant of the standard dot product is used in Minkowski space: R4 endowed with the Lorentz product ⟨x|y⟩ = x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3 − x4 y4 . which measures angles between vectors. as opposed to three space-dimensions—makes it useful for the mathematical treatment of special relativity. Likewise. A map g : V × W → X is called bilinear if g is linear in both variables v and w. are fundamental to Lebesgue defined as the vector space consisting of finite (formal) integration. y)) · |x| · |y|. for example for x = (0. n-dimensional real space Rn can be ordered by comparThe tensor product is a particular vector space that is a ing its vectors componentwise. up to isomorphism. 0. respectively. subject to the rules a · (v ⊗ w) = (a · v) ⊗ w = v ⊗ (a · w). where a is a scalar. and v ⊗ (w1 + w2 ) = v ⊗ w1 + v ⊗ w2 .18.7 Vector spaces with additional structure From the point of view of linear algebra. w) to v ⊗ w is bilinear.7. VECTOR SPACES WITH ADDITIONAL STRUCTURE multilinear algebra which deals with extending notions such as linear maps to several variables. vector spaces per se do not offer a framework to deal with the question—crucial to analysis—whether a sequence of functions converges to another function. The datum of an inner product entails that lengths of vectors can √be defined too. 1) . . two vectors satisfying ⟨x. as follows. since the addition operation allows only finitely many “Measuring” vectors is done by specifying a norm. It is for example Riesz spaces. w) is linear in the sense above and likewise for fixed v. a datum which measures lengths of vectors. under which some vectors can be compared.[46] For example. whose composition with f equals g: u(v ⊗ w) = g(v. where f + denotes the positive part of f and f − the negative part. or by an inner product.

the following ones are 0. then so do x + y and ax. a common choice Banach and Hilbert spaces are complete topological vector spaces whose topologies are given. √ 2. ∑ i |xi |p ) 1/p for p < ∞ and |x|∞ := is finite. Roughly.1]. and ∞. since all norms on finite-dimensional topological vector spaces give rise to the same notion of ∞ convergence. the |xn |1 = i=1 2−n = 2n · 2−n = 1. 0) = 2−n → 0 . by a are the reals or the complex numbers. a structure that allows one to talk about elements being close to each other. the first 2n A way to ensure the existence of limits of certain in. maps between topological vector spaces are required to be continuous. if x and y in V.[54] The image at the right shows the equiv∑ alence of the 1-norm and ∞-norm on R2 : as the unit fi “balls” enclose each other.components are 2−n .). . a vector space is complete provided ∑2n that it contains all necessary limits. the (topological) dual space V ∗ consists of continuous functionals V → R (or to C). are complete normed vector spaces. Their study—a key piece In such topological vector spaces one can consider series of functional analysis—focusses on infinite-dimensional of vectors.g. The mode of convergence of the series without additional data..[nb 9] To make sense of limn→∞ |vn − v| = 0. instead of considering all linear maps (also called functionals) V → W. For example.e. For vergence are two prominent examples. example. E. which makes the study of to some function space V. the sequence of vectors xn = (2−n . i. 2−n .[50][51] Compatible here means that addition and scalar multiplication have to be continuous maps.[57] A first example is the vector space ℓ p consisting of infinite vectors with real entries x = (x1 . a sequence converges to zero i=0 denotes the limit of the corresponding finite partial sums in one norm if and only if it so does in the other norm.topological vector spaces should match the topology. The bigger diamond depicts points of 1-norm equal to 2 . for p = 1.. the fi could be (real or complex) functions belonging ally be inequivalent topologies. in which case the series is a topological vector spaces richer than that of vector spaces function series. VECTOR SPACE Topological vector spaces Main article: Topological vector space vector space of polynomials on the unit interval [0. all notions related to In such cases. but complete. such a vector space is called |xn |∞ = sup(2−n . The fundamental Hahn–Banach theorem is concerned with separating subspaces of appropriate topological vector spaces by continuous functionals. introduced by Stefan Banach. 0. . equipped with the topology of uniform convergence is not complete because any continuous function on [0. the space of all continuous functions on [0.the infinite-dimensional case. 2−n . there will generple.[55] In particular. The topologies on the infinite-dimensional space ℓ p are inequivalent for different p.. by the Weierstrass approximation theorem.1] can be uniformly approximated by a sequence of polynomials. depends on the topology imposed on the function space.[52] In contrast. however. . respectively. norm and an inner product. For exam..) whose p-norm (1 ≤ p ≤ ∞) given by |x|p := ( supi |xi | Unit “spheres” in R2 consist of plane vectors of norm 1.. converges finite series is to restrict attention to spaces where any to the zero vector for p = ∞. specifying the amount a scalar changes. x2 . Roughly. . and a in F vary by a bounded amount.[56] 2 Banach spaces 1 Main article: Banach space ∞ Banach spaces. but does not for p = 1: Cauchy sequence has a limit. In of the sequence (fi)i∈N of elements of V.1] with the same topology is complete.. 0. Depicted are the unit spheres in different p-norms.. pointwise convergence and uniform con. From a conceptual point of view. the field F also has to carry a topology in this context.[53] A norm gives rise to a topology by defining that a sequence of vectors vn converges to v if and only if Convergence questions are treated by considering vector spaces V carrying a compatible topology. The infinite sum vector spaces.2 CHAPTER 18.116 18.7.

