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CHEMISTRY INVESTOGATORY PROJECTDETERMINATION OF VARIOUS CONTENTS OF COLD

DRINKS

Contents
Introduction
Theory
Aim
Apparatus
Chemicals Required
Detection of pH
Test for Carbon Dioxide
Test for Glucose
Test for Phosphate
Test for Alcohol
Test for Sucrose
Result
XIII. Precautions
XIV. Conclusion
Bibliography

Introduction*

The era of cold drinks began in 1952 but the industrialization in


India marked its beginning with the launching of Limca and
Goldspot by parley group of companies. Since, the beginning of
cold drinks was highly profitable and luring, many multinational

companies launched their brands in India like Pepsi and Coke.


Now days, it is observed in general that majority of people
viewed Sprite, Fanta and Limca to give feeling of lightness,
while Pepsi and Thumps Up to activate pulse and brain.

*Theory*
Cold drinks of different brands are composed of
alcohol, carbohydrates, carbon dioxide, phosphate
ions etc. These soft drinks give feeling of warmth,
lightness and have a tangy taste which is liked by
everyone. Carbon dioxide is responsible for the
formation of froth on shaking the bottle. The carbon
dioxide gas is dissolved in water to form carbonic
acid which is also responsible for the tangy taste.
Carbohydrates are the naturally occurring organic
compounds and are major source of energy to our
body.
General formula of carbohydrates is CX (H2O)Y.
On the basis of their molecule size carbohydrates are
classified as:- Monosaccharide, Disaccharides and
Polysaccharides.
Glucose is a monosaccharide with formula
C6H12O6.

It occurs in Free State in the ripen grapes in bones


and also in many sweet fruits. It is also present in
human blood to the extent of about 0.1%. Sucrose is
one of the most useful disaccharides in our daily life.
It is widely distributed in nature in juices, seeds and
also in flowers of many plants. The main source of
sucrose is sugar cane juice which contain 15-20 %
sucrose and sugar beet which has about 10-17 %
sucrose. The molecular formula of sucrose is
C12H22O11. It is produced by a mixture of glucose
and fructose. It is non-reducing in nature whereas
glucose is reducing. Cold drinks are a bit acidic in
nature and their acidity can be measured by finding
their pH value. The pH values also depend upon the
acidic contents such as citric acid and phosphoric
acid
.

*Aim*
Comparative and Quantitive analysis of contents of following
cold drinks:1. Coca Cola
2. Limca
3. Sprite
4. Fanta
5. Mountain dew

*Apparatus*

Test Tubes
Test Tube Holder
Test Tube Stand
Stop Watch
Beaker
Bunsen Burner
pH Paper
Tripod Stand
China Dish
Wire Gauge
Water Bath

*Chemicals Required*

Iodine Solution
Potassium Iodide
Sodium Hydroxide
Lime Water
Fehlings A & B Solution
Concentrated Nitric Acid
Benedict Solution
Ammonium Molybdate

*Detection Of pH*
Experiment Small samples of cold drinks of different brands
were taken in a test tube and put on the pH paper.

The change in colour of pH paper was noticed and was


compared with standard pH scale.
Sr no.
1
2
3
4
5

Name of Cold Drink


Coca Cola
Limca
Sprite
Fanta
Mountain Dew

Colour Observed
Pink
Dark Orange
Light Orange
Pale Orange
Dark Yellow

pH value
2.3
4
3.1
3.5
3.2

Inference
Soft Drinks are generally acidic because of the presence of
citric acid and phosphoric acid.
pH values of cold drinks of different brand are different due to
the variation in amount of acidic content.

*Test For Carbon Dioxide*


Experiment
As soon as the bottles were opened, one by one the samples
were passed through lime water. The lime water turned milky.
Sr. No
1
2
3
4
5

Name of cold
drink
Coca Cola
Limca
Sprite
Fanta
Mountain Dew

Time taken
(in seconds)
28
38
20
36
30

Conclusion
C02 is present
C02 is present
C02 is present
C02 is present
C02 is present

Inference
All the soft drinks contain dissolved carbon dioxide in water.
The carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves in water to form carbonic
acid, which is responsible for its tangy taste. Chemical Reaction
Ca(OH)2 (s) + CO2 (g) CaCO3 (s) + H2O(l)

*Test For Glucose*


Experiment
Glucose is a reducing sugar acid. Its presence is detected by the
following test:-

1.Benedicts Reagent Test


Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a
test tube and a few drops of Benedicts reagent were added. The
test tube was heated for few seconds. Formation of reddish color
confirmed the presence of glucose in cold drinks.
Sr. no
1

Name of Cold Drink


Coca cola

Limca

Sprite

Fanta

Mountain Dew

Observation
Reddish brown
Precipitate
Reddish brown
Precipitate
Reddish brown
Precipitate
Reddish brown
Precipitate
Reddish brown
Precipitate

Conclusion
Glucose is present
Glucose is present
Glucose is present
Glucose is present
Glucose is present

Inference
All the samples gave positive test for glucose with Benedicts
reagent. Hence all the drinks contain glucose.