or. in the noted Lp (Ω). The Stone– ∫ Weierstrass theorem mentioned above. in abstract Hilbert spaces. Early Their multiplication is both commutative and associative. Conversely. the space is not com. The succeeding snapshots show summation of 1 to 5 terms in approximating a periodic function (blue) by finite sum of sine functions (red). whose solutions are called wavefunctions. de. Such plete. in a Hilbert space any Cauchy sequence converges to a limit. The Complete inner product spaces are known as Hilbert spectral theorem decomposes a linear compact operator acting on functions in terms of these eigenfunctions and their eigenvalues. the timeImposing boundedness conditions not only on the func. bras stem from functions on some geometrical object: 2 L (Ω).[66] Definite values for physical Hilbert spaces properties such as energy. where g(x) denotes the complex conjugate of Commutative algebra makes great use of rings of polyg(x). often lim |f (x) − fk (x)|p dx = 0. By definition.3 Algebras over fields Main articles: Algebra over a field and Lie algebra General vector spaces do not possess a multiplication between vectors.[58] (If one sense that the closure of their span (i.. and is much applied in Ω engineering. or momentum. its cardinalintegration theory. finite linear comuses the Riemann integral instead. what baequipped with this norm are called Lebesgue spaces.. a great many fields in physics and engineering lead to such equations and frequently solutions with particular ∫ physical properties are used as basis functions.[59] describes the change of physical properties in time by means of a partial differential equation.[61][nb 12] is a key case.sic vectors suffice to generate a Hilbert space H. VECTOR SPACES WITH ADDITIONAL STRUCTURE 117 More generally than sequences of real numbers.e. For example. A vector space equipped with an additional bilinear operator defining the multiplication of [68] Many alge[60] spaces. re⟨f . and “basic functions”.[nb 10] These spaces are complete.dependent Schrödinger equation in quantum mechanics tion. is equally crucial.binations and limits of those) is the whole space. n→∞ Ω finite-dimensional Euclidean space. g⟩ = f (x)g(x) dx.[69] . More generally. which may be seen as a justification for Lebesgue’s a set of functions is called a basis of H.18. and more conThe space of integrable functions on a given domain ceptually. nomials in one or several variables. . correspond to eigenvalues of a certain (linear) differential operator and Main article: Hilbert space the associated wavefunctions are called eigenstates.7. finding a sequence of functions fn with desirable properties that approximates a given limit function. every continuous function on [a. the theorem yields a simple description of what Ω (for example an interval) satisfying | f |p < ∞. because they are rings of functions of algebraic geometric objects. monly called Fourier expansion. b] can be approximated as closely as desired by a polynomial. but also on its derivatives leads to Sobolev spaces. estabf: Ω → R are endowed with a norm that replaces the lished an approximation of differentiable functions f by above sum by the Lebesgue integral polynomials. for example.[65] As an example from physics.[63] A similar ap(∫ )1/p proximation technique by trigonometric functions is com|f |p := |f (x)|p dx . The Hilbert space two vectors is an algebra over a field. there exists a function f(x) belonging to the vector space The solutions to various differential equations can be Lp (Ω) such that interpreted in terms of Hilbert spaces. k→∞ Ω orthogonal. f 2 . it enables one to construct a basis of orthogonal vectors. in honor of David Hilbert.. lies on Banach algebras which are both Banach spaces Ω and algebras.[nb 11] ) Concretely this means that for ity is known as the Hilbert space dimension.[64] Such orthogonal bases are ∫ p the Hilbert space generalization of the coordinate axes in lim |fk (x) − fn (x)| dx = 0 k.[67] 18. only does the theorem exhibit suitable basis functions as with | fn |p < ∞. functions analysis. introduced above. satisfying the condition sufficient for approximation purposes. with inner product given by since functions with values in a given field can be multiplied pointwise. these entities form algebras. in the guise of the Taylor approximation. see below.[62] By the Stone–Weierstrass theorem. These rings and their quotients form the basis of algebraic geometry.7.[nb 13] Not any sequence of Lebesgue-integrable functions f 1 . but together with the Gram-Schmidt process.

⊗ vn. denoted by δ. x]] + [z. Main article: Distribution A distribution (or generalized function) is a linear map assigning a number to each “test” function. The coordinate ring of functions on this hyperbola is given by R[x. it is spanned by symbols. VECTOR SPACE 18. which associates to a test function f its value at the p: δ(f) = f(p). eral. When Ω = {p}. and sor product ⊗. [y. given by the equation x y = 1.118 CHAPTER 18. this with [x. Therefore. x] (anticommutativity).some cases be proven to be actually a true function.[73] Representation theory fruitfully transfers the good understanding of linear algebra and vector spaces to other mathematical domains such as group theory. [z. called simple of distributions.[72] When a field.. [x.smooth function with compact support.1 Distributions A hyperbola.Milgram theorem.8. much the same way as with the tensor a solution to the original equation (e. A standard example is the result of integrating a test func• [x. the commutator of two matrices. They provide a framework to deal with analytical and geometrical problems. a common term used is F-algebra. z]] + [y. using the Lax– a consequence of the Riesz represenproduct of two vector spaces introduced above. so that more flexible methods are available for solving the equation. reduces to the Dirac distribution.8. The found solution can then in requiring that scalar multiplication commute with the ten. Forcing two such elements to be equal leads to the symmetric algebra.be used to find solutions of the equation with prescribed bols. This list is not exhaustive: many more applications exist. the equation in question can tensors be transferred to a distribution space. The minimax theorem of game theory stating the existence of a unique payoff when all players play optimally can be formulated and proven using vector spaces methods.tial equations. but also all its higher derivatives. Distributions are a powerful instrument to solve differenThe tensor algebra T(V) is a formal way of adding prod. In gen. Green’s functions and fundamental solutions are usually distributions rather than proper functions. or are used in the Fourier transform. the set consisting of a single point. but the failure to be so way: in the above terminology the space of distributions is limited by the constraints ([x. y] = −[y. and R3 . Since all standard analytic notions such as ucts to any vector space V to obtain an algebra. y] = xy − yx. [76] tation theorem). endowed with the cross product.[74] 18. they extend naturally to the space a vector space.[75] The x and y): latter space is endowed with a topology that takes into account not only f itself. for example in optimization.g..[71] As derivatives are linear. in a continuous ther commutative nor associative. whereas forcing v1 ⊗ v2 = − v2 ⊗ v1 18. Fourier analysis Main article: Fourier analysis Resolving a periodic function into a sum of trigonometric . Ω Examples include the vector space of n-by-n matrices. there are no relations between v ⊗ v and v ⊗ 1 2 2 v1 . y] denotes the product of is the (continuous) dual of the test function space. imposing the distributive law under addition. y]] = 0 (Jacobi iden∫ tity). which is bigger than the underlying function space.2 yields the exterior algebra. y] / (x · y − 1). typically a Another crucial example are Lie algebras. F is explicitly stated. namely wherever functions with values in some field are involved.8 Applications Vector spaces have manifold applications as they occur in many circumstances. v1 ⊗ v2 ⊗ . an infinite-dimensional vector space over R. and can then The multiplication is given by concatenating such sym..[70] I(f ) = f (x) dx. and boundary conditions. and tion f over some domain Ω: • [x. which are nei. For example. where the degree n varies.