2. Fehlings Solution Test


Small samples of cold drinks of different brands were taken in a
test tube and a few drops of Fehlings A solution and Fehlings
B solution was added in equal amount. The test tube was heated
in water bath for 10 minutes. Appearance of brown precipitate
confirmed the presence of glucose in cold drinks.
[Same as Benedicts observation]

Inference
All samples gave positive test for glucose with Fehlings (A &
B) solutions. Hence all the cold drinks contain glucose.

*Test For Phosphate*


Experiment

Small samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in


separate test tubes and Ammonium Molybdate followed by
concentrated Nitric Acid (HNO3) was added to it.
The solution was heated. Appearance of canary-yellow
precipitate confirmed the presence of phosphate ions in cold
drinks.
Sr. no
Name of Cold observation
Conclusion
drink
1
Coca cola
Canary yellow Phosphate is
precipitate
present
2
Limca
Canary yellow Phosphate is
precipitate
present
3
Sprite
Canary yellow Phosphate is
precipitate
present
4
Fanta
Canary yellow Phosphate is
precipitate
present
5
Mountain dew Canary yellow Phosphate is
precipitate
present

Inference
All the soft drinks samples gave positive test for phosphate ions.
Hence all the cold drinks contain phosphate.

*Test For Alcohol*


Experiment
Small samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in
separate test tubes and Iodine followed by Potassium Iodide and

Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) solution was added to each test


tube.
Then the test tubes were heated in hot water bath for 30
minutes.
Appearance of yellow coloured precipitate confirmed the
presence of alcohol in cold drinks.
Sr. no
1
2
3
4
5

Name of cold drink


Coca cola
Limca
Sprite
Fanta
Mountain dew

observation
Yellow precipitate
Yellow precipitate
Yellow precipitate
Yellow precipitate
Yellow precipitate

Conclusion
Presence of alcohol
Presence of alcohol
Presence of alcohol
Presence of alcohol
Presence of alcohol

Inference
All the cold drinks samples gave positive test for alcohol.
Hence all the cold drinks contain alcohol. Chemical Reaction
CH3CH2OH + 4I2 + 6NaOH CHI3 + HCOONa + 5NaI +
5H2O

*Test for Sucrose*


Experiment
5 ml samples of each brand of cold drinks were taken in
separate china dishes and were heated very strongly until
changes occur. Black coloured residue left confirmed the
presence of sucrose in cold drinks.

Sr.no
1
2
3
4
5

Name of cold
drink
Coca cola

observation

Black
precipitate
Limca
Black
precipitate
Fanta
Black
precipitate
Sprite
Black
precipitate
Mountain dew Black
precipitate

Conclusion
Sucrose is
present
Sucrose is
present
Sucrose is
present
Sucrose is
present
Sucrose is
present

Inference
All the brands of cold drinks contain sucrose. But amount of
sucrose varies in each brand of drink. Fanta contains highest
amount of sucrose.

*Result*
After conducting several tests, it was concluded that the
different brands of cold drinks namely:
1. Coca Cola
2. Sprite
3. Limca
4. Fanta
5. Mountain Dew
All contains glucose, alcohol, sucrose, phosphate and carbon
dioxide. All cold drinks are acidic in nature.

On comparing the pH value of different brands Coca Cola is the


most acidic and Limca is least acidic of all the four brands
taken.
Among the four samples of cold drinks taken, Sprite has the
maximum amount of dissolved carbon dioxide and Fanta has the
minimum amount of dissolved carbon dioxide.

*Precautions*
Some of the precautions which need to be taken care of are
Concentrated solutions should be handled with
immense care.
Hands should be washed thoroughly after
performing each experiment.
If possible, one should wear hand gloves to prevent
from any possible damage.
If chemicals come into contact with your skin or eyes,
flush immediately with copious amounts of water.
Never leave burners unattended. Turn them off
whenever you leave your workstation.
Never point a test tube or any vessel that you are
heating at yourself or your neighbour.