In this case the Fourier series is finite and its value is equal to the sampled values at all points.[78] The Fourier expansion of an L2 function f is 18. it yields the classical Fourier transform.[94] Derived therefrom.8. The tangent space is the generalization to higher-dimensional differentiable manifolds. = In physical terms the function is represented as a superposition of sine waves and the coefficients give information about the function’s frequency spectrum. bm ∫ 1 2π π 0 f (t) sin(mt) dt.[91][92] The heat equation describes the dissipation of physical properties over time.[83] In 1822.9. a technique much used in physics and engineering.[93] Riemannian manifolds are manifolds whose tangent spaces are endowed with a suitable inner product. the Riemann curvature tensor encodes all curvatures of a manifold in one object.[81] Applied to the group R. for which the functions sin mx and cos mx (m an integer) form an orthogonal basis.[95][96] The tangent space of a Lie group can be given naturally the structure of a Lie algebra and can be used to classify compact Lie groups. vector space whose origin is identified with the point of contact. The tangent space to the 2-sphere at some point is the infinite plane touching the sphere in this point. where the underlying group is a finite-dimensional real vector space endowed with the additional datum of a lattice encoding positions of atoms in crystals.18. The tangent plane is the best linear approximation.[85] The set of coefficients is known as the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of the given sample sequence.[82] Fourier series are used to solve boundary value problems in partial differential equations.[84] A discrete version of the Fourier series can be used in sampling applications where the function value is known only at a finite number of equally spaced points. such as the decline of the temperature of a hot body placed in a colder environment (yellow depicts colder regions than red).[97] 18. a field whose applications include radar.[88] It is used not only for calculating the Fourier coefficients but. there is typically no natural way to prescribe a basis of the tangent plane. or linearization. image compression. using the convolution theorem.[86] The JPEG image format is an application of the closely related discrete cosine transform.[79] The concrete formulae above are consequences of a more general mathematical duality called Pontryagin duality.[80] A complex-number form of Fourier series is also commonly used.3 Differential geometry Main article: Tangent space The tangent plane to a surface at a point is naturally a ∞ ∑ a0 + [am cos (mx) + bm sin (mx)] . and are calculated by the formulas[79] ∫ 2π am = π1 0 f (t) cos(mt) dt . for example. 2 m=1 The coefficients am and bm are called Fourier coefficients of f.[87] The fast Fourier transform is an algorithm for rapidly computing the discrete Fourier transform. GENERALIZATIONS 119 speech encoding. functions forms a Fourier series.[nb 15] Even in a three-dimensional Euclidean space. which finds applications in general relativity. The DFT is one of the key tools of digital signal processing. and so it is conceived of as an abstract vector space rather than a real coordinate space. of a surface at a point. Fourier first used this technique to solve the heat equation. where the Einstein curvature tensor describes the matter and energy content of space-time.[nb 14][77] The underlying vector space is usually the Hilbert space L2 (0. also for computing the convolution of two finite sequences.9 Generalizations . 2π).[89] They in turn are applied in digital filters[90] and as a rapid multiplication algorithm for polynomials and large integers (SchönhageStrassen algorithm). an application in physics are reciprocal lattices.

since there is a global nonzero vector field on S 1 . abelian group) Z/2Z shows.[102] The algebro-geometric interpretation of commutative rings via their spectrum allows the development π: E→X of concepts such as locally free modules. Vec. are not specified. compared to 1 UxR that of vector spaces. For example. the projection X × V → X makes the product X × V into a “trivial” vector bundle. Main articles: Affine space and Projective space there is a neighborhood U of x such that the restriction of Roughly. the cotangent space. yield modules.120 CHAPTER 18. Sections of that bundle are known as differential one-forms.[98] Properties of certain vector bundles provide information about the underlying topological space. because the latter is orientable whereas the former is not. a vector space is an affine space over itself. the bundle need not be (globally isomorphic to) the trivial bundle X × V). of the dual of the tangent space. an affine space is a set with a free transitive vector space action. as the Zmodule (i. VECTOR SPACE 18. such that for every x in X. by the hairy ball theorem.[99] K-theory studies the isomorphism classes of all vector bundles over some topological space. Nevertheless. For example. by the map . the quaternions H and the A vector bundle is a family of vector spaces parametrized octonions O. The tangent bundle of the circle S 1 is globally isomorphic to S 1 × R. different from the cylinder S 1 × R. free modules. such as the classification of finite-dimensional Main articles: Vector bundle and Tangent bundle real division algebras: R. the tangent bundle consists of the collection of tangent spaces parametrized by the points of a differentiable manifold.3 Affine and projective spaces tor bundles over X are required to be locally a product of X and some (fixed) vector space V: for every x in X. is complicated by the presence of ring elements that do not have multiplicative inverses.2 Modules U Main article: Module Modules are to rings what vector spaces are to fields: the same axioms.9. The case dim V = 1 is called a line bundle. For any vector space V. The cotangent bundle of a differentiable manifold consists. it has purely algebraic consequences.. the Möbius strip can be seen as a line bundle over the circle S 1 (by identifying open intervals with the real line).9. however. applied to a ring R instead of a field F. modules need not have bases. there is no (tangent) vector field on the 2-sphere S 2 which is everywhere nonzero. Some authors use the term vector space to mean modules over a division with a continuous map ring.e.18.1 Vector bundles and geometrical insight. it looks like U × R.[103] More precisely.. those modules that do (including all vector spaces) are known as A Möbius strip. affine spaces are vector spaces whose origins π to π−1 (U) is isomorphic[nb 16] to the trivial bundle U × V → U. at every point of the manifold.9. It is a two-dimensional subspace shifted by a vector x (red). U For example. In particular.[nb 17] In contrast. Despite their locally trivial character. a vector space can be comcontinuously by a topological space X.e. C. the fiber π (x) is a vector space.[101] The theory of modules. It is.[93] More precisely. Locally. pactly defined as a module over a ring which is a field a vector bundle over X is a topological space E equipped with the elements being called vectors. 1 S 18. the algebraic −1 counterpart to vector bundles. vector bundles may (depending on the shape of the underlying space X) be “twisted” in the large (i.[100] In addition to deepening topological An affine plane (light blue) in R3 .

Dover. for a list of various kinds of vectors 18. A History of Vector Analysis: The Evolution of the Idea of a Vectorial System.12. the technique can be applied to any L2 function on an interval by considering the function to be continued periodically outside the interval. p. 8. such as the tangent bundle of S 1 is trivial if and only if there is a section that vanishes nowhere. [5] The nomenclature derives from German "eigen". the plane passing through the point of contact P such that the distance from a point P 1 on the surface to the plane is infinitesimally small compared to the distance from P 1 to P in the limit as P 1 approaches P along the surface. Dudley 1989. see Husemoller 1994. 601 [15] That is to say (BSE-3 2001). ch.18. p. [4] Bourbaki 1969. 18. 78–91 [6] Roman 2005. then an affine subspace is a subset of W obtained by translating a linear subspace V by a [9] This requirement implies that the topology gives rise to a fixed vector x ∈ W. [1] Roman 2005. Corollary 8. a) ↦ a + v. 125 The set of one-dimensional subspaces of a fixed finitedimensional vector space V is known as projective space. 140. and the orthogonal decomposition would not apply to them. Lp (Ω) is not a Hilbert space. context of functions one has to identify functions that agree almost everywhere to get a norm. while an affine subspace does not necessarily contain it. [5] Bolzano 1804 [7] This is typically the case when a vector space is also considered as an affine space. ch. [17] A line bundle. FOOTNOTES V × V → V.”. and not only a seminorm. It does not assert the associativity of either operation. “Algèbre linéaire et algèbre multilinéaire”. but most of the theory is unchanged for an arbitrary field. If W is a vector space. This shows one of the advantages of Lebesgue integration.11 Notes [1] It is also common. §5. Bourbaki 1989. [3] Bourbaki 1998. cannot be integrated with the classical Riemann integral. and field multiplication: ab. dimension k and flags of subspaces. In this case. p.[105] Grassmannians and flag manifolds [13] A basis of a Hilbert space is not the same thing as a basis in the sense of linear algebra above.12 Footnotes [3] Some authors (such as Brown 1991) restrict attention to the fields R or C. [11] “Many functions in L2 of Lebesgue measure. ISBN 0-486-67910-1 . Bourbaki calls the group homomorphisms f(a) homotheties.[104] The space of solutions is the affine subspace x + V where x is a particular solution of the equation. it may be used to formalize the idea of parallel lines intersecting at infinity. for example. ch. The sections of the tangent bundle are just vector fields. ch. See Kreyszig 1988.10 See also • Vector (mathematics and physics). it is a monoid action. p. in the solutions of a system of inhomogeneous linear equations Ax = b generalizing the homogeneous case b = 0 above. being unbounded. [2] van der Waerden 1993. [16] That is. 121 [8] Some authors (such as Roman 2005) choose to start with this equivalence relation and derive the concrete shape of V/W from this. the generalize this by parametrizing linear subspaces of fixed latter is then called a Hamel basis. For technical reasons. 19 [6] Möbius 1827 [7] Crowe. [12] For p ≠2. respectively. Ch. 27 [4] The indicator functions of intervals (of which there are infinitely many) are linearly independent. More formally. p. §II.3. to denote vectors with an arrow on top: ⃗v . this space is denoted by x + V (it is uniform structure.1. Combined with the axiom of the identity element of scalar multiplication. which means own or proper. For distinction. [2] This axiom refers to two different operations: scalar multiplication: bv. and V is the space of solutions of the homogeneous equation (the nullspace of A). II a coset of V in W) and consists of all vectors of the form x + v for v ∈ V. pp. scalar multiplication is the semigroup action of the scalars on the vector space. An important example is the space of [10] The triangle inequality for |−|p is provided by the Minkowski inequality. a linear subspace contains the zero vector. Michel J. So spaces of Riemann integrable functions would not be complete in the L2 norm. especially in physics. (v.1. See also Jordan–Chevalley decomposition. (1994). 18.3. there is a homeomorphism from π−1 (U) to V × U which restricts to linear isomorphisms between fibers. 1. 11 and 16. [14] Although the Fourier series is periodic.