*Conclusion*
DIS-ADVANTAGES OF COLD DRINKS
1. Soft drinks are little more harmful than sugar solution. As
they contain sugar in large amount which cause problems in
diabetes patients.

2. Soft drinks can cause weight gain as they interfere with the
bodys natural ability to suppress hunger feeling.
3. Soft drinks have ability to dissolve the calcium so they are
also harmful for our bones.
4. Soft drinks contain phosphoric acid which has a pH of 2.8.
So they can dissolve a nail in about 4 days.
5. For transportation of soft drinks syrup the commercial truck
must use the hazardous matter place cards reserved for highly
consive material.
6. Soft drinks have also ability to remove blood so they are very
harmful to our body.

USES OF COLD DRINKS


1. Cold drinks can be used as toilet cleaners.
2. They can remove rust spots from chrome car humpers.
3. They clean corrosion from car battery terminals.
4. Soft drinks are used as an excellent detergent to remove
grease from clothes.
5. They can loose a rusted bolt.
*Bibliography*
Following books and websites were a source for my project .
www. Google.com
www.Wikipedia.com
www. Icbse.com www.
Unoregon.edu

Coca Cola

The Coca-Cola formula is The Coca-Cola Company's secret recipe for Coca-Cola syrup that
bottlers combine with carbonated water to create its line of cola soft drinks. As
a publicity, marketing, and intellectual property protection strategy started by Robert W.
Woodruff, the company presents the formula as a closely held trade secret known only to a few
employees.
The primary ingredients of Coca-Cola syrup include either high fructose corn
syrup or sucrose derived from cane sugar, caramel color, caffeine, phosphoric acid, coca
extract,lime extract, vanilla, and glycerin.[citation needed] High fructose corn syrup or sucrose are
overwhelmingly the major added ingredients: one 600 ml bottle (20.29 U.S. fl. oz.) of Coca
Cola contains the approximate equivalent of 15 teaspoons of sugar.[1] However, contrary to what
is implied by the "cola" name, Coca-Cola syrup does not contain any kola nut extract.[2] Since no
kola extracts are present in the recipe, the primary taste of Coca-Cola comes
from vanilla and cinnamon with trace amounts of orange, lime and lemon and spices

Sprite
Sprite is a colorless, lemon-lime flavored, caffeine-free soft drink, created by the Coca-Cola
Company. It was developed in West Germany in 1959 as Fanta Klare Zitrone ("Clear
Lemon Fanta") and introduced in the United States as Sprite in 1961. This was Coke's response
to the popularity of 7 Up. It comes in a primarily silver, green, and blue can or a green
transparent bottle with a primarily green and blue label.

Fanta
Fanta is a global brand of fruit-flavored carbonated soft drinks created by The Coca-Cola
Company. There are over 100 flavors worldwide. The drink originated in Germany in 1941.[1] In
India, Fanta entered the market as a substitute for the then-popular Indian soft drink Gold Spot.
When Coca-Cola re-entered the Indian market in 1993, it bought Gold Spot fromParle and
withdrew it from the market in order to make space for Fanta.

Limca
Limca is a lemon and lime flavoured carbonated soft drink made primarily in India and
certain parts of the U.S. Prior to 1988 the original formula of Limca
contained brominated vegetable oil (BVO). After world wide reports of ill effects of BVO
- the use of BVO in soft drinks was banned in India. As a result of this ban - the formula
for Limca was changed and BVO was removed from the concentrate for Limca. Limca
also publishes the Limca Book of Records, a record book similar to the Guinness Book
of Records, started originally by Mr Ramesh Chauhan. The Limca Book of
Records details feats, records and other unique statistics from an Indian perspective.

Mountain dew
Mountain Dew (stylized as Mtn Dew in the United States) is a carbonated soft drink brand produced
and owned by PepsiCo. The original formula was invented in 1940 by Tennessee beverage bottlers
Barney and Ally Hartman and was first marketed in Marion, Between the 1940s and 1980s, there
was just one variety of Mountain Dew, which was citrus-flavored and caffeinated. Diet Mountain Dew
was introduced in 1988,[3] followed by Mountain Dew Red, which was introduced and subsequently
discontinued in 1988.[4] In 2001, a cherry flavor called Code Red debuted.