1 [54] Choquet 1966. 52 [61] Dennery 1996.3. Proposition III. pp.7 [34] Lang 1987.3 [30] Lang 1987. p. Corollary. ch. XII. p. 11 [20] Halpern 1966. Chapter 11 [28] Lang 1987. V.3. p. 4. VECTOR SPACE [8] Hamilton 1853 [46] Schaefer & Wolff 1999. 150 [41] Roman 2005.1.6. 12 [23] Stewart 1975. Ex. 6. Th.4. ch. p.5-5 [16] Lang 1987. 1. ch. 1. See also Yoneda lemma.1 [26] Lang 1987. §4. §1. 9 [11] Banach 1922 [49] Naber 2003. Corollary. XI.11-5 [15] e. Theorem 11. p. 2. p. ch.8.8 [35] Roman 2005.1 [38] Roman 2005. 135–156 [73] Luenberger 1997. 335 [53] Kreyszig 1989. Th.1 [52] Kreyszig 1989. IV. Example IV. ch. ch. ch.9. Theorem VII. p. Ch. 670–673 [58] Treves 1967.5. IX.3. p. p.4. ch. Th. 349 [25] Roman 2005.3. pp. 3. XVI. Theorem 3. 2. 35 [76] Evans 1998.1 [39] Roman 2005.190 [24] Stewart 1975. I. p. ch. §4. Cor. 48 [79] Gasquet & Witomski 1999.. ch.5 and 2.122 CHAPTER 18. V. p. ch.6.1. 291 [60] Treves 1967. 102 [21] Artin 1991. 29 [75] Lang 1993. VI. Lang 1993. ch. Ch. 106 [64] Choquet 1966. 14. ch. p.2.3.1. 64 [77] Folland 1992. VI. ch. [78] Gasquet & Witomski 1999. ch. p. 45 [63] Lang 1993. p. ch.6 [66] Griffiths 1995. 198 [72] Lang 2002. ch.6 [65] Kreyszig 1999. ch. XVI. 1. 5 [22] Braun 1993. Theorem IV.3. pp. 5 [45] Roman 2005. p. ch. Theorem 1. ch.1 [51] Bourbaki 1987 [14] Lang 2002.13 [36] Lang 1987.1. Ch. 9 [67] Lang 1993.2. ch. 204–205 [9] Grassmann 2000 [47] Bourbaki 2004. 1.2.. 49 [69] Eisenbud 1995.6 [32] Lang 1987. §7.11 [27] Lang 1987. 28. 8. ch. IV. 106 [71] Lang 2002. XIII. 1. ch. 349 ff [40] Lang 1987.g. ch. ch.13 [59] Evans 1998.9. 2. 34–36 [18] Roman 2005. 48 [10] Peano 1888.2. Lemma III.2 [12] Dorier 1995. VII [44] Lang 2002. p. 3. p.2 [17] Lang 1987. 2. 31–32 [81] Loomis 1953. XVI. 95 [68] Lang 2002. 69 [19] Blass 1984 [57] Treves 1967. ch. [55] Treves 1967.1 [82] Ashcroft & Mermin 1976. III. Proposition 4.5. ch. p. p. ch. ch. 74 [62] Lang 1993. p. Th. Chapter 1 [29] Halmos 1974. 121 [31] Roman 2005. Theorem 6. p. XVII. 667 .2.4 [74] See representation theory and group representation. p. p. IX [48] Roman 2005. p. [83] Kreyszig 1988. [37] Roman 2005. III. ch. Th.1 [70] Varadarajan 1974 [33] Lang 1987. p.16. ch. 57 [43] Roman 2005. Th. 43 [56] Lang 1983. p. IX. p.7. Moore 1995 [50] Treves 1967 [13] Lang 1987.3. V. p.5 [42] Mac Lane 1998 [80] Gasquet & Witomski 1999.

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Galois Theory. A Comprehensive Introduction to Differential Geometry (Volume Two). H. Paul R. London: Chapman and Hall. Ian (1975). Dale (1994). Guy. Charles W. ISBN 978-0-387-90093-3 • Halpern. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-412-60610-0 • Griffiths. ISBN 978-0-471-18117-0 • Mac Lane. ISBN 978-0-7167-0344-0 • Naber. ISBN 9781-55608-010-4 • A lecture about fundamental concepts related to vector spaces (given at MIT) • A graphical simulator for the concepts of span. xiv+352. base and dimension . ed. doi:10. (1974). IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 38 (1): xviii–xxxiv. Graduate Texts in Mathematics 150. New York: Dover Publications. Berlin. Chapman and Hall Mathematics Series. London: Chapman and Hall. MR 1269324 18. James D. W. MR 2044239 • Stewart. “A proof of the hairy ball theorem”. Gravitation. ISBN 978-3-540-25907-7 • Kreyszig. (2001). New York: Springer-Verlag.. Houston. ISBN 0-412-10800-3 • Varadarajan. David (1997). New York: Springer-Verlag. Jürgen (2005). ISSN 0098-3063 • Weibel. Berlin. JSTOR 2035388 • Husemoller. Volker (1971). Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics 38. doi:10. V. Kip. doi:10. G.). Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. (1974). Wheeler. Thorne. (1994). The geometry of Minkowski spacetime. Michael (1999). doi:10. John Archibald (1973). MR 1322960 • Spivak. ISBN 978-0-387-98403-2 • Misner.125072.14. Classic Set Theory: A guided independent study (1st ed. (1995). The American Mathematical Monthly (Mathematical Association of America) 86 (7): 572–574. Erwin (1999). Saunders (1998). An introduction to homological algebra. Derek (1996)..). Freeman. Differential geometry. New York: Springer-Verlag.2307/2035388. Categories for the Working Mathematician (2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag. A. NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-471-15496-2 • Luenberger. Riemannian Geometry and Geometric Analysis (4th ed. ISBN 9780-486-66721-8 • Kreyszig.). Strassen. ISBN 0-13-124405-1 • Halmos. EXTERNAL LINKS 125 • Eisenberg.1109/30. Michiel.14 External links • Hazewinkel. TX: Publish or Perish • Goldrei. Computing (in German) 7: 281–292. Charles A. S. Erwin (1991). Gregory L. ISBN 978-0-521-55987-4. Springer. Robert (1979). ISBN 978-0-486-43235-9. Upper Saddle River. Finite-dimensional vector spaces. pp.K. Prentice Hall. Berlin. Optimization by vector space methods. David (1995). David J. ISBN 978-0-387-94269-8. Advanced Engineering Mathematics (8th ed. (Feb 1992). Berlin. JSTOR 2320587 • Schönhage. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society (American Mathematical Society) 17 (3): 670–673. Murray. (2003). Berlin. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0387-94087-8 • Jost. “Vector space”. New York: Springer-Verlag. “Bases in Vector Spaces and the Axiom of Choice”. Fibre Bundles (3rd ed. OCLC 36131259. Lie algebras. New York: Dover Publications.). (Jun 1966). linear dependency. Commutative algebra.1007/bf02242355. “Schnelle Multiplikation großer Zahlen (Fast multiplication of big numbers)" (PDF).2307/2320587. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Lie groups.18.). “The JPEG still picture compression standard”. ISSN 0010485X • Eisenbud. ISBN 9780-13-535732-3 • Wallace. and their representations.

2 Non-examples • A direct product of two or more nonzero rings always has nonzero zero divisors. 0 z 0 0 0 0 An element of a ring that is not a zero divisor is called and it is a right zero divisor iff z is even for similar regular. a2. right shift R(a1. All three of • An idempotent element e ̸= 1 of a ring is always a these additive maps are not zero... with pointwise addition and composition as the • In the ring Z/4Z . x y 0 1 0 x iff x is even.. and the projection map onto the first factor two-sided zero divisor.1 Examples . z is 0 .. If there are no nontrivial zero divisors in R. If either of x.. .) Three examples of elements of this ring are the • The only zero divisor of the ring Z of integers is 0. . ( )( ) ( ) Then that ya = 0. z ∈ Z and y ∈ Z/2Z . a3. 0. this ring is a field. z ( 0 )( ) ( ) then the left and right zero divisors are the same. an element a of a ring is 0 z called a right zero divisor if there exists a nonzero y such with x. a3. For example.[2] Similarly. 126 • The ring of integers modulo a prime number has no zero divisors other than 0. .. in R1 × R2 with each Ri nonzero. since e(1 − e) = 0 = (1 − ites LP and P R are both zero.. a2... so (1. then it is a two-sided nonzero is called a nonzero zero divisor or a nontrivial zero-divisor.0). the residue class 2 is a zero divisor ring operations.[3] An element a that is both a left a b x y xa ya + zb = . If and a right zero divisor is called a two-sided zero divisor 0 c 0 z zc ( )0 (the nonzero x such that ax = 0 may be different from the x y x = ̸ 0 ̸= y .[1] or equivalently if the map from R to R that sends x x y • Consider the ring of (formal) matrices to ax is not injective. since 2 × 2 = 4 = 0 .1. zero divisor. Take for the ring all additive maps from S to S . while LR = 1 is not in any direction.) = (0. .) = (a2. a4. Let S be the set of all sequences of integers (a1. . 1 1 1 1 −2 1 1 1 0 0 = = .1) = (0. Note also that RL is ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) a two-sided zero-divisor since RLP = 0 = P RL . divisor and R is a right zero divisor in the ring of additive maps from S to S .1 One-sided zero-divisor left zero divisor if there exists a nonzero x such that ax ( ) = 0. L is not a • Examples of zero divisors in the ring of 2 × 2 maright zero divisor and R is not a left zero divisor: the trices (over any nonzero ring) are shown here: composite LR is the identity.) . Since every nonzero element is a unit. a2. 0. a2. . a3. P (a1. then R is a division ring • Here is another example of a ring with an element that is a zero divisor on one side only.) • A nilpotent element of a nonzero ring is always a . However.. a1... and the compostwo-sided zero divisor. then is a left zero divisor nonzero y such that ya = 0). If the ring is commutative. (That is. (1. an element a of a ring R is called a 19.Chapter 19 Zero divisor In abstract algebra.) 19. since = .. . x y a b xa xb + yc = and An element that is a left or a right zero divisor is simply 0 z)( 0 c) 0 zc ) ( ( called a zero divisor.0)(0. a3. .) . A zero divisor that is reasons. This is a partial case of divisibility in rings. our ring is End(S) . the endomorphism ring of the additive group S .. so L is a left zero e)e .0) is a zero divisor. the left shift L(a1. 2 2 −1 −1 −2 1 2 2 0 0 ( )( ) ( )( 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 = 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 ) ( = 0 0 0 0 ) 19.) = (a1. a3. or a non-zero-divisor. a2.

in which x differs from y. then 0 = a−1 0 = a−1 ax = x. 19. American Mathematical Soc. 98. they are precisely the singular matrices. (This.[4] The set of M-regular except 0.6 See also • Zero-product property • Glossary of commutative algebra (Exact zero divisor) 19. • In a commutative Noetherian ring R. ISBN 1-4020-2690-0 • Charles Lanski (2005). Springer. p. p. and let a be an element of R. “Zero divisor”. then 0 is not a zero divisor. ISBN 9781-55608-010-4 • Michiel Hazewinkel. Such properties are needed in order to make the following general statements true: • In a nonzero commutative ring R. In the ring of n-by-n matrices over an integral domain. because there is no nonzero element that when multiplied by 0 yields 0. let M be an R-module. 19. because the definition applies also in this case: • If R is a ring other than the zero ring. 342 • Hideyuki Matsumura (1980).[5] • A nonzero commutative ring whose only zero divisor Specializing the definitions of “M-regular” and “zero divisor on M” to the case M = R recovers the definitions of is 0 is called an integral domain. “Zero Divisor”. “regular” and “zero divisor” given earlier in this article. ed. Concepts in Abstract Algebra. we have ax = ay. because if a is invertible and ax = 0.) The same is true of the set of non-leftzero-divisors and the set of non-right-zero-divisors in an arbitrary ring. SEE ALSO 127 • More generally. whereas x must be nonzero. elements is a multiplicative set in R. the set of nonzero-divisors is a multiplicative set in R. Nadezhda Mikhaĭlovna Gubareni. a division ring has no zero divisors is a zero divisor on M otherwise. (2001). Springer-Verlag. • Left or right zero divisors can never be units. because 0 · 1 = 0 and 1 · 0 = 0. Kirichenko. (2004). the left and right zero divisors coincide. 2nd edition. One says that a is M-regular if a the multiplication by a map M →M is injective. Nadiya Gubareni. 19. [4] Matsumura.7 Notes [1] See Bourbaki. Vol. Eric W.8 References • N. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. [3] See Lanski (2005). Bourbaki (1989). MathWorld. 12 [5] Matsumura. p. • Hazewinkel. Chapters 1–3. Algebra I. Springer. but then they must introduce exceptions in the two general statements just made. in which 0 = 1. Michiel. in turn. 12 19.. commutative or not. rings and modules. • Weisstein. • If R is the zero ring. Commutative algebra. 19. Some references choose to exclude 0 as a zero divisor by convention. and that a [2] Since the map is not injective. Algebras.5 Zero divisor on a module Let R be a commutative ring. the set of zero divisors is the union of the associated prime ideals of R.4 Zero as a zero divisor There is no need for a separate convention regarding the case a = 0.6. the zero divisors are precisely the matrices with determinant zero. . Inc. Vladimir V.19. then 0 is a (two-sided) zero divisor. is important for the definition of the total quotient ring. and thus a(x-y) = 0.. p.3 Properties • In the ring of n-by-n matrices over a field. 1.

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